Sie sind auf Seite 1von 90

3 a Can I to send a text message from your phone?

STARTER UNIT

b Can I send a text message from your phone?


4

Pronouns and possessive adjectives


1 Complete the sentences. Use the words in the box.
I her

me

him us

he

our

your

they you

Hello. My names Anna. I m Irish.


1 Where do ..................... come from?

2 This is my brother. .....................s fifteen.


3 I sometimes go out with my sister and her friends.

..................... re good fun.


4 She usually does ..................... homework in the

evenings.

How often do you do go windsurfing?

How often do you go windsurfing?

a Does Carlos play a lot of computer games?


b

Has Carlos play a lot of computer games?

When can we have dinner?

When we can have dinner?

How many brothers have you got?

How many brothers have got you?

When does the party start?

When starts the party?

Where are your parents?

Where do be your parents?

5 We live here. ..................... garden isnt very big.


6 Wheres Carlos? Can you see .....................?

Common errors

7 I dont know the answer. Why are you asking

4 Circle the correct words.

..................... ?
8

Can I borrow ..................... camera?

Are you coming with .....................? Were going to

What does your father do? Hes a journalist / jornalist.


1 We live in a house really old / really old house.
2 Do you like the book? Its / Is very interesting.

the caf.

3 My best friend she loves / loves rap music.

Present simple and adverbs of frequency


2 Complete the sentences. Use the verbs in the box.

6 My mums teacher / a teacher.


7 I have / m sixteen years old. How old are you?

use not speak not play

8 My brother goes / he goes to a different school.

9 I love maths. Its / Is my favourite subject.

I ..................... to school every day. I never go by

10 I like the football / football, but I dont like

bus.

the tennis / tennis.

We always ..................... a uniform at school.

He sometimes ..................... music from the Internet.

My friends and I always ..................... text messages


to each other.

5 She ..................... often ..................... computer


games.
6 Sandra and Max usually ..................... their friends in
the evening.
7 You never ..................... your homework.
8

I ..................... Italian.

We often ..................... shopping at the weekend.

Question forms: be, can, have got, do


3

Tick () the correct sentence in each pair.


a

Where do you live?

Where does you live?

a Whats your name?


b What has your name?

5 Have you got a sandwich? I have / m really hungry.

send do download meet walk go wear

My mother never uses a computer.

4 I prefer pop music / the pop music.

a What time have we got our music lesson?


b What time do we got our music lesson?

UNIT 1

Present continuous
3 Complete the sentences. Use the words in the

Relative pronouns

box.
m having

1 Complete the sentences. Use who, which or where.

People who wear red are usually warm and happy.


1 I dont like films ...................... are very sad.
2 Im looking for a place ...................... its quiet.
3 Australia is a place ...................... its sunny most
of the year.
4 Surfing is a sport ...................... I love.
5 I like people ...................... are honest and sensitive.
6 I prefer books ...................... are easy to read.
7 People ...................... are moody are often also tense.
8 Do you know a good caf ...................... we can
have lunch?
9 Portuguese is the language ...................... I want
to learn next.
10 The maths teacher ...................... teaches my brother is
very intelligent.

Adverbs: possibility
2

Write the words in the correct order.


holiday / on / they / probably / are
They are probably on holiday.

1 looks / man / definitely / that / friendly


2 embarrassed / a / she / feels / maybe / bit
3 a / hes / little / perhaps / shy
4 probably / out / to / you / go / want
5 going / like / football / they / to / perhaps / matches
6 place / is / Madrid / an / definitely / exciting
7 probably / later / can / watch / we / TV
8 play / definitely / can / piano / the / he
9 worried / Im / it / about / maybe
10 boyfriend / girlfriend / are / they / probably / and

they

arent

are

waiting

tidying

we

isnt

It s snowing and she isnt wearing a jumper.


1 What ...................... you looking at?
2 Where are they ...................... lunch?
3

She ...................... listening to me.

Linda and Carlos are in their room. ......................


re playing computer games.

5
6
7

We ...................... working today. Its Saturday.


I ...................... feeling very excited.
He isnt ...................... his room. Hes reading.

Where are ...................... going?

Im not ...................... for you.

Comparing present tenses


4 Circle the correct tense.
I m always going / always go to bed early.
1

Look! Arsenal wins / is winning against Milan.

What are they doing / do they do at the moment?

Do you often send / Are you often sending text

I am never downloading / never download music

We dont usually go out / re not usually going out

messages?
from the Internet.
on Wednesdays.
6

She doesnt understand / isnt understanding me

Where are your parents working / do your parents

when I speak Spanish.


work?
8 Please stop. Youre annoying / annoy me now.
9 I cant see them. Where do they sit / are they
sitting today?
10

Is Peter the boy who stands / is standing next to


the door?

UNIT 2

Past continuous
3 Write the words in the correct order.

was/were, there was / there were


1

Complete the sentences.

It was a beautiful day yesterday.


1 The hailstones ...................... really big. Did you
see them?
2 She ...................... very relaxed in the lesson. She
was quite tense.
3 There ...................... a lot of people at the concert
last night.
4 There ...................... a landslide near the hotel.
5

It rained a lot. ...................... there a flood?

6 They ...................... cold. They were very friendly


to us.
7 It ...................... very warm this morning.
8 ...................... there many students in the afterschool club?
9 There ...................... 60 volcanic eruptions in the world
last year.
10 It ...................... a very boring match and we lost 1-0!

Past simple
2 Write sentences and questions. Use the past
simple.
His father / lift / him on to his bike.
His father lifted him on to his bike.
1 We / leave / the car in the car park.
2 What time / film / start?
3 They / not find / any survivors.
4 What / you / buy in town?
5 The wind / blow / the roofs off the houses.
6 The hurricane / not damage / our house.
7 More than 50 people / die / in the avalanche.
8

I / wake up / very early this morning.

9 How / the hurricane / happen?


10 The tsunami / not affect / countries in Europe or Africa.

trainers / they / shorts / wearing / and / were


They were wearing shorts and trainers.
1

were / to / they / listening / what / ?

watching / we / TV / werent

I / at / bus / was / the / stop / waiting

to / talking / I / Ben / wasnt

getting / hurricane / the / was / stronger

the / were / chasing / you / storm / why / ?

in / wasnt / a / she / hotel / staying

watching / he / the / was / video / ?

the / listening / werent / to / you / news

10

and / blowing / wind / was / the

Past simple and past continuous


4 Circle the correct words.
I was cooking dinner when the phone was ringing /
rang.
1

When I woke up this morning the sun was shining

She was hearing / heard a loud noise as she

/ shone.
was driving through the National Park.
3

Who was she speaking to when I arrived /


was arriving?

They were running for the bus when he fell /


falling over.

What were they doing when the storm began /


was beginning?

We were being / were on holiday when the


volcano erupted.

I wasnt looking at the camera when you took /


were taking the photo.

Suddenly the wind was changing / changed


and blew down the trees.

When the rain stopped / was stopping they ran


outside.

Comparatives

UNIT 3

3 Complete the sentences. Use the comparative.

Quantity: some, any, much, many, a lot of


1

Tick () the correct sentence in each pair.


a I dont drink much water.
b I dont drink some water.

1 a She doesnt eat many vegetables.


b She doesnt eat much vegetables.
2 a Is there a lot of sugar in cola?
b Is there many sugar in cola?
3 a Are much of your friends here?
b Are any of your friends here?
4 a They dont do some exercise.
b They dont do any exercise.
5 a How much fat is there in this snack?
b How many fat is there in this snack?
6 a Would you like lot of yoghurt?
b Would you like some yoghurt?
7 a I havent got any grapes.
b I havent got some grapes.
8 a We drink too a lot of coffee.
b We drink too much coffee.
9 a Burgers give you a lot of energy.
b Burgers give you much energy.

too and (not) enough


2

Write the words in the correct order.


is / this / too / me / exercise / for / easy
This exercise is too easy for me.

1 enough / dont / vegetables / they / eat

Shes ......................

without make-up. (attractive)

Shes more attractive without make-up.


1

This ring is ...................... than that ring. (small)

Im feeling ...................... than I felt yesterday.


(good)

Paul is ...................... than John. (energetic)

I was ...................... in my last job. (happy)

Hes ...................... than me. (intelligent)

The noise is ...................... in this room. (bad)

History is ...................... than I.T. (interesting)

Its ...................... here than outside. (quiet)

Superlatives
4 Circle the correct superlative.
Laura is fit / the fittest student in the class.
1 It was the happier / happiest day of my life.
2 Who is the most tall / tallest in the room?
3 Its the most / more beautiful flower Ive ever seen.
4 It was the worst / worse concert Ive been to.
5 Hes the betterest / best player in the band.
6 Fruit and vegetables are the healthiest /
healthyest type of food.
7

Chemistry is my weakest / most weak subject.

Comparatives and superlatives


5 Complete the text. Use the words in the box.
taller the tallest biggest cleverer
the best more interested the cleverest
more hardworking

2 too / your / are / short / trousers

My class is the biggest class in the school and I

3 isnt / healthy / her / enough / diet

tallest in the class - hes 1.54m, but in general

4 in / too / its / here / cold

Ella is (3) ...................... girl. Everyone is quite hard-

5 never / enough / have / time / I

than the boys. The boys are (5) ......................

6 enough / are / warm / you / ?


7 lessons / are / the / long / too

think that its (1) ....................... Peter is the


the girls are (2) ...................... than the boys.
working but I think that the girls are (4) ....................
in the girls than in their work! Jen is (6) ....................
student in the class - she always comes top in the
exams. Shes definitely (7) ...................... than Mike, but
dont tell him!

UNIT 4
Present perfect: affirmative
1 Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect of
the verbs.
They ve travelled around the world. (travel)
1 He ....................... dinner. Would you like some?
(make)
2 We ....................... to Italy. We had a great time. (be)
3 Shes not at home. She ....................... on holiday. (go)
4 I ....................... thirty kilometres today. (cycle)

new / started / he / a / job / just / s

just / shoes / ve / you / bought / some

with / mother / just / has / her / Stella / argued

just / home / driven / has / David

just / I / over / fallen / ve

just / Paco / me / called / has

5 You ....................... all the pizza. (eat)


6

I ....................... my keys. Have you seen them? (lose)

7 We ....................... before. (meet)


8 She ....................... a poem for you. (write)
9 They ....................... difficult weather conditions.
(survive)
10 I ....................... the highest mountain in Scotland.
(climb)

Present perfect: questions


4

Tick () the correct sentence in each pair.


a

Have you been ever to Mexico?

Have you ever been to Mexico?

a Have you ever travelled in a helicopter?


b You have ever travelled in a helicopter?

a Is she met him before?


b Has she met him before?

Present perfect: negative


2 Complete the sentences. Use the negative form of
the present perfect and the verbs in the box.
phone

meet

ride

do

decide

go have walk be buy


He hasnt ridden a horse before.
1 They ....................... Jans parents.
2 We ....................... dinner at a restaurant for a
long time.
3 I ....................... my homework but Ill do it
after dinner.
4 You ....................... your parents. You should call them
before it gets late.
5 Astronauts ....................... on Mars.
6 She ....................... skiing this year.
7 It ....................... a good day today.
8 I ....................... a ticket. Ill buy one there.
9 They ....................... what to do.

Present perfect: just


3 Write the words in the correct order.
Australia / ve / just / we / our / bought / to / tickets
Weve just bought our tickets to Australia.
1 ve / homework. / I / my / finished / just
2

ve / out / just / gone / they

a Where have you been?


b Where are you been?

a Have we eaten here before?


b We have eaten here before?

a Have they sleep for long enough?


b Have they slept for long enough?

a Have you tried pasta? No I havent.


b Have you tried pasta? No I havent tried.

a Have I ever appeared on TV?


b Ever have I appeared on TV?

a Have we see the new Johnny Depp film?


b Have we seen the new Johnny Depp film?

a Have many people bought their inventions?


b Have many people buyed their inventions?

Present perfect: for and since

UNIT 5

3 Match the two parts of the sentences

I waited for you for

Present perfect and past simple


1

Tick () the correct sentence in each pair.


A We went there last week.

b Weve been there last week.


1

a Since the beginning of term Ive done lots of extra


work.
a Its the best book Ive ever read.

a Who have you met when youve been to the party

g one oclock.

Present perfect: for and since


4

Complete the sentences. Use for or since.


Brad has held the record since April.

last week?
b Who did you meet when you went to the party
last week?
7

Theyve been in that room since

f May.

immediately.

You havent phoned since

e five years.

b He did windsurfing one day and he loved it

b He says that its the best match he ever saw.

d three hours.

a Hes done windsurfing one day and he loved it

a He says that its the best match hes ever seen.

I havent been to the cinema for

c the 1960s.

immediately.

Stella has known Mark since

b weeks.

a Shes a great skier. She always loved skiing.


b Shes a great skier. Shes always loved skiing.

a Monday.

b Its the best book I ever read.


3

Weve lived here for

6 The Beatles have been popular since

b Since the beginning of term I did lots of extra work.


2

Weve known each other ................. 15 years.

Skateboards have been popular ................. the


1970s.

a Theyre very excited. Theyve never travelled by


plane before.
B Theyre very excited. They never travelled by plane
before.

Present perfect and past simple


2 Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect
or the past simple and the verbs in the box.
buy

go

be

meet

have

see move win

Paula has studied French ................. three years.

Ive been here ................. a week.

They havent competed ................. 2004.

He hasnt won a match ................. two months.

Youve had those shoes ................. years.

Present perfect: for and since


5 Tick () the correct sentence in each pair.
a Shes waited for us since six oclock.

Where did you go last night?

b Shes waited for us for six oclock.

What bands ................. you ................. last summer?

1 a Theyve existed for hundreds of years.

Whats the best meal you ................. ever .................?

They ................. the basketball championship last year.

................. she ever ................. a famous person?

We heard the CD and we ................. it immediately.

Rob ................. always ................. crazy about Chelsea.

I ................. to New Zealand four months ago.

................. you ................. Ana on holiday?

b Theyve existed since hundreds of years.


2

a He hasnt smoked since 2004.


b He hasnt smoked for 2004.

3 a I havent been well since the weekend.


b I havent been well for the weekend.
4

a You havent written since a long time.


b You havent written for a long time.

UNIT 6

will and might


1

a Well be able to talk to computers in the future.


b We can talk to computers in the future.

Write the words in the correct order.

new / scientists / planets / discover / might

a Paul couldnt to move his arm after the


accident.

Scientists might discover new planets.

b Paul couldnt move his arm after the accident.

1 live / I / until / Im / 100 / might

a Well be able to go skiing next year.


b We can to go skiing next year.

2 go / to / definitely / the / well / party

a Scientists can find a cure for cancer in the


future.

3 university / she / study / at / possibly / might

b Scientists will be able to find a cure for cancer


in the future.

4 become / I / we / dont / extinct / think / ll

a I can speak French but I cant speak


Italian.

5 exams / their / definitely / pass / wont / they

b I can speak French but no I can speak Italian.


7

a Nina can walk when she was ten months old.


b Nina could walk when she was ten months old.

a We wont be able to watch the film. The TV


isnt working.

Complete the sentences. Use will or might.

b We wont be able watching the film. The TV

Im sure computers will understand people in the

isnt working.

future.
1

He ................. definitely be taller than his father.

She ................. live in this country all of her life.


She doesnt know.

Complete the sentences. Use the words in the

box.
could

They say they definitely ................. not take drugs


when theyre older.

4 We ................. go on holiday to Italy this year.


We havent decided.

First conditional

can

couldnt

to get

see wont could

1 Theyll be able ................. help this afternoon.


2

I went to the dentist yesterday and I .................


speak afterwards.

Ive been to the dentist and I ................. speak


now.

exams.

It was very noisy. I ................. only hear a bit of


what he was saying.

1 If she eats / will eat healthily shell stay fit.

2 If well walk / walk to work well get more exercise.


3 If you dont look / re not looking after your teeth, youll
have problems later.
5 If they buy him a ticket, hell come / comes.
6 If youre / ll be unfriendly to people, you wont be very
popular.
7 If she practises the guitar more, shell definitely improve
/ definitely improves.

can, could, will be able to


Tick () the correct sentence in each pair.
a

Youll be able to go out later when youre older.

You could go out later when youre older.

You cant ................. much from here. You need


to go higher.

6
7

4 If its raining / ll rain, well go by car.

to

She can dance but she cant sing.

3 Circle the correct words.


If youll work / work hard, youll definitely pass your

cant

We................. be able to go on holiday this year.


Hell be able ................. a new car when he
starts his job.

When we were younger, children ................. play


in the streets.

h to go to the dentist this afternoon.

UNIT 7

i doesnt have to do any homework


j to be caring. They have to be patient, too.

Likes and preferences: would love,


would like, would prefer, would hate,
wouldnt like
1

be going to
3 Complete the sentences. Use be going to.

Write the words in the correct order.

Im going to leave school when Im sixteen. (I / leave)

be / like / to / be / but / Id / Id / to / rich / popular/ prefer


Id like to be popular but Id prefer to be rich.

1 ................. Japanese before you go to Japan?

1 prefer / visit / shed / China / than / to / Peru

(you / learn)
2 ................. a new camera. Their old one is OK.

2 hate / they / to / their / sell / house / d

(they / not / buy)


3 ................. a party for her birthday.

3 to / d / we / closer / love / live / to / sea / the

(she / not / have)


4 ................. to become a journalist. (I / study)

4 d / to / you / in / office / work / hate / an

5 ................. on TV tonight. (Marty / be)


6 ................. learning to play the guitar. (we / start)

5 someone / he / like / to / famous / d / marry

7 ................. by bus or train? (we / travel)


8 ................. my friends after school. (I / meet)

6 go / would / to / love / travelling / I

9 ................. this afternoon? (it / rain)

7 to / wouldnt / work / in / like / a / hospital / he

will and going to


4 Complete the sentences. Use the words in the box.

8 to / work / they / animals / d / with / prefer

ll

9 big / love / d / have / to / a / family / you

Match the two parts of the sentences.

1 Social workers have

do

stay

arent

3
4

Im not going................. finish my homework


Do you think that youll ................. successful
He wont be ................. if he doesnt win.
If he gets the job, hell ................. a lot of
travelling.

4 They

Paul and Kim arent going to ................. with us


for long.

5 She has

6 You have to be

7 Waiters have to

Well ................. see you later.


She thinks that they ................. move to the US.
Its too far.

8 She

9 We dont have

We ................. going to stop him.


Do you think that Chelsea ................. beat
Manchester United tomorrow?

to be back early. Were not going to school


tomorrow.

work long hours. They finish late.

creative to be a good architect.

have to get up early tomorrow.

e study for four years to become a nurse.


f wear uniform to school.
g doesnt have to study hard. Shes very clever.

will

when youre older?


f

2 He has to
3 My brother

happy
wont

tonight.

have to
We dont have to

be

I think that shell marry him.


1

to

probably

Obligation: should, must and have to

UNIT 8

should / you / always / your / parents / respect

Second conditional
1

You should always respect your parents.

Tick () the correct sentence in each pair.


a If you put on your helmet you would be safer.
b If you put on your helmet, you are safer.

a Life will be better if we didnt have to go to school.


b Life would be better if we didnt have to go to

angry.
a If it wasnt cloudy, wed be able to see the moon.
b If it isnt cloudy, wed be able to see the moon.
a If I have lived near Port Aventura, Id go there every
day.
5

If we had lots of money, wed do more travelling.

If we have lots of money, wed do more travelling.

If I didnt have a dog, Id get a cat.

If I didnt have a dog, Ill get a cat.

mustnt / photographs / take / here / in / you

morning / we / to / in / leave / have / early / the

today / I / this / post / must / letter


have / he / get / doesnt / to / Fridays /

have / you / to / ticket / buy / advance / in / a

mustnt / it / touch / they

You wouldnt be cold if you wore a hat.


4

(not) as as
Write sentences using (not) as as.
My sister / tall / your sister.
My sister is as tall as your sister.
1 Tigers / not fast / cheetahs.
2 Spain / not cloudy / Britain.
3 Football / not dangerous / rugby.
4 Cars / safe / motorbikes.
5 Your work / not careful / my work.
6

dont / want / go / have / to / if / they /

early / up / on

a You wouldnt be cold if you wear a hat.


b

horror / be / scared / films / of / shouldnt / she

b If I lived near Port Aventura, Id go there every day.

a If they are coming home earlier, their parents


b If they came home earlier, their parents wouldnt be

teeth / you / look / your / should / after

they / dont / to

wouldnt be angry.

school.
2

Write the words in the correct order.

