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Manual gearboxes optimization

Education program: Automotive Technology

Guidance teachers: Geert Sachse, Christa Larsen, Mikael Lngaard Nielsen, Lars Holmgaard, Niels
Bruun

Writers: Fabio Fociani, Marek Matus

Total number of characters: 38548 with no spaces (~17,5 normalized pages)

In Viborg, 21. 1. 2016

Fabio Fociani

Marek Matus

Preface
This is the Automotive Technologys 1st semester project. The topic we have chooses is the manual
transmission tuning.
Manual gearbox, as the original type of car powertrain transmission remains as a standard equipment
in todays models. First part of the project summarize construction and function of manual gearbox,
whereas the main part discuss how to tune the transmission in order to upgrade performance of the
whole car at reasonable costs.

Table of Contents
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.The purpose of a gearbox in a car (Marek Matus) ................................................................... 1
1.2.The manual gearbox a structure, modus operandi and history (Fabio Fociani) .................... 1
1.3.How is made a gearbox (Fabio Fociani)...... 3
2. Problem area (Marek Matus, Fabio Fociani) ...................................................................... 5
3. Problem statement (Marek Matus, Fabio Fociani) ............................................................. 6
3.1.1. Methodology presentation (Marek Matus).... 6
3.1.2. Theory presentation (Marek Matus).. 8
3.1.3. Technique presentation (Fabio Fociani).. 10
3.2.1. Analyses presentation and interpretation of empirical data (Marek Matus).... 13
3.2.2. Gearbox analyses (Marek Matus) 18
3.2.3. Presentation of our optimising solutions (Marek Matus).... 20
3.2.4. Business analyses and feasibility under the Danish law system (Fabio Fociani)..... 24
4. Conclusion (Marek Matus, Fabio Fociani) ........................................................................ 25
5. List of appendixes..... 28
6. Bibliography.. 34

1. Introduction
1.1.

The purpose of a gearbox in a car

Since the born of the first car, the inventors and later the engineers have understood perfectly that
having just a one gear cannot be enough to fully use the potential of combustion engine. During the
first period nobody needed more gears to increase the speed, but just to make the car driving,
considering that the first aggregates did not generate hundreds of horsepower and newton-meters.
Connecting driven axle directly to the engine was actually not suitable at all. A gearbox is necessary,
because a car has to perform in different conditions, for example climbs a hill or works fully loaded
with four persons on board. During the years gearshift boxes becomes stronger, smaller and smoother;
but the original concept and the purpose of a gearbox a torque multiplier1 remains the same.

1.2.

The manual gearbox structure, modus operandi and history

Manual transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch. Most automobile manual transmissions
allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio at any time, but some, such as those commonly
mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher
or next-lower gear. The system is also referred as a sequential manual transmission and it stands
beside of this projects scope.
Main area of this project are manual transmissions. First part transmitting the engine power is the
flywheel, which is attached to the engine crankshaft and spins along with it. The clutch disk takes a
place between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure
from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the
clutch plate and hence the transmission.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios2 that are selectable by locking gear pairs to the
output shaft inside the transmission. Contemporary automobile manual transmissions typically use
four to six forward gear ratios and one reverse gear.
The earliest form of a manual transmission has been invented by Louis-Ren Panhard and mile
Levassor in the late 19th century. This type of transmission offers multiple gear ratios and a reverse.
The gears were typically engaged by sliding them on their shafts, so the gears would be spinning at
roughly the same speed when engaged. We call this type a sliding mesh transmissions or s, newer
1
2

ATS-14 - Manual Transmission Systems - 1


More on the page 11 of this project

manual transmissions on cars have all gears meshed at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh
transmissions. A particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are
at the same speed.
Most modern manual-transmission vehicles are fitted with a synchronized gearbox. Transmission
gears are always in mesh and rotating, but gears on one shaft can freely rotate or be locked to the
shaft. The locking mechanism for a gear consists of a collar on the shaft, which is able to slide
sideways so that teeth on its inner surface bridge two circular rings with teeth on their outer
circumference: one attached to the gear, one to the shaft hub. The gearshift lever manipulates the
collars using a set of linkages, so arranged so that one collar may be permitted to lock only one gear
at one time; when "shifting gears", the locking collar from one gear is disengaged before than another
is engaged. One collar often serves for two gears; sliding in one direction selects one transmission
speed, in the other direction selects another.
In a synchromesh gearbox, to match correctly the speed of the gear to that of the shaft as the gear is
engaged the collar initially applies a force to a cone-shaped brass clutch attached to the gear, which
brings the speeds to match prior to the collar locking into place. The collar is prevented from bridging
the locking rings when the speeds are mismatched by synchro rings. The synchro ring rotates slightly
due to the frictional torque from the cone clutch. In this position, the dog clutch is prevented from
engaging. The brass clutch ring gradually causes parts to spin at the same speed. When they spin at
the same speed, there is no more torque from the cone clutch and the dog clutch is allowed to fall into
engagement.
Reverse gear is usually not
synchromesh, as there is
only one reverse gear in the
normal

automotive

transmission and changing


gears into reverse while
moving is not required.
The electric vehicles, clutches and multi-speed gearboxes would not be required, as electric motors
can drive the vehicle both forward and reverse from zero speed and typically operate over a wider
speed range than combustion engines. Elimination of the gearbox represents a significant reduction
in powertrain weight and complexity.

