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Critically Analyse the Impact of Effective Brand positioning in

Customer Involvement in Mulberry

ABSTRACT
Organizations are developing integrated marketing techniques, integrating numerous
promotional elements to develop brand position to enhance consumer involvement in
the brand (MSG, 2016).Brand positioning strategies helps a company to determine the
distinct ranking and uniqueness of a product in the industry. As opined by Ponduri and
Sailaja (2014) this has a direct influence on deciding the motivation level and
involvement of customers towards their services and amenities. However as Rowley
(2009) states, increased competency in UK market and changing customer attitudes
has caused to develop brand positioning failures that direct influences customers
outlook. For example, Mulberry, the leading fashion retailer in UK has failed to achieve
customer attention and consumer involvement because of its brand positioning issues
(Chesters, 2012).
From the organizational background, this study is highly significant as it is primarily
focussing on the retail industry in UK and the brand positioning strategies of a retailer.
The existence of popular fashion retailers such as Prada, Gucci, Mulberry etc and the
presence of large consumer base makes the retail segment more competitive (Wilson,
2014). Hence, this research will be significant for retailers to efficiently manage their
brand positioning strategies to enhance consumer involvement and to attain business
successThe researcher will perform a survey among 0 customers of Mulberry and will
also conduct a case study, by detailed verification using secondary resources and
survey. For data evaluation, the researcher used pie chart, bar chart, tables etc. the
researcher further reevaluate the secondary data with the findings from the survey.
.

Contents
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................1
1.1 Introduction...............................................................................................................1
1.2 Research background..............................................................................................1
1.3 Rationale..................................................................................................................2
1.4 Research aim...........................................................................................................3
1.5 Research objectives.................................................................................................3
1.6 Research questions..................................................................................................3
1.7 Research significance and purpose.........................................................................4
1.8 Structure of the dissertation work.............................................................................5
1.9 Summary..................................................................................................................5
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................................................6
2.1 Brand positioning......................................................................................................6
2.1.1 Types of brand positioning.................................................................................7
2.1.

Brand positioning strategies.................................................................................9

Situational factors......................................................................................................11
2.5 Impact of brand positioning on customer involvement in UK retail industry..........15
2.6 Link between the present study and existing literature..........................................16
2.7 Conceptual framework...........................................................................................17
2.9 Summary................................................................................................................17
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.........................................18
3.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................18
3.2 Research Philosophy.............................................................................................18
3.2.1 Positivism.........................................................................................................18
3.2.2 Interpretivism....................................................................................................18
3.2.3 Realism............................................................................................................19
3.3 Research Approach................................................................................................19
3.3.1 Inductive approach...........................................................................................20
3.3.2 Deductive approach.........................................................................................20
3.4 Research design....................................................................................................21

3.5 Research strategy..................................................................................................22


3.6 Data collection methods and justification...............................................................23
3.7 Sampling and justification......................................................................................24
3.8 Data analysis plan..................................................................................................25
3.9 Ethical issues.........................................................................................................25
3.10 Accessibility issues...............................................................................................25
3.11 Research limitations.............................................................................................26
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION...............................................27
4.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................27
4.2 Case study of Mulberry, UK....................................................................................27
4.2 Quantitative findings...............................................................................................30
4.3 Identification of gaps..............................................................................................42
4.4 Judgment of findings..............................................................................................44
4.5 Conclusion..............................................................................................................46
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.........................................47
5.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................47
5.2 Conclusions............................................................................................................47
5.3 Evaluation of results...............................................................................................49
5.4 Recommendations.................................................................................................51
5.5 Research limitations...............................................................................................52
5.6 Recommendations for future researchers..............................................................52
REFERENCES................................................................................................................53

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Consumer is the king in every business and in this period of global competition,
organizations, especially retailers search new methods to position their products in
consumers mind. Organizations are developing integrated marketing techniques,
integrating numerous promotional elements to develop brand position to enhance
consumer involvement in the brand (MSG, 2016).Brand positioning strategies helps a
company to determine the distinct ranking and uniqueness of a product in the industry.
As opined by Ponduri and Sailaja (2014) this has a direct influence on deciding the
motivation level and involvement of customers towards their services and amenities.
However as Rowley (2009) states, increased competency in UK market and changing
customer attitudes has caused to develop brand positioning failures that direct
influences customers outlook. For example, Mulberry, the leading fashion retailer in UK
has failed to achieve customer attention and consumer involvement because of its
brand positioning issues (Chesters, 2012).
1.2 Research background
From the organizational background, this study is highly significant as it is primarily
focussing on the retail industry in UK and the brand positioning strategies of a retailer.
The existence of popular fashion retailers such as Prada, Gucci, Mulberry etc and the
presence of large consumer base makes the retail segment more competitive (Wilson,
2014). Hence, this research will be significant for retailers to efficiently manage their
brand positioning strategies to enhance consumer involvement and to attain business
success.
Mulberry, one of the iconic British fashion retailer, is prominent for leather hand-bags,
clothing and other fashion accessories. The retailer has worldwide presence and has
been able to achieve a record of 163.5 million in 2013. But recent reports in The
Telegraph by Anderson (2014) mention that the branding ways of Mulberry have
become inefficient in seizing the attention of customers, which point out the failure of
brand positioning by the retailer. Also the total revenue was dropped by 9% from 163.5
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million to 148.7 million in 2014 (Brinded, 2015). Hence, the present study investigates
how consumer involvement is impacted by brand position strategies in Mulberry.

1.3 Rationale
What is the issue?
As Rowley (2009) states, increased competency in UK market and changing customer
attitudes has caused to develop brand positioning failures that direct influences
customers outlook.

Mulberry in spite being a world renowned fashion retailer has

botched in materializing their products and presently faces issues in attaining customer
involvement (Clinch, 2014). Also the high decline in sales from 163.5 million in 2013 to
148.7 million in 2014 is a clear evidence of reduced consumer involvement towards
Mulberry merchandise and brand. Hence, this study is pertinent to the present context.
Why it is an issue? Why now?
The existence of popular fashion retailers such as Prada, Gucci, Mulberry etc and the
presence of large consumer base makes the retail segment more competitive (Wilson,
2014). Mulberry, one of the iconic British fashion retailer, is prominent for leather handbags, clothing and other fashion accessories. The retailer has worldwide presence and
has been able to achieve a record of 163.5 million in 2013. But recent reports in The
Telegraph by Anderson (2014) mention that the branding ways of Mulberry have
become inefficient in seizing the attention of customers, which point out the failure of
brand positioning by the retailer. Also the total revenue was dropped by 9% from 163.5
million to 148.7 million in 2014 (Brinded, 2015). Hence, the present study investigates
how consumer involvement is impacted by brand position strategies in Mulberry..
How and when is it going to be investigated?
Both primary and secondary data will be collected to investigate the study. Primary data
will be collected from customers through survey. Both quantitative and qualitative data
will be gathered and will be analysed by using MS Excel tool. The researcher has
selected interpretivism philosophy because it would help the researcher to critically
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analyze the strategies used by Mulberry for branding and it helps in reaching the
customer more effectively..
What could this research shed light on?
From the organizational background, this study is highly significant as it is primarily
focussing on the retail industry in UK and the brand positioning strategies of a retailer.
The existence of popular fashion retailers such as Prada, Gucci, Mulberry etc and the
presence of large consumer base makes the retail segment more competitive (Wilson,
2014). Hence, this research will be significant for retailers to efficiently manage their
brand positioning strategies to enhance consumer involvement and to attain business
success.
1.4 Research aim
The prime aim of this research is to analyze the impact that brand positioning activities
brought on consumer involvement, by considering the case study of Mulberry, UK.
1.5 Research objectives

To assess the brand positioning strategies in Mulberry, UK


To identify the factors influencing consumer involvement towards Mulberry brand
To analyze the impact of brand positioning strategies on consumer involvement

of Mulberry, UK
To provide recommendations for improving the brand positioning in Mulberry, UK

1.6 Research questions


1. How significant is brand positioning in retail sector?
2. What is the attitude of the customers in position a brand?
3. What are the factors that enhance consumer involvement towards a brand
selection?
4. What are the major positioning strategies adopted by Mulberry for enhancing
customer involvement?
1.7 Research significance and purpose
From the organizational background, this study is highly significant as it is primarily
focussing on the retail industry in UK and the brand positioning strategies of a retailer.
The existence of popular fashion retailers such as Prada, Gucci, Mulberry etc and the
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presence of large consumer base makes the retail segment more competitive (Wilson,
2014). Hence, this research will be significant for retailers to efficiently manage their
brand positioning strategies to enhance consumer involvement and to attain business
success. The three diverse importance phases in accomplishing this investigation
comprises the industrial, personal and academic significances.
Industrial significance: Brand positioning strategies helps a company to
determine the distinct ranking and uniqueness of a product in the industry. It has
a direct influence on deciding the motivation level and involvementof customers
towards their services and amenities. Increased competency in UK market and
changing customer attitudes has caused to develop brand positioning failures
that direct influences customers outlook. Mulberry has failed to achieve
customer attention and consumer involvement because of its brand positioning
issues. Hence, this research will be significant for retailers to efficiently manage
their brand positioning strategies to enhance consumer involvement and to attain
business success.
Personal significance: With the achievement of this vocation, individual ability
and finesse concerning working title will be improved. Therefore careful and
planned personal capability in identifying with the implication of Brand positioning
as per to the altering market situation can be achieved.
Academic significance: The academic significance linked with this study is that
association flanked by the investigation aspects and the varied facades is
apparent by investigator efficiently. Therefore, by expressive reading, effects of
brand positioning on consumer involvement can be found advantageously.