I / not hungry / my brother.

7 My dog / noisy / your dog.


8 The roller coaster / not scary / a horror film.

Circle the correct words.


I dont have to / mustnt listen to you. Youre
my sister not my mother.
1 You should / should to think before you speak.
2 He shouldnt / doesnt have to eat so many
crisps. Hell get fat.
3

We dont have to / mustnt be late. The concert


starts at half past seven.

You should / shouldnt go to bed early tonight


if youre tired.

You dont have to / mustnt stay too long in


the sun.

They should / must go and live in Australia.


Theyd love it.

You mustnt / mustnt to feed the animals in


the zoo.

He doesnt have to / shouldnt wear a hat.


Its his decision.

I cant go out tonight. I have to / mustnt


finish my homework.

UNIT 9
Present: affirmative and negative
1 Complete the sentences. Use the present passive.
Houses are made of bricks and wood. (make)

They drove them to the station.

They created the special effects with computers.

Horror films frighten some people.

1 Millions of hamburgers ................. each day. (eat)


2 Machu Picchu in Peru ................. by thousands of people
every day. (visit)
3 The old bridge ................. much. (not use)
4 Its cold in here. The rooms ................. during the day.
(not heat)
5 The north island ................. to the south island by
a bridge. (connect)
6 The park ................. at eight oclock. (close)
7 Stamps ................. here. (not sell)
8

Rioja ................. in La Rioja region of Spain. (make)

Past passive: affirmative and negative


2

Circle the correct words.

Present and past passive: questions


4

Write the words in the correct order.


the / were / built / Pyramids / when / ?
When were the Pyramids built?
1
2

buried / who / here / is / ?

eaten / Britain / pizzas / are / in / ?

storm / your / damaged / car / by / the / was / ?

broken / football / the / those / were / windows /


by / ?

Our passports were checked / were check when


we arrived.
1 The roof was / is damaged in the storm.
2 The school was opened / opening in 1905.
3 We were frighten / frightened by the noise in the garden.
4 The sixth Star Wars film was making / made in 2004.
5 The TV wasnt / not was invented until the 1920s.
6 The houses werent made / make of brick. It was wood.
7 The children was / were named after their grandparents.
8 The Torre Picasso in Madrid was designed by / for Minoru
Yamasaki.

Active to passive
3

Make the sentences passive.


Engineers use computers.
Computers are used by engineers.

They built the bridge in 2003.

My brothers painted the house.

They serve breakfast in the hotel at eight oclock.

George Lucas directed the Star Wars films.

They open the museum on Sundays.

Mice ate the bread.

built / in / 1987 / what / here / was / ?

wood / most / are / made / houses / of / ?

why / it / sold / was / ?

cooked / the / is / pasta / oven / in / the / ?

how / your / is / heated / house ?

Conditional zero
If clause

Main clause

If + Present tense

Present tense

If you freeze water

it turns into ice.

If you freeze water, it turns into ice.


Si congelas el agua, se convierte en hielo.
If I work too much, I get tired.

Si trabajo demasiado, me canso.

If I have time, I usually go to the movies.

Si tengo tiempo, generalmente voy al cine.

If she eats hamburgers, she gets an allergy.


Si ella come hamburguesas, le da alergia.

If they come here, they always bring a present.


Si ellos vienen aqu, siempre traen un regalo.

If she doesn't know the answer, she keeps silent.

Si ella no sabe la respuesta, se mantiene en silencio.


If we don't go out on Saturdays, we rent a video and stay home.

Si no salimos los sbados, alquilamos un video y nos quedamos en casa

Condicional 1
If clause

Main clause

If + Present tense

will / can / may / must + verb

If it rains today,

I'll stay at home

If it rains today, I'll stay at home.


Si llueve hoy, me quedar en casa.

If he is busy now, I will come back tomorrow.


Si est ocupado ahora, regresar maana.

If I have time, I'll visit my parents this afternoon.

Si tengo tiempo, visitar a mis padres esta tarde.


If it is warm tomorrow, we'll go to the beach.
Si est caluroso maana, iremos a la playa.

SECOND CONDITIONAL

Refiere a una situacin hipottica y se forma segn la estructura if + simple past +


simple condicional. Aqu tienes algunos ejemplos traducidos.

If clause

Main clause

If + Past Simple

would / could / might + verb

If I won the lottery,

I would travel around the world.

If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.


Si ganara la lotera, viajara por todo el mundo.
If I were in Brazil, I would go to Rio de Janeiro.
Si yo estuviese en Brasil, ira a Ro de Janeiro.
If I were you, I would buy that car.
Si yo fuese t, comprara ese auto.
If he were in my place, he wouldn't do this.
Si l estuviese en mi lugar, no hara esto.
If I had more money, I would buy a nice apartment.
Si yo tuviese ms dinero, me comprara un lindo apartamento.
If she had more time, she would travel more often.
Si ella tuviera ms tiempo, viajara ms a menudo.
If it were not raining, we could go out.
Si no estuviese lloviendo, podramos salir.
If we didn't have to work today, we could have a picnic.
Si no tuvisemos que trabajar hoy, podramos tener un picnic.
If they won the lottery, they wouldn't work any more.
Si ellos ganaran la lotera, no trabajaran ms.
If I saw her, I would ask her out.
Si la viera, la invitara a salir.
If you went to Brazil, you wouldn't want to come back.
Si fueras a Brazil, no querras regresar.
If they spoke Spanish, we would understand them.
Si ellos hablasen espaol, los entenderamos.
If he didn't live by the river, he couldn't go fishing.
Si el no viviera cerca del ro, no podra ir a pescar.
If I didn't want to go, I would tell you.
Si no quisiera ir, te lo dira.

Tiempo
present
present continuous
past
past continuous
present perfect
past perfect
future
future II
modals
modals
modals

Frase Activa
I write a letter
I'm writing a letter
I wrote a letter
I was writing a letter
I've written a letter
I had written a letter
I will write a letter
I'm going to write a letter
I have to write a letter
I should write a letter
I must write a letter

Frase pasiva
The letter is written
The letter is being written
The letter was written
The letter was being written
The letter has been written
The letter had been written
The letter will be written
The letter is going to be written
The letter has to be written
The letter should be written
The letter must be written

1.

HAVE GOT. Complete the questions and short


answers with the correct form of have got.

4. PRESENT CONTINUOUS. Complete the sentences.


1. They (buy) _________________ new clothes for

1. ________ Tom ________ a TV?


Yes, ________________.

the party.
2. She (not wear) _________________ her tracksuit

2. ________ Tom and Sue ________ a bicycle?


Yes, ________________.
3. ________ Sue and James ________ a cat?

bottoms today.
3. You (not listen) _________________ to me!
4. We (have) _________________ dinner in a

No, ________________.
4. ________ Tom ________ a cat?

Japanese restaurant tonight.


5. He (tidy) ________________ his bedroom at the

No, ________________.

moment.
6. I (not leave) _________________ until tomorrow.

2. What can you do in the classroom? Write sentence


using CAN or CANT.
Use the computer 

Listen to music 

Talk on the phone 

Play games 

Write a letter 

5. Complete with PRESENT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS.


My brother and I usually (go) __________ to a disco on
Saturdays, but this weekend we (stay) __________ at
home. Our cousin (visit) ______________ us from Canada
at the moment and he (not like) ______________ dance
music. Its OK because I (play) ________________ football
on Sunday morning and I (not want) ________________
to be tired.

6. Complete the questions and short answers with the


PRESENT SIMPLE or PRESENT CONTINUOUS.
1. (they/play) Do they play sport? Yes, they do.

3. PRESENT SIMPLE. Choose the correct form.

2. (she/come) Is she coming to the party tomorrow? No, she


isnt.

1.

I never wear / wears socks in the summer.

2.

Jenny go / goes to the gym every day.

3.

Dan and Jane dont / doesnt like my new books.

4.

My friend study / studies drama at university.

5.

He dont / doesnt watch a lot of TV.

6.

We live / lives in New York.

7.

You never send / sends me emails!

3. (you/wear) _____________ your new shirt tonight?


Yes, __________.
4. (she/get up) _______________ early at weekends?
No, __________
5. (you/know) ___________ the answer to this question?
No, __________.
6. (they/walk) __________________ to school today?
No, __________.
7. (he/meet) ____________________ us later?
Yes, __________.

7. Complete the sentences with the PAST SIMPLE.


1. We (not go) __________ shopping yesterday
afternoon.
2. She (put) __________ the letter in the envelope.
3. He (be) __________ late, so he (take) __________
a taxi to the station.
4. Ana (not believe) _____________ my story.
5. Jack (tell) __________ me a funny joke yesterday.
6. _____ they ________ (win) the football match last
Saturday?

9. PAST SIMPLE or PAST CONTINUOUS. Choose the


correct option.
1. They heard/were hearing strange noises while they
were walking past the old house.
2. I walked/was walking home when I saw a car
accident.
3. Kate was waiting for me when I arrived/was arriving
at the cinema.
4. While she cycled/was cycling to school, it started to
rain.

7. (be) _______ the weather bad yesterday?

5. It was snowing when I got up/was getting up.

8. We (stay) __________ at home and (watch)

6. While I did/was doing my homework, the phone

__________ some videos.


9. I (not clean) __________ my bedroom, so my
mother (not be) __________ very happy.
10. (visit) ______ you _______ your best friend?

rung.
7. We were running when Ben broke/was breaking his
leg.
8. He was falling/fell asleep while he was watching TV.
9. I didnt listen/wasnt listening when the teacher
gave us our homework.

8.

Complete the conversation with the PAST


CONTINUOUS form.

10. It wasnt snowing/didnt snow when they left


home.

Mother: What were you doing yesterday afternoon?


Sam and Jo: We (watch) ______________ TV.

10. Complete the questions with the PAST SIMPLE or

Susan: I (read) __________.

CONTINUOUS.

Mother: _______ John _____________ (do) his

1. What (you/do) __________________ last night? I

homework?
Susan: No, he __________. He (play) ______________
computer games.
John: I _______________ (not play) computer games.
I _________________ (do) my homework. Susan,
what _______ you _______________ (read)?
Susan: A school book! I (study) __________________.
Mother: Be quiet! Dont argue. And what ______ your
father ___________ (do)?
Susan: He ________________ (sleep)!

watched a video.
2. We went to Lisbon last month. Where (you/stay)
______________________?
3. Why (they/wear) ________________________ those
clothes yesterday? They were going to a party.
4. (it/rain) ____________________ when you left the
cinema? Yes. We got very wet!
5. How (she/cut) ____________________ her finger?
She was peeling potatoes.
6. Why (the teacher/shout) _____________________
at James? Because he wasnt listening to her.
7. What (you/do) ________________________ when
she phoned? Not much.

11. Complete the sentences about London and


Madrid with the COMPARATIVE FORM of the
adjectives.

14. QUESTION WORDS. Choose the correct question


word and write its translation.

1. London is (large) _____________ Madrid.

1. What/who is your name? Fran. _________

2. Madrid is (hot) _____________ London.

2. How much/How many is that CD? 14.99 . _________

3. Heathrow

Airport

in

London

is

(busy)

_____________ Madrid Airport.

Example: Where/How do you live? Dnde.

3. When/why are you leaving? Because its late.


_________

4. London is (expensive) _____________Madrid.

4. Why/What are you drinking? Milk. _________

5. Madrid is (high) _____________ London.

5. Whose/who watch is this? Its mine. _________

6. Madrid is (dry) _____________ London.

6. How many/how old is your father? Hes 45.


_________

12.

Complete these facts with the SUPERLATIVE


FORM

15. Complete with AND, BUT, BECAUSE or SO.


1. Im tired, _______ Im going to bed now.
2. I like chips _______ I like pizzas.
3. Im staying at home this evening _______ the
weather is terrible.
4. Im good at Maths, _______ Im terrible at Physics.
5. We were hungry, _______ we made some
sandwiches.
6. Hes only four, _______ hes very good at football.
7. Im wearing a coat _______ its very cold.

Choose the correct form.


1. I must/mustnt remember to buy snacks for the
party.
2. We havent got any food. We must/mustnt go to
the supermarket.
3. Hurry up! You must/mustnt be late for the party.
4. You must/mustnt have an invitation to go to the
party.
5. You must/mustnt play loud music after 11 pm.
6. Its a fancy dress party. You must/mustnt wear
your jeans.
7. Its Janes birthday. You must/mustnt bring her a
present!

16. LOVE / LIKE / ENJOY / HATE + Verb-ing. Complete


the sentences with the verbs in ing form.
buy / cycle / do / read / write / cook
1. I enjoy __________ in the countryside. Ive got a
mountain bike.
2. I love __________ detective stories. Theyre really
exciting.
3. I enjoy __________. I make dinner for the family at
weekends.
4. I hate __________ the housework. Its so boring.
5. I love __________ clothes. I spend all my money on
them!
6. I dont like __________ letters. I prefer using the
phone.

17. Complete the dialogue with WILL or GOING TO.


Paul: Hi, Kim. What are your plans for the weekend?
(you/do) Are you going to do anything nice?
Kim: Yes, I (visit) ________________ my uncle and
aunt. Theyve got a house by the sea in Wales.
Paul: (you/go) ________________ surfing?
Kim: Yes, and sailing!
Paul: Fantastic. How (you/get) ________________
there?
Kim: I (drive) ________________.
Paul: What time (you/leave) ________________?
Kim: About nine oclock.
Paul: It (take) ________________ ages to drive there.
Do you really want to spend all of Saturday in a car?
Kim: No, I dont. Youre right. I (not drive)
________________. I (go) ________________ by train.

18.

Complete Ruths sentences about the


arrangements for a party tomorrow. Use the PRESENT
CONTINUOUS for future plans.
 Pete and I (finish) ________________ school at 4
oclock.
 Pete (go) ________________to the supermarket at
half past four.
 I (tidy) ________________ the house at five oclock.
 We (not make) ________________ sandwiches, we
(buy) ________________ some cakes.
 I (have) ________________ a shower at half past six.
 Our friends (not come) ________________ by car.
They (catch) ________________ the bus. So they
(arrive) ________________ at seven oclock.
 They (go) ________________ back home by bus,
too.

19. Match sentences 1-6 with a-f to make conversations. Then complete the sentences (a-f) using WILL or GOING
TO and the verbs in brackets.
1. Why are you switching on the television?
2. Im terrible sorry. There isnt any more children.
3. Ive decided to decorate my bedroom this
weekend.
4. Oh, no! I havent got enough money to pay for
these drinks.
5. Ive decided not to go to university after school.
6. I cant tell you! I promised Kathy.

a) Oh, then I (have) ________________ the fish.


b) Oh, go on! I (not tell) ________________ anyone.
c) Dont worry. I (lend) ________________ you some
money.
d) I (watch) ______________ my favourite soap opera.
e) What colour (you/paint) ________________ the
walls?
f) Really? What (you/do) ________________ instead?

20. FIRST CONDITIONAL. Complete the sentences.

21. Write FIRST CONDITIONAL sentences.

1. If the computer game (be) ________________ too


expensive, I (not buy) ________________ it.
2. If you (give) ________________ me 5, I (go)
________________ to the shops for you.
3. We (make) ________________ dinner if you (do)
________________ the washing up.
4. Mum says that if I (not tidy) ________________ my
bedroom, she (not lend) ________________ me
the car.
5. They (miss) ________________ the film if they
(not leave) ________________ now.

If / it / stop / raining / we / climb / that / mountain.

If / John / score / a goal / they / win / the / match.

I / not / wait / for you / if / you / be / late.

If / Kate / not come / to the party / Mark / not be happy.

They / have / a great time / if / they / go / to New York.

22. Match the IMPERATIVES (1-6) with the situations


(a-f):

23. Complete the sentences with the IMPERATIVES:

1: __ / 2: __ / 3: __ / 4: __ / 5: __ / 6: __

1. Dont be late!
2. Be quiet!
3. Dont play with the
tiger!
4. Write to James.
5. Take your umbrella.
6. Wear your scarf.

a) Hes your penfriend.


b) Its raining.
c) The match is at 6.00
pm.
d) I cant hear the Cd.
e) Its cold outside.
f) It bites!

24.

Complete the sentences with the PRESENT


PERFECT SIMPLE form.

Be quiet / Do / Dont be / Take / Dont watch


1. ______________ Tv. ___________ your homework.
2. ______________. I cant hear the music.
3. ______________ late. The bus leaves at 8 oclock.
4. ______________ your umbrella. Its raining.

26.

Complete the sentences with the PRESENT


PERFECT SIMPLE form.

1. Look! That man (steal) ______________ your bag!

Arrive / buy / not do / eat / finish


go / invite / not score / see / tidy

2. The teacher is angry because they (not study)


______________ for their exam.
3. Pete (buy) ______________ four shirts from that
shop.
4. Dan (not tell) ______________ many people his
news.
5. Im hungry. I (not eat) ______________ anything
today.
6. I (go) ______________ out every night this week!
7. Youre late! We (miss) ______________ the start
of the film.

1. Can I have a look at your magazine, please? Yes,


_______________ with it.
2. Youre

so

lazy!

You

_______________

any

housework today. Yes, I have. I _______________


my bedroom.
3. Do you want to listen to my new Cd? Thats the
fourth Cd you _______________ this week.
4. I _______________ Paul to my party tonight. He
_______________. Hes in the kitchen.
5. Are you hungry? No, I _______________ two pizzas
and a hamburger this evening.

25. Write the sentences with the PRESENT PERFECT


SIMPLE form of the verbs.
() Tom / tidy his bedroom.

() Sue / finish her homework.

(?) Sam / buy present for Dave.

() Tom / watch film.

() I / make dinner.

(?) He / score a goal.

6. __________ you ____________ Nicola? Not for a


while. I think she _______________ out.
7. Why is the coach angry with the football team?
Because they _______________ any goals this
season.

ADVERBS
In English we can make adjectives into adverbs by adding ly. This is the general rule. Sometimes
we must do some changes in the adjectives before adding ly. This case follows the general rule, too.
But there are also some adjectives which do not need to add ly to change into adverbs, so they dont
follow the general rule. And there are also some cases where you can use other words like nouns or
verbs, for instance, to change them into adverbs by adding ly.
Now try to make adverbs from these adjectives in the lists below.
1. Write the adverb.
stupid
incredible
careful
bad
variable

beautiful

fast

dear
ready
rough
soft
poor

2. Write the adverb.


wrong
probable
wonderful

fast
cold
sincere

real
loud
great

poor
nice
comfortable

3. Write the adverb.


bold
possible
honest
rude

large
brave
dim
hard

simple
proud
high
kind

complete
wide
incontrollable
gracious

warm
open
gentle

fluent
*day
attractive

strange
recent
frequent

fond
dangerous
quick
elegant

insistent
public
courageous
close

late
hopeful
amazing
deliberate

feeble

cold
ready
*month
soft
sensible

comical

4. Write the adverb.


short
angry
*year
peaceful
slow
strange
polite

5. Write the adverb.


former
intelligent
careful
*love
terrible

quick
busy

calm
rich

noisy

early
rich

gentle

wise
proper
good
pretty

*friend
probable
*week
pretty

Why are there some words written in bold?


Because they are .. adverbs, they dont follow the general rule.

Why is there an asterisk next to some words?


Because they arent , theyre ..

Fast, hard, late, early, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly are adjectives and adverbs.
Hes got a fast car.
He drives fast. Its a hard work.
She works hard.
Its a weekly paper.
I buy it weekly. I got an early flight.
I went home early.
The bus was late.
Buses are running late today.
Hardly and lately have different meanings from hard and late.
Hardly = almost not
lately = recently, not long ago
He hardly works these days maybe one day a week.
Have you heard from John lately?
Well can be an adjective (the opposite of ill) or an adverb (the opposite of badly)
How are you? Very well, thank you.
The team are playing well.
Friendly, lonely, lovely, silly are adjectives, not adverbs.
She gave me a friendly smile. (BUT NOT She smiled friendly)
He was very lonely. (BUT NOT He walked lonely through the streets)
Her voice is lovely. (BUT NOT She sings lovely)
Dont be silly.
There are no adverbs friendlily, lovelily etc. Instead, we use other words or expressions.
She spoke in a friendly way.
She sings beautifully.