1.2.1

How is made a gearbox

A manual transmission has several shafts with various gears and other components attached to them.
Typically, a rear-wheel-drive (RWD) transmission has three shafts: an input shaft, a countershaft and
an output shaft. In a rear-wheel-drive, transmission, the input and output shaft lie along the same line,
and may in fact be combined into a single shaft within the transmission. The input and output ends of
this combined shaft rotate independently, at different speeds, which is possible because one piece
slides into a hollow bore in the other piece, where it is supported by a bearing.
The transmission's input shaft has just one pinion gear, which drives the countershaft. Along the
countershaft are mounted gears of various sizes, which rotate when the input shaft rotates. Most frontwheel-drive transmissions for transverse engine mounting are designed differently, they have an
integral final drive and differential. They usually have only two shafts; input and countershaft,
sometimes called input and output. The input shaft runs the whole length of the gearbox, and there is
no separate input pinion. At the end of the second shaft is a pinion gear that mates with the ring gear
on the differential.
Front-wheel and rear-wheel-drive transmissions operate similarly. When the transmission is put in
neutral and the clutch is disengaged, the input shaft, clutch disk and countershaft can continue to
rotate under their own inertia. In this state, the engine, the input shaft and clutch, and the output shaft
all rotate independently.
Among many different types of clutches, a dog clutch provides non-slip coupling of two rotating
members. The gear selector does not engage or disengage the actual gear teeth which are permanently
meshed. Rather, the action of the gear selector is to lock one of the freely spinning gears to the shaft
that runs through its hub. The shaft then spins together with that gear. The output shaft's speed is
determined by the ratio of the two gears. Locking the output shaft with a gear is achieved by means
of a dog clutch selector. The dog clutch is a sliding selector mechanism which is splined to the output
shaft, meaning that its hub has teeth that fit into slots on the shaft, forcing that shaft to rotate with it.
However, the splines allow the selector to move back and forth on the shaft, which happens when it
is pushed by a selector fork that is linked to the gear lever. The fork does not rotate, so it is attached
to a collar bearing on the selector. The selector is typically symmetric: it slides between two gears
and has a synchromesh and teeth on each side in order to lock either gear to the shaft. Before the teeth
can engage, the cone clutch engages first, which brings the selector and gear to the same speed using
friction. Until synchronization occurs, the teeth are prevented from making contact, because further

motion of the selector is prevented by a blocker ring. When synchronization occurs, friction on the
blocker ring is relieved and it twists slightly, bringing into alignment certain grooves or notches that
allow further passage of the selector which brings the teeth together.
The previous discussion applies only to the
forward gears. Reverse is also a pair of gears:
one gear on the countershaft and one on the
output shaft. However, all the forward gears are
always meshed together, there is a gap between
the reverse gears. Moreover, they are both
attached to their shafts: neither one rotates
freely about the shaft. When reverse is selected
a small gear, called a reverse idler, is slid
between them. The idler has teeth, which mesh
with both gears, and thus it couples these gears
together and reverses the direction of rotation,
without changing the gear ratio. For this
reason, the output shaft must not be rotating
when reverse is selected: the car must be
stopped. In order that reverse can be selected
without grinding even if the input shaft is
spinning inertially, there may be a mechanism to stop the input shaft from spinning. The reverse gear
noise reduction system employs a cam plate, which was added to the reverse shift holder. When
shifting into reverse, the 5th/reverse shift piece, connected to the shift lever, rotates the cam plate.
This causes the 5th synchro set to stop the rotating mainshaft. The teeth on the forward gears of most
consumer automobiles are helically cut. When helical gears rotate, there is constant contact between
gears resulting in quiet operation. By contrast, most reverse gears are spur gears, meaning that they
have straight teeth, in order to allow for the sliding engagement of the idler, which is difficult with
helical gears.3

3
3

9. 1. 2016 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manual_transmission
Automotive Technology: A Systems Approach, 5th Edition, ISBN-13: 978-1428311497

2. Problem area
This project is all about the idea of adjusting a gearbox with specially designed aftermarket parts. In
another words - How to tune a gearbox in the proper manner. First important task is to answer the
following questions: Why all the transmissions arent always perfectly optimised for every situation
by the manufacturers? Gearing4 is a complex thing. Engineers are facing state laws and
homologation standards5 on one side and real world conditions on the other side. Production cost
cutting is another factor. Moreover, highly specific objectives can be required from two different cars
of a same model. Consistent way of use ends when a car leaves a factory. People are using vehicles
in different countries (e.g. Denmark vs. Switzerland), at different places (city vs. countryside), in
different ways (eco-rally6 vs. track day7) and for different purposes (towing a heavy trailer, highway
cruising etc.). Final setup of the powertrain is a compromise resulting from above mentioned.
Actually, any single gearbox is probably unable to satisfy various needs of all car drivers. Why car
manufactures decided to offer usually only one variant of manual gearbox for each model? Was it
always like this?
The tuning could be done in many different ways, from replacing the whole gearbox or differential,
continue with adding gear-sets to the overall gear ratios conversions. However, the goal is practically
the same. Reach the best possible match with the engine characteristics in relation to concrete way of
use. Moreover we want to study how much it can cost to apply these tuning solutions, how many
hours are needed to do the work properly, how to make a satisfactory contract, following the Danish
law, with the client to provide a certain time on warranty. Another legal aspect we would like to
investigate is the status of the gearbox tuning in the laws system. We want also, to study an effective
strategy of communication, to explain to a potential client how we intend to make the job on the car,
why that could be an excellent investment of money, instead of change the car for another model.
Than finally, but certainly not less important, what could we give as an additional value to a customer,
to prefer our services, instead of the potential competitors.