1.8 Structure of the dissertation work

1.9 Summary
It is unmistakably clear from the above expressed audits that brand positioning
assumes a crucial part in pulling in and holding the customers of an association.
Henceforth execution of productive and profitable systems is basic. Mulberry, in spite of
the fact that have useful brand positioning strategies for pulling in customers, the
changing customer mentalities according to propelling innovation has turned into a
stand up to the association. This has lead to decrease the customer fascination rate
among the middle age gathering and consequently is the working title for this
examination. In this current exposition's prelude part the prologue to the exploration
variables, foundation and justification for this examination, destinations, points and
research questions concocted for this work are incorporated.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Brand positioning
Brand positioning deals with consumer preference in purchasing the brand product than
other brands available in the market (MSG, 2016) and is an efficient means in offering
customers separate market value and location than its rivals. According to McNamara
(2016), consumer involvement relates to the degree of importance placed by a
customer on a brand. This directly influences the degree of information processing by
the customer and in turn influences consumer behaviour. There is a clear link between
brand positioning and customer involvement as brand positioning focuses on attracting
the attention of target customers towards a brand while consumer involvement refers to
the level of attention provided by customer towards a brand (Ponduri and Sailaja, 2014).
So the aim of brand positioning needs to be on enhancing consumer involvement in the
brand.
As per Boyle et al (2014), a brand positioning methodology is a structure for setting up
purchaser observations, including the organization's attributes and items in contrast with
its rivals. It is the thing that separates organizations from each other; it assumes an
indispensable part in building touch focuses. Two essential methodologies of brand
positioning are altering a brand in the psyches of purchasers in the objective business
sector and for customers to perceive the brand from contenders. The initial step of a
brand-positioning procedure is to make a particular casing of reference and to impart
the worth suggestion. The qualities should be distinguished and the organization needs
to perceive the brands fundamental vision and targets. They likewise need to perceive
who the organization's principle rivals are and what their qualities are, taking into
consideration the making of brand personality. The fundamental contenders and target
fragments are controlled by the business. Building up brand purposes of equality
(POP's) and brand purposes of contrast (PODs) is the following stride (Stewart, 2014).
As per Boyle et al (2014), partner items with comparative items permits the brand to
stress purposes of equality. POP ought to repudiate the purposes of distinction for
contending brands and ought to show classification certifications, keeping in mind the
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end goal to make a solid position in the business sector for the brand. Purposes of
contrasts are utilized to highlight the advantages of the item that customers appreciate
in contrast with contenders. By creating one of a kind POD, the item will turn out to be
more attractive to the buyer and will be more deliverable by the brand, making it simpler
to separate it from contenders. It is clear that purchasers will contrast a brand in
connection with alternate rivals in the commercial center. In light of a legitimate concern
for managing an upper hand, the PODs must be solid, unmistakable and exceptional
Establishing brand mantras, which are short 3-5 word expressions, are typically
intended to catch the brands purpose of distinction and should obviously outline the
brand picture. The last stride is to impart the brand picture and its center qualities, which
is done through channels, for example, promoting, advertising and media.
2.1.1 Types of brand positioning
Indeed, even there are a few variables to translate market portions; here it bargains just
with the geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioral sections (Larsen,
2010). The technique and/or ascribes that are utilized to attract purchasers to a brand
can be the represent the deciding moment point in accomplishing a position where the
company brand is esteemed over contenders. Most brands are by and large situated
under one prevailing positioning procedure, for the reason that it imparts better to the
business sector in connection to what their brand is attempting to achieve.[34] There
are a few positioning ideas that advertiser's utilization, which are immediate
advantages, roundabout advantages, surrogate positioning, conceptual qualities and
components (Kumar, 2014).
Highlights (solid traits) qualities of the brand advantage that are quantifiable,
substantial and particular to the item class
Theoretical qualities regularly viewed as a heap of solid characteristics, as often as
possible practically identical crosswise over item classes, not unmistakable
Direct (utilitarian) benefits imparts focal points of the brand; the individual quality
shoppers allocate to item or administration highlights, not specifically perceptible;
reflects whether a brand fills in as proposed, alludes to issue arrangements
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Backhanded (experiential/typical) benefits benefits that fulfill hedonic necessities;


gives buyers a circuitous favorable position of the utilization of an item; view of a self or
a social-picture advantage
Surrogate Positioning intended to make customer relationship about outside parts of
a brand; permits a person to arrive at an individual decision about the brand.
To be fruitful in a specific market an item should involve an "express, particular and
appropriate spot in the psyches of all potential and existing customers". It needs to
likewise be in respect to other opponent items available of which is needs to contend
with.
According to Kaunders and Levy (2011) Perceivability and acknowledgment is the
thing that item positioning is about as the positioning of an item is the thing that the item
speaks to for a purchaser the business is focusing on. Nowadays markets are
demonstrating an expansion in the power of contentions and rivalry, which gives the
purchaser a more noteworthy decision and distinguishing proof of the items certain
inborn qualities that then get to be basic for the organization to pick up customer buy of
their items. According to Michaels (2014) It is crucial that an item or administration
needs an unmistakable character and arrangement to the requirements of the shoppers
focused as they won't just buy the item, however can warrant a bigger edge for the
organization through expanded included quality.
By and large, the brand positioning procedure includes:
Positioning Process
The position the brand needs shoppers to possess ought to identify with the center
advantages of the item that are vital to purchasers in the objective business sector.

Analyze nature and the contenders items and how they are seen to shoppers
Create a separated methodology that separates the organization's brand from

contending item and adjusts to the necessities of the business sector


Develop a promoting blend that adequately slices through the correspondence
mess and passes on the messages unmistakably to the business sector
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Communicate a message that backings and imparts the worth based positioning
to the objective business sector

Brand Positioning and consumer involvement


As indicated by Michaels (2014), Brand positioning is a significant component for any
organization as this is the means by which the overall population sees a brand or item.
General society impression of the brand or item is prone to be a deciding component
with respect to whether they purchase it or not. Brand positioning is conveyed to the
business sector through an advertising blend, which comprises of: item methodology,
evaluating technique, advancement system, and circulation procedure. Positioning: A
fight for the customer's brain, shows the impacts of positioning on the buyer. Regularly,
the main organization is the person who discharged the item first. Shoppers effortlessly
recall the main organization to create an item over other people who enter the business
sector late. Xerox created the primary paper replicating machine in the US in 1959, and
still holds the main piece of the pie for photograph duplicating machines. Xerox was so
notable that the word Xerox turned into a verb to supplant photograph duplicate (PWC,
2016). This sort of positioning is priceless as everybody knows the item extensively
superior to the opposition. Clearly, brand position is a great deal more than simply being
the first in the business sector, however being first helps. Numerous different
components, for example, nonstop quality, style, informal, and enhanced notice will all
help item positioning (PWC, 2016).
2.1.

Brand positioning strategies

Figure 2.1: Brand positioning strategies


(Source: Maandag and Puolakka, 2015)
Market strategy: Marlow (2013) defines market positioning strategy as an attempt to
affect customers perception of a brand in relation to the perception of competing
brands.
Product strategy: This is the activity marketers adopt to identify how to effectively
communicate their brand attributes to the target audience.
HR strategy: Through HR positioning, HR department identifies how works are defined,
how many positions are required and what the company framework look like (Chan and
Burgess, 2011).
Pricing strategy: Price positioning considers ability to reimburse, segments, competitor
activities, input costs etc, among other firms.
Service strategy: Service positioning identifies how a firm differentiate its services from
that of rivals and then identify which market segment to fill.

