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ASSIGNMENT

IN
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
4

Submitted by:
Submitted To:

Kurt Von Raven Caero


Prof. PJ Perez

THE HISTORY OF THE GAME BASKETBALL


In contrast to other sports, basketball has a clear origin. It is not the evolution from an ancient game or another sport
and the inventor is well known: Dr. James Naismith.

The history of basketball began with its invention


in December 1891 in Springfield,
Massachusetts by Canadian physical education
instructor James Naismith as a less injury-prone
sport than football. The game became established
fairly quickly and grew very popular as the 20th
century progressed, first in America and then
throughout the world. After basketball became
established in American colleges, the professional
game followed. The American National Basketball
Association (NBA), established in 1949, grew to a
multibillion-dollar enterprise by the end of the
century, and basketball became an integral part of
American culture.

Invention of the game


The game of basketball as we know it today was created by Dr. James Naismith in December 1891 in Springfield,
Massachusetts to condition young athletes during cold months. It consisted of peach baskets and a soccer style ball.
He published 13 rules for the new game. He divided his class of 18 into two teams of nine players each and set about
to teach them the basics of his new game. The objective of the game was to throw the basketball into the fruit
baskets nailed to the lower railing of the gym balcony. Every time a point was scored, the game was halted so the
janitor could bring out a ladder and retrieve the ball. After a while, the bottoms of the fruit baskets were removed. The
first public basketball game was played in Springfield, Massachusetts, on March 11, 1892.
In 1891, while working as a physical education teacher at the YMCA International Training School (today, Springfield
College) in the United States, Naismith was faced with the problem of finding in 14 days an indoor game to provide
"athletic distraction" for the students at the School for Christian Workers (Naismith was also a Presbyterian minister).
Naismith thought back to his boyhood in Canada, where he and his friends had played "duck on a rock," which
involved trying to knock a large rock off a boulder by throwing smaller rocks at it. He also recalled watching rugby
players toss a ball into a box in a gymnasium. He had the idea of nailing up raised boxes into which players would
attempt to throw a ball. When boxes couldn't be found, he used peach baskets. According to Alexander Wolff, in his
book 100 Years of Hoops, Naismith drew up the rules for the new game in "about an hour." Most of them still apply in
some form today.
Basketball caught on because graduates of the YMCA school traveled widely, because Naismith disseminated the
rules freely, and because there was a need for a simple game that could be played indoors during
winter. Naismith's legacy included the first great college basketball coach, Forrest "Phog" Allen (1885-1974), who
played for Naismith at the University of Kansas and went on to win 771 games as a coach at Kansas himself. Among
Allen's star players was Wilt Chamberlain, who became one of professional basketball's first superstars -- one night
in 1962, he scored a record 100 points in a game.

The first professional basketball league was formed in 1898; players earned $2.50 for home games, $1.25
for games on the road. Not quite 100 years later, Juwan Howard, a star player for the Washington Bullets (now
called the Washington Wizards), had competing offers of more than $100 million over seven seasons from
the Bullets and the Miami Heat.
Many teams in the National Basketball Association now have foreign players, who return home to represent their
native countries during the Olympic Games. The so-called Dream Team, made up of the top American professional
basketball players, has represented the United States in recent Olympic Games. In 1996 the Dream Team trailed
some opponents until fairly late in the gamesan indication of basketball's growing international status. In Athens in
2004 Argentina took home the gold, the first time a Latin American country won the basketball honor.
The sport was an instant success and thanks to the initial impulse received by the YMCA movement, basketball's
popularity quickly grew nationwide and was introduced in many nations. Although Naismith never saw the game
develop into the spectacular game we know these days, he had the honor to witness basketball become an Olympic
sport at the 1936 Games held in Berlin.

The first basketball game


On December 21, 1891, James Naismith published rules for a new game using five basic
ideas and thirteen rules. That day, he asked his class to play a match in the Armory Street
court: 9 versus 9, using a soccer ball and two peach baskets. Frank Mahan, one of his
students, wasnt so happy. He just said: "Harrumph. Another new game". However,
Naismith was the inventor of the new game. Someone proposed to call it "Naismith
Game", but he suggested "We have a ball and a basket: why dont we call it
basketball?" The eighteen players were John G. Thompson, Eugene S. Libby, Edwin P.
Ruggles, William R. Chase, T. Duncan Patton, Frank Mahan, Finlay G. MacDonald,
William H. Davis and Lyman Archibald, who defeated George Weller, Wilbert Carey, Ernest
Hildner, Raymond Kaighn, Genzabaro Ishikawa, Benjamin S. French, Franklin Barnes,
George Day and Henry Gelan 10. The goal was scored by Chase.[7] There were other
differences between Naismiths first idea and the game played today. The peach baskets
were closed, and balls had to be retrieved manually, until a small hole was put in the
bottom of the peach basket to poke the ball out using a stick. Only in 1906 were metal
hoops, nets and backboards introduced. Moreover, earlier the soccer ball was replaced by
a Spalding ball, similar to the one used today.
The first basketball court:
Springfield College