Fast, hard, late, early, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly are adjectives and adverbs.
Hes got a fast car.
Its a weekly paper.
The bus was late.

He drives fast. Its a hard work.


I buy it weekly. I got an early flight.
Buses are running late today.

She works hard.


I went home early.

Hardly and lately have different meanings from hard and late.
Hardly = almost not
lately = recently, not long ago
He hardly works these days maybe one day a week.
Have you heard from John lately?
Well can be an adjective (the opposite of ill) or an adverb (the opposite of badly)
How are you? Very well, thank you.
The team are playing well.
Friendly, lonely, lovely, silly are adjectives, not adverbs.
She gave me a friendly smile. (BUT NOT She smiled friendly)
He was very lonely. (BUT NOT He walked lonely through the streets)
Her voice is lovely. (BUT NOT She sings lovely)
Dont be silly.
There are no adverbs friendlily, lovelily etc. Instead, we use other words or expressions.
She spoke in a friendly way.
She sings beautifully.

DIRECT SPEECH
Simple Present
I never eat meat, he explained.
Present Continuous
Im waiting for Ann, he said.
Present Perfect
I have found a flat, he said.
Present Perfect Continuous
He said, Ive been waiting for ages.
Simple Past
I took it home with me, she said.
Future
He said, I will/shall be in Paris on Monday.
Future Continuous
I will/shall be using the car myself on the 24h,
she said.
Conditional
I said, I would like to see it.

INDIRECT SPEECH
Simple Past
= He explained (that) he never ate meat.
Past Continuous
= He said (that) he was waiting for Ann.
Past Perfect
= He said (that) he had found a flat.
Past Perfect Continuous
= He said (that) he had been waiting for ages.
Past Perfect
= She said (that) he had taken it home with her.
Conditional
= He said (that) he would be in Paris on Monday.
Conditional Continuous
= She said (that) shed been using the car herself
on the 24th.
Conditional
= I said (that) I would like to see it.

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE IN INDIRECT SPEECH


A. Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows:
DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
today
that day
yesterday
the day before
the day before yesterday
two days before
tomorrow
the next day/the following
day
the day after tomorrow
in two days time
next week/year etc.
the following week/year
etc.
last week/year etc.
the previous week/year etc.
a year etc. ago
a year before/the previous
year
I saw her the day before yesterday, he said. He said hed seen her two days before.
Ill do it tomorrow, he promised. He promised that he would do it the next day.
She said, My father died a year ago. She said that her father had died a year
before/the previous year.

En ingls los adverbios de modo derivan en su gran mayora de adjetivos con el sufijo
-ly (quiet -quietly; slow slowly; quick quickly, bad- badly). A nivel sintctico este
tipo de adverbios dependen del predicado de la frase y suelen situarse despus del verbo
principal.
He drives quickly.
Existen tambin algunos adverbios de modo que no llevan la terminacin -ly (fast
(rpido); hard (duro)). En estos casos, la posicin junto al predicado de la frase nos
ayudar a distinguirlos de los adjetivos, que tienen una forma similar y que acompaan
a un nombre o al verbo TO BE:
He drives fast. vs. He is a fast driver.
He works hard. vs. This is a hard exercise.
Observaciones:

Cuando el adjetivo acaba en y, la y se sustituye por i delante de la


terminacin -ly:

easy easily; happy happily.

El adverbio de modo correspondiente al adjetivo good es well:

I speak English well.

Algunos adjetivos llevan la terminacin -ly: lively, lovely, friendly. En estos


casos, para expresar el modo, necesitamos una construccin adverbial de tipo in
a lively / friendly / lovely way:

She always speaks to them in a lively / friendly / lovely way.

Existe el adverbio de manera hardly, pero su significado es completamente


diferente al de hard:

He works hard. (Trabaja duro) vs. He hardly works. (A penas trabaja)

Despus de los verbos smell, taste, feel, look se utilizan adjetivos :

This smells / tastes / feels / looks good

IRREGULAR ENGLISH VERBS


Las Reglas: 1) Muchos verbos tienen ms de un significado, y la lista no abarca todos. 2) La
pronunciacin es muy importante y tiene que aprenderse. 3) Memorizar vocabulario es bueno.
4) Hay muchos verbos irregulares que no estn en la lista. La mayora no son necesarios.
Infinitive

Past Simple

Past Participle

Spanish

be

was / were

been

ser, estar

become

became

become

convertirse en, hacerse

begin

began

begun

empezar, comenzar

bite

bit

bitten

morder

blow

blew

blown

soplar

break

broke

broken

romper

bring

brought

brought

llevar, traer

build

built

built

construir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

can

could

been able

poder

catch

caught

caught

coger, atrapar, tomar

choose

chose

chosen

elegir, escoger

come

came

come

venir

cost

cost

cost

costar

cut

cut

cut

cortar

do

did

done

hacer

draw

drew

drawn

dibujar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

drive

drove

driven

conducir

eat

ate

eaten

comer

fall

fell

fallen

caer

feel

felt

felt

sentir

fight

fought

fought

pelear, luchar

find

found

found

encontrar

fly

flew

flown

volar

Imprime, comparte, y disfruta de la vida!

Hecho por Daniel Welsch. En la web: http://madridingles.es

Infinitive

Past Simple

Past Participle

Spanish

forget

forgot

forgotten

olvidarse

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdonar

freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

get

got

got / gotten

recibir, conseguir, llegar, etc

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

ir

grow

grew

grown

crecer

hang

hung

hung

colgar

have

had

had

tener

hide

hid

hidden

esconder

hit

hit

hit

pegar, golpear

hold

held

held

sostener

hurt

hurt

hurt

hacer dao

keep

kept

kept

guardar, continuar

know

knew

known

conocer, saber

lead

led

led

liderar, guiar, conducir

leave

left

left

irse, dejar

lend

lent

lent

dejar prestado

let

let

let

permitir, alquilar

lose

lost

lost

perder

make

made

made

hacer

mean

meant

meant

significar, querer decir

meet

met

met

conocer, reunirse, encontrarse

pay

paid

paid

pagar

put

put

put

poner, colocar

read /ri:d/

read /red/

read /red/

leer

ride

rode

ridden

montar (en transporte)

ring

rang

rung

llamar, sonar

Imprime, comparte, y disfruta de la vida!

Hecho por Daniel Welsch. En la web: http://madridingles.es

Infinitive

Past Simple

Past Participle

Spanish

rise

rose

risen

levantarse, alzarse, subir

run

ran

run

correr

say

said

said

decir, contar

see

saw

seen

ver

sell

sold

sold

vender

send

sent

sent

enviar, remitir

set

set

set

poner, colocar

show

showed

shown

mostrar, ensear

shut

shut

shut

cerrar

sing

sang

sung

cantar

sink

sank

sunk

hundirse

sit

sat

sat

sentarse

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

speak

spoke

spoken

hablar

spend

spent

spent

gastar dinero, pasar tiempo

steal

stole

stolen

robar

swim

swam

swum

nadar

take

took

taken

tomar, llevar

teach

taught

taught

ensear

tell

told

told

decir, contar

think

thought

thought

pensar

throw

threw

thrown

lanzar, tirar, arrojar

understand

understood

understood

entender, comprender

wake

woke

woken

despertarse

wear

wore

worn

llevar puesto

win

won

won

ganar

write

wrote

written

escribir

Imprime, comparte, y disfruta de la vida!

Hecho por Daniel Welsch. En la web: http://madridingles.es

Presente Simple
* El presente simple se utiliza para describir hbitos y referimos a cosas que hacemos
con regularidad.
He gets up at 7 oclock every day.
* Las frases en presente simple a menudo incluyen adverbios de frecuencia.
I usually play football on Fridays.

Presente continuo
* Utilizamos el presente continuo para describir acciones que estn sucediendo mientras
hablamos

Ejercicios
Presente simple o presente continuo?
1. Mara ____________ (work) for a TV station.
2. At the moment she ____________ (travel) in the Sahara Desert.
3. Dan ____________ (love) wild animals.
4. He ____________ (not visit) Alaska at the moment.
5. Marta ____________ (not live) in Africa.
6. She ____________ (stay) in Africa at the moment.
7. Dad usually ____________ (cook) dinner.
8. My parents ____________ (go) to Italy every year.
9. My sister ____________ (walk) to school every day.
10. We ____________ (have) lunch now.
11. I never ____________ (stay in) on Saturday evening.
12. I ____________ (go) to the cinema now.
13. My mum ____________ (not work) today.
14. Peter ____________ (not like) rap music.

15. He ____________ (listen) to pop music at the moment.


16. Donna usually ____________ (go) shopping on Saturdays.
17. Lets go out. It ____________ (not rain) now.
18. Hurry up! Everybody ____________ (wait) for you!
19. The sun ____________ (rise) in the east.
20. Water ____________ (boil) at 100 degrees.
21. The water ____________ (boil). Can you turn it off?
22. I must go now. It ____________ (get) late.
23. I usually ____________ (go) to work by car.
24. It ____________ (not rain) very much in the summer.
25. The moon ____________ (go) round the earth.

Presente simple o presente continuo?


1. Who is that man? What _____________ he _____________ (want)?
2. Who is that man? Why _____________ he _____________ (look) at us?
3. _____________ you _________ (believe) in God?
4. Gilbert says he is 80, but nobody _____________ (believe) him.
5. Every Monday Maite _____________ (drive) her kids to football practice.
6. Be quiet. Arturo _____________ (sleep).
7. Dont forget to take your umbrella. It _____________ (rain).
8. I dont like living in England. It always _____________ (rain).
9. Look!. It _____________ (snow). We are going to have a white Christmas.
10. Maila _____________ (watch) TV every morning.
11. I have to go now. It _____________ (get) dark
12. Right now I _____________ (spend) time with my father.
13.We usually _____________ (go) to the gym on Mondays.
14. She _____________ (talk) to Pete at the moment.

15. He _____________ (look) good in jeans.


16. She _____________ (wear) a dress today.
17. We _____________ (drive) on the left in England.
18. I _____________ (not want) to go to the Cinema.
19. We _____________ (go) dancing every weekend.
20. I _____________ (take) a pill every day.
21. He _____________ (speak) Dutch and Italian.
22. We always _____________ (stay) at the Village.
23. I _____________ (need) to see the doctor.
24. Ray _____________ (drink) very much coffee.
25. I _____________ (not feel) very well.

Presente simple o presente continuo?


1. I __________ (play) cricket right now.
2. I __________ (play) cricket on Saturdays.
3. Silvia __________ (cook) in the kitchen now.
4. Silvia __________ (cook) for her father on Sundays.
5. Maila __________ (like) Chinese food.
6. Keep silent, Manolo __________ (read) a book.
7. Erik __________ (love) Mara.
8. Ann __________ (jog) in the park today.
9. George __________ (want) to go outside.
10. Barbara __________ (eat) chicken wings at the moment.
11. What __________ you __________ (do)? Im sleeping.
12. How many languages __________ you __________ (speak)?
13. I __________ (not like) politics.
14. What __________ you __________ (do) at the moment?

15. Where __________ you __________ (live)?


16. I __________ (want) to be a millionaire.
17. Nacho __________ (not wear) a tie today.
18. Jesus is in Amsterdam this week. He __________ (stay) at the Hilton.
19. Look! Miguel __________ (jump) into the water.
20. Lili is rich, she __________ (drive) a Mercedes.
21. Once a week, I __________ (go) to my yoga lessons.
22. I __________ (think) youre amazing.
23. Bea sometimes __________ (read) comics.
24. We never __________ (watch) TV in the morning.
25. Listen! Blanca __________ (sing) in the bathroom.

Presente simple o presente continuo?


1. Look! The boys __________ (come) home.
2. Every day Ayla __________ (go) for a walk.
3. Sofa usually __________ (help) in the kitchen.
4. Bob __________ (make) breakfast now.
5. I __________ (chat) with my sister at the moment.
6. It never __________ (rain) in Valencia.
7. Dont bother me now. I __________ (work).
8. They _____________ (swim) at the moment.
9. I _____________ (play) chess with my friend.
10. Look! He __________ (leave) the house.
11. Quiet please! I __________ (write) a letter.
12. I __________ (not do) anything at the moment.
13. __________ he __________ (watch) the news regularly.
14. I __________ (work) as an accountant.
15. Eli __________ (work) eight hours a day.

16. I __________ (know) him very well.


17. My wife __________ (have) coffee at the moment.
18. __________ you __________ (meet) your friend now?
19. Sandra __________ (work) on her project at the moment.
20. __________ Milie __________ (work) in a restaurant?
21. He __________ (wear) a T-shirt and shorts today.
22. Carlos __________ (like) fruits and vegetables.
23. Cristina __________ (have) long blond hair.
24. Whats that noise? Someone __________ (play) the piano.
25. She often __________ (talk) to herself.

(1) The Simple Past Tense. Regular verbs.


Notice the different pronunciation of ed in this list of regular verbs:
1. ed pronounced as d

2. ed pronounced as t

3. ed pronounced as id

clean
climb
listen to
live
open
play
show
stay
turn

ask
finish
help
jump
like
look
walk
wash
watch

count
mend
wait
want
start
explode
decide
divide
melt

cleaned
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

asked
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

counted
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................

Notice the spelling and pronounciation of the Simple Past of these regular verbs:
tidy
carry
marry
worry
try
fry
cry
dry

tidied
carried
married
worried
tried
fried
cried
dried

rob
stop
chop
clap
plan
prefer
travel
admit

d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d

robbed
stopped
chopped
clapped
planned
preferred
travelled
admitted

d
t
t
t
d
d
d
id (permit, transmit, submit)

**Practice exercise: Choose the right verb, make the simple past, and fill the spaces in the following sentences:

A)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
B)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
C
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

walk

cry

play

wash

stay

open

I ____________________ my fathers car this morning.


It was very hot yesterday and we _____________________ all the windows of the house.
The little child was ill and ____________________ all night long.
My sister was in London yesterday and _________________ at a friends home.
The children ____________________ a basketball match last Sunday.
Paul usually goes to school by bus, but yesterday he _____________________.
live

clean

want

borrow

finish

help

The girl ______________________ her homework very late at night.


Frank stayed at home and ____________________ his mother to do the washing-up.
I ___________________ the blackboard of my classroom.
Janes mother ______________________ in Nairobi until 1985.
When I was five years old I ____________________ a bicycle for holidays.
My father _____________________ this adventure novel from the local library.
ask

carry

count

listen to

look

wait

The woman opened her purse and _____________________ her money.


The pupils ___________________ a long time for the bus this morning.
The little boy was tired, so his father _____________________ him on his shoulders.
We ___________________ some music on my new CD player.
The lesson was easy, but some pupils _______________________ a lot of questions.
The teacher opened his notebook and ________________________ at the list of pupils.

(2) The Simple Past Tense. Irregular verbs.


1
begin
drink
run
sing
ring
sit
swim

2
bring
buy
catch
see
teach
think
wear

began
drank
ran
sang
rang
sat
swam

brought
bought
caught
saw
taught
thought
wore

3
break
drive
ride
sell
speak
tell
write

broke
drove
rode
sold
spoke
told
wrote

**Complete with a verb in the simple past from the lists above:

1) The cat ____________________ a mouse in the cellar.


2) The exam _______________________ twenty minutes ago.
3) Jack ________________________ a thank you letter to the organisation.
4) It was Marys birthday yesterday and she _____________________ new dress.
5) I was very thirsty and _______________________ three glasses of water.
6) The policeman saw a thief and __________________ after him.
7) The man sold his old car in 1992 and _______________________ a new one.
8) Shakespeare __________________________ many plays very famous today.
9) A different teacher _______________________ us English last year.
10) The girl jumped into the river and ______________________ towards the opposite shore.
4
eat
fall
feel
meet
sleep
send
spend

5
come
give
make
forgive

ate
fell
felt
met
slept
sent
spent

came
gave
made
forgave

6
blow
draw
fly
know
throw

blew
drew
flew
knew
threw

** Complete with a verb in the simple past from the lists above:

1) He was very tired and _________________________ for nine hours last night.
2) The boy _____________________ a stone and broke the window glass.
3) Jacks father _______________________ him a watch for his birthday.
4) She wrote a letter to her brother in Belgium and _______________________ it by e-mail.
5) The children were very hungry and ______________________ all the cakes.
6) The teacher ______________________ a picture on the blackboard yesterday.
7) He opened the door and ___________________ into the room.
8) The old man _______________________ down in the street and broke his leg.
9) Susan _____________________ ill, so she stayed in bed all day.
10) The cat climbed the tree, but the bird _______________ to the top branches.
7
stand stood
take took
shake shook

8
get
got
forget forgot

9
build built
burn burnt
learn learnt

10 ( = )
cost cost
cut
cut
hit
hit
let
let
put
put
shut shut
hurt hurt

11 ( )
be
was/were
do
did
go
went
have had

** Complete with a verb from the list above:

1) The teacher came into the classroom and the pupils ______________ up.
2) My friend and I _____________________ to the cinema last Friday.
3) Jane ___________________ a lot of homework yesterday evening.
4) He ______________________ on his hat and coat and went out.
5) It was cold last night, so I ___________________ the bedroom window.
6) The pupils ______________________ six new English words yesterday.
7) I ____________________ breakfast at six oclock this morning.
8) Jenny had an accident, so her mother ______________________ her to the hospital.
9) The little girl fell down and _____________________ her knee.
10) The old woman ____________________________ a letter yesterday from her son in Africa.

(3) The Simple Past Tense. Negative form.


did not + infinitive o

didnt + infinitive

I did not play football last week.

I didnt play football last week.

**Practice exercises. Complete the following group of sentences like in the examples below:

Peter bought the newspaper, but he didnt buy the stamps.


The pupil ran to school this morning, but he
didnt run
home.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

I opened the door, but I ____________________________ the window.


The teacher counted the pencils, but he ____________________________ the rulers.
The bus ____________________________, but the car ____________________ stop.
My mother bought oranges, but she ____________________________ apples.
Jack ________________ a coat yesterday, but he_________________ wear a hat.
The pupils wrote the questions, but they ____________________________ the answers.
Lucy felt ill at the party last night, but she ____________________________ ill this morning.
Jack brought his books to school, but he ____________________________ his notebooks.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

The school carpenter made this cupboard, but he ____________________________ the desks.
The teacher walked to school, but he ____________________________ back home.
I _____________ Tom yesterday, but he ________________ see me.
The dog bit my leg, but it ____________________________ my hand.
Susies father went to London yesterday, but Susie _________________________ with him.
Tom finished his homework, but his friend ____________________________ it.
Our teacher ________________ teach us English last year, but he ___________________ us Spanish.
All the pupils came to school yesterday, but the teacher ____________________________.

(4) The Simple Past Tense. Interrogative form.


Did + subject + infinitive
Did you play football last week? No, I didnt.
Did you study the English lesson? Yes, I did.

**Practice exercises. Write the questions for these answers. Look at the two examples below:

Did you wash your hands this before dinner?


Yes, I washed my hands before dinner.

Did Mary wear her new dress yesterday?


No, Mary didnt wear her new dress yesterday.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

Yes, Mary helped her mother yesterday.


No, the baby did not cry last night.
Yes, the thief jumped out of the window.
Yes, I saw my friends yesterday.
No, the boy didnt break the plate.
Yes, Sally sold her old bicycle last month.
Yes, I woke up early this morning.
No, the pupils did not do all the activities.

Yes, it rained yesterday.


No, Mary did not come to the party.
Yes, the girls visited her grandparents.
Yes, I threw away my old shoes.
No, Susie did not lose her watch.
No, I didnt read the newspaper last Sunday.
Yes, the teacher asked a lot of questions.
Yes, they went to the cinema on Saturday.

(5) The Simple Past Tense. Interrogative form. Wh- questions.


Wh- + did + subject + infinitive
When did you go to the theatre? Last Sunday evening. (WHEN asks questions about the TIME)
Where did she meet her friend? In the school library. (WHERE asks questions about the PLACE)
**Practice exercises. Make questions about the place using WHEN

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

The doctor finished his work at ten oclock.


