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Saint Louis University

School of Humanities
Navy Base Campus

Written Output
Political Theory
Submitted by: Reachelle Takinan, BA
Polit Sci III
Submitted to: Maam Julivette ParasMilo, MA Polit Sci

Written Output in Political Theory 1

Chapter I:


This proposed theory stipulates that:
Human beings, in his essence is constantly conflictive,
envious, pusillanimous yet competitive, materialistic and egoistic
living entity that aims for survival and protection of life. Hence,
the life of humans is inevitably in constant sphere of competition
resulting now to the foundation of macropoliticus aided by power
and authority to stabilize justice, peace and interdependence among
these homo politicus as manifested through societal evolution
fueled by perpetual noogenesis.

Fundamental Components of the Proposed Theory

The proposed theory implies fundamental components and
perspectives that robustly define the nature of human together with
external environment in which affects the development of humans as
political beings. The following statement are the propositions of
1.) The theory signifies that human beings are really conflictive
(antagonistic) in nature because it is believed that they
indispensably aspire for survival and self-protection. The notion
on self-protection ingeminates the fact that human beings are
protective not just for themselves but also for their immediate
relatives of the clan. The behavior of self-protection is said to
be genetic in nature. According to social psychologist, humans
are significantly conflicting entities because they aim for
survival of its own race and this notion on survival can be
2.) The life of humans are fueled by various struggles such as
struggle for food, struggle for education, struggle for financial
adequacy, etc. Therefore, human struggles are rationalized
through the establishment of the macropolitucus which is a
constitutes the aggregated wills of the people in relation for
their survival.
3.) As political entity, the macropoliticus is founded in order to
stabilize human struggles by creating justice, peace and
interdependence or social symbiosis among members of the society.

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The development of macropoliticus is primarily influenced by

historical progression aided by perpetual development of humans
rationality. Thus, the system of macropoliticus is heavily
reflected by the dominant orientation or ideology of these human
beings in attaining not just justice, peace and interdependence
but also progress which is primarily economic in nature.
The concept of power in this theory is the ability of human
beings to insist their will in the foundation and reconstruction
of the macropoliticus while political authority is the ability of
the macropoliticus to be a sovereign entity governing the aims of
the members. Macropoliticus is operationalized by the individuals
mandated to have authority. Power is manifested through politics
since Rand Dyck (2013), defined politics as activity in which
conflicting interests struggle for advantage or dominance in the
making and execution of public policies. Morevover, the
Government or the macropoiticus could be said to exercise
stewardship of a state; they provide the social, economic, and
physical infrastructure that enables and protects country,
citizens, and smaller institutions such as families.
5.) Noogenesis is defined as the development of the mind
(paradigm shift) as brought by constant change in the sphere
of humans marked by economic, scientific and philosophical
(orientation of personality) changes.



Theoretical Origins
The following political thinkers are the inspirations for
construction of this theory:
The position of the theory regarding the nature of man is
dominated by Thomas Hobbes conceptualizations about the
nature of man. He believed that humans are as much driven by
impulses as animals are; the only difference between animal
and man is that men have the faculties of speech and reason.
Moreover, Man is Self-centered, egoistic and solitary Hobbes
believes that the individual is always obsessed with his
personal pleasures and desires. The chief object of mans
desire is self-preservation and a desire for power. Thus, he
becomes self-seeking, fearful, quarrelsome and competitive.
(University of Mumbai Module on Political Thought, 2011)
The Greek political philosophers Plato and Aristotle were
also the inspiration of the theory. Their notions regarding
government is very substantial for the development of the
theory. Aristeotlean notion on the justness of government
and the functionality of the citizens in relation to the
government framed the flow of the discussion of this theory.
John Rawls Theory of Justice is also highlighted in the
theory in which the government (macropoliticus) should
provide fair opportunities among the citizens to prevent
revolts or any form of demonstration among the great number
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of majority. The proposed theory valued social justice that

will result for the betterment of lives of the citizens.
Adopting the political tone of conflict theory, Karl Marx is
also considered in this theoretical construction. Marx
Theory of Communism has been integrated with this theory
since this proposed theory accepted the resemblance of 21 st
century sociopolitical context in which the government
became the machinery of the elite to acquire more wealth and
this created injustice regarding the fair struggles of human
in their daily lives.