Professional leagues, teams, and organizations


The first professional league was founded in 1898. Six teams took part in the National Basketball League, and the
first champions were the Trenton Nationals, followed by the New York Wanderers, the Bristol Pile Drivers and the
Camden Electrics. The league was abandoned in 1904. Then, many small championships were organized, but most
of them were not as important as some teams who played for money against challengers.
The Original Celtics, for instance, are considered the "fathers of basketball" and were presented as "Worlds
Basketball Champions"; the players had to sign a contract to play with them, and Jim Furey organized matches as
a circus, moving daily from town to town. The Celtics became the strongest team, and their successes lasted from
1922 until 1928, when the team disbanded due to ownership problems. The Original Celtics are sometimes
incorrectly thought of as forebears of the current Boston Celtics of the NBA; in reality, they share only a name, as
today's Celtics were not founded until 1946, nearly two decades after the demise of the Original Celtics. In 1922, the
first all-African American professional team was founded: the Rens (also known as New York Renaissance or Harlem
Renaissance). The Rens were the Original Celtics usual opponent, and for their matches a ticket cost $1. They took

part in some official championships and won the first World Professional Basketball Tournament in 1939. The team
disbanded in 1949.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Eastern Basket Ball League (founded in 1909), Metropolitan Basketball League (founded in
1921) and American Basketball League (founded in 1925) were the most important leagues.

First international games


After its arrival in Europe, basketball developed very quickly. In 1909 the first international match was held in Saint
Petersburg: Mayak Saint Petersburg beat a YMCA American team. The first great European event was held in 1919
in Joinville-le-Pont, near Paris, during the Inter-Allied Games. United States, led by future Hall of Fame player Max
Friedman, won against Italy and France, and then Italy beat France. Basketball soon became popular among French
and Italians. The Italian team had a white shirt with the House of Savoy shield and the players were: Arrigo
and Marco Muggiani, Baccarini, Giuseppe Sessa, Palestra, Pecollo and Bagnoli.

Formation of FIBA

World basketball was growing, but it was on June 18, 1932 that a real international organization was formed, to
coordinate tournaments and teams: that day, Argentina, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania
and Switzerland founded the International Basketball Federation (Fdration internationale de basketball
amateur, FIBA) in Geneva. Its work was fundamental for the first inclusion of basketball in the Berlin Olympic
Games in 1936. The first Olympic title was won by the U.S. national team: Sam Balter, Ralph Bishop, Joe
Fortenberry, Tex Gibbons, Francis Johnson, Carl Knowles, Frank Lubin, Art Mollner, Donald Piper, Jack
Ragland, Willard Schmidt, Carl Shy, Duane Swanson, Bill Wheatley and the trainer James Needles. Canada was
runner-up; the games were played on an outdoor clay court. The first World Championship was held in Argentina in
1950.

NBA
The Basketball league was founded in New York City on June 6, 1946 as the Basketball Association of
America (BAA). The league adopted the name National Basketball Association (NBA) in 1949 after merging with the
rival National Basketball League (NBL). As of the early 21st century, the NBA is the most significant professional
basketball league in the US in terms of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition.

Modern-Day NBA
The NBA has helped popularize basketball all over the world. A large part of this is due to the transcendent stars that
have played the game through the years. It was because of the play of Michael Jordan basketball started to reach
international audiences, especially on the 1992 United States men's Olympic basketball team, known as the Dream
Team.
After his final championship and second retirement in 1998, there was a void as in who would be the face of
basketball. Soon after with the help of Shaquille O'Neal, Kobe Bryant would go on to win three straight
championships from 2000-2002 with the Los Angeles Lakers, helping make basketball more popular in many places
around the world, most noticeably China. Further championships in 2009 and 2010 helped raise his popularity. In
2015, he announced the following season would be his last. He would have played in 20 seasons by then.
Another player who revolutionized the game of basketball was LeBron James. He was taken as the first overall pick
in the 2003 NBA Draft by the Cleveland Cavaliers, and has worked his way to become the face of the NBA and
basketball around the world. He left the Cavaliers in 2010 to join the Miami Heat along with fellow stars Dwyane
Wade and Chris Bosh in what become known as the controversial decision, winning back-to-back championships in
2012 and 2013 before returning to the Cavaliers in 2014 where he won a third championship in 2016.
There have been many international players who helped globalize the game. The most noticeable would be Yao
Ming. He was the first ever Chinese player to be selected with the number one overall pick in 2002 by the Houston
Rockets. His play and presence in the NBA brought attention to basketball in Asian countries.
The style of basketball has evolved over time as well. Basketball, especially in the 90's and 2000's, used to give
importance to big men. Games were slow-paced and very defense-oriented. Now because of teams like the San
Antonio Spurs and the Golden State Warriors, ball movement and team play is more common. The game has slowly
moved away from this type of play. The game now is up-tempo and teams are starting to involve a lot more three
point shooting in their offenses. Stephen Curry of the Golden State Warriors has been a trendsetter with his shooting
abilities. In a way he has popularized and re-energized the notion of shooting among the youth.

EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES


There is some equipment needed to play a basketball game. The basketball equipment can be broke down into three more
categories court equipment, officials equipment and players equipment. To make it more clear, here is a list of all the
equipment used in basketball.

Basketballs

It should have either 8 or 12 seams, not exceeding 6.35mm in width. The ball is round and the outer casing should be
either leather, rubber or other suitable synthetic material. Its circumference should be between 75 and 78cm (29.5 and
30.25 inches) and its weight between 600 and 650gm (20 and 22oz). Air pressure of around 8lbs.
Backstop Unit
There will be two backstop units, one placed at each end of the playing court and each consisting of the following parts:

One backboard.

One basket ring with a ring mounting plate.

One basket net.

One basket support structure.

Padding.

Backboard
The backboards shall be made of a suitable transparent material (for Level 1 and 2, of a tempered safety glass), made in
one piece, non-reflective, with flat front surface. Size of a basketball backboard is usually:
Width: 6ft (72 inches)

Height: 3.5ft (42 inches)

Basket ring
The rings shall be made of a solid steel and shall:

Have an inside diameter of a minimum of 450 mm and a maximum of 457 mm. (17.72 inches to 18inches)

Baskets are mounted at a certain height (10 feet above the floor).

Basket Net
The nets shall be made of white cord and shall be:

Suspended from the rings.

Manufactured so that they check the ball momentarily as it passes through the basket.

No less than 400mm and no more than


450mm in length. (15 inches to 17.71
inches)

Manufactured with 12 loops to attach it


to the ring.

The upper section of the net shall be semi-rigid


to prevent:

The net from rebounding up through


the ring, creating possible
entanglement.

The ball from becoming trapped in the


net or rebounding back out of the net.

Scoreboard and a game clock


For Levels 1 and 2, two large scoreboards shall be:

Placed, one at each end of the playing court and, if so desired, a further scoreboard (cube) placed above the
centre of the playing court. This does not exclude the need for the other two scoreboards.

Clearly visible to everyone involved in the game, including the spectators.

Playing Floor
The playing floor surface shall be made of:

Permanent wooden flooring (Levels 1 and 2).

Mobile wooden flooring

Permanent synthetic flooring

Mobile synthetic flooring

The height of the ceiling or the lowest obstruction above the playing floor shall be at least 7m.

The playing court shall be a minimum length of 32,000 mm and a minimum width of 19,000 mm. (7m)

Playing Court
The playing court shall be marked by:

50 mm lines as per the Official Basketball Rules.

A further boundary line in a sharply contrasting color and having a minimum width of 2,000 mm.

The color of the further boundary line must be the same as that of the centre circle and the restricted areas.

The size of the court for NBA and College games is 94 feet long and 50 feet wide. It is smaller for High School and
Junior High.

Officials Equipment
Uniform of Officials

are

Officials wear a uniform prescribed by their respective governing body. Usually, officials
dressed in white and black stripped shirts, black pants and black shoes. NBA officials
wear gray shirts, black pants and black shoes.
Whistle
Basketball referee carries a whistle which he blows every time he needs to stop a play.
Score book

Score book is used by the scorekeeper who writes down scores and stats on it. Score book is something where you find summary of the
whole game, names of the players, their positions and jersey numbers, details of each quarter and half etc.

Shot Clock and Game Clock


Shot clock and game clock are operated by timekeepers. Game clock records the overall time of the game while shot clock counts down the
24 second shot clock.

Players Equipment
Players Uniform
Uniform consists of jersey (preferably sleeveless), short and shoes. All the teams wears their own specific uniform. In NBA, all players wear a
uniform prepared by leagues sponsored sportswear company. They are not allowed to wear shorts which are too long. In NBA, players can
be fined if their uniform does not comply with the rules of the league.