The man wrote a letter to his son yesterday.
Jenny went to America two years ago.
Pauls father bought the house in 1988.
The lesson began ten minutes ago.
I tidied my room yesterday afternoon.
She brought the food after her dance lessons.
The concert started at midnight.

**Practice exercises. Make questions about the time using WHERE

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

The bus stopped at the corner of the street.


The pupils played in the playground.
I slept last night in a hotel.
The old woman fell down in the street.
The teacher put the books in the shelf.
I waited outside the supermarket.
They slept in the beach under the stars.
Frank lived in Scotland with his grandparents.

At, in, on Time prepositions

1. Complete with at, in, on.


1. ...... night

6. ...... the evening

11. ...... 1996

2. ...... Christmas Day

7. ...... Tuesday

12. ...... the 15th century

3. ...... 17.30

8. ...... 8th June

13. ......the end of my course

4. ...... May

9. ...... weekends

14. ...... the morning

5. ...... summer

10....... Tuesday afternoon

15. ...... half past two

2. Write at, in, on or /.


1. We often go on holiday ...... summer.
2. I saw Brenda ...... last week.
3. Do you want to go to the cinema ...... the weekend?
4. James isnt here ...... the moment.
5. Are you coming ...... Tuesday morning?
6. See you ...... next Friday!
7. Im almost ready. We can go out ...... 10 minutes.
8. The film starts ...... 7.30.
9. The factory opened ...... 2002.
10. We live ...... the 21st century.
11. Her birthday is ...... 22nd May.
12. Sally met her boyfriend ...... last summer.
13. We have lunch ...... midday.
14. Theyre coming ...... the afternoon.
15. His friends got married ...... New Years Eve.
3. If the preposition is wrong, write the correct one in the blank. If its correct, write ok.
1. My birthday is in 23rd May.

......

2. The train leaves in 10 minutes.

......

3. It doesnt rain much on winter.

......

4. The film starts at 10 oclock.

......

5. The plane arrives at Tuesday.

......

6. We have lessons on Monday morning. ......


7. In Christmas Day the shops close.

......

8. I play tennis in the weekend.

......

Answers

Exercise 1:
1. at night

6. in the evening

11. in 1996

2. on Christmas Day

7. on Tuesday

12. in the 15th century

3. at 17.30

8. on 8th June

13. at the end of my course

4. in May

9. at weekends

14. in the morning

5. in summer

10.on Tuesday afternoon

15. at half past two

Exercise 2:
1. We often go on holiday in summer.
2. I saw Brenda last week.
3. Do you want to go to the cinema at the weekend?
4. James isnt here at the moment.
5. Are you coming on Tuesday morning?
6. See you next Friday!
7. Im almost ready. We can go out in 10 minutes.
8. The film starts at 7.30.
9. The factory opened in 2002.
10. We live in the 21st century.
11. Her birthday is on 22nd May.
12. Sally met her boyfriend last summer.
13. We have lunch at midday.
14. Theyre coming in the afternoon.
15. His friends got married on New Years Eve.
Exercise 3:
1. On
2. Ok
3. In
4. Ok
5. On
6. Ok
7. On
8. At

Presente simple
Afirmativa
I live
You live
He lives
She lives
It lives
We live
You live
They live

Negativa
I don't live
You don't live
He doesn't live
She doesn't live
It doesn't live
We don't live
You don't live
They don't live

Interrogativa
Do I live?
Do you live?
Does he live?
Does she live?
Does it live?
Do we live?
Do you live?
Do they live?

Presente continuo
Afirmativa
I am living
You are living
He is living
She is living
It is living
We are living
You are living
They are living

Negativa
I am not living
You are not living
He is not living
She is not living
It is not living
We are not living
You are not living
They are not living

Interrogativa
Am I living?
Are you living?
Is he living?
Is she living?
Is it living?
Are we living?
Are you living?
Are they living?

Pasado simple
Afirmativa
I lived
You lived
He lived
She lived
It lived
We lived
You lived
They lived

Negativa
I didn't live
You didn't live
He didn't live
She didn't live
It didn't live
We didn't live
You didn't live
They didn't live

Interrogativa
Did I live?
Did you live?
Did he live?
Did she live?
Did it live?
Did we live?
Did you live?
Did they live?

Pasado continuo
Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I was living

I was not living

Was I living?

You were living

You were not living

Were you living?

He was living

He was not living

Was he living?

She was living

She was not living

Was she living?

It was living

It was not living

Was it living?

We were living

We were not living

Were we living?

You were living

You were not living

Were you living?

They were living

They were not living

Were they living?

Presente perfecto
Afirmativa
I have lived
You have lived
He has lived
She has lived
It has lived
We have lived
You have lived
They have lived

Negativa
I haven't lived
You haven't lived
He hasn't lived
She hasn't lived
It hasn't lived
We haven't lived
You haven't lived
They haven't lived

Interrogativa
Have I lived?
Have you lived?
Has he lived?
Has she lived?
Has it lived?
Have we lived?
Have you lived?
Have they lived?

Presente perfecto continuo


Afirmativa
I have been living
You have been living
He has been living
She has been living
It has been living
We have been living
You have been living
They have been living

Negativa
I have not been living
You have not been living
He has not been living
She has not been living
It has not been living
We have not been living
You have not been living
They have not been living

Interrogativa
Have I been living?
Have you been living?
Has he been living?
Has she been living?
Has it been living?
Have we been living?
Have you been living?
Have they been living?

Pasado perfecto
Afirmativa
I had lived
You had lived
He had lived
She had lived
It had lived
We had lived
You had lived
They had lived

Negativa
I had not lived
You had not lived
He had not lived
She had not lived
It had not lived
We had not lived
You had not lived
They had not lived

Interrogativa
Had I lived?
Had you lived?
Had he lived?
Had she lived?
Had it lived?
Had we lived?
Had you lived?
Had they lived?

Pasado perfecto continuo


Afirmativa
I had been living
You had been living
He had been living
She had been living
It had been living
We had been living
You had been living
They had been living

Negativa
I had not been living
You had not been living
He had not been living
She had not been living
It had not been living
We had not been living
You had not been living
They had not been living

Interrogativa
Had I been living?
Had you been living?
Had he been living?
Had she been living?
Had it been living?
Had we been living?
Had you been living?
Had they been living?

Futuro simple
Afirmativa
I will live
You will live

Negativa
I will not live
You will not live

Interrogativa
Will I live?
Will you live?

He will live
She will live
It will live
We will live
You will live
They will live

He will not live


She will not live
It will not live
We will not live
You will not live
They will not live

Will he live?
Will she live?
Will it live?
Will we live?
Will you live?
Will they live?

Futuro continuo
Afirmativa
I will be living
You will be living
He will be living
She will be living
It will be living
We will be living
You will be living
They will be living

Negativa
I will not be living
You will not be living
He will not be living
She will not be living
It will not be living
We will not be living
You will not be living
They will not be living

Interrogativa
Will I be living?
Will you be living?
Will he be living?
Will she be living?
Will it be living?
Will we be living?
Will you be living?
Will they be living?

Futuro Perfecto
Afirmativa
I will have lived
You will have lived
He will have lived
She will have lived
It will have lived
We will have lived
You will have lived
They will have lived

Negativa
I will not have lived
You will not have lived
He will not have lived
She will not have lived
It will not have lived
We will not have lived
You will not have lived
They will not have lived

Interrogativa
Will I have lived?
Will you have lived?
Will he have lived?
Will she have lived?
Will it have lived?
Will we have lived?
Will you have lived?
Will they have lived?

Condicional simple
Afirmativa
I would live
You would live
He would live
She would live
It would live
We would live
You would live
They would live

Negativa
I would not live
You would not live
He would not live
She would not live
It would not live
We would not live
You would not live
They would not live

Interrogativa
Would I live?
Would you live?
Would he live?
Would she live?
Would it live?
Would we live?
Would you live?
Would they live?

Condicional continuo
Afirmativa
I would be living
You would be libing
He would be living
She would be living
It would be living
We would be living
You would be living
They would be living

Negativa
I would not be living
You would not be living
He would not be living
She would not be living
It would not be living
We wouldn not be living
You would not be living
They would not be living

Interrogativa
Would I be living?
Would you be living?
Would he be living?
Would she be living?
Would it be living?
Would we be living?
Would you be living?
Would they be living?

Condicional perfecto
Afirmativa
I would have lived
You would have lived
He would have lived
She would have lived
It would have lived
We would have lived
You would have lived
They would have lived

Negativa
I would not have lived
You would not have lived
He would not have lived
She would not have lived
It would not have lived
We would not have lived
You would not have lived
They would not have lived

Interrogativa
Would I have lived?
Would you have lived?
Would he have lived?
Would she have lived?
Would it have lived?
Would we have lived?
Would you have lived?
Would they have lived?

TOO, TOO MUCH, TOO MANY, ENOUGH, NOT


ENOUGH
TOO: demasiado. Siempre va delante de adjetivos y/o adverbios.
Ejemplo: It's too cold today: Hoy hace demasiado calor.
TOO MUCH: demasiado/demasiada. Utilizamos esta forma delante de
nombres en SINGULAR.
Ejemplo: There is too much cheese in the fridge: Hay demasiado queso en el
frigorfico. There is too much snow in the street: Hay demasiada nieve en la
calle.
TOO MANY: demasiados/demasiadas. Se utiliza siempre delante de nombres
en PLURAL.
Ejemplo: There are too many chairs in the room: hay demasiadas sillas en la
habitacin. Don't eat too many sweets: No comas demasiados caramelos.
ENOUGH: suficiente/suficientemente. Este adverbio se coloca de diferente
manera dependiendo de si estamos hablando de un nombre o de un adjetivo.
Por lo tanto, lo colocaremos DELANTE de los nombres y DETRS de los
adjetivos.
Ejemplo: The man isn't strong enough: El hombre no es lo suficientemente
fuerte. Have you bought enough beer? Has comprado suficiente cerveza?
.- Write in the blanks too, too much, too many. Escribe en los huecos
too, too much, too many.
- The baby is drinking __________ water.
- Summer in the South of Spain is ________ hot.
- I have done __________ exercises.
- This is a very rich woman, she has got ___________ houses.
- I'm going to bed right now, I'm _________ tired.
- You mustn't say that this job is _______ easy.
- There are _________ cars here.
2.- Rewrite each sentence using the adverb "enough". Escribe de nuevo
cada frase utilizando el adverbio "enough".
- It isn't hot to go to the swimming-pool.>
- You are intelligent to pass the exam. >
- Your friend Lucy is beautiful to be a model. >
- I don't have paper to write a long letter. >
- Please, buy milk for all of us. >
- She hasn't got money to buy a new house. >
- You don't speak loud so I can't hear you. >

1. PRETRITO PERFECTO (PRESENT PERFECT)


El Present Perfect corresponde a grandes rasgos al pretrito perfecto compuesto del espaol, pero la
equivalencia no es exacta, ya que el espaol usa mucho el pretrito perfecto para acciones pasadas
donde el ingls usara el Past Simple (pretrito prefecto simple espaol):
Lo has visto? se traduce al ingls, normalmente, por Did you see him? (Past Simple). Solamente
se traduce Have you seen him? (Present Perfect) si la accin ha transcurrido hace muy poco tiempo
y tiene una vivencia actual, pues el Present Perfect va casi siempre asociado a la idea del presente,
del ahora.
2. FORMACIN
El Present Perfect se forma con el presente del verbo auxiliar to have y el participio pasivo del verbo
principal que, como ya sabemos, en los verbos regulares terminan siempre en ed; y en los
irregulares adopta distintas formas que debemos estudiar en una lista de los verbos irregulares ms
comunes.
Observa el present perfect de los verbos trabajar: work (regular) y escribir: write (irregular)
Forma afirmativa
Estructura: sujeto + have/has + participio pasivo del verbo principal.
I have worked / written
You have worked / written
He has worked
She has worked
It has worked
We have worked
You have worked
They have worked

He trabajado, escrito Ive worked / written


Has trbajado, escrito ... Youve worked / written
etc.
Hes worked
Shes worked
Its worked
Weve worked
Youve worked
Theyve worked

He trabajado, escrito
Has trabajado, escrito ...
etc.

Forma negativa
Estructura: sujeto + have/has + not + participio pasivo.
I have not worked / written
You have not worked
He has not worked
She has not worked
It has not worked
We have not worked
You have not worked
They have not worked

No he trabajado, escrito I havent worked / written


etc.
You havent worked
He hasnt worked
She hasnt worked
It hasnt worked
We havent worked
You havent worked
They havent worked

Forma interrogativa
Estructura: have/has + sujeto + participio pasivo.
Have I worked / written?
Have you worked?
Has he worked?
Has she worked?
Has it worked?
Have we worked?
Have you worked?
Have they worked?

He trabajado, escrito?
etc.

No he trabajado, escrito
etc.

Common structures using Present Perfect


*Present perfect with ever:
Have you ever been to England?
Has estado alguna vez en Inglaterra?

*Present perfect with never:


Ive never been to London
No he estado nunca en Londres

*Present perfect with just:


Ive just seen him
Acabo de verlo

*Present perfect with already:


Theyve have already left
Ya se han marchado. / Se han marchado ya.

*Present perfect with yet:


He hasnt arrived yet
Have you bought the book yet?

No ha llegado todava.
Has comprado el libro ya?

*Present perfect with since:


Ive lived in Sapin since 1988.

Vivo en Espaa desde 1988. / Llevo viviendo en Espaa desde...

*Present perfect with for:


Ive lived in Spain for twelve years.

Vivo en Espaa desde hace doce aos. / Llevo doce aos viviendo...

3. PRESENT PERFECT VS PAST SIMPLE


Past Simple:
This tense refers to a finished action and a finished period of time, no matter if it was long ago or recently.
Present Perfect:
(1) the action is finished, but the period of time is not finished, and the action (although it is finished)
is usually connected with the present in one way or other.
(2) the action is not finished nor is the period of time, because the action started in the past but it continues
in the present (it has not been interrupted)
I saw him this morning

Lo vi esta maana
(the morning is finished, im talking in the afternoon, evening)

Ive seen him this morning twice

Lo he visto esta maana dos veces


(the morning has not finished, I may see him more times)

His brother was a joker all his life

Su hermano fue un bromista toda su vida


(the brother is dead now, he was a joker when he was alive...)

His brother has been a joker all his life

Su hermano ha sido un bromista toda su vida


(the brother still lives, he continues being a joker...)

He lived in Oxford for five years

Vivi en Oxford durante cinco aos. / Viv 5 aos ...


(he doesnt live in Oxford anymore)

He has lived in Oxford for five years

Vive en Oxford desde hace cinco aos.


(and hes still living there: Lleva viviendo en Oxford...)

The Past Simple talks about finished actions and time, so it is normal to use time adverbs or time
expressions of finished time:
I saw him yesterday / two days ago / at 9 oclock, last Sunday, etc.
I studied a lot last week / for the last exam / this weekend, etc.
The Present Perfect, on the one hand, tells us that the action is finished but not the period of time, and
on the other hand, it shows that neither the action nor the period of time are finished. So, the present
perfect doesnt usually have a time expression, or they are adverbs and time expressions referring to an
indefinite time, never adverbs or time expressions referring to a finished time:

I havent read that novel

I havent seen that film yet

Ive worked very hard today

PRESENT PERFECT. Form and use.


A)

Finished actions
1

thinking about past and present together


Ive eaten a lot of sweets. I feel really sick.
Ive told Sallys parents everything about her new boyfriend. (So, they know now)
The teacher has got a cold, its the second time this month.

news
Another bomb has exploded in the city of Gaza this morning.
The President, Mr Shields, has met the foreign ambassadors to discuss the deal.
A group of ten students have chosen the best four pictures at the Picasso exhibition.

up to now: how much/many, how often


Ive failed two exams of English this term.
Her boyfriend has been to Paris three times.
The teacher has got a cold, its the second time this month.
How many glasses of coke have they drunk?
How much love have you found in your life?

up to now: things that havent happened; questions; ever and never


Oh, its half past six and our taxi hasnt arrived.
They havent proposed any other solution to my difficult situation.
Have you ever visited a big museum? Yes, Ive been to the Prado, the Louvre...
Has he ever had a girlfriend? No, I think he has never been in love with anyone.
Mrs Hutchinson has never travelled to a foreign country.

with the adverbs just, yet and already (and others)


I have just bought some new trousers for tomorrows party.
All my friends have already finished school, so I feel a bit lonely this year.
-Have you seen Charles?
-Yes, we have just had some talk, but you cant see him, hes already gone home.
Has the student done all the activities yet?
The teacher hasnt finished the dictation yet, so be quiet, please!
a. NOT with words for a finished time: yesterday, last week/ month/year, etc.
I met my cousin last month (NOT Ive met my cousin last month.)
The doctors gave me some new medicines and told me to come back in one week.
My grandfather lived in Germany for some years when he was young.

B)

Unfinished actions continuing up to now


(only with be, have, know and other non-progressive verbs**)
1

to say how long (often with since and for)


How long have you been friends?
Ive had my pet cats for seven years.
Weve known our English teacher since September. (NOT We know our English ...)
These pupils have known each other for many years.
Mr Kendall has been a Maths teacher since 1983.

(*) been / gone


(**) hate, know, like, love, mean, need, prefer, seem, understand, want

other common non-progressive verbs: agree, believe, depend, matter, mind, recognise, remember,
(Non-progressive verbs that can be progressive: think, see, live, look like, feel, wait, )
+ Finished actions
PAST SIMPLE. Form and use.
a. finished actions, no connection with the present
My father worked in a factory for ten years.
Pauls parents brought him a lot of presents from their trip.
I studied at university from 1992 to 1997.
We went to a restaurant with some old friends last Saturday.
b. with words for a finished time, like yesterday, in 1995, ago, then, when,
Our class visited the modern art museum last week.
I was at the primary school a long time ago.
I started learning English in 1999.
c. stories
A man walked into a caf and sat down at a table. The waiter asked him
Jane looked up at the sky and remembered the old days. Phil came to her mind
d. give or ask for details of news (time, place, etc)
The Spanish team have won the European Cup. The players celebrated their victory
Bill has had an accident. He fell off his bike yesterday while he was going to work.
The President has met the ambassadors. He received them in his office
Lisa and I have finally broken our engagement?
When did you break?
I have found this nice scarf at the new shopping centre. How much did you pay for it?
+ PRESENT PERFECT vs PAST SIMPLE: finished actions.
PRESENT PERFECT: WE THINK ABOUT THE PAST AND THE PRESENT TOGETHER.
finished action
present
information (yesterday) Ive phoned Paul about the exam, so he has time to prepare.
Paul knows now
mistake (last exam)
See, youve made a mistake. Pay more attention next time! Im showing you
new shirt (last week)
Look Ive bought this shirt for the wedding.
Do you like it?

PAST SIMPLE: WE THINK ONLY ABOUT THE PAST, NOT THE PRESENT.
I phoned Paul last Monday to tell him about the exam.
(Im thinking about last Monday)
I made a mistake in the exam, so I didnt pass it.
(Im talking about the day of the exam)
I bought a new shirt for the wedding last week.
(Im thinking only about last week)
**Read the sentences and the questions, and then circle the correct answer.
My father has bought a new computer. Has he got the computer now?
YES
Alice visited her family in the winter. Is Alice with her family now?
PROBABLY NOT
1 I made a cake for the party. Is there cake now?
YES / PROBABLY NOT
2 Sandy has made a chocolate cake. Is there a cake now?
YES / PROBABLY NOT
3 Grace went to London with some friends. Are they there now?
YES / DONT KNOW
4 The pupils have gone to an excursion. Are they at school now?
YES / NO / DONT KNOW
5 Jenny and Sue opened a shop together. Is the shop still open?
YES / DONT KNOW
Note and remember the difference between gone (to) and been (to) in the present perfect sentences.
Wheres John?
Hes gone to Paris
(Hes there now)
Marys gone swimming. Shell be back at 6.00.
Ive been to Italy lots of times (and come back) but Ive never been to Spain.
**Put in been or gone.
Wheres Anne? Shes shopping.
Peters shopping: the fridge is full.
Have you ever to China?
**Compare:

Theyre not here. Theyve all out.


