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( 45 )
TII.

Geographtcal
Sccount of Albania, extrczcted
from a
Marzuscript
of COUNTKARACZAY.

UNDERthis nameis comprehendedthat westernportionof the


Turkishempirein Europe,boundedontheN. byBosniaan(lServia;
on the E. by Rum Ili, orratherthat portionof Rum Ili which
was
calle(lMacedoniaby the ancients; and on the S. by Epirus;
the W. it is washe(lby the Adriatic. It lies between40? on
25t
an(l43? N . lat., andbetween19?an(l 21?20' E. long.
THE SEACOAST
OF ALEANIA.-Thecoast-lineof
betweenthe Gulf of CAttaroan(l Porto Palermo, S. Albania,
of Cape
Linguetta(Turk.,Karaburnu),is about240 miles long, when
the
windingsof the coastare takenintoaccount. The mostnorthern
portion,whichis underthe dominionof Austria,has three
harbours,the Gulf of Cattaro,and the harl)oursof Trastegood
Bu(lua; and its inhabitantsare among the l)est seamenof and
the
Mediterranean.The coastfromAntivarito Avlonais not much
frequented,partlyon accountof the wantof goodharboursand
the dangerousnavigation,and partlybecausevessels
touchingat
anyplace on it are sulzjectto quarantine. The anchorat,e
the mostpartbad, an(lthere ss rarelyany shelter fromthe is for
andthe sea; besi(les, the inhabitantsare shy of strangers.winds
this sllorehas some harbours,and is not in ttlis respectso Still
off as the oppositecoastof Italy. FromBuduato Porto badly
Medua
(41? 48' N. lat.) the sea has a consideral)le
depthclose in larld,
an(l largevesselsfind sufficientwater at abotlt 1 a mile
shore; but from Porto Medua to Avlona vessels cannotfrom
approach nearer than a mile, if they draw 20 feet of water.
Near Cape Linguetta,an(lto the S. of it, the coastis rocky,
and
deepwateris foundclose to the shore.
The Nr.E. wind, calle(l Bora. is drea(led,not so much on
accountof its violence as of the suddennesswith which
in. The signs wllich usually foretell its approachareit sets
small
darkcloudssurrounding
the summitsof the mountains,and movingin differentdirections;sometimeswhite clouds of a
formhover o^er the mountains,and the sea is very low.round
the contrary,the scirocco, or scilocco, a south-eastern On
wind,
causesthe sea to run e2atremely
high, when, as is
the
case,it continuesto blow threedaysin succession.commonly
Its approach

isindicated
l)yblackclouds
the mountains,
a higherrise
ofthe sea, and an increase(ltemperature.
This windbrings
coverintn

much rain.

The straitdividin^,
CapeLinguetta
fromOtrantois onlyabout
42mileswi(le. The following
aretheharbours
of Albania:The Gulfof Cattaro(Le Bocche{li Cattaro)
is a (leepinlet

aG

COtlnt

A12ACzAY

esGeoyrrqvAifczZffCe2tZ!
of HIF3aezi.

of the sea, surroundedby high mountains. It is nearly30 miles


long,measuredalonga line whichkeepsthe rniel-channel,
and consists of three basinsconnectedwith one anotherby straits. The
straitat its entranceis calle(lPunta (l'Ostro,the secondKamlJur, and the innermostBocca de Loretane. The last mentionedis the mostnarrow,beingat its westernend 200 feet, and
at its easternonly 160 feet wide. The narrowestportionis
called Le Cateroe. The secondandthirdbasinsformexcellent
harbours,beinCprotectedagainstall lvixldsby high hills and
3nountains. The elevthof watervariesfrojn15 to 25 fathoms.
The Bay of Trasteis dividedfromthe Gulf of Cattaroby an
isthmusabout3 miles across. This isthmusis formedby a ridge
of limestonehills, of moderateelevation,in whichgoo(l marble
is found. The bayhas safe andgoodanchorage,andas a harbour
isnotinferior-to Lissa; but the surroundingcountryis nearly
uninhalvited.
The harbourof Budua has good anchorage,but is open towardsthe S., and exposedto the eSectsof the S.E. wind.
The harboursof Antivariand Val di Noce, near Dulcigno,
havenot sufiicientdepth for largevessels, and are not protected
fromthe sea and wind,whenit blowsfromthe W.S.W.
Vessels of moderatesize can enterthe river Boyana, and sail
up it for many-miles.
FartherS. are tso small harbours;one called PortoS. Giovannidi Medua, and the othewLacheka. They are situatedN.
and S. of the einbouchureof the river Drin, and havetolerably
good anchorage. Anchorageis also foundin the Gulf of Drin,
at the custom-house(Dogana),E. of CapeRedoni. There is also
safe anchorageboth on the N. and S. si(lesof Cape Redoni.
The halbour of Durazzois very inlliffierent,and, properly
speaking,only a roadstead. Then followthe small harboursof
St. Anastasio,St. Pietro. Arzenta, Cavode Pali, Cas-ode Laki,
and Bestova. They ha^Te
little depth, and admit only small
vessels.