Protective Gears and Accessories


Protective gears and accessories include goggles, face masks, mouth guards, knee pads or brace, headbands, arm sleeves, wristbands etc.
Not all players wear necessarily all these things. They use them only when they required them.

THE 13 BASIC RULES OF BASKETBALL


1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
Comment: Still current today. The ball can be passed or thrown in any direction with the
exception that once the ball crosses the midcourt line, it cannot be passed back behind the
midcourt line.

2. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands (never with the
fist.)
Comment: Ball can still be batted or tipped in any direction with one or both hands but
never with a closed fist. Ball also cannot be kicked.
3. A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on
which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when
running at a good speed if he tries to stop.
Comment: A player still cannot run with the ball. If they do its a violation. They must pass or
dribble the ball with one hand. No allowance made when receiving a pass.
4. The ball must be held in or between the hands; the arms or body must not be
used for holding it.
Comment: Players still cannot hold the ball against their body when moving. Results in a
traveling violation.
5. No shouldering, holding, pushing, tripping, or striking in any way the person of
an opponent shall be allowed; the first infringement of this rule by any player
shall count as a foul, the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made,
or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game, no
substitute allowed.
Comment: These infractions or player fouls still apply. Players are disqualifed from the game
after committing five or six fouls. Flagrant fouls may result in automatic ejections along with
suspensions.
6. A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violation of Rules 3, 4, and such as
described in Rule 5.
Comment: True today. The ball cannot be struck with a closed fist or kicked.
7. If either side makes three consecutive fouls, it shall count a goal for the
opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the mean time making a
foul.
Comment: This rule has been replaced by bonus free throws after a certain number of team
fouls.

8. A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into
the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or
disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges, and the opponent moves the
basket, it shall count as a goal.
Comment: Ball now goes through the basket. Defensive basket interference and offensive
goaltending rules still apply. However, FIBA rules allow touching the ball by either team once
it hits the rim.
9. When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field of play by
the person first touching it. In case of a dispute, the umpire shall throw it straight
into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds; if he holds it longer, it shall
go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall
call a foul on that side.
Comment: This out of bounds rule has been changed in that ball possession goes to the
opposite team of the last player touching the ball. The inbounds five second count is still in
effect and shot clocks have replaced the delay of game fouls.
10. The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the
referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to
disqualify men according to Rule 5.
Comment: The umpire has been replaced with two or three person officiating crews. Player
disqualifications have been modified to five or six personal fouls.
11. The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play,
in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when
a goal has been made, and keep account of the goals with any other duties that
are usually performed by a referee.
Comment: The referee has essentially been replaced by official scorers and timers. Out of
bounds and goal decisions are made by the on court officials.
12. The time shall be two 15-minute halves, with five minutes rest between.
Comment: Game formats including length and the number of periods played along with
halftime periods vary according to level.
13. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner. In
case of a draw, the game may, by agreement of the captains, be continued until
another goal is made.
Comment: Sudden death or the first team to score has been replaced with five minute
overtime periods.

FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS IN BASKETBALL

Basketball is a fast-paced game that requires the knowledge and instinct to perform quickly and properly.
The sport of basketball requires five basic skills. While some players might be more experienced with
some skills than others, it is best to have at least some ability in all five areas.

It's much easier to win when you have good players. Great game-coaching cannot make up for poor
talent and unskilled players. Players must be taught the correct fundamentals starting early in their
development.

Dribbling
Dribbling is an important skill for all basketball players. This skill will allow you to move up and down the
court, maneuver past defenders and execute plays. Proper dribbling requires ball-handling skills and
knowledge of how to spread your fingers for ball control. It is also best if you know how to dribble equally
well with both hands.

Shooting

In order to score points in basketball, you need to shoot the ball into the hoop. This requires the ability to
properly hold and throw the ball into the air toward the basket while avoiding defenders. A proper shot
requires precise aiming, arm extension and lift from the legs. There are different types of shots you need
to learn, including jump shots, layups and free throws.

Running

Running is a big part of basketball. In a full-court game, you will find yourself running back and forth as
the game quickly transitions between offense and defense. When you have the ball, running will help you
to avoid defenders and get to the basket quicker. On defense, you often will find yourself needing to run
after the opponent, especially during fast breaks.

Passing

Passing is another skill that when mastered can help you become a complete basketball player.
Basketball is a team sport that involves finding a teammate who is open for a shot. The ability to pass the
ball to this player can make the difference between scoring and not scoring. Really great passers are an
important part of a basketball team and usually the ones who set up scoring plays.