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Distribution strategy: Efficient distribution delivers organizations product/services rapidly


which can provide business a unique and cost-effective edge (Maandag and Puolakka,
2015).
Go-to-market strategy: This is an action plan that indicates how a firm will reach
consumers and attain competitive advantage.
Marketing strategy: Adopting innovative and effective marketing techniques to
differentiate to rivals by recruiting the best marketers and best professionals (Khan and
Razzaque, 2015).
2.3 Factors affecting consumer involvement
There are 4 fundamental sorts of components affecting customer involvement. There
are 4 fundamental sorts of components affecting customer involvement: social
elements, social variables, individual elements and mental elements.
Personal factors: An individuals beliefs, values, perceptions and attitudes can
considerably affect their involvement and experience with brands/products.
Situational factors: Goods that can simply match to and enhance lifestyle be likely to
be consumed with more involvement and frequency (Fuchs and Diamantopoulos,
2010).
Object factors: The level of information that a customer has on a brand, covering how
effectively they can differentiate its attributes, can influence customers involvement.
Social factors: A customers social network has significant affect on the goods the
customers adopt, as they attempt to depend on the opinions of family and friends (Khan
and Razzaque, 2015).

These can be further explained as:


I. Social components

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Social elements are originating from the distinctive segments identified with society or
social environment from which the purchaser has a place.
Society and societal environment:
Crowe (2015) purported that Society is significant with regards to comprehension the
requirements and practices of a person. All through his presence, an individual will be
affected by his family, his companions, his social surroundings or society that will
"educate" him values, inclinations and in addition regular practices to their own way of
life. For a brand, it is vital to comprehend and check the social variables inalienable to
every business sector or to every circumstance keeping in mind the end goal to adjust
its product and its showcasing system. As these will assume a part in the observation,
propensities, involvement or desires of customers (Ernest and Young, 2015).
Sub-societies:
A general public is made out of a few sub-societies in which individuals can distinguish.
Subcultures are gatherings of individuals who have the same qualities in view of a
typical affair or a comparable way of life when all is said in done. Subcultures are the
nationalities, religions, ethnic gatherings, age bunches, sexual orientation of the
individual, etc.Consumers are normally more open to products and showcasing systems
that particularly target them (Rajawat, 2013).
Social patterns:
As indicated by Chu (2015), social patterns or "Temporary fad impact" are characterized
as patterns broadly took after by individuals and which are opened up by their
insignificant prominence and by congruity or consistence with social weight. The more
individuals take after a pattern, the more others will need to tail it. They influence
involvement and shopping propensities for customers and might be identified with the
arrival of new products or turn into a wellspring of development for brands.

II. Social variables


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Social variables are among the elements impacting customer involvement altogether.
They fall into three classifications: reference gatherings, family and social parts and
status.
Family:
As per Rao (2011), the family is possibly the most affecting element for a person. It
frames a domain of socialization in which an individual will advance, shape his identity,
secure qualities. In any case, additionally create states of mind and feelings on different
subjects, for example, governmental issues, society, social relations or himself and his
wishes.
Social parts and status:
The position of a person inside his family, his work, his nation club, his gathering of
companions, and so forth All this can be characterized as far as part and economic
wellbeing.
A social part is an arrangement of states of mind and exercises that an individual should
have and do as indicated by his calling and his position at work, his position in the
family, his sexual orientation, and so forth and desires of the general population
around him. Economic wellbeing then mirrors the rank and the significance of this part
in the public arena or in social gatherings. Some are more esteemed than others
(Continuum, 2013).
III. Individual variables:
Choices and purchasing involvement are clearly likewise impacted by the qualities of
every purchaser.
Age and lifestyle:
As indicated by Kumar et al (2014), a shopper does not purchase the same products or
administrations at 20 or 70 years. His way of life, qualities, environment, exercises,
interests and buyer propensities advance for the duration of his life.

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For instance, amid his life, a purchaser could change his eating routine from unfortunate
products (fast food, prepared suppers, and so forth) to a more advantageous eating
regimen, amid midlife with family before expecting to take after somewhat later a low
cholesterol eating regimen to keep away from wellbeing issues.
Buying force and income:
Saunders (2015) described that the obtaining force of an individual will have, obviously,
a definitive impact on his involvement and buying choices taking into account his pay
and his capital. This clearly influences what he can manage, his point of view on cash
and the level of significance of cost in his obtaining choices. Be that as it may, it likewise
assumes a part in the sort of retailers where he goes or the sort of brands he
purchases.
Concerning societal position, a few buyers may likewise search for the "social
quality" of products they purchase so as to show "outer signs" of their livelihoods and
their level of buying force..
Way of life:
According to Kakkar (2010), the way of life of an individual incorporates the majority of
its exercises, interests, qualities and sentiments. The way of life of a purchaser will
impact on his involvement and acquiring choices. For instance, a shopper with a solid
and adjusted way of life will want to eat natural products and go to particular
supermarkets, will do some running frequently (and in this manner will purchase shoes,
garments and particular products), and so forth..
Identity and self-idea:
According to Kumar et al (2014), identity is the arrangement of qualities and particular
attributes of every person. It is the product of the connection of mental and physiological
qualities of the individual and results in steady practices. It appears into a few
characteristics, for example, certainty, friendliness, self-rule, mystique, desire, openness
to others, modesty, interest, versatility, and so forth.

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IV. Mental variables


According to Kumar et al (2014), among the components elements impacting customer
involvement, mental elements can be isolated into 4 classifications: inspiration,
observation, learning and in addition convictions and states of mind.
Inspiration:
According to Kumar et al (2014), inspiration is the thing that will drive shoppers to build
up an obtaining involvement. It is the outflow of a need is which got to be squeezing
enough to lead the customer to need to fulfill it. It is generally working at an intuitive
level and is regularly hard to gauge.
Discernment:
Discernment is the procedure through which an individual chooses, sorts out and
translates the data he gets to accomplish something that bodes well. The view of a
circumstance at a given time may choose if and how the individual will act. Depending
to his encounters, convictions and individual qualities, an individual will have an
alternate observation from another (Jones, 2015).
For brands, it implies that the message they convey will never be seen precisely
similarly by purchasers. Also, that everybody may have an alternate impression of it.
That is the reason it's vital to routinely request that shoppers all together know their real
brand recognition.
2.5 Impact of brand positioning on customer involvement in UK retail industry
The study involvemented by Ponduri and Sailaja (2014) mention that brand positioning
plays a key role in fashion retail industry as it convenience the customers to purchase.
Now days, importance of brand positioning strategies has enhanced as it leads
marketing through elucidating the details of brand, brands uniqueness and brands
similarities with rival brands and the rationale for involving and using that particular
brand. UKs leading fashion retailers such as Burberry, Mulberry, Prada, etc are
effectively using positioning strategies as it helps in creating and retaining brand image
in customers mind (Chesters, 2012). But the changing customer perceptions, increased
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customer awareness about brands, social influence and the intense competition in UK
fashion sector has resulted in brand positioning failures which directly affected
consumers outlook (Rowley, 2009).
In case of Mulberry, the retailer aims to be an international luxury brand through
expanding to global market, as there is a significant potential for involvement with
international consumers. Mulberry focuses on enhancing customer involvement through
integrating brand positioning techniques such as product innovation, extensive
advertising, investing in supply chain management system, etc (Coulson, 2011).
However, Clinch (2014) noted that Mulberry has now faces reduction in consumer
involvement and it adversely affected the sales of the brand. Less focus on product
categories other than leather-bags, ineffective promotional efforts, limited international
presence etc are the major reasons for the poor performance of Mulberry.
2.6 Link between the present study and existing literature
Only few studies have been carried out by different researchers and scholars for getting
knowledge about the process of brand positioning and its effectiveness in enhancing
customer attraction. Previous studies identified that marketing positioning has strong
effect on customer involvement and hence customer satisfaction. Previous study
involvement by Epetimehin (2011) through considering insurance service delivery
revealed that brand positioning plays a pivotal role in enhancing customer satisfaction
and in turn retention in insurance service delivery. The research carried out revealed
that market positioning has helped to improve the customer service quality and
customer delivery experience. Even though there existed more studies concerned with
the impact of brand positioning on customer satisfaction in various sectors such as
banking, insurance etc, the studies considering the effect of market positioning in
enhancing customer involvement in retail sector were considerably few. Hence, the
present research by focusing upon Mulberry in UK will analyze the effectiveness of
brand positioning in enhancing customer attraction.