I havent to the cinema for weeks.
Joes to live in Greece.

I havent checked the e-mail this morning.


I didnt check the e-mail this morning.

(Said in the morning)


(Said in the afternoon or in the evening)

* USING THE PRESENT PERFECT WITH JUST.


1 In all these examples the Present Perfect joins the past to the present. This tense
is used to describe the PRESENT RESULT of a PAST ACTION (a finished action).
But because the past action is very recent, (it was finished a very short time ago) we can
intensify this meaning using the word JUST. (BE CAREFUL, the translation into Spanish is
different)
Robert has just written a letter to his aunt.
Robert acaba de escribir una carta para su ta.
Maria has just drunk a glass of water.
Mara acaba de beberse un vaso de agua.
The boys have just crossed the river on boat.
Los chicos acaban de cruzar el ro en barca.

*Complete using the Present Perfect with just and:


draw finish go light rise shoot wash

The sun ................................................ in the horizon.


The pupil .................................................. his exercises.
The hunter ........................................... a deer.
The classroom is empty and the pupil .......................................... home.
John ...................................... a picture of a tree in his notebook.
Mary ........................................ her hands, and she is drying them on a towel.
The two men .......................................... a fire on the ground.

*Translate into Spanish.


The policeman has just caught a thief.
This man has just climbed to the top of the mountain.
My mother has just broken a glass.
Two little girls have just fallen into the river.
Jack and Tom have just left the cinema.
The teacher has just written the day for the exam on the board.
The dog has just bitten the boys leg.
*Translate into English.
1. Alice acaba de romper el cristal de la ventana.
2. La profesora acaba de empezar la clase.
3. Las nias acaban de ganar el partido dos-cero.
4. El partido de ftbol acaba de empezar.
5. Sam acaba de ganar una bicicleta en el concurso.
6. Linda y sus amigas acaban de llegar de la excursin.

* USING THE PRESENT PERFECT WITH YET AND ALREADY.


Have you seen the film yet?
Has visto ya la pelcula?

Yes, I have already seen it.


S, ya la he visto.

No, I havent seen it yet.


No, no la he visto todava.

Note: in Spanish the adverbs ya and todava can take multiple positions in the sentence, but NOT
in English, where the adverbs yet and already have a fixed position which must not be altered.
The common position of yet is at the end of the sentence but, in the negative sentences it can be
used either at the end of the sentence or in the same position as already, just and never.
Look at these examples:
John hasnt done his homework yet.
The singers havent sung any song yet.

John hasnt yet done his homework.


The singers havent yet sung any song.

ACTIVITIES
1) Write these sentences in the Present Perfect Negative. Use yet in the final position.
1. Its nine oclock, but the shopkeeper (open) his shop.
2. I bought these books a week ago, but I (pay) for them.
3. Mary (wear) her new dress.
4. William has lost his watch, and he (find) it.
5. The farmers (sell) their cotton.
6. George is seventeen years old, but he (leave) school.
7. Sandra needs a dictionary, but she (buy) one.
8. The doctor is still in the hospital. He (go) home.
9. It is very early and the sun (rise).
10. We (finish) this lesson.

2) Translate into English.


Tu amiga no ha llegado todava.
Lucy ya ha visitado a sus abuelos.
Ha terminado ya la pelcula?
Albert ya ha vendido su bici vieja.

Ya he abierto la puerta de la clase.


Susie ya ha encontrado su reloj.
Has comprado ya el ltimo ced de Sphynx?
Habis visto ya la ltima pelcula de Brad Pitt?

3) Write just, yet or already in the blanks and translate the dialogues into Spanish.
A: Have you written to John ...................... ?
B: Yes, Ive ...................... finished a letter for him. Well, I havent posted it ......................,
although Ive ...................... bought the stamps.

A: Hi, Jenny! Listen, Ive ...................... got a new dress for the party.
B: Thats good! I havent decided what to wear ...................... . I have ...................... tried
several models. By the way, have you bought all the food ...................... ?
A: Yes, Ive ...................... come back from the shops. Have you phoned Mark ...................... ?
B: Yes, Ive ...................... talked to him before phoning you.

A: Have you paid the rent ...................... ?


B: Yes, Ive ...................... given the money to the housekeeper.

A: Can I speak to John, please?


B: Im sorry. Hes ...................... left for Birmingham. Hell be back tomorrow evening.

1) PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE.

Use of SINCE - FOR

We make the present prefect progressive with have been OR has been + ing:
We have been living here since November.
Johns been working in the bank for three months.
We use the present perfect progressive to say how long things have been continuing up to now.
Ive been learning English for five years.
Its been raining all day.
Have you been waiting long?
Weve been travelling for six hours now.
Activity 1: Make the present perfect progressive sentences. Use for and since (see section d) above).
John started learning Chinese in February. Now its July. (for)
It started raining on Sunday. Its still raining. (since)
Mary started painting the house on Monday. Now its Friday. (for)

We started driving at six oclock. Now its ten oclock. (for)


Ann started working at Zara in January. (since)
Joe started building boats when he was 20. Now hes 40. (for)
We started waiting for the bus at 8.30. (since)
Prices started going up last year. (since)
Activity 2: Make questions beginning with How long ? and the present perfect progressive.
1 you / study / Maths
4 Eric / drive / buses
2 Jane / talk / on the phone
5 that man / stand / outside
3 your brother / work / in Glasgow
6 you / play / the piano
2) PRESENTE PERFECT OR PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE.
We use the present perfect mostly for finished actions that are connected to the present in some way.
We use the present perfect progressive mostly for unfinished actions that continue up to now (often when
we say how long).
Mike has learnt how to cook spaghetti.

Jane has been learning German since September.

Ive written to John, so he knows now.

The pupils have been writing all the morning.

Activity 3: Circle the correct form.


It has rained / has been raining since Tuesday.
He hasnt told / hasnt been telling me his address.
Have you ever read / been reading this book?
How long have you played / been playing tennis?
How long have you learnt / been learning the piano?

John has broken / has been breaking his arm.


How long have we driven / been driving up to now.
Hello! Ive waited / been waiting for you for hours.
How many games have you played / been playing?
Look Ive bought / been buying some new boots.

We dont use the progressive with be, have (meaning posses), know and other non-progressive verbs*:
Ive been here since Tuesday.
NOT Ive been being here
How long have you had that car?
NOT How long have you been having?
Ive known her since 1999.

NOT Ive been knowing her

Activity 4: Put in the present perfect or present perfect progressive:


I these shoes for a year. (have)
How long you ? (wait)

Ann all day.(work)

John ill this week. (be)

How long you Andrew? (know)


We . this dog for years. (have)

It all day. (snow)

We prefer the present perfect for very long, unchanging situations. Compare:
Hes been standing outside for two hours.
The castle has stood on that hill for 900 years.
Activity 5: Circle the best answer. Both options are correct, but one is more usual.
1 Weve lived / been living in London since January. 2 Theyve lived / been living in London all their lives.
3 She has worked / been working here for 47 years.
4 Ive worked / been working here for two weeks.
* be, have, know, like, love, mean, need, prefer, seem, understand, want, agree, believe, remember,

(Non-progressive verbs that can be progressive: think, see, feel, look like)
1) PRESENT PERFECT: How much, How often, How long ..... up to now.
a) We can use the Present Perfect to say how much we have done up to now:
Ive read two books this month. (April 1st , 2nd, 3rd Ive read two books 18th, 19th, now)
Jane has written four letters since this morning.
The players have played ten matches this season.
b) We can use the Present Perfect to say how often things have happened up to now:
This film is fantastic! Ive seen it five times.
Melanie has been to Italy twice.
Your father has phoned many times.
c) We can use the Present Perfect to say or ask if things have or havent happened up to now. We often use
ever and never in these sentences:
Shes never written to me since she went to Scotland.
Ive never travelled out of Spain.
Have you ever eaten snails?
Has he ever driven a car?
Has your friend phoned?
We havent seen Andrew this week.
**Make present perfect sentences:
I / never / read / Shakespeare.
Peter / pay / for his lessons?
You / ever / write a poem?
How often / she / ask you for money?
Alex / phone / me six times this week.
Mary / not tell / me her new address.
We / not play / football this month.

I / break / my arm three times.


Joe / change / his job twice this year.
I / never / climb a mountain.
I / often / try / to stop smoking.
Charles / speak / to you today?
You / ever / have an accident?
She / not study / this weekend.

d) We use the present perfect, not the present simple, to say how long something has continued up to now:
Ive been in this room since Monday. (NOT I am in this room since Monday)
Ive been in this class for three years. (NOT I am in this class for three years)
We can say how long with SINCE or FOR.
We use SINCE when we give the beginning of the time (for example since Monday)
We use FOR when we give the length of the time (for example for three years)
Ive known Sally since 1999, so Ive known her for eleven years.
Ive had this car since August, so Ive had it for four months

**Put in SINCE or FOR:


six weeks
Sunday
1996
ten years

yesterday
breakfast time
a long time
five minutes

July
last week
a day
this morning

**How long have you known people? Write sentences:


Ive known .. since .....
Ive known ... for ...
Ive ....

**How long have you had things? Write sentences:


Ive had this .. since ...
Ive had my ... for ..
Ive ....

ENGLISH ACTIVITIES 3RD YEAR E.S.O.


1. James is talking about his life. Fill in the blanks with the past participles of the verbs.
Ive ...................................... (see) a lot of beautiful places in my life, and Ive
.............................. (travel) in North and South America. For example, Ive
.................................................. (visit) all the big American cities. Ive ....................................
(drive) across Mexico. Ive .................................. (never be)
to Argentina, but Ive ................................. (work) in Peru and Bolivia. Ive
................................... (stay) in expensive hotels and in very cheap hotels! Ive
................................... (swim) in the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean
sea. Ive ................................. (write) thousands of postcards to my friends and family! Ive
................................... (eat) in the best restaurants in Paris, and Ive even ..............................
(sing) Italian songs in Naples. I have ..................................... (have) seven or eight holidays in
Spain, and Ive .................................... (live) in Lisbon, Portugal. I .. .......................
(not make) much money in my life, but Ive ...................................... (meet) a lot of interesting
people and Ive ....................................... (take) a lot of wonderful photographs!
2. Choose the right verb and complete the sentences using the Present Perfect.
speak - wash - not lock - make - tidy - not spend - phone - start - stop - hear
1 Robert ....................................................... thirty glasses this morning.
2 Jane and her sister ....................................................... to play in an orchestra.
3The pupils....................................................... to the teacher to change the exam.
4 The man ....................................................... the cars door, and his car is open.
5 I .................................................... many mistakes in the writing composition.
6 The travel was very cheap, so we ....................................................... a lot of money on it.
7 ....................................... the girl ....................................... her boyfriend today?
8 .................................... you ..................................... the news? Our team is the winner.
9 ............................................ you .................................... your room today?
0 The rain .................................................... and the sun is starting to shine.
3. Put in have / has been or have / has gone.
The pupils arent in the class. They home.
She never to a foreign country.
You smoking a lot. The ashtray is full.
Andrew to the gym. He isnt here.
you ever to Great Britain?

Andy to study in Oxford.


We shopping: theres the food
Wheres Tom? Hes to Rome.
I running. Im exhausted.
Liza ................? Yes, an hour ago.

4. Present Perfect Past Simple. Circle the correct answers.


Our team won / has won two matches this year. Carol stayed / has stayed with us last week.
Our team won / has won two matches last year. All my life I wanted / have wanted to fly a plane.
Did you ever go / have you ever been to Wales? I havent bought any clothes last / this year.
I never read / have never read any of his books.
I worked very hard this week / last week.
They have gone / went to Italy and never came back.
She has eaten / ate two apples today.
5. Write the Present Perfect or the Past Simple of the verbs in brackets.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Where ( you go) ........................................................................ for your holidays last year?


I cant play any more. I (break) ................................................ one finger. Ouch!! It hurts!!
Jane is a famous writer, and (publish) .................................................. over fifty books now.
Sorry, I (not finish) ............................................... my letter. Can you wait for a minute, please?
I (miss) .............................. the end of the film last night. What (happen) ...............................?
I (lose) ............................ my keys on Monday but I (find) ........................... them on Tuesday.
We had a great party last week. Who (you invite) ...................................................... ?
Where (Anne meet) ............................ Grant? They (meet) .......................... at the Sports Club.
Peter (not play) ...................................................... basketball in our last match.

0 (you see) ................................................................ my ruler ? It was here a moment ago.

ENGLISH TEST 3RD YEAR E.S.O.


1. Choose the right verb and complete the sentences using the Present Perfect.
arrive - decide - have - lay - lie - lie - make - miss - phone - read - see - spend - wash
1 Oh no! Thats the last bus, and we .................................................. it.
2 ............................. you .......................... any Harry Potter books? Theyre really good.
3 I havent got any more money. I .................................................. all of it.
4 The teacher ....................................................... the books on his table.
5 I .................................................. an idea! Lets go to Big Burgers!
6 We know what we want. We .................................................. to have pizza.
7 The pupil ....................................................... to the teacher, he didnt say the truth.
8 Your hair looks terrible! (you) .................................................. it?
9 Hurry up, Carol. Your taxi .................................................. . Its waiting outside.
10 Im sorry I (not) .................................................. the travel agent. Ive been very busy.
11 (you) .................................................. Titanic? Its my favourite film.
12 Lucy .......................................... on her towel to dry herself under the sun.
13 Read this again. You .................................................. some mistakes.
2. Put in been or gone.
Wheres Anne? Shes . Im alone here.
Peters to the shop: the fridge is full.
Have you ever to China?

Joe has to live in Greece.


I havent to the cinema for weeks.
Theyre not here. Theyve all out.

3. Choose the Present Perfect or the Past Simple in the following sentences.
1 We learnt / have learnt a lot of English last year.
2 My friend didnt do / hasnt done the homework and the teacher is angry with him.
3 Can I have another book? Ive read / read this one.
4 Im not ready. I didnt finish / havent finished my homework.
5 I cant find my wallet. I think I lost / ve lost it.
6 Where did you go / have you been last Saturday?
1
2
3
4
5
6

Did you eat / Have you eaten spaghetti yesterday?


Harry wore / has worn his new shirt for three days.
Hurry up, Jim! You didnt start / havent started.
Have you seen / Did you see The Haunting on TV last night?
Sorry, I cant go on playing football, Ive hurt / hurt my leg.
Someone took / has taken my pencil! Where is it?

4. Write the Present Perfect or the Past Simple of the verbs in brackets.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0

Paul (be) ..................................... in the school band last year, but now he isnt.
My parents (visit) ..................................... the States in 1998.
Jane (break) .....................her arm last month,and she (not recover) ......................... yet.
I am really hungry. I (eat) ..................................... nothing today.
The boy (not watch) ............................ the TV last night. He was doing his homework.
Wheres Pete? We (not see) .......................... him this week.
She (live) ............................ ........... in Oxford when she was five.
Oh, Im sorry, you (choose) ..the wrong answer. Try again!
(you / see) Matrix Revolutions? Yes, I (see) .. it yesterday.
I (come) .................................. to this school in 1998. At first, I (not like) .......................... it
because I (not have) .................................... any friends. One day, I (meet)
................................ Lynn in a French class. Shes very funny. We (become)
................................... good friends immediately.

1. Translate into English. Use the Present Perfect with just, yet and already.
Todava no he entendido el Presente Perfecto.

Has estudiado ya para el prximo examen?

Mi hermana acaba de llegar de Manchester.

Los profesores no han terminado an la reunin.

Ya habis comprado los libros para la asignatura nueva?

Acabamos de aprobar el examen de Ingls.

2. Make affirmative and negative sentences.


a) The police / finish / the investigation.

b) I / travel / to New York five times, but four.

c) My parents / leave / for the theatre. (already)

d) We / never be / to a television programme.

e) The new pupil / not play / in the team.

f) The architect / build / a new museum.

3. Translate these sentences into English.


Qu has hecho esta tarde?

Cuntos alumnos has contado?

Yo nunca he estado en Francia.

Hemos vendido nuestra casa de Londres.

Has bebido alguna vez t?

No hemos jugado nunca al ftbol.

He trado los libros de Ciencias, pero no he trado los de Ingls.

Dnde habis escondido el cuaderno de Frank?

6. Present Perfect with EVER and NEVER


1. Mary nunca ha tenido un telfono mvil.
2. Has probado alguna vez mis maravillosas tartas?
3. Has estado alguna vez en Amrica? No.
4. Nunca he visto un fantasma. T has visto uno alguna vez?
5. Paul no ha conducido nunca una moto.
6. Alguna vez has vivido en el extranjero?
7. Has hablado alguna vez con un famoso?
8. Philip no ha tenido novia nunca.
4.Translate using the Present Perfect.
Has comido alguna vez pescado crudo?
Qu has hecho esta tarde?
Dnde habis comprado el libro de Susan?
Has bebido alguna vez t?
Cunta azcar ha puesto Jane en su taza?
No hemos jugado nunca la ftbol.
Por qu han construido este horrible edificio.
Yo nunca he estado en Francia.
Quin ha cerrado la puerta de la clase?
Cuntas asignaturas has suspendido?
Jenny no ha suspendido nunca una asignatura.
Paul ha ido a Japn dos veces.
Los alumnos han preguntado muchas dudas.
Hoy me he levantado un poco tarde.
Sally ha derramado la sopa en la mesa.
La secretaria ha contado el dinero de la caja.
Los alumnos no han entendido la pregunta.
Has dibujado t ese paisaje? S.
Habis enviado las tarjetas de Navidad? No.
Han jugado los nios al ftbol? No.
Has pagado la cuenta? S.
Ha escrito Jane la redaccin? S.
Has ayudado a tus compaeros de clase?
Qu has escrito en ese papel?
Dnde has puesto el cuadro?
Cuntos alumnos has contado?
Hemos vendido nuestra casa de Londres.
Quin ha aprobado todos los exmenes?
Has conocido alguna vez a un cantante famoso?
No hemos conseguido la victoria, pero lo hemos intentado.
He trado los libros de Ciencias, pero no he trado los de Ingls.
1. Translate into English with the Present Perfect. Use since and for only if necessary.
1. Lucy no ve a su hermano mayor desde hace mucho tiempo.
2. Mi hermana no suspende ninguna asignatura desde septiembre.
3. Mi padre ha escrito ms de 20 libros.
4. Nunca he comido ostras.
5. Juan ha estado en Holanda dos veces.
6. Habis hecho alguna vez un puzzle?
7. Alguna vez te has puesto sombrero? S.
8. Cunto hace que conoces a tus compaeros del colegio?
9. Cunto hace que tienes ese vestido? Desde el sbado pasado.
10. No vemos al profesor de Ingls desde ayer.
2. Say if these sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
Look what Peter has given me yesterday.
Ive forgotten Mikes birthday last Tuesday.
Ive seen a great programme last night.
Everybody has gone home at 10 oclock.
I think everybody has arrived now.
Theres nobody here! What has happened?
3. Translate into English with the Present Perfect. Use since and for if necessary.
1. El rey no ha salido del palacio desde que enferm.
2. Cunto tiempo hace que ests en Mlaga? Desde esta maana.
3. Cunta fruta has comido hoy? Dos manzanas y una naranja.
4. No hemos comido nada desde hace seis horas.
5. Cuntos pases distintos has visitado en tu vida?
6. Cuntas preguntas has contestado? Slo doce.
7. Cuntos ceds has comprado?
8. Cunto papel has usado para la redaccin? Dos folios.