Jumping

Jumping is another skill that can define how good a basketball player is. Jumping is involved in offense
during the jump ball in the beginning, while taking shots and sometimes while trying to catch a pass. On

defensive you will need the ability to jump when trying to block a shot or a pass. Being able to out jump
your opponent for a rebound also is important.

OFFICIALS AND OFFICIATING


In basketball, an official (also known as a Referee) is a person who has the responsibility to enforce the rules and maintain
the order of the game. The title of official also applies to the scorers and timekeepers, as well as other personnel that have
an active task in maintaining the game. Basketball is regarded as among the most difficult sports to officiate due to the fast
speed of play, the complexity of rules that must be followed, the unique case-specific interpretations of rules, and the
instantaneous judgment required.

The officials shall be a referee and one or two umpire. They shall be assisted by the table officials and by a
commissioner, if present.
The table officials shall be a scorer, an assistant scorer, a timer and a twenty-four second clock operator.
The commissioner shall sit between the scorer and the timer. His primary duty during the game is to
supervise the work of the table officials and to assist the referee and umpire in the smooth functioning of the
game.
The officials of a given game should not be connected in any way with their team on the playing court.
The officials uniform shall consist of an officials shirt, long black trousers, black socks and black basketball
shoes.
The officials and table officials shall be uniformly dressed.

Fouls and Violations


FOULS

Personal fouls: Personal fouls include any type of illegal physical contact.
Hitting

Pushing

Slapping

Holding

Illegal pick/screen -- when an offensive player is moving. When an offensive player sticks out a limb
and makes physical contact with a defender in an attempt to block the path of the defender.

Personal foul penalties: If a player is shooting while a being fouled, then he gets two free throws if his
shot doesn't go in, but only one free throw if his shot does go in.

Three free throws are awarded if the player is fouled while shooting for a three-point goal and they
miss their shot. If a player is fouled while shooting a three-point shot and makes it anyway, he is awarded
one free throw. Thus, he could score four points on the play.
Inbounds. If fouled while not shooting, the ball is given to the team the foul was committed upon.
They get the ball at the nearest side or baseline, out of bounds, and have 5 seconds to pass the ball onto
the court.
One & one. If the team committing the foul has seven or more fouls in the game, then the player
who was fouled is awarded one free throw. If he makes his first shot, then he is awarded another free throw.
Ten or more fouls. If the team committing the foul has ten or more fouls, then the fouled player
receives two free throws.
Charging. An offensive foul that is committed when a player pushes or runs over a defensive player. The
ball is given to the team that the foul was committed upon.
Blocking. Blocking is illegal personal contact resulting from a defender not establishing position in time to
prevent an opponent's drive to the basket.
Flagrant foul. Violent contact with an opponent. This includes hitting, kicking, and punching. This type of
foul results in free throws plus the offense retaining possession of the ball after the free throws.
Intentional foul. When a player makes physical contact with another player with no reasonable effort to
steal the ball. It is a judgment call for the officials.
Technical foul. Technical foul. A player or a coach can commit this type of foul. It does not involve player
contact or the ball but is instead about the 'manners' of the game. Foul language, obscenity, obscene
gestures, and even arguing can be considered a technical foul, as can technical details regarding filling in the
scorebook improperly or dunking during warm-ups.
VIOLATIONS
Walking/Traveling. Taking more than 'a step and a half' without dribbling the ball is traveling. Moving your
pivot foot once you've stopped dribbling is traveling.
Carrying/palming. When a player dribbles the ball with his hand too far to the side of or, sometimes, even
under the ball.
Double Dribble. Dribbling the ball with both hands on the ball at the same time or picking up the dribble
and then dribbling again is a double dribble.
Held ball. Occasionally, two or more opposing players will gain possession of the ball at the same time. In
order to avoid a prolonged and/or violent tussle, the referee stops the action and awards the ball to one
team or the other on a rotating basis.
Goaltending. If a defensive player interferes with a shot while it's on the way down toward the basket,
while it's on the way up toward the basket after having touched the backboard, or while it's in the cylinder
above the rim, it's goaltending and the shot counts. If committed by an offensive player, it's a violation and
the ball is awarded to the opposing team for a throw-in.
Backcourt violation. Once the offense has brought the ball across the mid-court line, they cannot go back
across the line during possession. If they do, the ball is awarded to the other team to pass inbounds.
Time restrictions. A player passing the ball inbounds has five seconds to pass the ball. If he does not, then
the ball is awarded to the other team. Other time restrictions include the rule that a player cannot have the
ball for more than five seconds when being closely guarded and, in some states and levels, shot-clock
restrictions requiring a team to attempt a shot within a given time frame.