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2.7 Conceptual framework

Figure 2.3: Conceptual Framework


(Source: Created by the author)
The above framed conceptual framework proposes the conceptual framework
formulated for the study depicted that brand positioning of organization is effected by
the factors like individuals beliefs, values, perceptions and attitudes can considerably
affect their involvement and experience with brands/products.
2.9 Summary
In this part, the author gave a point by point evaluation of exploration variables-brand
positioning and customer fascination and the connection between these variables. For
the itemized investigation, the analyst has eluded the contextual analysis of a retailer,
Mulberry's in UK. The author has examined the viability of brand positioning of Mulberry
in improving customer fascination. It can be closed from the writing audit that viable
brand positioning additions high significance in retail industry, since a solitary
organization can't have the capacity to serve entire customer needs through single
advertising methodology. Consequently the present section showcases that successful
brand positioning makes high effect on upgrading customer fascination.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


3.1 Introduction
The following section gives a detailed layout of the various research designs and
methods employed by the researcher to complete the research. Some of the key topic
reviewed the section will include research philosophy, research approach, research
design and strategy, sampling and data collection methods.
3.2 Research Philosophy
Research philosophy deciphers the scientist's suppositions in view of the issue. These
presumptions are taken as the base for exploration strategy (Silverman and David,
2011). This is a route by which the information is gathered, examined and used for
exploration reason. The scientist is fit for social occasion data in a powerful path by this
progression and is considered as an indispensable piece of examination approach. In
exploration philosophy a collection of perspectives, convictions and misgivings of
various speculations are utilized for playing out an examination. The general grouping of
examination philosophy ranges as takes after: positivism, interpretivism and
authenticity.
3.2.1 Positivism
Positivism helps the scientist in playing out the exploration in a methodical and sorted
out way, keeping in mind the end goal to abstain from copying the information (Singh
and Nath, 2010). The result of positivism is subject to the quantifiable perceptions
acquired by the analyst amid information collection procedure of the examination.
Analyst performs speculative testing in positivism. Positivism empowers specialist in
social occasion quantifiable deductions in view of the exploration issue. Here the
analyst give more inclination to gather significant data from substantial specimen
without giving more concentrate on examination points of interest.
3.2.2 Interpretivism
Interpretivism helps the analyst in distinguishing and examining the involvement and
attributes of each and every perspective and likewise the general population associated
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with the exploration. Subjective study on the issue is centered on this exploration sort
(Podsakoff and Dalton, 2012). Interpretivism is otherwise called hostile to positivism, as
the outcomes acquired from interpretivism are opposing to those got in positivism. Here
the scientist considers convictions for supporting an examination issue. The scientist
utilizes little examples for understanding about perspectives of bigger individuals.
3.2.3 Realism
Authenticity upgrades the study on this present reality situation of the exploration issue.
The learning acquired with respect to the examination issue is investigated and finished
up utilizing a comparative exploratory approach as a part of authenticity. It is said to
closely resemble positivism (Maxwell, 2012). Information social affair and information
examination are the two variables that would be resolved from the presumptions of
authenticity. The analyst in this connection relies on upon the reasonable perceptions.
Maxwell (2012) claims that immediate and basic authenticity is the two shifted
characterization of authenticity. An affair on an individual is considered as immediate
authenticity and an individual's perspective point on the experience he had is alluded to
as basic authenticity.
The researcher has selected interpretivism philosophy because it would help the
researcher to critically analyze the strategies used by Mulberry for branding and it helps
in reaching the customer more effectively. To enable the researcher to carry out the
study based on small samples and give priority to the beliefs and values interpretive
philosophy is more favorable. This philosophy will favor the researcher to evaluate the
factors for successful branding strategies used by Mulberry to enhance the value of
commodity and enhance their customer relationship. This philosophy will also aid the
researcher to evaluate the issues faced by the company in a more subjective
perspective.
3.3 Research Approach
A schematic and orderly approach that guides the analyst in executing and finishing the
exploration study in a productive and successful way is named as examination
approach (Olsen, 2011). It is the activity and strategies that is utilized for the
examination study. The analyst will assess the exploration issue in a viable way that
19

aides in leading the examination study. Research approach alongside different systems
and techniques empowers the specialist in gathering and investigating the information
identified with the examination issue. The different order of exploration approach
reaches to inductive and deductive approaches. The fundamental distinction between
these two approaches is in the presence and situating of speculations.
3.3.1 Inductive approach
Theory definitions are not trailed by inductive approach. This approach starts the
examination study with exploration inquiries and exploration purposes that must be
accomplished in this exploration issue (Lohrke, 2010). Inductive approach is otherwise
called base up approach.
Jick (2009) states that information gathered are examined and the got perceptions are
concentrated on to create speculations in light of it. The most adaptable examination
approach is inductive approach. In the inductive approach, all perceptions are gathered
and hypothesis is advanced at long last on the premise of these perceptions and is an
adaptable sort of approach.
3.3.2 Deductive approach
Deductive approach empowers the analyst in dissecting and sorting of theory acquired
amid the information collection on the examination issue (Aldag and Steams, 2011).
This approach is likewise named as up-down approach. In deductive approach, a
hypothesis is utilized to build up a recommendation and then design an examination
system to test that suggestion
The deductive approach is started utilizing the different speculations identified with the
examination issues (Wilson, 2010). The speculations are connected on the theory to
acquire important perceptions which is in the long run investigated and sorted to finish
up the perceptions to get fancied yield.
Researcher adopted inductive approach for the research analysis because it is the
most compactable with interpretivism philosophy and it does not require the generation
of hypothesis at the beginning (Aldag and Steams, 2011). One of the main advantages
of using this approach is that it is flexible since generation of hypothesis is not required
20

at the initial stages as it is a bottom-up approach.

This approach has helped the

researcher to understand the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by Mulberry for


maintaining customer involvement and to critically analyze the consumer buying
behaviour. The researcher was able to gain detailed knowledge on the Mulberrys brand
positioning strategies and its impact on consumer involvement with the brands. Finally
the researcher was able give suggestions for improvement of strategies that brands
adopt to enhance consumer involvement in their products.
3.4 Research design
In the perspective of Jick (2009) research design communicates the sort of information
that are vital to give answers for the exploration question and the procedures that are
utilized for social occasion and assessing these accumulated data. Research design
gives a framework of examination in which technique for information collection and
information investigation is indicated. It is utilized to play out the exploration
methodically which frames a base for gathering information. The examination design is
delegated engaging, exploratory and informative on the premise of the exploration
foundation and necessity. Logical strategy explains the exploration issue considered in
the examination ponders and decides the causal relationship between the variables
worried with the issue. As indicated by Jick (2009) illustrative examination is organized
and it clarifies the relationship between the free and wards variables. Spellbinding
procedure legitimizes and includes insights about exploration and depicts the distinctive
elements of the concerned examination circumstance. Jick (2009) watches that the
distinct examination system is partnered with the observational research and hold the
quantitative and subjective exploration components all through the study. According to
Jick (2009) in exploratory examination design existing and imaginative actualities with
respect to the point is acquired and consequently it is appropriate for building up a nitty
gritty writing and extend specialist's learning in regards to the subject. This system
empowers the scientist to lead a nitty gritty examination on the exploration inquiry and it
structures a definitive exploration.
Exploratory method is very useful for adding additional information regarding the
research issue. Choosing exploratory method the researcher will be gain better
21

understanding about consumer involvement and consumer buying behaviour and also
on the strategies that brands can adopt to enhance consumer involvement in their
products (Silverman and David, 2011). By using the exploratory method the researcher
will be able to identify the key issues faced by Mulberry and its impact in attaining
customer attention also indicate the failure of brand positioning by the organization. The
researcher will also be able to identify the risks related to the effects of brand
positioning in influencing consumer involvement in Mulberry. Using this method will also
help the researcher to perform the sampling and data collection in a more systematic
manner.
3.5 Research strategy
As expressed by Jick (2009), research systems are strategies that help the scientist to
give answers for the exploration question and in addition it gives an appropriate
introduction to leading the examination study. Meetings are the exploration procedures
that help the specialist to construct an immediate correspondence way between the
respondents while contextual analyses empower to connect the current circumstance to
earlier circumstances. In the perspective of Creswell (2014) research procedures are
picked on the premise of accessible assets, the learning level of analyst on the ebb and
flow research zone and the examination targets and inquiries. Through the overview the
scientist will have the capacity to accumulate the most appropriate information identified
with the exploration study. Lynn, Erens and Jick (2009) state that the study strategy is
one of the most grounded devices in social event proper data for directing examination
ponder and are financially savvy. This exploration strategy gives diverse elements of the
populace from which the example is gathered for the examination. The polls can be
open-finished or shut finished. In open-finished sort, members can reply in the
adaptable way and subsequently produce more up to date points of view (Hedge,
2015). Be that as it may, it is very tedious and is typically maintained a strategic
distance from in scholarly scrutinizes. Be that as it may, as opposed to this, shut
finished is time effective and less demanding to decipher. Further the unknown nature
creates important information which may be shrouded generally. In this manner serves
as the generator of potential information which can be used to plan legitimate
conclusions as expressed by Berg and Lune (2014)
22