9. Desde cuando trabajas en esta empresa? Desde hace un ao.


10. Cunto hace que tienes este coche? Slo un mes.
4. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (Use since / for in all the sentences)
1. Llevo 8 aos estudiando en este colegio.
2. Los nios llevan ya tres horas durmiendo.
3. Joseph conduce el mismo coche desde 1998.
4. Sam lleva seis meses trabajando en esta fbrica.
5. Harry lleva puesta la misma camisa desde hace 5 das.
6. Cunto tiempo llevas estudiando Ingls? 7 aos
7. Cunto llevas esperando aqu? 30 minutos.
8. Cunto tiempo llevis hablando por telfono? Desde las tres.
9. Desde cundo ests haciendo deberes? Desde que llegu a casa. Estoy teminando.
10. Ya llevamos dos horas corriendo. Deberamos descansar un poco.
5. Translate using the Present Perfect (pp) or the Present Perfect Progressive (ppp) and
for or since.
1 Llevamos cinco meses trabajando en esta tienda. (ppp)
2 Cunto hace que Ana estudia Francs? Dos aos (ppp)
3 Cunto hace que tienes esa moto? Desde Junio. (pp)
4 No veo a mi amiga desde hace tres das. (pp)
5 Laura lleva esperando ms de media hora. (ppp)
6 Lleva lloviendo desde el jueves pasado. (ppp)
7 Cunto hace que conoces a tu novio/a? Seis meses. (pp)
8 Desde cundo sois amigos? Desde que estbamos en primaria. (pp)

have something done

I have my clothes washed at the laundry

In English, we use this structure to say that we dont do the action, because some other person
does (or did) the action for us. Look at the examples:
I had my hair cut.

(I didnt cut it myself, another person cut it)

Monica has her nails painted every week.


I have my hair cut every month.
Peter had his car repaired at the garage.
The structure is:

person + have / has / had + object + past participle

1. John is very practical: he likes doing things himself. Bill is not so practical: he has
things done by other people. Complete the sentences:
John cooks his meals himself. Bill has his meals cooked by his wife.
John checks his car himself. Bill .................................................................. at the garage.
John buys his own clothes. Bill ................................................................. by an assistant.
John cleans his house himself. Bill ................................................................... every day.
John does the gardening himself. Bill ......................................................... by a gardener.
John fixes his TV himself. Bill .............................................................. by a TV technician.
John decorates his house himself. Bill ......................................................... by a designer.

2. Write some sentences about the things you usually get done by other people. Think
about housework, cooking, etc...

3. Finish the sentences with the things you need other people to do for you.
If my car isnt running well, ...............(check)................. I have it checked at the garage.
If my watch isnt working,............(repair at the...)
If my trousers are dirty,...............(wash in the...)
If my room window is broken,......(fix by a...)
If my hair is getting too long,........(cut in the...)
If the lessons are difficult,............(explain again by...)

DEDUCTIONS:

MUST / CANT

You make deductions when you can guess something through observation or because you
think you have reasons or information enough to say so.
When you are sure that your deductions are real or true, you use MUST.
When you are sure that your deductions are impossible, you use CANT.
Look at these simple examples:
Jane has passed all her subjects. She must be very happy. (Im sure she is happy.)
Sandra has failed all her subjects. She cant be happy.

(Im sure she isnt happy.)

So remember:
must: when we are certain or sure that something is possible
You must study really hard, your marks are just great!
They must be dating, they spent so much time together.
cant: when we are certain or sure that something is impossible
She cant live in our block, weve never seen her.
Darren cant be British, hes got a strong foreign accent.

1. Deductions. Now complete these sentences with must or cant.


1 Susie has a new computer. Her parents ............................................ have given it to her.
2 The afternoon is not cloudy at all. It ......................................................... rain now.
3 There ............................................ be a ghost in that house, because such things dont exist.
4 I havent seen that pupil till now, she ................................................... be new at school.
5 There are strange sounds in her house. Janes sure it ...................................... be a spirit.
6 She .......................................... know your brother, because they go to the same university.
7 Alicia speaks English with great difficulty, so she ..................................... come from Oxford.
8 Jenny predicted the result of the match, so she .......................... have special powers.
9 The weather forecast predicted clear skies, so it rain tomorrow!
10 I think pass the English exams if I dont study enough.
11 Chris didnt pass her Science exam, she be very disappointed.
12 I dont like him for the job, but I admit that he be a hard-worker.

INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE. Do the following activities and learn about the use of the infinitive.
1. Infinitive of purpose. Complete the sentences with the infinitives of these verbs.
look after

borrow

collect

take

eat

open

see

improve

save

make

George visited me . my books of Science.


I opened a tin of tuna .... a sandwich.
Kellys gone to the cinema ... Keanu Reeves last film.
We sell old newspapers money for charities.
Try this bar of iron .... the broken door.
Robert travelled to Spain .. his Spanish.
Walter stayed at home ... his little twin sisters.
Press this key ... the information.
Alfred went to a restaurant .. with his girlfriend.
Patricia was late, so she ran . her train.

2. Match the sentences from each box using an infinitive of purpose.

use cameras - use our mobile phones


is going to university - am wearing
gloves

keep my hands warm - study Geography


take photos talk to our friends

1 I
2 People ..
3 My cousin
4 We

3. Infinitive of purpose. Complete using the verbs below and your own additions.
buy
connect
write
learn
study
1 Students use pens ..
2 People go to school
3 People go to supermarkets .
4 Some students meet
5 People use computers .
(PAG 15)

4. Infinitive of purpose. Complete the sentences with the infinitives of these verbs.
ask for

buy

catch

drive

finish

meet

learn

turn on

wait for

Use this button the computer.


Oliver got up early .. Mark to the station.
I was late, so I ran . my bus.
Ann wrote to me . Joes address.
I sat in the waiting room . the doctor.
Bobs gone to the airport . his uncle.
I went to town on Saturday a present for my cousins birthday.
I stayed up late last night . my English homework.
Alice went to Beijing . Chinese.
(PAG 17)

5. Infinitive of purpose. Make new sentences using an infinitive. Look at the example:
We wanted to go to the cinema, so Mum gave us some money.
Mum gave us some money to go to the cinema.

I wanted to clean the top of the fridge, so I stood on a chair.


Roger wants to buy an English book, so hes gone to the book shop on the corner.
We wanted to get warm, so we moved closer to the fire.
If you want to open the front door, use this key.
I wanted to tell George about the meeting, so I left a note.
Jane wanted to earn some pocket money, so she got a part time job.
(PAG 21)

ENGLISH ACTIVITIES. 3RD E.S.O.


1. Complete with the Present Continuous. Circle the sentences with a FUTURE meaning.
1 John _____________________________________ his bicycle next Sunday. (ride)
2 I ________________________________________ English now. (learn)
3 The woman ________________________________ the bread with a knife. (cut)
4 We _______________________________________ our hands. (not wash)
5 The ship ___________________________________ in two hours. (arrive)
6 The carpenter _______________________________ a table tomorrow. (make)
7 The old man ________________________________ the fence. (not jump)
8 The spaceship _______________________________ to Mars tonight. (fly)
9 My parents _________________________________ a new car next month. (buy)
10 The teacher _________________________________ a letter to England this evening. (send)
11 I __________________________________________ with my friends in ten minutes. (go out)
12 The boys ___________________________________ in the sea next weekend. (not swim)
13 The doctor __________________________________ the ambulance. (not drive)
14 The workers _________________________________ the wall. (build)
15 I __________________________________________ at six oclock on Friday. (get up)
2. Susie is getting everything ready for her party. Complete using Present Continuous.
1
2
3
4
5

She ................................................................................. (catch) the bus to town at nine oclock.


She ................................................................. (meet) Ross outside the supermarket to buy food.
She .................................................... (collect) the birthday cake from the shop at twelve oclock.
Susie and Jenny ........................................................... (buy) new party dresses in the afternoon.
She .............................................................................. (choose) the music when she gets home.

3. Write about these peoples intentions. Complete with be going to and the verbs.
cook
do
listen to
read
send
1 Tom ................................................................................................ an email to his girlfriend.
2 They ................................................................................................ dinner for their friends.
3 I ....................................................................................................... some music in my ipod.
4 Jenny and Ross .............................................................................. a detective story.
5 Susie ................................................................................................ her homework in her room.
4. Edward has already decided what to do with his life. Discover yourself by completing the
sentences with the correct form of be going to and the following verbs in the given order.
Use contracted forms.
estudiar, viajar, no trabajar, casarse, tener, crear, ganar, tocar, no cocinar, comer
1. I _________________________________________________ music at university.
2. I _________________________________________________ all over the world.
3. I _________________________________________________ in an office.
4. I _________________________________________________ a very rich woman.
5. We _______________________________________________ eleven boys.
6. They _____________________________________________ a football team.
7. They _____________________________________________ the World Cup.
8. I _________________________________________________ the piano every night in a pub.
9. My wife ___________________________________________ or clean the house.
10. We _______________________________________________ in restaurants every day.

5. Use these verbs with will or wont to complete the dialogues. Use contracted forms.
have
take
phone
finish
be (x2)
win
make
A: Are you coming to the cinema on Sunday?
B: Im not sure. I ____________________________ you on Saturday, OK?
1: Dont change your clothes now. We ___________________________ late.
2: No, we wont. We _______________________________ a taxi.
A: George is going to have a party at the weekend.
B: Why?
A: Its his birthday. He _________________________ sixteen on Friday.
1: She ___________________________ the tennis match tomorrow.
2: Why not?
1: She _________________________ mistakes. She always fails in important matches.
A: ______________________ Steve ______________________ the work tonight?
B: I dont think so. He ________________________________ enough time.

6. Translate these sentences using Present Continuous.


1 Qu vas a hacer el viernes por la noche?Voy al teatro con unos amigos.
2 Sara va jugar un partido de baloncesto a las cuatro esta tarde.
3 Mis padres van a viajar a Oxford dentro de dos das.
4 Qu va a hacer ella maana por la tarde?
Va a estudiar para un examen de francs.
5 Robert va a comprar un regalo a su madre el sbado que viene.
6 Maana vamos a un concierto en el centro de deportes a las nueve.
7 A dnde se va Peter este fin de semana?
A Italia.
8 John va a escuchar el partido en la radio esta noche.
9 Los alumnos de tercero se van de excursin el mircoles.
10 Maana vamos a ir a un concierto en el centro de deportes a las nueve.

7. Translate using the Present Continuous (future) or be going to or will.


1 Mis padres van a viajar por Europa el verano que viene.
2 Las mquinas construirn el nuevo aeropuerto.
3 Vas a hacer algo esta noche? S, voy a estudiar Ingls.
X Hay alguien en la puerta, Paul. Voy a ver.
4 El equipo del colegio ganar el campeonato.
5 Jenny no va a venir con nosotros al concierto.
X Vaya, no hay tiza. Yo voy, profe.
6 El rey de Espaa abrir la ceremonia con un discurso.
7 Juego un partido de baloncesto el sbado.
X Me ayudars en el examen? S, claro que lo har.
8 Dnde trabajars el ao que viene? No lo s.
9 Qu vamos a beber esta noche en la fiesta? Zumo de frutas.
X Ests mojado, espera, te traigo una toalla.
10 Mark no entrena con sus amigos la semana que viene porque

(they decided abou it)


(I know that)
(Have you got any plans?)
(Thats what I think, of course)
(She decided not to come)
(I have this information)
(Its a fixed plan I have)
(Do you know? Have you any idea?)
(It is already decided)
se va de vacaciones. (a plan)

Which future...? WILL, GOING TO or PRESENT CONTINUOUS?


There are some differences between these three ways of talking about the future. The
differences are not always important; often we can use two or three different forms to talk
about the same thing.

1. PREDICTIONS
GOING TO: we can predict the future because we can see the future in the present: we see
things coming or starting.

Be careful! Youre going to break the glass. (I can see it now)


Please, dont drive so fast! Were going to have an accident.

WILL: we make a prediction about something we think or believe (or guess or know) about
the future

Dont give him the glass because hell break it.

(I think so, or I know it)

If you dont drive carefully, youll have an accident. (I guess it can happen)
I think Javier Bardem will win the Oscar.

(Its my opinion or point of view)

2. DECISIONS
GOING TO: the decisions are already made.

There are a lot of emails to answer I know. Im going to answer them tomorrow
When I finish with the gardening, Im going to wash my hair.

WILL: the decisions are just made, theyre spontaneous.

Weve just got an email from Jhon. OK, Ill answer to it


Im really tired. Wait, Ill get you a chair
Im going to plant this tree in the garden. Well help you with it

3. PLANS / INTENTIONS
GOING TO and the PRESENT CONTINUOUS are often both possible when we talk about plans.
We prefer the present conitnuous for fixed plans with a definite time and / or place.

Im going to see Anne some day this week. // Im meeting Patty at the cinema at 8.00.
I think Joes going to study Biology.

//

Marys starting university on 17th September.

When I get home, Im going to eat a little. // Were eating at Julies house next Saturday.

Activities. Future tense: will


1. Put the words in the correct order.
1 here George be will
............ tomorrow.
2 drive station to you Ill
........ immediately.
3 begin class will the
................. at 9.30.
4 arrive theyll late very
.......... at the party.
5 examination will the difficult be I think .
6 walk we cinema the to ll
7 her not speak will I to again ..
2. Make negatives and questions using will / will not / wont.
I . this work today. When .. it? (finish)
John .. here tomorrow. on Tuesday? (be)
Anne . here at ten. When here? (be)
I . time for lunch. . time for a sandwich? (have)
You .. any pen in there. Where . one? (find)
The children . to school in Bath. Where ..? (go)
Bob .. much money if he sells that car. How much .? (get)
3. Questions with long subjects. What time will you / the bus / the bus for the excursion leave?
1 what time / tomorrow evenings concert / start ?
2 when / you and the family / get back from Paris ?
3 you / come to school / tomorrow ?
4 you and your mother / be / at home tomorrow ?
5 where / she / study Medicine / next year ?
6 the children / have enough money / for the journey ?
7 how soon / you / know / the answer ?
8 where / the group of pupils / travel / in June ?
9 what time / the two teams / start / the match ?
0 all the pupils in your class / go / to the excursion ?
4. What do you think will happen? Make predictions using I think or I dont think + will.
1 it .................................. tomorrow. (rain)
2 I ...... money in the post tomorrow. (get)
3 it ................................ tomorrow. (snow)
4 I .. a letter from America tomorrow. (get)
5 I ........................... rich in ten years. (be)
6 I ............ famous in five years. (become)
7 people ...... English everywhere in 2100. (speak)
5. Complete with the verbs in the future. Use contracted forms in those marked C.
change
not snow
start
tell
go to sleep soon
1 You make me so unhappy; I ... crying in a moment. C
2 Do you think that all this money . your life?
3 It .. tonight, will it, John? C
4 And they said Benjamins tired, he . C
5 She you how to do it.

6. What do you think will happen or you will do in your future? Make predictions about and give
your opinion using I think or I dont think + will.
1 I . Music and Drama. (study)
2 I a lot of money in the bank. (have)
3 Javier Bardem ... the Oscar. (win)
4 I when I am twenty-five. (get married)
5 I rich and famous in ten years. (be)
6 I all the subjects at school. (pass)
7 people ... to the moon in 2100. (travel)

7. Make FIVE sentences from this table.

I will
When I leave
school,
I wont

go to university.
find a job.
marry my boyfriend / girlfriend.
stop studying.
stay at home and rest.
go out every night.
live in another town.
be very happy.
live with my family.
continue studying.

1 .....................................................................................................................................................................
2 .....................................................................................................................................................................
3 .....................................................................................................................................................................
4 .....................................................................................................................................................................
5 .....................................................................................................................................................................

8. Now translate into English these sentences. Use will.


1 Los jugadores llegarn a las ocho en punto y entrenarn en el estadio.

2 Mi padre me ayudar a comprar el ordenador, pero no me dar todo el dinero.

3 Maana llover en todo el pas.

4 John cree que el examen de Matemticas ser muy difcil.

5 Qu estudiars cuando termines el colegio?

9. Complete these sentences affirmative and negative with going to.


1 She (study) Drama at the School of Arts.
2 Sarah (not play) volleyball in the team. Shes not well.
3 I (not go) ... skiing this winter.
4 I (go) .. on holiday with my family next month.
5 They (have) ... swimming lessons in the summer.
6 Paul (not be) at home this weekend. He has to travel.
7 He (come) .. to my birthday party on Saturday.
8 We (sunbathe) ... on the beach all day. A perfect holiday!
9 I know they (not talk) to us. We had some tense words last time.
10. Make questions with going to.
0 you / cook supper?

Are you going to cook supper?

1 when / your brother / publish his book?


2 Ann / change her school?
3 where / you / put that picture?
4 what / you / buy for Bills birthday?
5 Eric / play football / tomorrow?
6 the pupils / go to university?
11. What are these peoples intentions for this evening? Write sentences with going to.
read
do
listen to
cook
write
1 They .......................................................................................... dinner for their friends tonight.
2 Susie ............................................................................................... her homework in her room.
3 I ..................................................................................................................... music in my ipod.
4 Tom .............................................................................................. a valentine for his girlfriend.
5 Jenny and Ross ................................................................................................ a detective story.

12. Write sentences about these peoples intentions using going to:
Andrew / comprar una revista de moda
Ellas / no ir a una discoteca el prximo Sbado
Nosotros / leer un libro en la clase de Ingls
Mi hermano / escuchar un CD de msica rock?
Los alumnos / jugar un partido de baloncesto?
Vosotras / comer unos pasteles
13. Complete using will or going to.
do
go shopping
go to bed

help

start

1 Im tired . I . soon tonight.


2 I .. the colthes, can you help me?
3 Can somebody post my letters? I it.
4 I dont know what he wants. He .... us.
5 Jane . guitar lessons.
6 Theres no food in the house. I .. .
7 I cant move this table. I .. you

tell

wash

14. Look at the table. Complete with the the Present Continuous, and any other word needed.

dentist
gym
meet Steve
library
cinema

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

1 What are you doing on Monday? Im visiting the dentist.


2 What .............................................................................?
I .........................................................................
3 When .? Im meeting him on Wednesday.
4 Where ................................................... Thursday?
I ............................................................................
5 When .......... ? On Friday.

15. Albert is planning his end-of-year course party. Complete.


GET

TAKE

WEAR

LOOK AT

MEET

1 He ..................................................................................... the train to the city centre at eleven oclock.


2 Jenny ........................................................................ him outside the shopping centre when he arrives.
3 They ............................................................... the sales in a friends shop from 12:00 to 13:00.
4 Albert and Jenny .............................................................. the 13:15 bus to go back home.
5 Albert ................................................................................... his new clothes tonight at the party.

16. Traduce estas frases con el Present Continuous.


1 Qu vas a hacer el sbado? Voy al cine con un amigo.
2 Mara va jugar al ftbol esta tarde.
3 Mis amigos van a venir a mi casa maana.
4 Qu vas a hacer el lunes por la tarde?

Voy a estudiar para el examen de ingls.

5 Robert va a visitar a su abuelo el domingo que viene.


6 Maana vamos a ir a un concierto en el centro de deportes.
7 A dnde te vas este fin de semana?

A Londres.

8 John va a ver el partido de tenis en la tele.

4. Complete these sentences with the following vocabulary:

cliff

promenade
swimsuit

rocks

sand

swimming trunks

towel

sun cream

sunglasses

waves

1 This beach has got beautiful yellow .. .


2 Johns are very wet because he went swimming this morning.
3 There is a very high .. at the end of the beach.
4 Lets have a Cola in the caf on the . .
5 Put some . on your arms. The sun is very hot today.
6 When its windy, the . on this beach are enormous.
7 I cant see. I need my .
8 You cant swim here. There are a lot of big .. under the water.
9 Liz, lets go swimming. OK, Ill put on my .
0 Youre wet. Heres a .

2. Order the words to make sentences.


Example: Ill in a think I work bank = I think Ill work in a bank.
1 Lisa go probably will university to ..........................................................................................................
2 in will office work an Martin think I .....................................................................................................
3 probably a will Susie be teacher

..............................................................................................................

4 America Jenny go probably to will ............................................................................................................


5 Andy will a I politician be thinks .............................................................................................................

PHRASAL VERBS
1. Introduction
A phrasal verb is a verb + particle (usually an adverb or a preposition), for example:
come in, sit down, take off...
There are many phrasal verbs in English, but in this Unit you will learn only some of them.
Here are some of the particles (adverbs and/or prepositions) which are used in phrasal verbs:
about, across, after, along, around, away, back, behind, by, down, forward, in, into, off, on, out,
over, round, to, through, up.
2. Understanding phrasal verbs
Some phrasal verbs are easy to understand:
Tom asked Melanie to come in.
The man in front of me turned around and talked to me.
But many phrasal verbs are idiomatic. The phrasal verb has a special meaning:
Fortunately, our plans came off.
Why did you turn down such a good offer?
I cant make out it its a man or a woman over there.

