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Laws of Exponents
A long product axaxa ....m factors can be expressed, in short by notation am, where `a' is called the base and `m' the
power (or index or exponent) Thus axaxa.... 10 factors = a10.
Definition am: If a is a natural number, then am stands for the product of `m' factors each equal to `a'.
Property 1: am x an = am+n
(eg. a3xa4 = a3+4 = a7)
Property 2 : an=am-n
(eg. = a5-3 = a2)
a3
Property 3 : (am )n amn
(eg. (a2 )3 a6
Meaning of a : Any non-zero number raised to zero power is equal to 1.
ie. a = 1 where a 0 eg. 5 = 1.
m
Negative Index : If a 0 then a

(eg. a3

1
am

1
)
a3

Fractional Index : a1 n

3
a , a2 3 a2

eg. a1 2

If `a' and `b' are non-zero integers, `m' and `n' are rational numbers, then
i).

am xan am n

ii).

am
am n
an

iii).

amn

iv).

abm

am . bm

v).

a 1

m n

m
vi). a

1
am

SOLVED EXAMPLES :
1.

81 3 x 161 4 x 2 2 ?
3 13

4 14

2 x 2

x 2 2

2 1 x 2 1 x 2 2 2 112 2 1
2.

3 2

2 x 2
2

26 ?

26 x 26
26 64
26

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3.

2 2

3 x 3
2

34 x 38
3 4

3
4.

2 7
8

34x 3
312

1
312
312

Evaluate
3 3 2 (2 7 )2

=1

5.

32

9
3
26

25

2 3

3 2

5

13

1 2

1
2

1
5
32 2 2
9
3

1
5
7
7
9 4 14 1 15
9
3
9
9

## If 5 a 3 1 2 5 , find the value of 5 a 3

5a 3125 5a 55

a 5
5 a3 5 5 3 5 2 2 5
6.

If m and n are whole numbers such that mn 121 , find the value of (m 1)n1

## mn 121 112 m 11, n 2

(m 1)n 1 (1 1 1)2 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 0 0
PRACTICE TEST
1.

## 25 25 is divided by 24, the remainder is

a)

2.

(6 4 )

a)
3.

4.

(3 2 )

1
16

b)

1
8

c) 1
5

c)

3
16

a)

b) 4

d) 2

equals

2 n 64 , the value of n is
c) 6

d) 2

d) 12

-4

b) -3

c) -2

is

d) -1

## The unit's digit in the product of 2 4 6 7 1 5 3 x 3 4 17 2 x 2 2 5 7 2 1 is

a)

6.

b) 22

If

a)
5.

23

2 x 1

If 2

a)

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

1
, the value of x is
8 x 3

b) -1

c) -2

d) 2

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7.

The value of

1
3

a)

8.

b)
x 1

If
b
a)

31 2 n x 9 2 n 7
is
35n

9
13

b

a

b)

1
9

c)

d)

2
3

x 3

, x is equal to

1
2

c)

7
2

d)

9.
A boy was asked to write the value of 2 5 x 9 2 . He wrote it as 2592. The difference between the obtained and
the actual value is

10.

a)

21x92

b) 2 2 x 9 3

c)

2 3 x9 4

d) Zero

4x

a)
11.

12.

15.

10

d)

17.

d) 5 5

b) 15

c) 25

b) 4

c)

1
8

d)

1
32

## If 2 x 1 2 x 1 1280 , then the value of x is

7

b) 8

c) 9

1
The simplification of

1 25

d) 10
2
3

a)

1
25

b)

c)

25

d) -25

gives

1
25

## The units digit in 2 4 6 9 1 5 3 will be

1

b) 3

c) 7

2 4 3 0 .1 2 x 2 4 3 0 .0 8

equals

a)

c) 12

b) 9

d)

d)

27

## The value of 4 7 1 6 4 x 1 6 is euqal to:

a)

18.

c) 5

(4 )0 .5 x (0 .5 ) 4 is equal to

a)
16.

b) 25

a)

a)
14.

a)
13.

## (125 )0.25 is equal to

1
16

x
If 4

a)

b)

1
4

c) 4

d)

d)

-9

1
, the value of x is
64

b) 9

c) -3

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19.

a)

20.

21.

b) 9

d)

27

is equal to

a)

x 1 y 1

b) x 1 y 1

c)

xy
xy

c)

xy
xy

(1)
equals
5 3 1

The value of

a)

132
15

b)

15
132

c)

15
2

d)

15
8

x
If

x x4

x10

a)
23.

c) 12

x 2 y 2
The fraction 1
1
x y

22.

The value of 7 2 9 4 x 7 2 9 1 2 is

26

xp , p is equal to

b) 2

c) 1

d)

a)

b) 5

2 n 4 2 (2 n )

24.

2 2 n3

a)

2 n1

c)

9
2n
8

c) 6

d) 8

2 3 is equal to
n 1

b) 2

1
8

d) 1

1.

(c)

2.

(a)

3.

(d)

4.

(b)

5.

(c)

9.

(d)

10. (c)

11. (d)

12. (c)

13. (c)

17. (d)

18. (c)

19. (b)

20. (c)

21.(d)

6.

(d)

7.

(c)

8. (d)

14. (c)

15. (d)

16.(a)

22. (d)

23. (a)

24.(d)