An assembly of gears designed to transmit motion 18. 1. 2016 http://www.thefreedictionary.com/gearing / Designing


transmissions and their ratios for concrete powertrains
5
Optimizing Performance and Fuel Economy of a Dual-Clutch Transmission Powertrain with Model-Based Design, By
Pete Maloney and Wit Nursilo (10. 1. 2016 http://www.mathworks.com/tagteam/78117_91968v00_optimizingperformance-of-a-dual-clutch-transmission.pdf )
6
Driving a vehicle in order to reach minimum fuel consumption
7
Event where you are enabled to drive your street car on a racing circuit

3. Problem statement
How can manual transmission tuning, help the car, to perform significantly better in certain
operating conditions and can this know - how be turned into a business?

3.1.1.

Methodology presentation

Before developing any gearbox optimising solution, it is necessary to gather certain data and put them
into correct mathematic models. This results into materials for our practical part analyses. (How
can manual transmission tuning, help the car to perform significantly better in certain operating
conditions?) Following list of procedures is converted into work instruction manual in order to fits
better the project structure.
1) Get all the relevant data about the powertrain of the examined vehicle.
Relevant data for this problem statement includes:
-

Gear ratios

Final drive ratio

Standard wheel dimension

We will need those data to define and visualize relationship between them. We can gather
these parameters from the internet using web catalogues storing off-line data taken directly
from car manufactures.
-

Basic engine characteristic (power & torque curves)

It can be obtained from various sources including manufactures databases, measurements


results performed by private entities posted on the internet and finally from our authentic
measurements.
In order to get the most relevant results, we use the data from the manufacture and authentic
measurements. This gives us an opportunity to compare them.
To perform our measurements we use the Dynamometer rolling road facility8.

8
8

15. 1. 2016 http://www.endtuning.com/rollingroads.html


15. 1. 2016 http://www.maha.de/default.htm?rdeLocaleAttr=en

2) Convert all the data; we already have, to the proper format. This applies in particular to the
descriptions of the engine characteristics. They are stored as JPEG pictures in internet
databases or printed out, from the measuring device. We will use a software called
WebPlotDigitizer 3.8 9 to get pure number datasets. (appendix number 1, page XX)
3) Apply certain mathematical models10 on our data within a use of a MS Excel. We have picked
equations essential for synthesising and visualising the data we have about the gearbox and
the engine. Reason for MS excel is that, we are familiar with it, it is available for us as students
and it is powerful enough for a kind of calculations and graphic visualisations we perform.

4) In the fourth step, we would be able to analyse all the data we have, localize potential weak
points of the powertrain setup and develop improvements by using presented models.

5) Apply mathematic models in reversed order to test our new settings.


To solve a business related part of this project (can this knowhow be turned into a business?), we
shall use the following methods:
1) Research, held on a particular car in workshop, within usage of ordinary power operated tools.
This should result in a deeper understanding of concretes car construction. This helps us to
learn about potential obstacles, set financial and time-consuming demands of the tuning
procedure.

2) Gathering information from entrepreneurs and companies already involved in similar business
areas. We prefer personal interview, as we want to obtain highly specific info.

3) Set a questionnaire to make a research on the internet to discover if there exists a potential
target group for our products. Its secondary task is to identify, the maximum acceptable and
still reasonable price, which would customers be willing to pay.
4) Extracting relevant parts from judicature to get the knowledge of gearbox optimisations legal
status through different law systems.
9
10

11.1. 2016 http://arohatgi.info/WebPlotDigitizer/


Page 11 of this project

5) Apply rules of commercial companys external communication to create capable sales


materials.

3.1.2.

Theory presentation

If anyone tunes a gearbox, it very likely means a change of the gear ratios. Generally, a gear ratio is
a number we use to multiply the torque on the input shaft in order to get the value on the output shaft.
For finding the RPM output value, let the gear ratio be a devisor of the input RPM value.
=

Next step is to obtain the gear ratio itself. It is defined as a relationship between the driver gear and
the driven gear. Let us choose an ordinary manual gearbox from RWD ar for a demonstration11.

As substitute values we can use any relevant data we have


about studied gears a dimension of each single toothed
wheel (diameter or circumference) or, as the best variant,
the number of teeth.
These formulas allows us to calculate what a gearbox does, to a power and s torque, produced by an
engine and how the changes of gear ratio would affect this.

11

ATS-14 - Manual Transmission Systems - 1

Next step on the long way to get some result is a visualisation of concrete gears. Basic relationship
between engines RPM, gear ratio, final drive ratio, wheel circumference and vehicles speed helps
us to convert, the gear ratio, to the graph of a linear function. 12
=

0,06

With the knowledge of all values, this equation applied in any graph editor (for this project we use
the Microsoft Excel 2015) can determine the gear as a linear function. (Appendix number 2
sometimes it is called saw diagram, page XX)
Now, we have to synthetize a gear visualization with an engine characteristics graph, which is a
curve, showing the Horse Power, 13and Torque14 value for each possible RPM value. A torque and a
power are dependent on each other together with the RPM.
The result of this step is a complex diagram. Thus, we see how much power or torque is available
according to a specific vehicles speed and currently shifted gear. (Appendix number 3 how it works
together, page XZ)
When it comes to gear ratios design, there exist two different approaches. Both of them using
mathematical models. We call the first one geometric graduation (gearing) and the second one
progressive gearing (graduation). Purpose of the geometric method is to do not let the RPM fall under
the value of maximum engine torque while shifting up in maximum RPM. Engineers use following
formula to reach this:

( 1)

=


This means that the ratio between directly following gears is the same.
The biggest disadvantage of geometric gearing is that it may results into inadequately big gaps
between single gears. Progressive graduation avoids this. In this model, the RPM drop accompanying
up-shifting procedure, is not always the same. Let us show the simplest progressive graduation rule
(progressively degreasing ratios between consecutive gears):

12
13
14

vehicle speed is in kilometre per hour, wheel circumference has to be entered to this formula in meter
15. 1. 2016 http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/horsepower-hp
15. 1. 2016 https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-meaning-of-torque-and-power-in-a-car-in-layman-terms

1 2
3
>
>
2 3
4

Progressive gearing model can (and should) be effectively adjusted to certain conditions. Following
picture (number 4) successfully displays the difference between geometric and progressive gearing15.