The researcher will use both qualitative and quantitative data for better understanding,
employing both survey and case study strategies by involving a self-administered
survey and performing in depth research on the topic. The researcher will need to
engage the customers in such a way that they dont feel compelled or pressured to
participate in the survey. Here the researcher plans to involvement the survey among 20
customers of Mulberry. Survey strategy will help the researcher to collect information
from the customers of Mulberry in a short time period. Also, the researcher will be able
to obtain precise data regarding customer association of Mulberry. Survey will also aid
the researcher to understand the present strategies and policies followed by Mulberry to
enhance customer involvement and response. Involving the case study has enabled the
researcher in acquiring lots of data closely related to the company
3.6 Data collection methods and justification
Information collection methods are principally utilized for gathering sufficient information
required for the examination ponders. As Blaikie (2009) says, both primary and
secondary information collection techniques are vital for any examination. Primary
information is those gathered straightforwardly from sources and is along these lines
research planned. Social affair of both quantitative (quantifiable) and subjective (vast)
information is accomplished by primary information collection. Primary information are
usually gather by directing review. In the feeling of Stangor (2010), information gathered
from distributed online and printed sources is considered as secondary information. At
the end of the day, secondary information is considered as the data which is already
gathered and investigated by different specialists. Contrasted with primary information
collection, secondary information collection requires just less time and it is considered
as a savvy technique for information collection. Be that as it may, Creswell and Plano
(2011) noticed that, dependability and accuracy of secondary information is similarly
lesser than the primary information. Secondary can be outer or inward. Inward
information includes the yearly reports, deals reports which are accessible inside the
organization premises while outer secondary information includes all the disconnected
and online sources in magazines, diary and so on. Both sorts can be joined to profit the
most extreme data with respect to the exploration issue (Hedge, 2015). Data collection
process is significant to researchers when collecting data related to their studies and
23

aids the researcher to interpret objectives of research studies. The two important data
collection methods are: Primary data collection, Primary data is the data gathered by
the researchers themselves through various self-administered methods such as survey,
interview etc. Secondary data of research studies are those resources the researcher
gathers by assembling data from books, websites, other publications etc. (Taylor and
Francis (2013).
The researcher has chosen to implement secondary data mostly and survey as part of
primary data. Primary data collection referrers to self-administered survey of the
employees and secondary data collection refer to existing cases and studies used by
the researcher to collect the required data. The use of survey as primary data will
enable the researcher to obtain a direct perspective of the customers of Mulberry, UK
concerning the effectiveness of Mulberrys brand positioning and its influence in
persuading the customers can be determined. The self-administered survey will help the
researcher in assessing and studying the customers attitude towards the brand
positioning concept of Mulberry. Apart from this the researcher will also use various
secondary sources and cases such as company website, journals, articles, reports,
case study works, books, other online sources for gathering more information on the
research area. Using these secondary sources effectively will help the researcher in
enhancing the knowledge level with regards to the issue of the present research study
3.7 Sampling and justification
The total number of people and different elements connected with an exploration issue
is called populace. As the assessment of whole populace in an examination is
unthinkable, little gatherings having similar elements are chosen, and this procedure of
test determination is called Sampling (Denzin and Lincoln, 2011). Examining methods
are usually named likelihood inspecting technique and non-likelihood testing methods.
In the event that components are given equivalent odds of being picked it results in
likelihood testing, else non-likelihood inspecting method. Likelihood examining methods
are basic random testing, bunch inspecting, stratified inspecting. Sample selections are
the effective way of reducing time and cost for involving a research study. Probability
and non-probability are the two categories of samplings usually undertaken by
24

researchers. Probability sampling refers to the sampling in which all elements have
equal participation. Probability sampling further can be categorized into: Simple
Random Sampling, Stratified Sampling and Cluster Sampling. Non-probability sampling
all the elements involved is not given equal rights to participate (Kenett and Salini 2011).
The researcher will employ simple random sampling. Under this method all units are
given equal rights to participate in every aspect of the research. It is aimed to reduce
bias in research data, the researcher will thus be able to understand the various
strategies adapted by the company to reduce issues in attaining customer involvement.
Therefore to improvise enhance the validity of this research, the researcher will select
resources since 2009 only.
3.8 Data analysis plan
The researcher will perform a survey among 20 customers of Mulberry and will also
involvement a case study, by detailed verification using secondary resources and
survey. For data evaluation, the researcher used pie chart, bar chart, tables etc. the
researcher further reevaluate the secondary data with the findings from the survey.
3.9 Ethical issues
According to Kothari (2013), researcher needs abide certain instructions and rules in
orders to complete the research in an effective way. The researcher will not force any of
the customers to participate in the survey. Thus researcher will maintain the ethical
principles and the confidentiality of the study.
3.10 Accessibility issues
Major accessibility issue has been with customers of Mulberry because they were
reluctant to talk part in survey and the time limitation was short. Some participants are
not confident in providing the relevant data regarding the research topic and some
shows unwillingness to reveal about their personal details. Inconvenience due to lack of
certain secondary resources will also introduce difficulties in this investigation.
Publications and paid journals has not provided required data and has been a major
constraint for the researcher

25

3.11 Research limitations


The researcher will have to face issues due to the hesitation of the customers for
participating in the survey. The researcher will have rely on online data as secondary
sources since some datas may be costly and less accurate. In this study, the
researcher will have to handle the word count, time and cost limitations.

26

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


4.1 Introduction
The researcher will perform a survey among 20 customers of Mulberry and will also
conduct a case study, by detailed verification using secondary resources and survey.
For data evaluation, the researcher used pie chart, bar chart, tables etc. the researcher
further reevaluate the secondary data with the findings from the survey.
4.2 Case study of Mulberry, UK
Mulberry is a design organization established in the United Kingdom in 1971, known
globally for its cowhide products, specifically ladies' purses. The organization was
established in 1971 by Roger Saul and his mom Joanin 1973 they opened a
production line in Chilcompton, Somerset, England. Mulberry set up itself as a British
way of life brand, noted for its calfskin poacher sacks including the binocular pack and
dispatch sack. The extent incorporates male and female designs, cowhide adornments,
and footwear. Mulberry Group plc is recorded on the London Stock Exchange as MUL,
and shareholders with 250 or more shares are qualified for a 20% rebate at Mulberry's
shops (Topshop, 2015). In 2006, Mulberry dispatched an apprenticeship system to urge
neighborhood adolescents to learn generation aptitudes and giving preparing and work
to the nearby group. Understudies that graduate from the system are offered an
occupation at the plant in Somerset. The organization reported an income in 2012 of
168.5 million, and a working salary of 35.4 million, with a net pay of 36.0 million.
Mulberry has stores all through the UK and everywhere throughout the world including
Europe, the USA, Australia and Asia. It has enlisted workplaces in Somerset, London
and New York. Mulberry keeps on making fashioner calfskin products at its unique
Somerset plant, called The Rookery. In summer 2013 Mulberry's second processing
plant, likewise situated in Somerset, began generation. It was formally named 'The
Willows' in March 2014, after the adjacent Willow Man model (Topshop, 2015).
Mulberry purses have for some time been a pleased case of the best of British
craftsmanship and are a standout amongst the most pined for planner brands. From the
margarine delicate calfskins that give the Bayswater and the Alexa their trademark rich
27

sluggard to the careful usefulness of their great Clipper holdalls, Mulberry is one of our
most craved labels (Mulberry UK, 2016).But everything is not blushing in the
organization's Somerset home. On money markets, its offer value fell by a quarter as of
late from being worth 1.5billion in its prime, the quality has dropped to around 400
million. Also, it's nothing unexpected: the great Bayswater pack, darling by white collar
class mums all around, expense 495 five years prior. Presently it is in any event 895
for the fundamental version, with most Bayswaters evaluated at more than 1,100. Of
course, this has headed out a large number of the brand's center fans. Style specialists
pinpoint the change to the landing of another French CEO year and a half back.
Mulberry, one of the British design retailer, is noticeable for calfskin tones, garments and
other style frill. The retailer has overall nearness and has possessed the capacity to
accomplish a record of 163.5 million in 2013. Be that as it may, late reports in 'The
Telegraph' by Anderson (2014) notice that the marking methods for Mulberry have
gotten to be wasteful in grabbing the consideration of clients, which call attention to the
disappointment of brand situating by the retailer. Likewise the aggregate income was
dropped by 9% from 163.5 million to 148.7 million in 2014 (Brinded, 2015). On the off
chance that this appears a bit purses at day break, Mulberry was once one of the Great
British examples of overcoming adversity, during a period when there were few to
celebrate. In July 2011, this Somerset-based organization hit the features with news that
it was presently justified regardless of a billion pounds. Bloomberg reported a 526%
expansion in Mulberry's stock, and the Duchess of Cambridge sallied forward on her
first authority visit toting its 850 Polly Push Lock. Less than three years on, and what
we are discussing might be nothing not exactly the making and breaking of a British
brand. The subsidence and its result have demonstrated "fascinating times" for the style
business, in the Chinese feeling of "that bit excessively intriguing". All things considered,
its examples of overcoming adversity Herms being the situation in point have been
in real extravagance, in which outline, quality and life span can be seen to justify loftier
sticker prices. It has determinedly not lain in estranging one's center clients in a
negative and unconvincing reel towards blingier costs with no relating cleaning up of
item (Topshop, 2015).

