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# Dynamic Analysis for Falling

## where =CoP = (Center of Pressure), CoM =(Center of Mass ), is the horizontal

position of CoM, is the vertical position of CoM, is the total force from
ground, is the vertical component, is horizontal component (friction), =
is the reaction force to generate the required acceleration.

is the gravity.

Force/Moment Equations
By force balance equation = , we have
=
=
By moment equation at body mass point
= , we have the relationship between
CoP and CoM:
=

=
=
=

Force/Moment Equations
By moment equation at pivot O = ,
we derive similar equation:

+ + =
=

=

=

( )

## Solving Differential Equation for

Position/Velocity

=

Set = =

= 2 ( 0 )

= +

we have:

=
+ 0 +
2
2

+ +

=
+ +

+ +

=
+

1
( )
2
1
= ( + )
2

+ + ]

= [

So

when .

+ + =

+ + = + + =

= +

(XCOM)

= +

## + is defined as XCoM(position of the extrapolated centre of mass) or Capture Point, which

means, after some time, the CoM will stop at this point when CoP is fixed at the same point.

## XCoM(position of the extrapolated centre of mass)

For initial condition = , =

If > + , when

= [

+ + ] =
+ +
2

+ + =

>

<

## BoS and XCoM Analysis

Considering the BoS (Base of Support), the CoP always
stays within BoS. Set the boundary as . Thus, < <
+ . BoS is computed by convex hull of points of feet.
For a healthy human, if not stepping, CoP could be changed
within BoS by motions such as ankle rotation or tiptoe
standing. BoS could also be changed by stepping or feet
movement.

## BoS and XCoM Analysis

If < < < + (or < 0 < < 0), the human will not
fall forward(or backward) and no more action is required unless XCOM change
sign.

## BoS and XCoM Analysis

If < < < + (or < < < ), the human will fall if the
CoP is fixed at 0 . Thus CoP should move forward (or backward) to avoid falling. The
required time for movement is related to distance from XCoM to BoS boundary
proposed in next section.

## If < < + < (or < < < + ), the human

will fall even if the CoP change within BoS arbitrarily fast. The only method
to avoid falling is taking one or more step.

## The Margin of Stability and 2-D XCOM

The margin of stability is the minimum distance from XCoM to BoS boundary

= min

## Considering 2-D situation, in the X-Y plane, XCoM is defined as:

= +

, +

The margin of stability in 2-D is the minimum distance from XCoM to BoS
boundary
= min

## XCOM for Continuous Motions

For construction workers, the motions are continuous. Thus time should also be
take into account when considering a set of actions.
In most papers,

However, =

## parameter, i.e., ().

So () =

()

Thus, XCOM t = () +

()
, ()
()

()
()

Time-variant BoS
For construction workers, the BoS is changing during motions, thus it is also
required to measure BoS(t) with different time parameters.
For example,

Time-variant BoS

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() =

min

()

()

## motion minimum stability margin

min ()

[0 , ]
motion average stability margin

avg ()=
[0 , ]

## Dynamic Diagram of BoS&CoP

Change during Stepping

Standing

## Moving CoP back to push CoM forward,

XCoM is a bit forward than CoM due to a
positive CoM velocity
BoS is unchanged before the swing foot
contacts with the ground.

## Dynamic Diagram of BoS&CoP

Change during Stepping

## CoM velocity continues increasing since

CoP<CoM and XCoM moves forward further
BoS is changed since the swing foot contacts
with the ground.

## Dynamic Diagram of BoS&CoP

Change during Stepping

## BoS is changed since the swing foot and

support foot contact with the ground at the
same time.

## Finally BoS is only decided by

another foot. The analysis is similar
to the first one.

## XCoM Velocity Projection

() =

min

()

()

is COM position
1 2 3 4 are convex hull of BoS
= , = ( , )

= ,

= ( ),
= ( , )
vertical part to
parallel part to
=

( ) ( )

## XCoM velocity projection

( ) ( )

Method 1:
To derive time for reaction, intuitive solution is to calculate the approximate

time: = .

This is proposed by A.L. Hof* in The condition for dynamic stability A.L. 2005:
The XCoM will reach the BoS in a time-to- contact , about equal to

## XCoM velocity projection

( ) ( )

Method 2:
Method 1 by A.L. Hof* do not consider the inverted pendulum model
= 2 ( 0 )
Here I propose a analytical solution for time of reaction.

## Recall the solution in slide 4:

=

0
2

=
+ +

+
=
+ 0 +
2=
+ 0 2

let +

0 + =

= = 0 + , we have:

+ 0

= ln

0 ++ 2

+0
2

0 + =

+ 0

= ln

0 ++ 2

+0
2

= =

= +
= 2 ( 0 )

0
0
+

+
=
+
0

0
2
2
2
0
0
1 2 + + 1
2
=
= 1 +

0 + 0
0
+
2

## t is meaningful when 0 + 0 > 0

t means if we do not change CoP: 0 , 0 will reach the boundary until time t.