TERMINOLOGIES IN BASKETBALL
Alternating-possession rule:
The possession arrow changes direction after each held ball situation, alternating which team gets possession of the
ball.
Assist:
A pass that immediately precedes and sets up a scored basket.
Backboard:
The rectangular or fan-shaped board behind the basket.
Backcourt:
The half of the court that is opposite a teams offensive basket; the court a team is attempting to defend.

Ball handler:
The player with the ball; usually the point guard at the start of a play.
Ball Side:
The half of the court from the middle to the sideline where the ball is currently located. May also be referred to as the
strong side.
Bank shot:
A shot where the ball is first bounced (or banked) off the backboard at such an angle that it then drops into the
basket.
Baseline:
The boundary line behind each basket; also called the endline.
Basket:
Attached to the backboard, it consists of a metal rim 18 in diameter suspended 10 from the floor, from which a 1518 corded net hangs, and through which points are scored; also used to refer to a successful field goal.
Beat the defender:
When an offensive player, with or without the ball, is able to get past an opponent who is guarding him.
Bench Points:
The number of points scored during a game from players that began the game on the bench. All points scored by
non-starters.
Blocked shot:
The successful deflection of a shot by touching part of the ball on its way to the basket, thereby preventing a field
goal.
Blocking:
The use of a defenders body position to illegally prevent an opponents advance; the opposite of charging.
Bonus free throw:
See One-and-One.
Bounce pass:
A pass that strikes the floor before it reaches the receiver.
Boxing out:
A players attempt to position his body between his opponent and the basket to get rebounds and prevent the
opponents from doing so. Also referred to as Blocking out.
Carrying the ball:
Also called palming; a violation committed by a dribbler that involves placing the dribbling hand under the ball and
momentarily holding or carrying it while dribbling.
Center:
Also called the pivot player; an offensive position typically played by a tall player who plays mainly in the key areas
(at the post).
Center court circle:
The circular area at midcourt from which jump balls are taken.

Charging:
A personal foul committed when an offensive player illegally contacts a defensive player who has established position
or is stationary.
Chest pass:
A two-handed pass thrown from the passers chest in a straight line to the chest area of the receiver.
Controlling the boards:
Securing a majority of the rebounds.
Conversion:
A made basket or free throw.
Court vision:
A players ability to see everything on the court during play such as where his teammates and defenders are set
up which enables him to make better choices in passing; the best players possess this trait.
Crossover dribble:
A dribble in which the ball is moved from one hand to the other while the dribbler changes directions.
Cut:
A quick movement by an offensive player to elude an opponent or to receive the ball.
Cylinder:
The imaginary area directly above the basket where goaltending or basket interference can occur.
Dead ball:
Occurs whenever the whistle blows to stop play and after a field goal, but before the opponent gains possession of
the ball.
Defense:
The team not in possession of the ball whose objective is to keep the opponent from scoring; also a specific pattern
of play used by a defending team.
Defensive rebound:
A rebound of an opponents missed shot.
Double-double:
When a player scores double-digits in 2 categories during one game (points, assists and rebounds are most
common, but it can also be blocks or steals); a sign of great versatility.
Double dribble:
A violation that occurs when a player dribbles the ball with two hands simultaneously or stops dribbling and then
dribbles again.
Double foul:
A situation in which two opponents commit a foul against each other simultaneously.
Double team:
A defensive tactic in which two defenders temporarily guard one player.

Downcourt or down the court:


The direction a team on offense moves, from its backcourt into its frontcourt and towards its own basket.
Dribble or dribbling:
Process by which a player repeatedly bounces the ball off the floor so that it returns to his/her possession. Its the
only legal means by which a single player may move the ball across the court.
Drive:
A quick dribble directly to the basket in an effort to score.
Dunk:
When a player close to the basket jumps and strongly throws the ball down into it; an athletic, creative shot used to
intimidate opponents.
Elbow:
A term often used to indicate the area of the court where the free-throw line and side of the key meet.
Elbowing:
It is a violation if a player vigorously or excessively swings his elbows, even if there is no contact; it is a foul if contact
is made.
End line:
See baseline.
Established position:
When a defensive player has both feet firmly planted on the floor before an offensive players head and shoulder get
past him; the offensive player who runs into such a defender is charging.
4-point play:
A made 3-point field goal in which the shooter was fouled, followed by a successful free-throw.
Fake or feint:
A deceptive move to throw a defender off balance and allow an offensive player to shoot or receive a pass; players
use their eyes, head or any other part of the body to trick an opponent.
Fastbreak:
An offensive strategy in which a team attempts to move the ball downcourt and into scoring position as quickly as
possible so that the defense is outnumbered and does not have time to set up.
Field goal:
A basket scored on any shot other than a free throw, worth two or three points depending on the distance of the
attempt from the basket.
Flagrant foul:
Unnecessary or excessive contact against an opponent.
Forward:
An offensive position played to the sides of the basket near the key area and out toward the sideline along the
baseline.
Foul (also referred to as personal foul):
A violation resulting from illegal contact with an opposing player.