28

Another issue that Mulberry and different retailers face is that minute when "it" gets to
be well a smidgen crap, tipping over from cool into being that bit excessively
pervasive. Design proceeds onward and marks must be set up to move with the
punches. In any case, the upside is that, with a few changes, such a deed can be pulled
off once more. Simply take a gander immediately criticized rival Burberry, as of now
reporting a 15% happy deals support. Still, one clearly needs to hold a brand with which
to work together. In the event of Mulberry, the retailer means to be a worldwide
extravagance brand through growing to worldwide business sector, as there is a huge
potential for contribution with universal shoppers. Mulberry concentrates on upgrading
client inclusion through coordinating brand situating methods, for example, item
advancement, broad publicizing, putting resources into store network administration
framework, and so forth (Coulson, 2011). Notwithstanding, Clinch (2014) noticed that
Mulberry has now confronts lessening in shopper contribution and it antagonistically
influenced the offers of the brand. Less concentrate on item classifications other than
calfskin packs, incapable special endeavors, constrained worldwide nearness and so on
are the significant explanations behind the poor execution of Mulberry.

29

4.2 Quantitative findings


This segment of the research chapter provides the results and findings of the
quantitative data which was gathered from a questionnaire survey from 20 customers of
Mulberry, UK.

1. Gender of customers

Gender

Males
40%

Females
60%

Pie chart 4.1: Gender of Customers

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

30

2. Age of customers

Age of customers

Below 20 years
20-25 years
25-30 years
More than 30 years

Pie chart 4.2: Age of customers

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

3. Brand positioning has a direct impact on consumer involvement.

31

Options

No. of Responses

Percentage

Agree

10

50%

Strongly agree

30%

Disagree

10%

Neither agree nor disagree 2

10%

Table 4.1: Impact of brand positioning on consumer involvement

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

Brand positioning has a direct impact on consumer involvement


60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Agree

Strongly agree

Disagree Neither agree nor disagree

Bar chart 4.3: Impact of brand positioning on consumer involvement

32

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry agreed that brand
positioning has a direct impact on consumer involvement. The study involvement by
Ponduri and Sailaja (2014) mention that brand positioning plays a key role in fashion
retail industry as it convenience the customers to purchase. Now days, importance of
brand positioning strategies has enhanced as it leads marketing through elucidating the
details of brand, brands uniqueness and brands similarities with rival brands and the
rationale for involving and using that particular brand. UKs leading fashion retailers
such as Burberry, Mulberry, Prada, etc are effectively using positioning strategies as it
helps in creating and retaining brand image in customers mind (Chesters, 2012). This
shows that the survey findings are in agreement with the literature findings and shows
gap was not present between the two.

4. Do brand positioning gives customers separate market value and location than
its rivals?

Options

No. of Responses

Percentage

Yes

10

50%

No

10%

To an extent

40%

Table 4.2: separate market value of brand positioning


33

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

Separate market value of brand positioning

Yes
No
To an extent

40%
50%

10%

Pie Chart 4.4: Freedom of brand positioning

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry stated that brand
positioning gives customers separate market value and location than its rivals. In the
literature Brand positioning deals with consumer preference in purchasing the brand
product than other brands available in the market (MSG, 2016) and is an efficient
means in offering customers separate market value and location than its rivals.
According to McNamara (2016), consumer involvement relates to the degree of
importance placed by a customer on a brand. This directly influences the degree of
information processing by the customer and in turn influences consumer behaviourThis
shows that the survey findings are in agreement with the literature findings and shows
gap was not present between the two.

34

5. What are factors that create consumer involvement for a company?

Options

No. of Responses

Percentage

Personal factors

30%

Object factors

20%

Social factors

30%

Situational factors

10%

Others

10%

Table 4.3: Factors creating consumer involvement

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

Factors creating consumer involvement


35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

35

Factors creating consumer involvement

(Source: Self created by the researcher)


According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry stated that Personal
factors, Situational factors, Object factors and social factors are some of the factors that
create consumer involvement for a company. In the literature, individuals beliefs,
values, perceptions and attitudes can considerably affect their involvement and
experience with brands/products. Situational factors: Goods that can simply match to
and enhance lifestyle be likely to be consumed with more involvement and
frequency(Fuchs and Diamantopoulos, 2010). Object factors: The level of information
that a customer has on a brand, covering how effectively they can differentiate its
attributes, can influence customers involvement. Social factors: A customers social
network has significant affect on the goods the customers adopt, as they attempt to
depend on the opinions of family and friends (Khan and Razzaque, 2015). This shows
that the survey findings are in agreement with the literature findings and shows gap was
not present between the two.

6. Do you give positive comments about brand positioning in fashion sector about
Mulberry?

Options

No. of Responses

Percentage

Yes

10

50%

No

30%

To an extent

20%

Brand positioning of Mulberry in fashion sector

36

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

Brand positioning of Mulberry in fashion sector

20%

Yes
No
50%

To an extent

30%

Brand positioning on social platforms of Mulberry

(Source: Self created by the researcher)


According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry give positive
comments on brand positioning in fashion sector about Mulberry. But in the literature,
the changing customer perceptions, increased customer awareness about brands,
social influence and the intense competition in UK fashion sector has resulted in brand
positioning failures which directly affected consumers outlook (Rowley, 2009). Clinch
(2014) noted that Mulberry has now faces reduction in consumer involvement and it
adversely affected the sales of the brand. Less focus on product categories other than
leather-bags, ineffective promotional efforts, limited international presence etc are the
major reasons for the poor performance of Mulberry. This shows that the survey findings
are not in agreement with the literature findings and shows a gap between the two.

37

7. Are you satisfied with the customer involvement programs, Mulberry had
implemented as a part of brand positioning?

Options

No. of Responses

Percentage

Yes

10

50%

No

30%

To an extent

20%

Satisfaction with the marketing programs of Mulberry

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

Satisfaction with the customer involvement prgrams of Mulberry

Yes

20%

No
To an extent

50%
30%

Satisfaction with the customer involvement programs of Mulberry

(Source: Self created by the researcher)


38

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry are satisfied with the
customer involvement programs, Mulberry had implemented as a part of brand
positioning. But in the literature Clinch (2014) noted that Mulberry has now faces
reduction in consumer involvement and it adversely affected the sales of the brand.
Less focus on product categories other than leather-bags, ineffective promotional
efforts, limited international presence etc are the major reasons for the poor
performance of Mulberry. This shows that the survey findings are not in agreement with
the literature findings and shows a gap between the two.

8. Mulberry has gained more popularity through the use of a brand positioning. Do
you agree with this statement?

Options

No. of Responses

Percentage

Agree

30%

Strongly agree

10%

Disagree

10

50%

Neither agree nor disagree 2

10%
Popularity of Mulberry

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

39

Popularity of Mulberry
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Agree

Strongly agree

Disagree Neither agree nor disagree

Popularity of Mulberry

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry disagreed that


Mulberry has gained more popularity through the use of a brand positioning. But in the
literature it is mentioned that UKs leading fashion retailers such as Burberry, Mulberry,
Prada, etc are effectively using positioning strategies as it helps in creating and
retaining brand image in customers mind (Chesters, 2012). This shows that the survey
findings are not in agreement with the literature findings and shows a gap between the
two.

9. Would you recommend Mulberry to others?

40

Options

No. of Responses

Percentage

Yes

12

60%

No

40%

Recommendation of Mulberry to others

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

Recommendation of Mulberry to others

Yes
40%

No
60%

Recommendation of Mulberry to others

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry would recommend


Mulberry to others.

41

10. What measures you would like to suggest Mulberry so that the company could
enhance its brand positioning strategies and gain more consumer involvement?