3.1.3.

Technique presentation

Vehicle we analyse is the Ford Fiesta 1.0 litre Ecoboost 2013, because this car is available for testing
at Mercantec. Customer desiring manual gearbox for his new three cylinder turbocharged Fiesta has
the only one choice. Five speed direct shifted transmission (code: CA6R7002LB), which is according
to the engines position oriented transversally (gear ratios 1-5: 3.583, 1.926, 1.206, 0.878, 0.689
combined with integrated final drive ratio 3.61). Now, let us focus on the engine parameters.
In the following graph, we can observe the two principal curves normally used to characterize car
engine performance, Torque and engine power, in a 2D version.

Bachalor thesis Software for Optimalization of Gear Speed Language of thesis is Czech, abstract is avaliable in
English. https://www.vutbr.cz/www_base/zav_prace_soubor_verejne.php?file_id=26415
15

10

The blue line is the engine power in Kw (Kilowatt); the yellow line is the Torque in Nm (Newton
meter) from the Ford Official features. We consider these data, an important point to start our
measurements and after to have a direct point of reference to compare the results well get. This
engine has a substantially small displacement but it is equipped with a small electronically controlled
turbocharger. In the automotive industry, it is considered as a small engineering miracle, because of
the top power of 100 to 125 HP, depending on an ECU setup. Nobody has seen before an engine of
1.0 litre displacement gives those numbers in order of power but overall in term of Torque. From the
graph, we can see the engine gives the maximum torque starting from just 1400 rpm, due to the usage
of a small turbine. On the other side, the power raises until it reaches at almost 4000 rpm, the
maximum value. That is the rpm range were the torque starting to decrease significantly. So, what is
the best range of rpm to use this engine during the daily usage? The answer has mandatary: Depends
what exactly we have to do.
From technical considerations we have the idea, to make a study to understand, if could be suitable
to modify the gearbox of this car, to get the parameters more closed to the real usage of the vehicle,
in particular where the car is used in specific condition.

11

2013 Ford Fiesta Ecoboost 1.0 5 speed manual


7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

300

325

The graph16 above came out from a pure mathematical calculation, using the formulas we explained
in the Theory presentation chapter. From the graph, we can read several facts; The Fiesta mounts a
5-speed manual transmission. The distances from the top of the black lines, where the speed and rpm
are maximum, is big, especially between the 2nd and 3rd gears and the 4th and 5th gears. When we
change the gear to insert the next one, it results in a loose of 1500 2000 rpm that can also give a
loose of power and doesnt permit to accelerate as fast as we might need. This could, in the situation
like e.g. a quick overtake, converts in a problem of safety.
The linear function used to visualize the gears ratio, gives a theoretical maximum speed that isnt
reachable in the reality, e.g. in the 5th gear the Fiesta cannot reach the speed of 290 km/h. This may
result into optimal fuel economy in highway speeds. However, if we consider that the maximum legal
highway speed is usually not higher than 130 km/h, it means that more than 54% percent of the fifth
gear is not usable.
Talking under a technical point of view, a gear tuning can be made in some different manners,
someone is easy and quick, some else is complicated and takes longer time due a consistent
mechanical work, to remove the gearbox from the engine. One easy way to change the overall gear
ratio, is to modify the final ratio that can be in both ways, we can apply a lower or higher gear ratio.
The effect of this operation is on the entire range of the gears ratios, without touching the gearbox.
Considering also the cost/profit ratio, this operation could be profitable for a potential client. Another
easy way to increase and decrease the final gear ratio is to play with the wheels dimension. The stock
Fiesta has 15-inch wheels, and we should calculate what could be the maximum size of wheel

16

X axis Speed Kilo meters per hour


Y axis Engine RPM

12

diameter allowed to be mounted. But we think that with this car couldnt be possible to decrease more
than to 14 inch the wheels diameter, for a reason of stability and safety, especially driving on the high
speed.
The last way remain to change the gear ratios, is to remove the gearbox from the car, open it, remove
all the gearshafts and finally decide to change one or more gears to increase or decrease the gear
ratios, and makes fit the engine performances to the real usage of the car. This operation would be
complicated and absolutely more expensive, but really open to a wide range of possibilities. The most
expensive tune, is the adding of the 6th gear that in the Fiesta, could change completely the character
of the car. This operation, seems to be extreme, but in the reality consist in the usage of a specially
designed kit including longer gearshafts, the 6th gear, the levers and a longer external cover.

3.2.1.