(succeeded)
(refuse)
(see clearly)

Sometimes a phrasal verb has the same meaning as a one-word verb:


find out = discover
go back = return
go on = continue

leave out = omit


make up = invent (story)
turn up = arrive

send out = distribute


throw away = discard
take off = undress (clothes); depart (plane)

Phrasal verbs are usually mor informal than on-word verbs.


3. Word order with phrasal verbs
When a phrasal verb has an object, the object can go either before of after the particle.
Melanie
!
Who

took her coat


off.
wrote the number down.
let
the cat
out.

OR
OR
OR

Melanie
I
Who

took
wrote
let

off
her coat.
down the number.
out
the cat?

A long object goes after the particle:


The student made up a number of silly reasons for being late.
Why dont you try on that red dress in the window?
A pronoun (it, him, them, etc.) always goes before the particle:
Melanie felt hot in her coat, so she took it off.
(NO She took off it.)
The student gave his reasons, but he had made them up.(NO He made up them.)
VERY IMPORTANT: On the next page you have the phrasal verbs you MUST learn in Unit 4.

1 bump into .....................meet by chance (not planned)


2 come across ................find
3 give up .........................stop
4 look into .......................investigate
5 make up .......................invent (a story)
6 pick up..........................(*)
7 put off ..........................postpone
8 take after .....................behave the same as
It would be good for you if you learned also some other common phrasal verbs from the previous page:
come in = enter

find out = discover

go back = return

go on = continue

(*) Phrasal verbs often have many different meanings. Look carefully at the meanings of the phrasal
verb pick up. Which one of these meanings is the correct in this sentence:
If you come across some money on the pavement, pick it up. .................
(the sentence is on page 38 of you book, activity 6)
pick up ........... = ...................recover
learn
take
improve

(e.g. a patient)
(e.g. some grammar)
(from the floor)
(e.g. sales)

1
2
3
4

There you have a list of some of the most common phrasal verbs, you may find them in articles,
readings, conversations, and surely, in your school work.
AGREE WITH - estar de acuerdo
BE ABOUT TO - estar a punto de
BE BACK - regresar
BE OUT OF - quedarse sin
BE OVER - terminarse
BREAK DOWN - averiarse
CALL BACK - volver a llamar
CARRY ON - seguir. continuar
CARRY OUT - llevar a cabo
CLEAR UP - poner en orden
COME ACROSS encontrar por azar, dar con
COME BACK volver, regresar
COME IN - entrar
CUT OFF - cortar, desconnectar
GET BACK - volver, regresar
GET IN(TO) - entrar
GET OFF - bajar (de un autobus, tren)

GET ON - subir (a un autobus, tren, moto)


GET UP - levantarse
GIVE BACK - devolver
GIVE UP - dejar (de fumar, beber, el colegio)
GO AWAY - irse, marcharse
GO BACK - volver, regresar
GO OUT - salir (por la calle)
HANG ON/HOLD ON - esperar
HANG UP - colgar (el telfono)
KNOCK DOWN - derribar, demoler
LOOK AFTER - cuidar
LOOK FOR - buscar
LOOK FORWARD TO - esperar con ilusin
LOOK UP - buscar algo (en un libro, diccionario)
PUT IN - meter, introducir
PUT ON - encender
RUN OUT OF - quedarse sin algo
TAKE AFTER - parecerse a alguien, comportarse como
TAKE OFF despegar (un avin); quitarse (ropa)
TAKE OUT - extraer, sacar
THROW AWAY - tirar (en la basura)
TURN DOWN - bajar (el volumen); rechazar (una oferta)
TURN UP - subir (el volumen)
TURN ON - encender (televisin, luces etc.)

QUESTION TAGS

This music isnt very good, is it?

Question tags are short questions that can follow sentences, especially in SPOKEN ENGLISH.
We make question tags with auxiliary verbs (have, can, be, etc...) + pronoun (I, you, etc...).
We use question tags to ask if something is true, or to ask people to agree with us.

You havent got my keys, have you?

Ann wont finish the work in time, will she?

This music is very good, isnt it?

That child can run fast, cant he?

When the sentence is affirmative, the question tag is negative, and when the sentece is
negative, the question tag is not negative:

It is hot in here, isnt it?


It isnt too cold, is it?

Negative tags are usually contracted, for example: ...isnt it? or ...cant he?
The negative tag for I am is arent I?

Compare:

Im late, arent I?
I am not late, am I?

1 Write the question tag for these sentences:


Iam late, arent I?

Its dark in this room, .......................

You cant swim, can you?

He can speak Russian, .......................

Ann will be here tomorrow, .......................

The trains late, .......................

The postman hasnt come, .......................

The food wasnt bad, .......................

You are ready, .......................

Youve finished, .......................

When a sentence has an auxiliary verb or be, we use them in the question tag:
You would like some tea, wouldnt you?

Im not talking too fast, am I?

Ann doesnt eat meat, does she?

You arent angry with me, are you?

He didnt know the answer, did he?

They dont like it, do they?

When the sentence has an ordinary verb and there is no auxiliary verb, we use do / does / did
in the tag:
They went to Spain, didnt they?

The lesson starts at 7.00, doesnt it?

You knew the answer, didnt you?

You like Susan, dont you?

In the next activities you have more sentences taken from real conversations.
Write the question tags, and have a look at the rules and examples for help.

2. Put in the question tags.

Youre playing football tomorrow, arent you?

Thats the right answer, .......................


Were seeing Rebecca again tomorrow, .......................
Shes a lovely baby, .......................
Youll be OK, ......................., Roger?
Your brother can tell us that, .......................
Mary likes brown bread, .......................
This house gets too hot in the summer, .......................

3. Here are some negative sentences. Put in the question tags.


They werent at home, .......................
But he is not at school now, .......................
You cant remember anything, .......................
They dont use much electricity, .......................
She doesnt look happy, .......................
These flowers dont need much water, .......................

4. Change these questions into statements with question tags.


Do you work at Zara?

You work at Zara, dont you?

Have they lived in France?

Theyve...

Did they go home early?


Do we have all the equipment?
Did it rain last week?
Does her brother writes for AS?
Do I need a passport?
Would you like a holiday?
Was the train late?
Did Sarah forget your birthday?

We can use there as a subject in question tags too: Theres a letter for me, isnt there?
There werent any problems, were there?
There are two more lessons, .......................................
There was a phone call for me, ......................................
Theres a meeting this afternoon, .......................................
There hasnt been any snow this year, ....................................

Remember that question tags are common in SOPKEN ENGLISH, so it will be good for you to
pay attention to the following:

1 When a tag asks a real question, we say it with rising intonation, that is, the music of the
voice goes up

we?

Were meeting in Oxford, arent

The lesson begins at twelve, doesnt it?

Your sister has gone to America, hasnt

Youre from Scotland, arent

she?

you?

2 When a tag only asks for agreement, we use a falling intonation, the voice goes down
Nice day, isnt it?
Bills a good swimmer, isnt

he?

She looks good in red, doesnt

she?

Its cold, isnt it?


We can also say that when the tag asks a real question, like in section 1, we put the stress
on the pronoun; on the other hand, when the tag asks for agreement, like in section 2, we
put the stress on the auxiliary verb.

----- ooOoo -----

Now, go back to the sentences in the previous activities (2 and 3) and decide:
1) If the tag asks a real question (RQ) or asks for agreement (AG)

2) If you must use rising

or falling

intonation.

used to

I used to play the piano

I used to play
You used to play
He /She/It used to play
We used to play
etc,,,

I didnt use to play


You didnt use to play
He/She/It didnt use to play
etc...

Did I use to play?


Did you use to play?
Did he/she use to play?
etc...

I used to play the piano. I dont play now.


We use used to + infinitive for finished habits and situations: things that were true in the
past, but are not now.
(used to is not really a modal verb: we make questions and negatives with did.)

1. Make sentences about people hundreds of years ago. Begin the sentences like this:
(Most) people used to... or (Most) people didnt use to... or A lot of people used to...
be farmers...........................Most people used to be farmers.
have cars............................People didnt use to have cars.
travel on foot or on horses
go to school
learn to read
cook on wood fires
live very long
work very long hours

To talk about the present habits and situations, we use the simple present, NOT use to
e.g.: I play a lot of tennis. (but NOT I use to play tennis.)
2. Make sentences about past and present habits and situations.
John / rugby / tennis...........................John used to play rugby. Now he plays tennis.
Ann / study / German / French
Bill / live / London / Glasgow
Mary / read a lot / TV
Joe / driver / hairdresser
Alice / coffee / tea
Peter / lots of girlfriends / married
3. Make questions about a very old persons past.
where / go to school..............................Where did you use to go to school?
have dark hair..................................................Did
play football
enjoy your work
go to a lot of parties
4. Write some sentences about your past habits.

so do I / neither do I
When we want to say that A is or does the same as B, we can use this structre:
so + auxiliary verb + subject
Look at these examples and pay attention to the word order:
A: Im hungry.
B: So am I.

A: Paul has failed his exam.


B: So has Jennifer.

A: They can run fast.


B: So can we.

In these examples we only have to repeat the auxiliary verb in the sentences (m, has, can).
BUT when there is no auxiliary verb to repeat, (because we are using an ordinary verb) we use
do / does / did.

1. Complete the sentences, use so.


My job is exciting. (mine)............................So is mine.
I see ghosts in the dark. (I).........................So do I.
Ann is very interested in history. (Alice) ...............
My father plays golf all day. (my father)
I can swim under water. (I)
Peter wants a bike for Xmas. (Mary)
Joe has just got married. (Eric)
Susan has finished work. (I)
In negative sentences, we use neither + auxiliary verb + subject.
A: Im not working today.
B: Neither am I.

A: Julie cant drive.


B: Neither can Annie.

A: Sue doesnt like the teacher.


B. Neither does Oscar.

2. Complete the sentences, use neither.


Messi didnt play very well, and (the others)...........neither did the others.
The soup wasnt wery good, and (the meat)
Bill hasnt phoned yet. (Annie)
This dictionary doesnt show pronounciation. (this one)
I cant cook! (I)
His parents wont help him, and (his friends)

3. Complete the sentence. Use so or

neither .

The green apples arent very sweet. (the red ones)


My father works too hard. (my father)
My car doesnt use a lot of petrol. (my car)
Mary has passed all her exams. (her sister)
Some dogs can understnad orders. (our dog)
The bus takes a long time to get to London. (the train)
The front door wasnt open. (the back door)
Her first book didnt sell very well. (her second one)

MODAL VERBS
Ability:

can / cant
could / couldnt
I can drive a car. (I know how to drive it)
I could type 300 words in a minute, but now I lack the practise. (I was able to do that, now I cant)
I cant swim. (I dont know how to do to float in the water)

Permission:

can / cant
could / couldnt
I can drive a car. (I have a driving license, I am permitted to drive)
You cant see this film, youre under age. (You are not permitted to see it)

Asking for permission:


Possibility:

informal
formal

Can you open the door, please?


Could you open the door, please?

Can you ... (verb) .........?


Could you ... (verb) ......?

can / could / couldnt: when the possibility is neutral, possible or not possible
You can lose all your money gambling in lotteries.
If you work for it, you could be anything you want in life.
must: when we are certain or sure that something is possible
You must study really hard, your marks are just great!
They must be dating, they spent so much time together.
cant: when we are certain or sure that something is impossible
She cant be your little sister, shes older than you.
Darren cant be british, hes got a strong foreign accent.

Obligation:

must have to or has to


We must do a lot of exams every term.
I have to tidy my room every weekend.

We must go to school from Mondays to Fridays.


Paul has to help his mother with the housework.

Lack of obligation:

dont or doesnt have to


We dont have to study Unit 9 for the exam.

Prohibition:

Sheila doesnt have to go to school on Sundays.

mustnt
We mustnt cheat in exams.
You mustnt use your mobile phones in class.
You musnt open that door under any circumstances.

Give advice: should / shouldnt


You should study more in all subjects.
They should tell their children to behave.

She should be more ambitious.


You shouldnt spend hours on the computer.

Answer these questions about modal verbs:


a) What verb do we use when we are sure that something is true?
must - can - could - cant
b) What do we use when we are sure that something is impossible? must - can - could - cant
c) What two verbs do we use when we are not very sure about it?
must - can - could - cant
d) Which three verbs tell us about peoples abilities?
must - can - could - cant
e) Which verbs do we use to talk about rules or duties? and
f) Which verb do we use to tell people what is forbidden?
g) What form of the verb follows modal verbs?
Participle
Gerund
Infinitive
h) You must put an s in the third person singular.
TRUE
FALSE
i) You can use modal verbs only with the verb to be.
TRUE
FALSE
j) Modal verbs dont need to use dont or doesnt.
TRUE
FALSE
k) Modal verbs dont have ing form.
TRUE
FALSE
l) You cant write to before a modal verb.
TRUE
FALSE
m) This verb does not really work as a modal verb:
n) Exceptionally, the verb have to changes to in the third person singular, and for the
negative and interrogative you must use . or .

1. Possibility: must could can cant. Match the sentences:


1 2 3 4 5
1 That car is travelling too fast.
A) It could be poisonous.
2 Im not sure where I put the book.
B) It can be in the living room.
3 I dont think you should touch that plant.
C) It must be very expensive.
4 I cant turn on the hair-dryer.
D) It cant be safe.
5 Its made of silver and gold.
E) It must be broken.
2. Possibility. How do you feel about these sentences. Complete them with a modal verb.
Antonio Banderas ............................ win an Oscar, because ... I ......................... agree with you, because ...
Spain ............................ win the World Cup, because ...
Aliens ............................ be real, because ...
There ............................ be life on Mars, because ...
God ............................ exist, because ...
3. Possibility. Now complete these sentences with the right modal verb.
1 Susie has a new computer. Her parents ........................................................... have given it to her.
2 The afternoon is very cloudy. It .............................................................................. rain very soon.
3 There ..................................................... be a ghost in that house, because such things dont exist.
4 I havent seen that pupil till now, she ................................................................. be new at school.
5 There are strange sounds in that house. People think it .................................................. be a spirit.
6 She ..................................................... know your brother, because they go to the same university.
7 Alicia speaks English with great difficulty, so she ............................................ come from Oxford.
8 Jenny predicted the result of the match, so she ............................ have special powers.
9 The weather forecast predicted clear skies, so it rain tomorrow!
10 I think I pass the English exams if I study enough.
11 Chris didnt pass her Science exam, she be very disappointed.
12 I dont like him for the job, but I admit that he do it well if he tries hard.
4. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of have to.
1 I .. do any homework today. Ive finished.
2 Sally failed her exam. She ... take it again at the end of the term.
3 Sam and Mary .. go to school today because its a bank Monday.
4 Andrew ... walk to school his mother drives him.
5 You . answer all the questions. Theyre compulsory.
6 She . wear a uniform at school she can dress as she likes.
6. Make statements (+), questions (?) or negative sentences() with have to.
(+)Jenny failed her English exam. (study harder next time)
() Philip must work on Saturdays. (work on Sundays)
(?) Look Ive got the concert tickets. (I / pay any money)
() This soup is really disgusting. (you / eat it)
(+) This cake is really delicious. (you / tell me the secret)
() Well get too tired too soon. (run so fast)
6. Translate
No tengo que esperar en la entrada, ya he comprado las entradas.
No encuentro mis gafas, debo de haberlas perdido.
Muchos alumnos han aprobado este examen, debe de haber sido muy fcil.
No puede haber vida en la Luna porque all no hay agua.
Mara no debera gastar tanto dinero, podra necesitarlo ms adelante.
A Jenny debe de gustarle el helado, ya se ha comido tres.
Juan debe de tener mucho dinero. Ha comprado diez ceds esta tarde.
Tonteras! Los extraterrestres no existen. No puedes creer eso.
Henry tiene que estudiar todos los das, pero no tiene que trabajar demasiado en casa.
Mira esa luz! Podra ser una nave espacial? S, pero podra ser slo una estrella.

REPORTED SPEECH (1). Tenses and Pronouns.


1 When we want to tell people what somebody said or thought, we often use reported speech.
Verb tenses and here-and-now words (for example this, here, today) and pronouns (e.g. I, you, we)
can change in reported speech. This is because the time, place and speaker may be different.
For example, present tenses become past; I may become he or she; my may become his or her.
My name is Albert.
My feets are cold.
I have a problem!

He said that his name was Albert.


She said that her feet were cold.
I thought that I had a problem.

2 Questions in reported speech have a different structure from direct questions.


What is your phone number?

He asked me what my phone number was.

3 We can use object + infinitive (with to) after ask and tell.
Make some coffee, please
Tidy up your room, children!

I asked him / her to make some coffee.


She told them to tidy up their room.

4 We often leave out that, especially after common verbs like say, think.
He said his name was Albert.
I thought I had a problem

***** Put in the correct pronoun or possessive.


She likes me
I speak French
I am very sorry
Ann phoned me
We want our money

Peter said she liked .................


He said ..................... spoke French.
She said .................... was very sorry.
She said Ann had phoned ......................
They said ...................... wanted ....................... money.

5 We can use both say and tell in reported speech. Tell must have a personal object: we tell
somebody something. Say doesnt need a personal object: we say something (to somebody).
***** Circle the correct answer.
I said / told the driver I wanted to stop.
Everybody said / told I looked beautiful.
Paul said / told there was a call for me.
Why did you say / tell the car was old?

Eric said / told the waiter he couldnt pay.


I didnt say / tell Peter that I was going out.
Nobody said / told me that the shop was closed.
Ann said / told that she would wait at the bus stop.

***** Put the beginnings and ends together, and look at the use of tenses.
1) In 1896 Lord Kelvin said
2) In 1937 Hitlers nephew Willi said
3) When Columbus got to America he toguht
4) When Albert Einstein was 10, a teacher told him
5) Hundreds of years ago, people believed

A) aeroplanes were impossible.


B) he would never be a scientist.
C) his uncle was not interested in war.
D) the sun went around the earth.
E) he had reached India.

6 When we tell people what somebody said in the past, there is a time difference.
(For example, somebody said something on Sunday, and I tell you about it on Monday.)
Because of these, tenses usually change as follows:

DIRECT SPEECH
The boys are in Ireland
My TV isnt working
I have a meeting at 4.00.
Sue has passed her exam.

TENSE CHANGE
AM / IS / ARE WAS / WERE
HAVE / HAS HAD

We will probably be late.

WILL WOULD

You can have three tickets.


Can you swim?

CAN COULD

It doesnt matter, James.


What do you do in your job?
The trains leaves at six.
We all speak English.

REPORTED SPEECH
He said the children were in...
She said her TV wasnt working.

He said he had a meeting at 4.00.


Sally told me Sue had passed her exam.
John said they would probably be late.
The man said I could have three tickets.
She asked me if I could swim?

DO / DOES DID

I told James that it didnt matter.


He asked me what I did in my job.

Present Simple Past Simple

He told me the train left at six.


She said they all spoke English.

I forgot my keys.
Past Simple Past Perfect
He said he had forgotten his keys.
What did you eat for lunch?
The doctor asked me what I had eaten ...
Did you break the window?
She asked me if I had broken ...
***** Rewrite the sentences in reported speech, changing the tenses. Begin He / She / They said ...
SALLY: I am tired ............................................... She said (that) she was tired.
ANN: My sister needs a car. ...............................................
BILL: I have to phone Andrew. ...............................................
MARY: Nobody wants to help me. ...............................................
HELEN: The radio doesnt work. ...............................................
JOHN: I will be in Paris in July. ...............................................
MIKE: I like the red sweater. ...............................................
DAVID: I cant swim. ...............................................
ALICE: My parents are travelling. ...............................................
MARIA: The lessons are very good. ...............................................
ERIC AND SUE: We havent heard from Joe. ...............................................
***** Look at the list of things to see what Joseph tought when he was small. Write his thoughts in
reported speech.
ANIMALS CAN TALK.

CATS HAVE NINE LIVES.

MY FATHER KNOWS EVERYTHING.


SPAGHETTI GROWS ON TREES.

... He thought (that) animals could talk.

I WILL BE RICH ONE DAY.

THE TEACHER LIVES IN THE SCHOOL.


MY MOTHER HAS ALWAYS BEEN OLD.