Options

No. of Responses

Percentage

Enhance brand positioning

30%

brand 6

30%

Enhance
recognition

Build brand uniqueness

20%

Others

20%
Suggestions to Mulberry

(Source: Self created by the researcher)

42

Suggestions to Mulberry
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Suggestions to Mulberry

(Source: Self created by the researcher)


According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry stated that Mulberry
should enhance brand positioning and brand recognition as well as brand uniqueness in
order to enhance its brand positioning strategies and gain more consumer involvement.
In the literature, Ponduri and Sailaja (2014) mention the details of brand, brands
uniqueness and brands similarities as factors effecting brand positioning. This shows
that the survey findings are in agreement with the literature findings and shows gap was
not present between the two.
4.3 Identification of gaps
According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry agreed that brand
positioning has a direct impact on consumer involvement. The study involvement by
Ponduri and Sailaja (2014) mention that brand positioning plays a key role in fashion
retail industry as it convenience the customers to purchase. Now days, importance of
brand positioning strategies has enhanced as it leads marketing through elucidating the
43

details of brand, brands uniqueness and brands similarities with rival brands and the
rationale for involving and using that particular brand. UKs leading fashion retailers
such as Burberry, Mulberry, Prada, etc are effectively using positioning strategies as it
helps in creating and retaining brand image in customers mind (Chesters, 2012). This
shows that the survey findings are in agreement with the literature findings and shows
gap was not present between the two

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry stated that brand
positioning gives customers separate market value and location than its rivals. In the
literature Brand positioning deals with consumer preference in purchasing the brand
product than other brands available in the market (MSG, 2016) and is an efficient
means in offering customers separate market value and location than its rivals.
According to McNamara (2016), consumer involvement relates to the degree of
importance placed by a customer on a brand. This directly influences the degree of
information processing by the customer and in turn influences consumer behavior. This
shows that the survey findings are in agreement with the literature findings and shows
gap was not present between the two.
According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry stated that Personal
factors, Situational factors, Object factors and social factors are some of the factors that
create consumer involvement for a company. In the literature, individuals beliefs,
values, perceptions and attitudes can considerably affect their involvement and
experience with brands/products. Situational factors: Goods that can simply match to
and enhance lifestyle be likely to be consumed with more involvement and frequency
(Fuchs and Diamantopoulos, 2010). Object factors: The level of information that a
customer has on a brand, covering how effectively they can differentiate its attributes,
can influence customers involvement. Social factors: A customers social network has
significant affect on the goods the customers adopt, as they attempt to depend on the
opinions of family and friends (Khan and Razzaque, 2015). This shows that the survey
findings are in agreement with the literature findings and shows gap was not present
between the two.
44

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry give positive


comments on brand positioning in fashion sector about Mulberry. But in the literature,
the changing customer perceptions, increased customer awareness about brands,
social influence and the intense competition in UK fashion sector has resulted in brand
positioning failures which directly affected consumers outlook (Rowley, 2009). Clinch
(2014) noted that Mulberry has now faces reduction in consumer involvement and it
adversely affected the sales of the brand. Less focus on product categories other than
leather-bags, ineffective promotional efforts, limited international presence etc are the
major reasons for the poor performance of Mulberry. This shows that the survey findings
are not in agreement with the literature findings and shows a gap between the two.

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry are satisfied with the
customer involvement programs, Mulberry had implemented as a part of brand
positioning. But in the literature Clinch (2014) noted that Mulberry has now faces
reduction in consumer involvement and it adversely affected the sales of the brand.
Less focus on product categories other than leather-bags, ineffective promotional
efforts, limited international presence etc are the major reasons for the poor
performance of Mulberry. This shows that the survey findings are not in agreement with
the literature findings and shows a gap between the two.

According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry disagreed that


Mulberry has gained more popularity through the use of a brand positioning. But in the
literature it is mentioned that UKs leading fashion retailers such as Burberry, Mulberry,
Prada, etc are effectively using positioning strategies as it helps in creating and
retaining brand image in customers mind (Chesters, 2012).. This shows that the survey
findings are not in agreement with the literature findings and shows a gap between the
two.
According to the survey results, majority of customers of Mulberry stated that Mulberry
should enhance brand positioning and brand recognition as well as brand uniqueness in
order to enhance its brand positioning strategies and gain more consumer involvement.
45

In the literature, Ponduri and Sailaja (2014) mention the details of brand, brands
uniqueness and brands similarities as factors effecting brand positioning. This shows
that the survey findings are in agreement with the literature findings and shows gap was
not present between the two.
4.4 Judgment of findings
It was identified from research study that brand positioning play pivotal role in
influencing customer involvement. From the literature review the researcher identified
brand positioning plays a key role in fashion retail industry as it convenience the
customers to purchase. Now days, importance of brand positioning strategies has
enhanced as it leads marketing through elucidating the details of brand, brands
uniqueness and brands similarities with rival brands and the rationale for involving and
using that particular brand. UKs leading fashion retailers such as Burberry, Mulberry,
Prada, etc are effectively using positioning strategies as it helps in creating and
retaining brand image in customers mind. Further it was found that Brand positioning
deals with consumer preference in purchasing the brand product than other brands
available in the market and is an efficient means in offering customers separate market
value and location than its rivals. It was also found that consumer involvement relates to
the degree of importance placed by a customer on a brand. This directly influences the
degree of information processing by the customer and in turn influences consumer
behavior
One of the main objectives of the current study was to identify factors effecting
customer involvement. The researcher from the case study revealed that In case of
Mulberry, the retailer aims to be an international luxury brand through expanding to
global market, as there is a significant potential for involvement with international
consumers. Mulberry focuses on enhancing customer involvement through individuals
beliefs, values, perceptions and attitudes can considerably affect their involvement and
experience with brands/products, situational factors: Goods that can simply match to
and enhance lifestyle be likely to be consumed with more involvement and frequency,
Object factors: The level of information that a customer has on a brand, covering how
effectively they can differentiate its attributes, can influence customers involvement and
46

Social factors: A customers social network has significant affect on the goods the
customers adopt, as they attempt to depend on the opinions of family and friends.
However, the case study noted that Mulberry has now faces reduction in consumer
involvement and it adversely affected the sales of the brand. Less focus on product
categories other than leather-bags, ineffective promotional efforts, limited international
presence etc are the major reasons for the poor performance of Mulberry.
The conceptual framework formulated for the study depicted that brand positioning of
organization is effected by the factors like individuals beliefs, values, perceptions and
attitudes

can

considerably

affect

their

involvement

and

experience

with

brands/products. Situational factors: Goods that can simply match to and enhance
lifestyle be likely to be consumed with more involvement and frequency (Fuchs and
Diamantopoulos, 2010). Object factors: The level of information that a customer has on
a brand, covering how effectively they can differentiate its attributes, can influence
customers involvement. Social factors: A customers social network has significant
affect on the goods the customers adopt, as they attempt to depend on the opinions of
family and friends. These factors directly influence customer involvement factors such
as product quality, price, accessibility and innovation. Similarly, from the case study the
researcher identified that Mulberry have taken perfect labors to institute efficient brand
positioning and this has exaggerated customer involvement factors. Consequently it can
be deduce that conceptual framework prepared for the research aligns with case study
findings.
4.5 Conclusion
In the current chapter the researcher has provided case study of Mulberry and has
carried out discussions on survey responses collected from customers of the company.
In this chapter the research also briefed the gaps which were identified while analyzing
the findings of case study against literature review. To identify the compatibility of
conceptual framework with the research findings, the research in this section also
provided section called judgment of findings.

47

48

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 Introduction
In this section the researcher briefs the main conclusions of the study by associating
with the objectives of the research. The researcher based on conclusions drawn from
the research will provide suitable recommendations to critically analyze the impact of
effective brand positioning in customer involvement in Mulberry. Further as the chapter
proceeds, the researcher will provide recommendations to future researchers to
effectively involvement the research in this topic.
5.2 Conclusions
In this section the conclusions and inferences researcher obtained through case study
evaluation, literature studies and survey analysis is explained. Thus in this section,
researcher evaluates whether the investigational aims and objectives were attained
through this work. In this section the researcher evaluates the research findings and
discusses the findings in relation to the research objectives to understand the extent to
which the study has succeeded in achieving the objectives set out in the first chapter of
the dissertation.