Analyses presentation and interpretation of empirical data

In the previous chapter, we introduced basic characteristics of Fiesta, with the help of official
materials. As we claimed, a good gearbox set-up is all about the harmony with the rest of the
powertrain. If we desire to reach this, then we need engine characteristics as precise as possible.
First, we convert the manufacture-based diagram into MS Excel format to be more relevant in next
steps.17
We have performed nine test runs on the rolling road in total.18
Due to a lack of our competences and time, (unfortunately, we operated the facility for the first time
and the interest among other students in using the DYNO were high) we have not managed to run a
set of test within optimal conditions.
We performed two different kinds of settings. Please see an example of result captured with the first
type of settings.19

17

see appendix number 4, page XX


Please find an example of a raw layout from measuring device enclosed as the appendix number 5, page XX
19 rd
3 gear engaged, power correction for getting a power at flywheel enabled
18

13

On this particular diagram, we see that the function


range defined by speed is from 50 to 130 Km/h.
Starting point at the 50 Km/h is a rigid one device
we have used, started to measure at this speed. On the
other hand, engine power shutdown at 5380 RPM (130
Km/h) was not expected (standard revolution limiter
of Ecoboost engine is at 6250 RPM, the rolling road was set to the maximum speed of 230 Km/h).
An unwanted intervention of ESP20 did that. A proper way to run a DYNO test with an ESP equipped
car is to activate the roller clutch of the measuring device, to spin also non-driven wheels. Otherwise,
ESP is confused and cuts the power immediately after start, which happened to us as we were not
able to transfer the motion to the rear axle. We considered several back-up solutions (e.g. a hardshutdown of all break assistants by removing their fuses). We have decided for the easiest one and
performed all the tests with the hand break activated. This has resulted into the power cut appearing
no sooner than 130 Km/h.

20

Electronic stabilization program

14

As the part of engine characteristics over 5380 RPM remained secret for us, we switched to the
second type of settings21 to explore it.

Setting number 2 provides us information


about engine characteristic in the highest RPM
range. However, we are now missing the lowrange data. Another devaluing factor, which is
more noticeable now, is the tire slipping. It is
obvious at the 3500 RPM on the M-norm
torque curve. Winter tires caused the most of
the slipping. They are too soft, which leads to excessive forming of bumps on them, so to the poor
traction.

21

2nd gear engaged, power correction disabled

15

2013 Ford Fiesta 1.0 ECOnetic


180
170
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150
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130
120
110
100
90
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50
40
30
20
10
0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

5500

6000

6500

7000

The graph above get a comprehensive output, of the results of these two measurement, put together
like pieces of a puzzle22. Diagram is showing manufactures data compared to our measurements.
Black curves are based on manufactures data, the blue is the Horse Power and the orange is the
torque arising from our measurements. X-axis RPM, Y-axis Horse Power for the blue curve and
Newton meters for the orange one.
From the characteristic illustrated above, it seems that the engine is not capable to meet the
performance standards guaranteed by the Ford (100 HP and 170 Nm). However, we are dealing with
the data dispersion, because it is not possible to arrange exactly the same conditions in a nonlaboratory environment.

22

Appendix number 6, page XX

16

Data dispersion (values at flywheel)

Minimum peak point of torque

132,6 Nm

Maximum peak point of torque

184,5 Nm

Minimum peak point of power

91,8 HP

Maximum peak point power

119,2 HP

= 51,9

= 27,4

The diversification might have been caused by various factors such as the fuel quality, air
temperature, tire pressure, low engines mileage or current calibration of the PCM23. We can explain
the most obvious differentiation - the late rise of the torque curve, as an inaccuracy during the start
of the measurement or a human element failure.
However, we can declare that manufactures data are definitely not over optimistic and they are close
to the reality. Even more important for us is to summarize small differences which could help us to
answer the problem statement.
The power curve is in reality a slightly more linear than in theory. The torque curve usually begins to
fall a bit earlier than might be expected, according to manufactures characteristics, whereas power
curve is still climbing to reach its maximum, which is not far from the RPM limiter.
NOTE: If we had the possibility to perform another set of measurements, we would achieve better
results within use of optimal settings.24

23

Powertrain contol module


1) mount the summer tires 2) use the roller clutch or switch off ESP completely 3) disable speed governor 4) perform
tests through all gears with a special focus on the tallest one, as it provides the widest data range.
24

17

3.2.2.

Gearbox analyses

First step is to identify what kind of attitude the engineers used for the transmission set-up. Let us
see if the geometrical graduation rule applies to this gearbox:

1,926(2 )
1,206(3 )
>
1,206(3 )
0,878(4 )
As we see, CA6R7002LB gearbox is not geometrically graduated. It is progressively graduated. We
consider progressive approach as the better one for an overall quality of a driving comfort and
performance. However, we are in doubt if the curve of progression was adjusted too much to the
external requirements like to the EURO emission test cycle. Fiesta is homologated as a EURO5,
producing only 99g of carbon dioxide per kilometre. The tall five-speed manual helps to reach this.
It has less rotating masses25 then the six-speed and it is cheaper for production as well. Gear
progression seems to be designed to meet all of these requirements and keep a wide range of the
gearbox.
See the way of progression as a red curve on the next, familiar diagram.