The Essence of Competition

The proposed theory has a revolutionary view regarding
COMPETITION. Competition is a social rather than an economic
aspect. Competition is a positive social force that creates
progression and development. Competition, in a political sense,
is the clashing of individual power in constructing the
government that lead to compromised will of the people therefore,
creating stability of the political arena. Through competition,
though anarchic in the first place, Social interdependence is
achieved and social justice prevails. Competition initiates the
movement or evolution of the government in governing its people.
Competition is very natural the world of humans.
But through the scarcity of resources brought by uncontrolled
growth of humans, materiality consciousness (as coined by Bacud,
2015) has been arisen and this fecundated the dominant form of
competition today- the Economic competition.
Economic competition as fueled by the liberal capitalist
orientation created now a hierarchy of classes rather than social
interdependence (social mutualism). All social institutions has
been converted into cash convertibles to acquire resources. The
primordial ideology on governmental communism has been devoured and
this created now the problem of the society. Political authority
incorporates wealth or tremendous acquisition of wealth which is
unjust and detrimental for the attainment of social equality.
Capitalist logic (all matters can be negotiated through cash
payments) also penetrated the system of the macropoliticus
(government) hence, instead of the development communal state it
became a business-minded so called welfarist- state that treated
citizens as client paying cash to the government through taxation
and the government should gain profit to confidently compete with
the other states in international politico-economic realm due to
currency reserves! This is really injustice.

Relevance to the Present Political Context

According to PALASO- De La Salle University Biannual
Chronicle (2013), the major political problems in the Philippines
in relation to authority are Corruption and Political Dynasties.
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Political dynasties, notably at the local government level, imply

a concentration of power that is tantamount to a non-competitive
political system. And this, in turn, serves as a major obstacle
hindering growth- and equity-enhancing as well as povertyreducing reforms. However, there is also a view that political
dynasties imply extended time horizons for socio-economic reforms
and enable adequate planning and implementation of policies with
long-term goals. Underpinning the Philippine politics of patronclient relationship is a complex set of interactions that appear
to favor dynastic politicians and their progeny (over nondynastic newcomers, for example). We surmise that political
dynasties have mastered both the art of dealing with voters
respectfully and compassionately and the art of assuming a facade
of identification with the poor. In our own assessment, such
knowledge and skill are then taught to the next generation of
politicians. In addition, a demonstrated history of violence and
intimidation could result in long-held beliefs that patrons are
needed to keep peace and order in the locality, or prevent even
more injustice and poverty from taking place. It is, of course,
usual to see for voters in conflict-prone areas of the
Philippines to favor strongmen and their progeny in order to
prevent more competitive but potentially more violent elections
from taking place.
Corruption, according to Rose-Ackerman (1996), occurs when
officials use their positions of public trust for private gain.
It is an extralegal institution used by individuals or groups to
gain influence over the bureaucracy (Leff, 1964). That is,
corruption involves transactions, typically between private
parties and public officials, designed to manipulate the
machinery of government. It may be of the permission-seeking type
enforcement avoiding type (tax evasion, illegal pollution) or the
competition-harassing type. Corruption is closely associated with
bribery that has been recognized since the 15 century B.C. as a
gift that perverts judgment (Noonan, 1984). Most of the
literature on corruption and bribery is implicitly applied to
lower level public officers (e.g. Mocan, 2008). A stereotypical
account of corruption in the Philippines may be used to clarify
and extend Shleifer and Vishnys (1993, hereafter referred to as
S-V) theory of corruption. In the Marcos regime, corruption was
highly centralized. Imported goods, for example, were routinely
seized and bribes paid to expedite their timely release and
facilitate lower duties. Such operations had the tacit approval
of higher authorities who were repaid with both bribe shares and
political support. Not only did the centralization of corruption
permit both higher bribe collection and lower excess burden, it
permitted greater grand corruption as well. According to
President Aquinos Commission on Good Government, Transparency
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International, and the U.N. Commission on Drugs and Crime, the

Marcoses and their cronies were able to accumulate $10- 15
billion in assets from various operations. But the styles of
grand corruption were quite different even within the Marcos
regime. Imelda Marcos allegedly extorted hefty percentages from
many government contracts under her authority as Governor of
Metro Manila and Minister of Human Settlements and expected
wealthy business owners to contribute generously to her various
public works projects. President Marcos, in contrast, devised
numerous schemes to extract wealth under the guise of legitimacy.
corruption is still rampant in the country. To support this
argument, several public officials have been imprisoned because
of graft and corruption and some of them are Sen. Estrada, Sen
Revilla, Sen. Enrile and the PORK BARREL QUEEN Janet Lim Napoles.
Yet, Philippines as a socio-capitalistic state is in critical
condition regarding the mitigation of corruption since almost all
leaders in the country are becoming avaricious and megalomaniac.
Chapter II:
A.) Analysis of the Issues
Considering the Philippine political system, it is strongly evident
that the government is ruined by extreme economic competitions
sensationalizing the materiality of man. Social interdependence is
enormously diminishing. Political disequilibrium becomes so
palpable. In fact the following are the indicators of political
chaos in the country:
1. ) emergence of social problems such as poverty, crimes, increasing
unemployment rate, social inequality
2.) emergence of government monopoly (oligarchic nature of
3.) environmental degradation due to avarice of man that cannot
cope with the sustenance of mankind
4.) economic nadir ( the economy of the state is continuously to
5.) vivid manifestation of conflicts either domestic or
supraterritorial level
6.) low liberation rate among citizens brought by apathy and
political distrust
B.) Aims of the Proposed Theory
Given the synopsis of the Philippine situation, the
following state the aims of the theory so that it could be
operationalized and becomes more functional in terms of content.

