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Laws of Exponents
A long product axaxa ....m factors can be expressed, in short by notation am, where `a' is called the base and `m' the
power (or index or exponent) Thus axaxa.... 10 factors = a10.
Definition am: If a is a natural number, then am stands for the product of `m' factors each equal to `a'.
Property 1: am x an = am+n
(eg. a3xa4 = a3+4 = a7)
Property 2 : an=am-n
(eg. = a5-3 = a2)
a3
Property 3 : (am )n amn
(eg. (a2 )3 a6
Meaning of a : Any non-zero number raised to zero power is equal to 1.
ie. a = 1 where a 0 eg. 5 = 1.
m
Negative Index : If a 0 then a

(eg. a3

1
am

1
)
a3

Fractional Index : a1 n

3
a , a2 3 a2

eg. a1 2

If `a' and `b' are non-zero integers, `m' and `n' are rational numbers, then
i).

am xan am n

ii).

am
am n
an

iii).

amn

iv).

abm

am . bm

v).

a 1

m n

m
vi). a

1
am

SOLVED EXAMPLES :
1.

81 3 x 161 4 x 2 2 ?
3 13

4 14

2 x 2

x 2 2

2 1 x 2 1 x 2 2 2 112 2 1
2.

3 2

2 x 2
2

26 ?

26 x 26
26 64
26

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3.

2 2

3 x 3
2

34 x 38
3 4

3
4.

2 7
8

34x 3
312

1
312
312

Evaluate
3 3 2 (2 7 )2

=1

5.

32

9
3
26

25

2 3

3 2

5

13

1 2

1
2

1
5
32 2 2
9
3

1
5
7
7
9 4 14 1 15
9
3
9
9

If 5 a 3 1 2 5 , find the value of 5 a 3


5a 3125 5a 55

a 5
5 a3 5 5 3 5 2 2 5
6.

If m and n are whole numbers such that mn 121 , find the value of (m 1)n1

mn 121 112 m 11, n 2


(m 1)n 1 (1 1 1)2 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 0 0
PRACTICE TEST
1.

25 25 is divided by 24, the remainder is


a)

2.

(6 4 )

a)
3.

4.

(3 2 )

1
16

b)

1
8

c) 1
5

c)

3
16

a)

b) 4

d) 2

equals

2 n 64 , the value of n is
c) 6

d) 2

d) 12

If 1.125x10 =0.001125, the value of k


-4

b) -3

c) -2

is

d) -1

The unit's digit in the product of 2 4 6 7 1 5 3 x 3 4 17 2 x 2 2 5 7 2 1 is


a)

6.

b) 22

If

a)
5.

23

2 x 1

If 2

a)

b) 3

c) 5

d) 7

1
, the value of x is
8 x 3

b) -1

c) -2

d) 2

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7.

The value of

1
3

a)

8.

b)
x 1

If
b
a)

31 2 n x 9 2 n 7
is
35n

9
13

b

a

b)

1
9

c)

d)

2
3

x 3

, x is equal to

1
2

c)

7
2

d)

9.
A boy was asked to write the value of 2 5 x 9 2 . He wrote it as 2592. The difference between the obtained and
the actual value is

10.

a)

21x92

b) 2 2 x 9 3

c)

2 3 x9 4

d) Zero

4x

a)
11.

12.

15.

10

d)

data inadequate

17.

d) 5 5

b) 15

c) 25

b) 4

c)

1
8

d)

1
32

If 2 x 1 2 x 1 1280 , then the value of x is


7

b) 8

c) 9

1
The simplification of

1 25

d) 10
2
3

a)

1
25

b)

c)

25

d) -25

gives

1
25

The units digit in 2 4 6 9 1 5 3 will be


1

b) 3

c) 7

2 4 3 0 .1 2 x 2 4 3 0 .0 8

equals

a)

c) 12

b) 9

d)

d)

27

The value of 4 7 1 6 4 x 1 6 is euqal to:


a)

18.

c) 5

(4 )0 .5 x (0 .5 ) 4 is equal to

a)
16.

b) 25

a)

a)
14.

If a3 b ab3 c 180 and a, b, and c are positive integers, the value of c is

a)
13.

(125 )0.25 is equal to

1
16

x
If 4

a)

b)

1
4

c) 4

d)

d)

-9

1
, the value of x is
64

b) 9

c) -3

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19.

a)

20.

21.

b) 9

d)

27

is equal to

a)

x 1 y 1

b) x 1 y 1

c)

xy
xy

c)

xy
xy

(1)
equals
5 3 1

The value of

a)

132
15

b)

15
132

c)

15
2

d)

15
8

x
If

x x4

x10

a)
23.

c) 12

x 2 y 2
The fraction 1
1
x y

22.

The value of 7 2 9 4 x 7 2 9 1 2 is

26

xp , p is equal to

b) 2

c) 1

d)

If 5 5 x 5 3 5 3 2 5 a2 the value of `a' is


a)

b) 5

2 n 4 2 (2 n )

24.

2 2 n3

a)

2 n1

c)

9
2n
8

c) 6

d) 8

2 3 is equal to
n 1

b) 2

1
8

d) 1
ANSWERS TO PRACTICE TEST

1.

(c)

2.

(a)

3.

(d)

4.

(b)

5.

(c)

9.

(d)

10. (c)

11. (d)

12. (c)

13. (c)

17. (d)

18. (c)

19. (b)

20. (c)

21.(d)

6.

(d)

7.

(c)

8. (d)

14. (c)

15. (d)

16.(a)

22. (d)

23. (a)

24.(d)