2013 Fiesta Ecoboost Gear progression


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0

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25

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less paraitic loses

18

175

200

225

250

275

300

325

The RPM drop, which comes after the shifting-up, is huge through all gear changes. Now, continue
to the 5th gear. As we mentioned in the technique presentation, maximum of a 46% of the last gear
range can be used in the traffic (considering 130 km/h a speed limit). Moreover, manufacturer claims
the TOP speed of this model to be 180 Km/h26, which means that a driver of the Fiesta is not able to
use more than a 65% of the fifth gear range even on a circuit. Our Fiesta is obviously not designed
for a circuit racing, but neither for flying without speed limits on the German Autobahn - with
an exception of its overdrive gears.27
Fords concept of this model is simple. Fiesta has always been a small hatchback intended as e.g. a
family second car, a young drivers first car, or an urban vehicle. Can the recent version play these
roles? According to reviews, it can. However, reviewers noticed the phenomena described above:
The Fiestas top gear is strictly a downhill ratio (0.756:1), and acceleration isnt the word for what
occurs when the driver depresses the go pedal when in fifth. Its more like accumulation of
momentum. Which meant a lot of downshifts to fourth and even third gear.28
Have also some of the consumers noticed the phenomena? Yes, they have: User Fiesta_Hack, 28.
8. 2014: I know the 1.0 was built for economy, but there is just too much performance potential to
not think about bolt-on mods. However, the more seat time I have in the car, I am thinking the stock
tranny gear ratios are really holding this car back. Does anyone know if we have any options with
the factory tranny gearset or diff?29
These two quotations show the demand for an optimisation. Where is a demand, there should be also
a supply.
Before we start to present it, want to say, even there is a potential for optimisation, Fiesta 1.0 Ecoboost
with 5-speed manual is in our opinion still one of the best cars its class. Despite the phenomena we
described, ordinary driver would be completely satisfied with the stock powertrain setup thanks to
the extremely viable engine.30 Therefore, our following ideas should be perceived more as a face
lifting procedure than as a complete revolution.

26

184 km/h without speed governor -19. 1 . 2016


http://www.automobile-catalog.com/car/2013/1817135/ford_fiesta_1_0_ecoboost_100_trend.html
27
Gears with ratio > 0 can bee called underdrive gears, ratio = 1 direct ratio gears, ratio < 0 - overdrive gears
ATS-14 - Manual Transmission Systems - 1
28
19. 1. 2016 http://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/2014-ford-fiesta-10l-ecoboost-test-review
29
20. 1. 2016 http://www.fiestafaction.com/forums/threads/44402-Better-Gear-Ratios
30
Appendix number 6 a complex diagram covering all information we mentioned until now.

19

3.2.3. Presentation of our optimising solutions


We have developed three gear ratio optimising solution for specific ways of use.
1) City & Sport - classic
-

Who is this for?

Fiesta owner from a large city who appreciates fresh acceleration, who likes to choose the
optimal gear in a city traffic but on the other hand enjoys the shifting procedure while he is
driving outside the city just for fun.
-

Specific criteria?

In this case, we would like to reach a good value/money ratio.


-

How to reach this?

Changing maximum three of five gear ratios. Keep the standard final drive ratio and the
original wheel dimension.

Ford fiesta Ecoboost - manual transmission tuning - City & Sport classics
7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240

Three gear ratios are changed (the Green ones) - 2nd gear (1,926 2,025), 3rd gear (1,206 1,4 and
4th 0,878 (overdrive) 1,1 (underdrive)
1st gear remained unchanged and original 4th gear is now the fifth one (in order to decrease solutions
production costs). Gear graduation (Red curve) is strongly progressive at the beginning, turning into
almost geometric one between the 4th and the 5th gear.

20

Gaps between the single gears are reduced little bit. Continuity of the 3rd and the 4th is significantly
improved. 4th gear should is the choice for driving in city traffic in a range of 50 80 km/h. Closer
ratios mean that a driver shouldnt be now forced to downshifting to the 2nd gear us much as before
conversion. The 5 is an overdrive gear for long distance traveling or downhill going. Highway
comfort and economy could not be like before, but still acceptable in the context of a super-mini
class. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th gear will do their job while speeding on twisted roads.

2) Highway cruiser
-

Who is this for?

Someone who is traveling long distances and who would appreciate improved driving
qualities on freeways, motorways etc.
-

Specific criteria?

Try to get the result within a non-invasive approach.


-

How to reach this?

Since the Fiestas overdrive gears are well optimised for highway fuel economy, opening of a
gearbox is not necessary in this case. Reducing the final drive ratio is not a good idea as it
would leads to taller gears and reduces capability of car on normal roads. Choosing another
wheels and tires dimension might be a clue in this case. Is this a gearbox tuning? No and Yes.
Wheels are part of powertrain, their circumference plays an important role in gearing, and it
has a certain effect on relationship between engine RPM, gear ratio and vehicle speed.31

31

Page 10 theory presentation

21

Ford Fiesta Ecoboost - 5 speed manual with 195/55 R15 vs. 205/45 R17
7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

On the graph above, black lines represents gears combined with the original wheel setup
(195/55/R15, C = 1,871 m) while the yellow ones stand for the setup upgraded with new wheels and

= 63

tires (205/45 R17, C = 1,934 m)32.

This makes a measurable difference in the RPM. Driving 130 Km/h on the 5th gear means 2880,3
RPM with original setup compared to 2786,5 RPM with new wheels mounted.

= 93,8

In spite of RPM reduction, fuel economy improvement cannot be guaranteed due to the existence of
factors, such as rolling resistance increasing together with the width of the tire and parasitic loses
caused by potentially rising rolling masses. New setup, which we have chosen based on the list of
Fiesta-compatible rims33 may have questionable influence on a fuel economy and on a comfort;
however, its undisputable benefit lies in improved handling and stability. Wider tires together with a
lower profile bring better stability, traction and shorter breaking distance.34
Summarization. Stock transmission is well optimised for highway traveling. The easiest way to make
it even more fitting these conditions is a wheels upsizing. We suggest the described setup as good
compromise.
32

20. 1. 2016 http://www.tyresizecalculator.com/tyre-wheel-calculators/tire-size-calculator-tire-dimensions


20. 1. 2016 http://www.fiestastforum.com/forum/threads/7-Fiesta-ST-Wheel-Size-Offset-amp-Tire-Information
34
20. 1. 2016 http://www.oponeo.co.uk/tyre-article/replacement-tyres-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-changingwheel-sizes
33

22

3) Mountain Lion"
-

Who is this for?