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To provide evidence-based insights regarding the Philippine

To inform the readers particularly the Filipino citizens and
those in the field of Political Science
To challenge the current Philippine political setting as
constructed by individuals in power and to scrutinize various
structures in relation to the change in Philippine political
and social domain
To boost the morale of communism as a friendly political
ideology as this was significantly antagonized by the
dominant liberal ideology
To propose tangible solutions regarding the sociopolitical
problems of our country
Chapter III:

Adopting Comtes positivistic approach, this theory was

formulated by adhering to the principles of scientific method such
that this theory is an active form of inquiry which must be
objectively information-oriented not mystically-bounded; thus,
formulated solutions will be more concrete and congruous with the
demand of the universal community. This embraces the reality of
technological advancements and overlapping pillars of politics,
economics, history and anthropology.
The succeeding chapter proves that the proposed theory can be
scientific as expected by the empiricists.
Chapter IV:
A.) Perspective on Human Beings
As historical developments occurred, the Philippine
government is highly structured by massive liberalization as
observed through unimaginable technological advancements and
shifting of communal morality. However, the Philippine government
manifests a significant level of reciprocal helping among

Perspective Regarding the Rejuvenation of Social Competition

To Attain Social Justice
Social competition as explicated earlier is vital for the
development of the government since social completion enables
people to struggle not for own self but for the others in attain
stability and interdependence in the society. In relation, Social
justice accentuates the norm that if good people encounter
unfortunate circumstances, they deserved to be helped and other
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people have duty to render assistance. In a moral political view,

social justice starts when a legitimate authority ensures the
reciprocity of roles among the members of society in order to
overcome natural inequalities of aptitudes and intelligences.
Justice as virtue of all institutions must adhere to the principle
that every citizen deserves to be heard and to be served fairly.
Social justice as the product of this analysis implied that human
beings, though have flaws and weaknesses still aspired for halcyon
social milieu. Conformity, obedience and compliance are the three
main behavioral consequences of having a government. However, these
set of behavior can be changed when the government becomes
dysfunctional and irresponsive to its people. Every government has
faults and weaknesses. However, its strength is the people who
cooperatively acting as its wheels to drive their state toward
progress, social order and harmony. Government directed by the
compromised great number of people always aims for autarky.


The Grand Solution In Achieving Social Interdependence

In increasing social interdependence in the Philippines,
it has been inferred to divide the citizens into social classes
and not by economic classes in order to achieve mutual
dependence. The state is suggested to have a sectoral community
that will enhance the special aptitudes of its citizens though
examination such as the civil service examination. The following
table is the representation of the proposed solution:



Responsible for the well-being of man, pertaining to salvation (the supernatural

POLITICAL SECTOR (has executive, legislative Responsible for the neutrality of all sectoral laws but must not intervene with
and judicial branch)
the laws implemented by the religious and;it must be the brain of the
macropoliticus (government)
LABOR-SECTOR (Social Sector)
The working class sector. The members of these sector have tremendous
strength in performing labor such as horticultural activities, aquacultural
practices, food supplies, etc.
The beholder of national identity, experts in national history, political and social
issues, sectoral partner of political and national sector of the state
*The principle of sectoralism as triggering social interdependence will facilitate decentralized mechanism of sectoral
mobility that will lead to communal thinking rather than economism (capitalist logic) . In addition, sectoralism will now
create a sectoral nationalism which is a form of neonationalism that empowers every citizen to be loyal to their respective
sector; hence, your loyalty to your sector will be the loyalty to your state. Loyalty in this sense, results to highly spirited
nationalism and interdependence among the citizens of each sector and to all citizens comprising the state since there will
be now perpetual interdependence in which discrimination and economic hierarchy will be eliminated. As proposed, The
membership in the sector is renewable upon the suggestion of the national law on sectoral membership enacted by the
political sector. .

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Arneson, D. Philosophy 167: Lecture Notes on John Rawls (retrieved on 2015). PDF
Bacud, E. (2015, unpublished). Cybernetic Democratization and the Philippine
Pandemonium: Toward the Socio-Metagenomic Analysis of the Psychological Vagabond
of Contemporary Sapiens. Saint Louis University
De La Salle University- PALASO 2013 issue. (retrieved 2015). De La Salle
University Printing Press. PDf File
Dyck, R. (retrieved PDF file on 2013). Studying Politics: An Introduction to
Political Science. Cengage Books Online
Haworth, A. (2004). Understanding Political Philosophers: From Ancient to Modern
Times. Routledge Books Incorporation
Sadanandan, G. PhD (2011). Political Science I. University of Calicut Press.
________. Module on Political Thought (2011). University of Mumbai Press. India

Written Output in Political Theory 9