Objective 1: To assess the brand positioning strategies in Mulberry, UK

One of the main objectives of this study was to assess the brand positioning strategies
in Mulberry, UK. The study found that brand positioning plays a key role in fashion retail
industry as it convenience the customers to purchase. Now days, importance of brand
positioning strategies has enhanced as it leads marketing through elucidating the details
of brand, brands uniqueness and brands similarities with rival brands and the rationale
for involving and using that particular brand. UKs leading fashion retailers such as
Burberry, Mulberry, Prada, etc are effectively using positioning strategies as it helps in
creating and retaining brand image in customers mind. But the changing customer
perceptions, increased customer awareness about brands, social influence and the
intense competition in UK fashion sector has resulted in brand positioning failures which
directly affected consumers outlook
49

In case of Mulberry, the retailer aims to be an international luxury brand through


expanding to global market, as there is a significant potential for involvement with
international consumers. Mulberry focuses on enhancing customer involvement through
integrating brand positioning techniques such as product innovation, extensive
advertising, investing in supply chain management system, etc

Objective 2: To identify the factors influencing consumer involvement towards


Mulberry brand

Another objective of this study was to identity the factors influencing customer
involvement in retail industry. The case study identified that the researcher from the
case study revealed that In case of Mulberry, the retailer aims to be an international
luxury brand through expanding to global market, as there is a significant potential for
involvement with international consumers. Mulberry focuses on enhancing customer
involvement through individuals beliefs, values, perceptions and attitudes can
considerably affect their involvement and experience with brands/products, situational
factors: Goods that can simply match to and enhance lifestyle be likely to be consumed
with more involvement and frequency, Object factors: The level of information that a
customer has on a brand, covering how effectively they can differentiate its attributes,
can influence customers involvement and Social factors: A customers social network
has significant affect on the goods the customers adopt, as they attempt to depend on
the opinions of family and friends. However, the case study noted that Mulberry has now
faces reduction in consumer involvement and it adversely affected the sales of the
brand. Less focus on product categories other than leather-bags, ineffective promotional
efforts, limited international presence etc are the major reasons for the poor
performance of Mulberry.
Objective 3: To analyze the impact of brand positioning strategies on consumer
involvement of Mulberry
Another objective of this study was to identify the effectiveness of brand positioning of
Mulberry in enhancing customer attraction. From the case study of Mulberry the
researcher identified brand positioning plays a key role in fashion retail industry as it
50

convenience the customers to purchase. Now days, importance of brand positioning


strategies has enhanced as it leads marketing through elucidating the details of brand,
brands uniqueness and brands similarities with rival brands and the rationale for
involving and using that particular brand. UKs leading fashion retailers such as
Burberry, Mulberry, Prada, etc are effectively using positioning strategies as it helps in
creating and retaining brand image in customers mind. Further it was found that Brand
positioning deals with consumer preference in purchasing the brand product than other
brands available in the market and is an efficient means in offering customers separate
market value and location than its rivals. It was also found that consumer involvement
relates to the degree of importance placed by a customer on a brand. This directly
influences the degree of information processing by the customer and in turn influences
consumer behavior
Mulberry focuses on enhancing customer involvement through individuals beliefs,
values, perceptions and attitudes can considerably affect their involvement and
experience with brands/products, situational factors: Goods that can simply match to
and enhance lifestyle be likely to be consumed with more involvement and frequency,
Object factors: The level of information that a customer has on a brand, covering how
effectively they can differentiate its attributes, can influence customers involvement and
Social factors: A customers social network has significant affect on the goods the
customers adopt, as they attempt to depend on the opinions of family and friends.
However, the case study noted that Mulberry has now faces reduction in consumer
involvement and it adversely affected the sales of the brand. Less focus on product
categories other than leather-bags, ineffective promotional efforts, limited international
presence etc are the major reasons for the poor performance of Mulberry.
5.3 Evaluation of results
This section outlines the main inferences researcher obtained through this investigation.
It was identified from research study that brand positioning play pivotal role in
influencing customer involvement. From the literature review the researcher identified
brand positioning plays a key role in fashion retail industry as it convenience the
customers to purchase. Now days, importance of brand positioning strategies has
51

enhanced as it leads marketing through elucidating the details of brand, brands


uniqueness and brands similarities with rival brands and the rationale for involving and
using that particular brand. UKs leading fashion retailers such as Burberry, Mulberry,
Prada, etc are effectively using positioning strategies as it helps in creating and
retaining brand image in customers mind. Further it was found that Brand positioning
deals with consumer preference in purchasing the brand product than other brands
available in the market and is an efficient means in offering customers separate market
value and location than its rivals. It was also found that consumer involvement relates to
the degree of importance placed by a customer on a brand. This directly influences the
degree of information processing by the customer and in turn influences consumer
behavior
The researcher from the case study revealed that In case of Mulberry, the retailer aims
to be an international luxury brand through expanding to global market, as there is a
significant potential for involvement with international consumers. Mulberry focuses on
enhancing customer involvement through individuals beliefs, values, perceptions and
attitudes

can

considerably

affect

their

involvement

and

experience

with

brands/products, situational factors: Goods that can simply match to and enhance
lifestyle be likely to be consumed with more involvement and frequency, Object factors:
The level of information that a customer has on a brand, covering how effectively they
can differentiate its attributes, can influence customers involvement and Social factors:
A customers social network has significant affect on the goods the customers adopt, as
they attempt to depend on the opinions of family and friends. However, the case study
noted that Mulberry has now faces reduction in consumer involvement and it adversely
affected the sales of the brand. Less focus on product categories other than leatherbags, ineffective promotional efforts, limited international presence etc are the major
reasons for the poor performance of Mulberry.
.

52

5.4 Recommendations
This section provides the suggestions put forward by researcher on the basis of
research findings and inferences.
A focused brand is a powerful brand. The more focused your brands positioning is, the
easier it is to create an association in the minds of the target customers.
Here are some tips for fine tuning your brand positioning focus:

The position your brand assumes should differentiate you from all competitors
across the marketplace, not just those who share your position.

Your brands position should match up to customer expectations, and influence


their perceptions of the brand.

Choose a position for your brand that is relate-able and believable.

Ensure the brands position is echoed throughout all areas of the company to
prevent confusion and weakening of the brands image.

Keep it simple; the easier it is to understand the more perceptive customers will
be to the brands position.

Ensure your brands position is strong and stable; competitors are likely to launch
counter attacks and you need to be able to stand up to them.

The image, personality and mission statement of your brand needs to be


reflected in the position.

Your brands position should be unique, difficult to replicate and easily adaptable
to market changes and the evolution of the company.

53

Having a strong and clear identity for your brand and ensuring that you chose the right
position for long term success is key to the success of any brand, no matter what the
market or sector.
5.5 Research limitations
The time and cost limitations were a major constrain to the researcher and hence the
researcher had to reduce the size of the samples. The quality and validity of the findings
may be effected by this constrain. Further since the study is based on a single subject
i.e. Mulberry which is based on retail industry hence the validity of the data to study
other fields would be questionable.
In this study the researcher has taken a single case study, i.e. Mulberry for analyzing
the effective brand positioning in customer involvement and therefore the scope of
results is limited. The researcher has faced cost limitations during secondary data
research for developing literature review and case study.
5.6 Recommendations for future researchers
In this study the researcher analyses the impact of effective brand positioning in
customer involvement in Mulberry. Hence the scope for utilizing the research findings
has been limited. Hence it is recommend that future researchers should analyze more
number of firms while implementing research study and thus enhance the scope and
consistency of the research. Future researchers are also recommended to use more
samples during the collection of primary data.

54

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58

Appendix

Survey questionnaire for the customers of Mulberry, UK

Dear Sir/Madam,

As part of the academic research, I aim to study Impact of brand positioning on


consumer involvement at Mulberry, UK. As an integral part of the entity, I would like
you to participate in this survey and provide valuable information for the successful
completion of my study. However I will not compel any person to participate in this
survey and the decision whether to participate or not is solely dependent on your
discretion.

This study complies with the Data Protection Act, 1998 and hence I ensure that all your
response and personal details will be kept extremely confidential and the information
shall be passed on to a third party only with your consent.

The participants would not require more than 15 minutes for completing this
questionnaire. Please mark your response using in the below given columns.

1. Please specify your Gender

Male

Female

2. Please specify your Age under suitable age group


59

Below 20 years

20-25 years

25-30 years

More than 30 years

3. Brand positioning has a direct impact on consumer involvement. Do you agree


with this statement?

Agree

Strongly agree

Disagree

Neither agree nor disagree

4. Do brand positioning gives customers separate market value and location than
its rivals?

Yes

60

No

To an extent

5. What are factors that create consumer involvement for a company?

Trademark or motto

Exposure of symbol

Publicity

Event sponsorship

Others

6. Do you give positive comments about brand positioning in fashion sector about
Mulberry?

Yes

No

To an extent
61

7. Are you satisfied with the customer involvement programs, Mulberry had
implemented as a part of brand positioning?

Yes

No

To an extent

8. Mulberry has gained more popularity through the use of a brand positioning. Do
you agree with this statement?

Agree

Strongly agree

Disagree

Neither agree nor disagree

9. Would you recommend Mulberry to other?

62

Yes

No

10. What measures you would like to suggest Mulberry so that the company could
enhance its brand positioning strategies and gain more consumer involvement?

Enhance brand positioning

Enhance brand recognition

Build more emotions

Others

Thank you

I sincerely thank you for spending your valuable time for this survey and for providing
important information. Once again I ensure that none among the above data shall be
transferred to a third party without your consent and this survey complies with the Data
Protection Act, 1998. I further declare that the above survey was prepared as part of the
academic research and thus all information retrieved from the survey shall be used only
for academic purposes. Once again I thank you for your valuable cooperation,

Name

:
63

E-mail

Contact No

64

65