Fiesta owner driving its car in a mountainous terrain, towing a heavy trailer or both of them.

Specific criteria?
To provide better access to the power and torque from lower RPM on each gear by smallest
possible intervention.

- How to reach this?


By modifying final drive ratio, rising it to 4,25. Keeping original gear ratios and wheel
dimension.

Ford Fiesta Ecoboost - stock final drive ratio 3,61 vs. tuned 4,25
7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310

This solution combines advantages of two previous. As all the gears are influenced in the same way,
original graduation curve is principally maintained, however we reached radical conversion of the
whole transmission character. Very important feature for the hill start is the new layout of the 1st gear.
It enables releasing a clutch in lower RPM range, which results into smoother start and lesser wear
of the clutch plate. With this solution, car should gain more agility and become quicker. It would fit
the best frequently hill climbing or towelling as well as sport drive in the mountains, but the highway
efficiency will not arrive at the level of stock version.

23

3.2.4.

Business analyses and feasibility under the Danish law system

Our intentions after all the technical analyses, is find material to answer to the second part of our
Problem statement. We strongly want to understand if this idea could be transformed feasibility into
a profitable business. To do that, we decided to operate in the following manner:
We have found some interesting answers from the online questionnaire35, the first thing coming out
is that more than 70% on the answers would considerate the possibility of a gear tuning because
understand the utility of this solution. Also this percentage of people can feel that the original gear
ratios cannot completely satisfy the daily usage of the car. Afterwards we can find out another aspect
of the questionnaire; how much the people would spend for the gearbox tuning. Here the answers
were really open to a wide range of values, from 1200 to over 15000 Kr. Also from the answers we
can figure out, that most part of them own new cars model and they will be willing to make a gearbox
tuning instead of buy another car.
We are pretty satisfied about the results, because those demonstrated that tuning of gearboxes could
be feasibility and rentable business. We also had some information about the real cost of a gearbox
tuning from a Czech company doing this from various years. The cost from a complete gearbox tuning
would be inside the range of 15000 Kr. all inclusive.
Talking about the gearbox tuning of the Ford Fiesta 1.0 ecoboost, we have theoretically calculated
the time of work required, and the cost of that issue. We consider eight hours of work, to disassemble
the gearbox, make the gears tuning, and after mount again all together. That time results, in our
expectations, to be an enough quick service, permitting to satisfy the client, that can loose the usage
of the car only for one day. The operation should be performed from two technicians at the same time,
also for the weight of the parts involved. So the final cost, for a client, would be around 12000-14000
kr.
We have found a professional technician working in Denmark, and operating every day revisions
checking that the features in the cars correspond to the Danish law parameters (Syn). From his
interview we figure out two important points:

35

http://goo.gl/forms/2I7Et7Bx4m
Please see the project final presentation for more information: https://prezi.com/_p74tymfza7g/how-to-develop-fullpotential-of-fiesta-econetic/
35

24

o The gear ratios are not object of inspection, also because these data are not available in the
register of the car features. Thats meaning that a gear ratio tuning cannot be discovered during
the biannual revision.
o Addition of the 6th gear should result in a new registration of the car in
Annexed advertisement36 is an example of our company presentation. We are convinced that
nowadays the perfect media vehicle to use to advertise a company is internet. In particular posting or
advertising on some Danish cars specialized websites, where everyday thousands of people can
connect. Potentially, these browsers are powerful and can raise the curiosity of the people against a
new company in Denmark. The right way not to be confused like an ordinary workshop, could be the
direct explanation of what we doing, and most importantly, what are the solutions we can find out to
solve a problem that the people doesnt now to have.
We would also arrange special tuning kit providing an additional value for concrete a car of the certain
model. This product is an object of the second part of the exam (the oral presentation - Fabio).

4. Conclusion
Marek:
From my point of view, manual gearbox, in the second decade of the 21st century, is unfortunately a
dying breed. Problem is not the transmission itself. However, the newest safety and ecological
requirements make the manual too expensive because of calibration of all ECUs and safety systems
in a car. This is because there do not exist any patterns of behaviour of the manual gearbox. Driver
himself decides what exactly he wants, what gear ratios is to be selected at the concrete moment. On
one hand big room for imperfection, on the other hand pure shifting freedom.
Adjustments of key parts of manual gearboxes is not a pure fiction due to basic construction
principals, which have not changed a lot since the very beginnings of automotive industry.
Why is not this kind of tuning so widely spread? It is an expensive manor. In the workshop, we have
learned that it takes hours to dismount the gearbox, install all new parts and mount it. We are talking
about case in which we already have all necessary parts. Those have to be designed and manufactured

36

Page 33

25

properly. Specific parts for every model, every type of gearbox. Design and production. It costs
money. Too much money if compare them to the price of todays used or even brand new cars.
So, is it manual gearbox tuning only for real petrol-heads? People who want to adjust the car exactly
to their needs and do not regret to spend decent money for it?
Not necessarily. In my opinion, this kind of tuning could be also an interesting opportunity for a
specialised private workshop to show its potential and prove their skills. However, it has to be put
into a broader context. I tried to deal with this idea in my presentation37.
Finally, gearbox optimization should not be underestimated. It plays an important part when it comes
to any deeper, sport oriented customization.