Foul line:
See Free-throw line.
Foul shot:
See Free-throw.
Free throw:
An unguarded shot taken from behind the free-throw line after a foul. If successful, the shot counts one point.
Free-throw lane:
Also called the key or lane; a 12-foot wide area extending from the baseline to the free-throw line. Players may not
be in this area during a free-throw attempt.
Free-throw line:
A 12-foot-long line that is parallel to and 15 feet from the backboard.
Free-throw line extended:
An imaginary line drawn from the free-throw line to the sideline to determine the location for certain plays.
Front court:
The half of the court (divided by the center line) that contains the offensive teams basket; the offensive half of the
court.
Fullcourt press:
A defensive tactic in which a team guards the opponents closely the full length of the court.
Game clock:
Shows how much time remains in each quarters or halves of games.
Guard:
An offensive position played primarily at the perimeter, or away from the basket.
Guarding:
The act of following an opponent around the court to prevent him from getting close to the basket, taking an open
shot or making easy an pass, while avoiding illegal contact.
Half-court or set offense:
When a team takes the time to develop a play in its frontcourt, such as the give-and-go or a screening play; opposite
of fast break.
Held ball:
Formerly called a jump ball. When two players on opposite teams are in joint control of the ball.
Help Side:
The half of the court from the middle to the sideline opposite to where the ball is currently located.
Hesitation Dribble:
A dribbling action with a change-of-pace intended to confuse and/or freeze the defender. The basic action is a stutter
step in which the dribbler momentarily slows his or her pace and speed.

High percentage shot:


A shot that is likely to go in the basket, such as a layup.
High post:
An imaginary area outside either side of the foul lane at the elbow / free-throw line extended area.
Inbounds:
The area within the baselines and sidelines of the court; also the act of bringing the ball into this area by means of a
throw-in.
Incidental contact:
Minor contact usually overlooked by officials.
Inside shooting:
Shots taken by a player near or under the basket.
Intentional foul:
A personal foul that the official judges to be premeditated.
In the paint:
In the key area, so named because this area of the floor is painted.
Jump ball:
The procedure for starting play at the beginning of a game or an overtime period. The official tosses the ball into the
air between the two opponents positioned at the center-court circle; the two players jump up and try to tap the ball to
a teammate.
Jump shot:
A shot that is released after the shooter has jumped into the air.
Jump stop:
A method used to come to a complete stop. Both feet must land simultaneously either parallel or staggered in
order for it to be a jump stop.
Key:
Also called the free-throw lane or lane; the area measuring 12 feet in width and extending from the free-throw line
to the end line.
Layup or layin:
A shot taken close to the basket that is usually banked off the backboard towards the basket.
Loose ball:
A ball that is alive but not in the possession of either team.
Low post:
An imaginary area outside either side of the foul lane close to the basket.
Lower percentage shot:
A shot that is less likely to go in the basket, such as one thrown by a player who is off balance or outside his shooting
range.

Man-to-man defense:
A team defense in which each player is assigned to guard a particular opponent.
Offense:
The team that has possession of the basketball. Also, a structured pattern of play that a team uses while attempting
to score.
Offensive rebound:
A rebound of a teams own missed shot.
Officials:
The referees who control the game, stop and start play, and impose penalties for violations and fouls.
One-and-one:
The bonus free-throw situation awarded for non-shooting fouls after the opposing team exceeds a certain number of
team fouls in a half. The person fouled shoots one free throw; if successful, the shooter takes a second shot.
Out of bounds:
The area outside of and including the end lines and sidelines.
Outside shooting:
Shots taken from the perimeter.
Over-and-back violation:
A violation that occurs when the offensive team returns the ball into the backcourt once it has positioned itself in the
front court.
Overhead pass:
A two-handed pass thrown from above the forehead.
Overtime:
An extra period played to break a tie score at the end of a regulation game.
Palming:
Carrying the ball.
Pass:
An intentional throw to a teammate.
Passer:
The player who passes the ball to a teammate.
Period:
Any quarter, half or overtime segment.
Perimeter:
The area beyond the foul circle away from the basket, including 3-point line, from which players take long-range
shots.