Or ..... He believed (that) animals could talk.

***** What did you think when you were small? Write two or three sentences.

REPORTED SPEECH (2). Indirect Questions.


7 Indirect questions have a different order from direct questions, and NO question marks.
DIRECT QUESTION:
INDIRECT QUESTION:

Monica said, Where is John?


Monica asked where John was.

I said, When can you come?


I asked her when she could come.

8 We dont use auxiliary do / does in indirect questions:


DIRECT QUESTION:
INDIRECT QUESTION:

What do you want?


She asked me what I wanted.

Where does Andrew live?


I asked him where Andrew lived.

***** A policewoman stopped a driver in London and asked him some questions. Write indirect
questions.
What is your name?

She asked him what his name was.

Where do you live?


Where do you work?
Where are you going?
Where have you been?
What is the number of your car plate?
Why are you driving on the right?
9 With indirect yes/no questions we use if or whether. They mean the same.
DIRECT QU:

Do you know Tim?

Are you French?

INDIRECT QU:

He asked me if I knew Tim.


He asked me whether I knew Tim.

He asked me if I was French.


He asked me whether I was ...

***** The policewoman asked some more questions. Write the indirect questions with if or whether.
Are you British?
Is it your car?
Do you have a driving licence?
Do you have it with you?
Do you always drive with the door open?
Are you listening to me?
***** These are some questions form a womans job interview. Write the indirect questions.
How old are you?
Are you married?
Do you have children?
Where have you worked before?
Why do you want to change your job?
Can you speak any foreign language?
What exams have you passed?

1. Present Simple (affirmative). Complete the sentences with the correct form of verbs.
be - listen to - read - speak - work

get up - walk - learn - play - study

My sister _____________ a book every month.


He _____________ Italian and French.
These men _____________ in the factory.
Lucy _____________ music in her room.
They _____________ the new players.

James _____________ to the gym every day.


The boys _____________ football on Saturdays.
My brother _____________ at University.
Peter _____________ at seven oclock every day.
We _____________ English at school.

2. Present Simple (negative). Complete the sentences with the correct form of verbs in brackets.
not be
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

not go

not play

not study

not watch

I volleyball on Sundays.
The children to bed late.
Martina .............. TV every evening.
John . very much.
His girlfriend from England.

3. Present Simple (interrogative). Order the words to make questions and answer them.
a) brother / tennis / play / your?
..

No, he

b) going to / like / you / the cinema?


..

Yes, I

c) Lucy and Jim / school at / eat?


..

No, they

d) give / the / a / homework / of / teacher / lot?


..

Yes, she

4. Translate into English the following sentences. Use PRESENT SIMPLE.


Me gusta bailar y salir con mis amigas.

Mi hermana estudia siempre por las noches.

Susana juega al baloncesto.

Sofa a veces escucha msica en su cuarto.

Dnde vivs? Yo vivo en Mlaga y Elena vive en Cdiz.

Cundo abre tu padre la tienda nueva? El mircoles.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
5. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the Present Continuous.
not go
not shop
make
put
read
1 She a magazine. 2 I to the library.
3 We some coffee. 4 They . the books on the table.
5 David in the supermarket.
6. Complete the questions and answers.
1 (you / have) lunch now? Yes, I
2 (Anne / do) her homework? No, ..
3 (the boys / wear) .. jeans today? Yes,

7. Complete the sentences using Present Continuous. Write P

for present or F for future.


paint
run
study
1 The man _____________________________________ his car in the garage.
cry

have

not listen to

not sit

not write

open

2 The children ________________________________________ the new English words.


3 The King and Queen of Spain ______________________ the Picasso museum next week.
4 Our teacher _________________________________ on the blackboard in this moment.
5 Sheila ___________________________________ in the race tomorrow.
6 Im so tired. I _______________________________ a hot shower in five minutes.
7 Some students ________________________________ the cassette in silence.
8 The little girl _______________________________ because shes hungry.
9 My sister _________________________________ her new dress next Sunday.
0 They ________________________________ on the grass because its very wet.
8. Traduce estas frases con el Present Continuous.
1 Qu vas a hacer el domingo?

Voy a estudiar para un examen de matemticas.

2 Qu va a hacer Sara maana por la tarde?

Va a jugar al ftbol con su equipo.

3 Mis padres van a comprar un coche nuevo la semana que viene.


4 Vamos a viajar a Londres el jueves. Vamos a visitar a unos amigos.

PAST SIMPLE
9. Complete and translate all these sentences with these REGULAR verbs.
1) Jenny ________________ her watch using a screwdriver. (MEND)
2) The car passed by the corner and ___________________ right. (TURN)
3) The public ______________________ their hands after the performance. (CLAP)
4) I ____________________ at the picture in the museum for hours. (LOOK)
5) My friend ____________________ me all her new CDs. (SHOW)
6) Peter and Mary ____________________ when they were twenty-nine. (MARRY)
7) Susie _____________________ a hair-drier to dry her clothes. (USE)
8) When I was at school, I ______________________ about my studies. (WORRY)
9) The gangsters ____________________ a lot of money in a shop near my house. (ROB)
10) The architect ____________________ a lot of workers in the building works. (EMPLOY)

10. Complete and translate all these sentences with these IRREGULAR verbs.
1) The girl ____________________ her school books to a friend. (SELL)
2) The new group __________________ all their great hits. (SING)
3) Jenny ___________________ me her bicycle for the summer holidays. (LEND)
4) I was in a hurry, but finally I ___________________ the train on time. (CATCH)
5) Last autumn John _________________ a lot of photos in Greece. (TAKE)
6) Those gold earrings ______________________ me fifty pounds. (COST)
7) The wind __________________ powerfully and the dead leaves fluttered in the air. (BLOW)
8) The Watson family ____________________ some tasteful seafruit in the restaurant. (EAT)
9) Johnny was studying in his room when the phone ___________________. (RING)
10) My mother _______________________ a letter to a TV contest yesterday. (SEND)

wear

11. Choose a verb from the list and complete these sentences. Make sure that they make sense.
cry
draw sleep count come
wash play fly eat
live
begin look
He was very tired and __________ for nine hours last night.
The baby was ill and ___________ all night.
I ________ my hands and face this morning.
The teacher _________ a picture on the board.
The children were hungry and _____________ all the cakes.
Jacks father _______ in London until 1988.
He opened the door and ____________ into the room.
This lesson ____________ twenty minutes ago.
The cat climbed the tree, but the bird _________ away.
The boys _____________ football last Saturday.
He took the book and _____________ at the pictures.
She opened her purse and ____________ the money.
12. Translate into English the following sentences. Use the Past Simple in all the sentences.
Dnde encontraste tu reloj? Estaba dentro de mi bolsillo.

Ayer no fuimos al colegio, fuimos a una excursin con nuestros profesores.

Cundo escribiste el libro? El ao pasado.

El alumno no ley las frases, ley un texto.


PAST CONTINUOUS
13. Complete these sentences using the Past Continuous.
a) The boys ... (sing) in the party, and the girls (dance).
b) The sun .... (set), and a fresh air .... (blow) in the beach.
c) All of us .. (work) very hard on Sunday morning. While my father (paint) the
wall, my mother . (mend) the car in the garage, and my brother Ken and I ..
(tidy) our room.
d) I .. (look) through my window one Sunday morning. In the park an old man ..
(tie) his dog to a tree, two girls .. (play) in the shore of the lake, and their
parents (sit) on a bench near them.

14. Choose the correct tense (Past simple or Past continuous) from those underlined below.
While I was doing / did my homework, I had / was having a good idea.
When she arrived / was arriving, I was going / went into the kitchen.
Jim was breaking / broke his leg when he played / was playing rugby.
While Maria was walking / walked home, she was losing / lost her purse.
I was seeing / saw an old friend while I waited / was waiting for the train.
While Joe was cooking / cooked lunch, his wife was coming / came back from work.
Anne was meeting / met Judy while she did / was doing some shopping.
We were finding / found an old box while we dug / were digging in the garden.
Someone was taking / took Peters bag while he made / was making a phone call.
While I had / was having a bath, the phone rang / was ringing.

15. Complete this text with the Past Simple or the Past Continuous.
Jacks father (read) a book last night when he (hear) a noise out in the garden. He
(open) the window and looked out. It (be) a dark night and at first he could see
nothing. But as he (shut) his window, he (see) a man. The man .
(try) to climb over the garden wall. He was a thief. When he saw Jacks father at the window, he (jump) off
the wall and ran away. Jacks father (run) after him. There was a car at the end of the street, and someone else
.. (wait) for him inside. The thief reached the car, but just as he (get) into it, Jacks father
(catch) him.

16. Complete these sentences with the Past Simple and Past Continuous.
The boy was knocked down by a bus as he (cross) the road.
A lot of people . (see) the accident while they .. (wait) for the train.
Just as the doctor (go) to bed there (be) a knock at the door.
Silvia (go) to the British Museum when she (study) at London University.
He (fall) down and (break) his leg while he (play) football.
The travellers (reach) the town as the sun (set).
The foolish boy (jump) off the bus while it (go).
The hunter (shoot) and (kill) the lion just as it ....... (jump) towards him.

17. Translate into English using the Past Simple and the Past Continuous.
1) Mi hermana estaba comprando una revista cuando vio el accidente.

2) Estaba escuchando msica en mi habitacin cuando t llegaste.

3) Cuando me marchaba de la oficina, lleg tu carta.

4) Me romp un brazo mientras patinaba en el parque.

5) Pedro no jug al ftbol ayer porque estaba estudiando en su casa.

PRESENT PERFECT
18. Complete the following sentences using the Present Perfect of the verbs in brackets.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

My parents (buy) ....................................................... a new flat.


The boy (write) ....................................................... a letter to her girlfriend.
We (eat) ....................................................... all the sandwiches.
Susie and Jenny (bring) ....................................................... some music for the party.
The new pupil (not do) ....................................................... all the activities.
............................................................. (the children / put) the books on the table? Yes, ...................
................................................................. (Peter / kiss) his mother? No, .........................
My sister (forget) ....................................................... her umbrella in the cinema.

19. Complete the following sentences using the Present Perfect of the following verbs:

not take - finish - lock - make - find - tidy - not spend - steal - decide - not watch
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Robert ....................................................... the watch he lost yesterday.


Tom and his brother ....................................................... to start karate lessons.
The tourists....................................................... any photograph of the cathedral.
The thief ....................................................... the womans bag, and hes running away.
John .................................................... the door of the car, and hes putting the key in his pocket.
The travel was very cheap, so we ....................................................... a lot of money on it.
....................................... the pupils ....................................... all the activities?
.................................... your mother ..................................... a cake for your birthday?

i)
j)

............................................ you .................................... your room today?

We .................................................... any television this weekend.

20. Translate these sentences into English using the Present Perfect.
a) Has estado alguna vez en Inglaterra?
b) La secretaria no ha telefoneado al mdico.
c) Habis pintado vosotros esa ventana?
d) Hemos viajado a Roma y hemos visto muchos museos.
e) John ha suspendido todas sus asignaturas.

21. Translate into English. Use Present Perfect and JUST, YET or ALREADY when necessary.

1 Helen acaba de mandar una carta a su amiga.

2 Mary ya ha acabado su trabajo.

3 Este dependiente ha vendido ya todos los productos.

4 Paul ha suspendido todas las asignaturas.

5 La polica no ha encontrado an al delincuente.

6 Dnde has puesto la comida? La he guardado ya en la nevera.

7 Dnde han escrito los alumnos las frases?

8 Juan ha gastado mucho dinero en este negocio.


22. Put in SINCE or FOR. Two time expressions shouldnt be in this list. Mark them .
some minutes
many weeks
I met her
a few days

last Tuesday
more than a year
tomorrow
ages and ages

three decades
September
on Monday
the whole summer

23. Translate using the Present Perfect with for or since.

1 Llevo diez aos estudiando en este colegio.


2 Cunto hace que Helen trabaja en esta empresa? Veinte aos.

3 Desde cundo tienes esos vaqueros? Desde que tena quince aos.

4 El profesor no viene a clase desde hace tres das.

5 Hace ya una hora que estoy esperando bajo la lluvia.

6 Robert lleva estudiando idiomas desde que era nio.

7 Cunto hace que tenis la casa nueva? Slo desde el mes pasado.

8 Desde cundo os conocis? Desde que estbamos en el colegio.

24. Choose the Present Perfect or the Past Simple in the following.
1 We learnt / have learnt a lot of English last year.
2 I cant find my wallet. I think I lost / ve lost it.
3 Im not ready. I didnt finish / havent finished.

4 Can I have another book? Ive read / read this one.


5 Where did you go / have you been last Saturday?
6 My dad didnt do / hasnt done the cooking yesterday.

25. Present Perfect Past Simple. Write the correct form in the blanks.
1 I ... to my brother yesterday. (write)
2 I .... to my sister. (write)
3 The lessons ..... last week. (begin)
4 You ... three cups today. (break)
5 Why ..... so late tonight? (you, be)
6 I dont know who ... my ring. (steal)
7 We ... too much last night. (eat)
8 John .. off his bike yesterday. (fall)
9 Im sorry, I...... your name! (forget)
10 I . her my photo, now she knows me. (send)
11 We .. what they wanted. (know)
12 Oh, dear!! Someone .. my umbrella! (steal)
C
CO
ON
ND
DIITTIIO
ON
NA
ALL SSEEN
NTTEEN
NC
CEESS TTY
YPPEE 11..
26. Form conditional sentences using the present simple and the future simple, and any other addition.
1 you (be) late / you (not see) the film.
2 they (buy) the new house / the bank (give) them the money.
4 we (not clean) the garden / it (be) too hot outside.
5 I (stay) at home / you (not phone) me to go out tonight.

27. Translate into English these conditional sentences.


Si estudias mucho, tus notas mejorarn.
Si no estudias lo suficiente, suspenders.
Si no duermes bien por la noche, te sientes cansado al da siguiente.
Mary se conectar a Internet con su ordenador si termina sus deberes.
Si tengo sed, bebo agua.
Si ella no viene a la fiesta, me enfadar.
Qu comers si no te gusta la comida?
Visitars Londres si viajas a Inglaterra este verano con tu familia? Claro.
No terminars las actividades a menos que empieces ya.
Si pierdes tu empleo en esta empresa, donde trabajars?

ENGLISH FINAL TEST 3RD YEAR E.S.O.


PASSIVE VOICE
1. Passives. (Present Simple)
1.1. Complete the sentences with: am / is / are.
More chocolate . eaten in the USA than in any other country.
Not very much . known about Shakespeares childhood.
We . woken by the birds every morning.
I . paid on the first of every month.
. you seen by the same doctor every week?
Spanish spoken in many American countries.
1.2. Put the verbs in the simple present passive.
A lot of olive oil .. in Mediterranean cooking. (use)
Arabic . from right to left. (write)
Jaguar cars .. in America. (not make)
Our classrooms .. every day. (clean)
These programmes . by millions of people every week. (watch)
Spanish ... in Brazil. (not speak)
2. Passives. (Past Simple)
2.1. Complete the sentences with: was / were.
Most of the matches won by Spanish teams.
These keys found in the changing room are they yours?
I stopped by a policeman in the city centre last night.
We couldnt find the station, but we helped by a very kind woman.
Yesterday a man caught trying to steal a parked car.
The lost soldiers found in a ruined house.

2.2. Put the verbs in the simple past passive.


Our passports . by a tall man in a uniform. (take)
These books . in the classroom yesterday. (leave)
My money . because they wanted to invite me. (not accept)
I dont think this room ... yesterday. (clean)
My father . by the noise in the outside. (not wake)
3. Turn the following sentences into the passive (use BY only if it is necessary). ***Double passive.
People study English in many countries.
Do you speak English in this shop?
Cervantes wrote Don Quixote.
They didnt tell the truth to their parents.***
Where did the police find the dead body?
The teacher gave the pupils some English activities.***
Do they clean the rooms every day?
The police didnt catch the thieves.
ENGLISH FINAL TEST 3RD YEAR E.S.O.

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE

1. Complete the sentences with the Comparative

and

Superlative of the adjectives given in brackets:

-Your father is _______________________ mine, but ________________________ one is Peters father. (young)
-Horses are ______________________ cats, but dogs are ______________________ animals I know. (intelligent)
-Scream is ______________________ The Haunting, but Blade is ________________________ film for me. (bad)
-Paris is _____________________ London, but Venice is ______________________ city in the world. (romantic)
-Estopa are __________________ UPAdance, but Amaral are ____________________ Spanish pop group. (good)
-The car is ____________________ the motorbike, but the bus is ___________________ transport in town. (safe)
- Teide is ___________________ Mulhacn, but Mount Blanc ___________________ mountain in Europe. (high)
-April and May are __________________ December, but June and July are ____________________months. (hot)

2. Use the COMPARATIVE of these adjectives to complete the following sentences:


cold

difficult

far

fast

rich

By plane you can travel _____________________________________________ by train.


A king is usually __________________________________________________ a normal person.
Saturn is _____________________________________________ Mars.
The Antarctic continent is ______________________________________ the North Pole.
English is _______________________________________ other subjects for many students.
3. Use the SUPERLATIVE of these adjectives to complete the following sentences:
big

intelligent

polluted

small

tall

What do you think is ________________________________________________________ animal?


My school is _________________________________________________ one in the area.
_____________________________________ person in my class is .....................................
Mexico DF is _____________________________________________ city in the world.
Some dogs can be ___________________________________________________ a book.

4. Translate into English. Use the Comparative and Superlative forms of the adjectives below.
-Un apartamento es ms pequeo que una casa.

-Esta maana el cielo est ms azul que ayer.

-Luisa es la mejor alumna de mi clase.

-El Concorde es el avin ms rpido del mundo.

-El teatro es ms emocionante que el cine.

ENGLISHT FINAL TEST. 3TH YEAR E.S.O.

June 2007

1. Complete the sentences. Use there is or there are.

2. Complete the sentences. Use some or any.

a) ............................. some juice in the glass.


b) ............................ two dogs in the farm.
c) ............................ some potatoes in the basket.
d) ............................ some aubergines in this drawer.
e) ............................ a little red bird on the tree.

f) Is there ....................... salt in the bag?


g) I havent got ............... classes this week.
h)Theres .................... coke in the kitchen.
i) Has she got .................... new magazines?
j) There are .................... cats on the roof.

3. Complete with there was / were

4. Complete with there was / were

- ............................. some dogs in the street.


- ............................ any people at the door.
- ............................ any music at your party?
- ............................ any exams last month.
- ............................ a good film on TV last night.
- ............................ any cream in the fridge?
- ............................ an old man at the door.
- ............................ any water in the pool.

- .............................. any oil in the bottle?


- ............................... many books in his bag.
- ............................. two pupils in the class.
- .......................... many friends at your party?
- ........................ any teachers in the corridor?
- ............................. some girls in the street.
- ........................ any bread, so I bought some.
- ................ coffee and milk in for breakfast.

5. Complete these sentences. Use How much or How many.


- .......................................................... time do you spend studying every day?
- .......................................................... months are there in a school term?
- .......................................................... money do you spend every day?
- .......................................................... days are there in a week?
- .......................................................... players are there in a football team?
- .......................................................... pork do you want, madam?
- .......................................................... beer is there in the jug?
- .......................................................... fish do you usually eat?
- .......................................................... colours are there in the Spanish flag?
- .......................................................... burgers do you eat in a month?

6. Choose the right word from those underlined below.


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

There isnt many / much food in the fridge, Im afraid.


Have you read many / much books in German?
There isnt many / much rain in the summer.
There isnt many / much coffee in the coffee pot.
You havent made many / much mistakes.

4. Translate these sentences into English.


a) Haba algunas casas en la colina. ........................................................................................................
b) Hay sal y pimienta en el cajn. ........................................................................................................
c) No haba revistas en la tienda.

........................................................................................................

d) No hay aceite en la botella.

........................................................................................................

e) Hay pasteles en la panadera? ........................................................................................................


f) Hay nata en el bote?

........................................................................................................

g) Cunto dinero hay en la caja? .........................................................................................................


h) Cuntos discos hay en esta coleccin?

...........................................................................................

i) Cunta leche haba en la botella? ......................................................................................................


j) Cuntas chicas hay en la fiesta? .......................................................................................................