Fabio:
In the last paragraphs of analyse we have inspected the technical factors that combined together, may
fix certain problems connected to the usage of the Ford Fiesta 1.0 ecoboost, in different daily
situations. After the analyses of the technical features, we are confident enough to have the elements
we need to answer to our problem statement. This was divided in two questions, connected, but of
different nature.
The first part of the problem statement was a pure technical question, How can manual
transmission tuning, helps cars, to perform significantly better in certain operating condition.
We established, through various examples, that is possible to improve the Fiestas performance when
this has to be used in a specific area, or when we want to concentrate the performance in a specific
moment of the day. The Fiestas factory features are an excellent compromise between a wide range
on possible situations; we wanted to take the best, from the best. Usually this is the purpose, in the
racing area. A normal car, could be transformed in a beast for the rallies, or for a circuit. And the base
is always the same, the factory model. This is an extreme field but certainly a good example. With
our gearbox tuning solutions, the Fiesta maintain always the handling, comfort, fuel economy and
smooth feeling we appreciate in this model.
Under the technical point of view, make a gearbox tuning, in not too complicate, but it takes time,
minimum one day of normal work schedule. The parts of our project that can be considered the weak

37

https://prezi.com/_p74tymfza7g/how-to-develop-full-potential-of-fiesta-econetic/

26

point, is the engineering design of the gear kits. We have considered just the Ford fiesta, but in the
market there are thousands of models, could be impossible to have, in the stats up, all the kits ready
for this models. So we think that, if from one side, the kits engineering design will take time to be
finish, would be possible to take only 5 or 6 car models, in the start-up phase. Than we also consider
to take, inside of this 5 or 6 cars models, just the most used engine versions, e.g. the diesel versions
are absolutely more important in this moment than the petrol ones.
In the second parts of the problem statement we asking can this know-how be turned into a
business?. After the answers received to out online questionnaire, we have understood that a
business in gearbox tuning, could move the interest on the people. Also, we have discovered that a
lot of car owners willing to invest a good quantity of money to improve the characteristic of their
cars. We talking about a sum of 7500 kr until 22000 kr. We think that most of these people is moved
from the fact that buy a new car, just because the gearbox isnt exactly what they expected, doesnt
have any sense.
We are not business experts in Companies start-up, and we didnt have the possibility to talk with a
professional in this area. This remain a dark point in the project. So interest at our idea is
demonstrated, but how much is the money needed to made a start-up is a doubt we cannot solve. On
the other side, after our practise sessions at Mercantec, we understood better the complexity of the
eventual access to the Fiestas gearbox. For that reason, we defined the final price to make a gearbox
tuning between 12000 and 14000 kr. In the last Wednesday at Mercantec, we had the possibility to
make some pictures of the gearbox from the bottom and from the top.
At the late consideration, we want to talk about what we cannot do during this project, that could be
have improve out knowledge about technical and business issues. During the three days of practise a
Mercantec we lost a lot of time, practically the first two days we didnt have the possibility to put our
hands on the car. In the afternoon, on the second day, we started in the last two hours available, to
work in the rolling road facilities. Unfortunately fix the car properly, has taken long time, so we didnt
attempt anything. The third day finally, we did 9 attempt, obtaining the results visible in this project.
In the last day of practise, that was last Monday, we wish to attempt to remove the gearbox from the
Fiesta, but the car wasnt available, because the other students has to use it as well for their project.

27

5. List of appendixes
Appendix number 1: Converting the picture to the dataset.
JPG. Picture

Excel graph

1987 Ford Siera RS Cosworth HP


& Nm Curve
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0
0

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

Appendix number 2: The example of gear visualisation sometimes can be called a saw diagram
(X-axis: speed in Km/h, Y-axis engine RPM)

1987 Ford Siera RS 500 Coswroth - 1st ,2nd and 3rd gear
7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
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500
0
0

10

20

30

40

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60

70

80

28

90

100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Appendix number 3: Example of combining gear visualisations with torque curve. All
information in one diagram. The top X-axis stands for Km/h, the bottom one for N.m..

1987 Ford Siera RS 500 Cosworth - 1st ,2nd and 3rd gear +
torque courve visualisation
7000
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3000
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2000
1500
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0

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Appendix number 4 - 1.0 Ecoboost characteristic the standard manufacture-based layout

2013 Ford Fiesta Ecoboost 100 HP / 170 Nm


180
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Appendix number 5 page 23 (the raw layout from the rolling road facility)

29

6500

7000

30

Appendix number 6 The engine characteristics resulting from measurements

2013 Ford Fiesta 1.0 ECOnetic


180
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50
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Appendixes number 7 work shop observations documentation

31

6000

6500

7000

32

33

6. Bibliography
ATS-14 - Manual Transmission Systems - 1
Automotive Technology: A Systems Approach, 5th Edition, ISBN-13: 978-1428311497ATS-14 Manual Transmission Systems
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manual_transmission
Optimizing Performance and Fuel Economy of a Dual-Clutch Transmission Powertrain with
Model-Based Design, By Pete Maloney and Wit Nursilo
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/gearing
http://www.endtuning.com/rollingroads.html
http://www.maha.de/default.htm?rdeLocaleAttr=en
http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/horsepower-hp
https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-meaning-of-torque-and-power-in-a-car-in-layman-terms
Bachalor thesis Software for Optimalization of Gear Speed Language of thesis is Czech, abstract
avaliable in English.
https://www.vutbr.cz/www_base/zav_prace_soubor_verejne.php?file_id=26415
http://www.automobile-catalog.com/car/2013/1817135/ford_fiesta_1_0_ecoboost_100_trend.htm
http://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/2014-ford-fiesta-10l-ecoboost-test-review
http://www.fiestafaction.com/forums/threads/44402-Better-Gear-Ratios
http://www.oponeo.co.uk/tyre-article/replacement-tyres-advantages-and-disadvantages-ofchanging-wheel-sizes

34