Personal foul:
Contact between players that may result in injury or provide one team with an unfair advantage; players may not
push, hold, trip, hack, elbow, restrain or charge into an opponent; these are also counted as team fouls.
Pick:
See Screen or Screener
Pick and Roll:
A play in which an offensive player sets a pick for the dribbler, then cuts off that pick, or rolls, toward the basket
looking for a pass from the dribbler for a shot.
Pick-up games:
Impromptu games played among players who just met.
Pivot:
A footwork technique in which a player keeps one foot in contact with a spot on the floor while moving the other foot
to adjust the position of the body or to evade a defensive player.
Point guard:
An offensive position played by a guard who usually brings the ball up the court and initiates the offense.
Possession:
To be holding or in control of the ball.
Possession arrow:
Used to determine which teams turn it is to inbounds the ball to begin a period or in a held ball situation.
Post:
An offensive position played close to the basket along the key.
Press:
An aggressive defense that attempts to force the opponents to make errors by guarding them closely from either half
court, three-quarter court or full court.
Quadruple double:
A triple double with double-digits scored in 4 categories.
Rebound:
The act of gaining possession of the ball after a missed shot.
Run:
Occurs when one team scores several field goals in quick succession while its opponents score few or none.
Scoring opportunity:
When a player gets open for a shot that is likely to score.
Screen or screener:
The offensive player who stands between a teammate and a defender to gives his teammate the chance to take an
open shot.

Scrimmage:
An unofficial game between two teams, or five-on-five play between team members in a practice situation.
Shot clock:
A clock that limits the time a team with the ball has to shoot it; 24 seconds in the NBA; in college, 35 seconds for
men, 30 seconds for women.
Shooter:
A player who takes a shot at the basket.
Shooters roll or shooters touch:
The ability to get even an inaccurate shot to bounce lightly off the rim and into the basket.
Shooting range:
The distance from which a player is likely to make his shots.
Sidelines:
2 boundary lines that run the length of the court.
Sixth man:
The best substitute on a team; usually the first player to come off the bench to replace a starter.
Slam dunk:
See dunk.
Squaring up:
When a players shoulders are facing the basket as he releases the ball for a shot; considered good shooting
position.
Substitute:
A player who comes into the game to replace a player on the court.
Swing man:
A player who can play both the guard and forward positions.
3-point play:
A made 2-point field goal in which the shooter was fouled, followed by a successful free-throw.
3 seconds:
A violation in which an offensive player remains within the key for more than three seconds at a time.
Team fouls:
Each personal foul committed by a player is also counted against his team; when a team goes over the limit, its
opponent is awarded free-throw opportunities.
Technical foul:
A foul that does not involve contact with an opponent; a foul that involves unsportsmanlike conduct by a player, coach
or non-player; or a contact foul committed by a player while the ball is dead.

Ten-second line:
The mid-court line over which the offensive team must advance the ball from the backcourt within 10 seconds to
avoid a violation.
Three-point field goal:
A made basket from a distance greater than 19 feet and nine inches during a high school or college game.
Three-on-two:
A common fastbreak situation in which three offensive players attempt to score on two defenders.
Timeout:
When play is temporarily suspended by an official or at the request of a team to respond to an injured player or
discuss strategy.
Transition:
The shift from offense to defense, and vice versa.
Traveling:
A violation occurring when a player with the ball takes a step without dribbling (moving the established pivot foot).
Triple double:
When a player scores double-digits in 3 categories during one game (points, assists and rebounds are most
common, but it can also be blocks or steals); a sign of great versatility.
Triple Threat Position:
Triple threat is an offensive position a player can use who has not dribbled yet. The offensive player stands with
knees flexed, feet slightly wider than shoulder width, and both hands on the basketball. From this position, the
offensive player can either shoot, dribble, or pass to a teammate thereby being a triple threat with the basketball.
Turnover:
A loss of possession of the ball by means of an error or violation.
Upset:
When a higher-seeded (better) team loses to a lower-seeded (inferior) one.
Violation:
An infringement of the rules thats not a foul. The penalty for a violation is the awarding of the ball to the opponent.
Weak side:
The side of the court away from the ball.
Zone defense:
A team defense in which each player is responsible for defending an area of the court and the opponents within that
area.
Zone offense:
An offensive pattern of play designed to attack (score against) a particular zone defense.

TOURNAMENT FORMAT