The Bayof Avlonais one of the safestpOltSon thiscoast.


It hasthreegoodanchorages.Oneis nearthecastle;another
in
thecoveof Dukathes,whichis alsoknownby the nameof Porto
Hagusano;andthe thirdat the mostnorthernextremity
of the
islan(lof Sassena,whichlies acrosstheentlanceof thebay. Tlle
roadstea(lis open and exposel to northernand south-eastern
winds.
N oR T H 1?R N AL B A N I A.-B etween the mouthof the river
Narenta(N. of 43? N. lat.) andthatof the riverBoyana(near
41? ;0t N. lat.)an estensivemountain
mass comes close to the
sholesof theAtlriatic;anll the wiltershe(l
of this regionis so

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.SGeoy}XchtctAccotl2!nf Albglntct. 47
KARACZAY
COUnb
nearthe coastthat no riveraloovethe size of a torrentfalls into
the sea. The mountainregion,of lvhichtheseulasses constitute
the w-esterneelge, is of considerableextent, an(l constitutesa
letachedportionof the I)inarianAlps, connecte(lwith the larincipal rangel)y a chain which, between19?and 19? 10' E. long.
anelnear49?40' N. lat., runs to the E. Near the townof Nixheight; but fartherE. it rises colisiderably
itshi it is of moalerate
in the vicinityof N[ountSilievatz. At this pointit also changes
its direction,andturnstowardsthe N., joining the principalchain
of the DinarianAlps at Afount Javor,between the sourcesof
the rivers Narenta an(l Moratsha(near 43? N. lat.). The
northernpart of the mountainregion, which is thus connecte(l
with the DinariarsAlps, like other mountainregions consisting
which
of liinestonerocks,formsin severalplacesdrainage-basins
haveno outlet. Such a basin is that of Lake Krupatz,which
all the waterscollectedin the exby the riverANatizza
recei^7es
tensive(le.pressionin the middle of which the townof Nisitshi
is built; and the still larger basin of the river Trebinstizza,
whichextendsnearly30 miles in length, generallyparallelto the
Adriatic. This part of the mountainregion, however,eloesnot
belong tc) Albania, but lies within the Turkish province of
Herzegovina.
The largest, and at the sametime the most elevated, portion
of the mountainregionlies withinAlbania, and is called by the
nativesZernagora(pronouncedChernagora);by the Turks, Saratagh; an(l the Italians,MonteNegro; all which ames signify
Black Mountains: and this designationis derivedfrom the forestswhichformerlycoveredthe whole of the country,an(l still
covera partof it. The plateauis widestat its northernborder,
letween 42? 30' and 42? 40t, where it exten(lsfrom Br, to E.
upwardsof 25 miles its westernedge rising iminediatelyfrom
the sea, whilst its easterntorder is only from 1 to 3 miles disansl Zenta.
tantfromthe westernbanks of the rivers>Moratsha
The rangeof the easternborderis nearly elueN. and S., from
19?15' E. long., to where it meets the Lakeof Skutari. S. of
this pointthe mountainregionis limitedto the tractdividingthe
lake and the valleyof the riverBoyanafromthe sea; andhere it
is scarcely8 miles wide. N. of the lake it is widened,in consequenceof the shoresof the AdriatictrendingfromS.E. to N.W.
The mostelevatedpartof the Zernagoralies to the N. of the
parallelof the northernestremityof the Lakeof Skutari,between
42? 10t and42? 40t N. lat. Its (leclivitytozardsthe sea and the
bays of Cattaroand Trasteis steep, andin some places nearly
perpendicular;andthe mountainsrlasses,at a shortdistancefrom
the sea, reach a consi(lerableelevation,upnvardsof 1000 feet.
the exceptionof theil base, whichis woodedin lnanypawrts,
AiVith

48

Count1<ARACZAY'S Geographical
S(countof SIbania.

these (leclivities are quite bare of vegetation, the steepness of the


rocks preventing the accumulationof earthy matter. The interior
of the mountain region is a table-land, elevated probably more
than 2000 feet abovethe.sea-level; the surfaceof which is alivided
ly short ridges, running in every direction, and formin, a considerable numlJer of small depressions, which take the form of
valleys, but are rarely more than 3 or 4 miles long, or more than
a mile wide. There are depressions in all these ridges, which afford
the means of passing from one vallev to another. This peculiar
surface, combine(l with the absorbent nature of the limestone
rocks, preventsthe accumulationof water into rivulets and streams.
Even wells are extremely rare. The inhabitants are, therefore,
oblige(l to collect rain waterin cisterns for their household use and
their cattle. The woods are mostly composed of oak and l)eech.
On the ridges they are stunted; but in the (lepressionsthey attain
a considerable size. In these forests the RAzas
cotinus,or Venus
sumach, aboun(ls; a shrub whose wood is used in dyeing and
tanning. Large quantities of it are annually brought from the
mountains to Cattaro, whence it is exported to Trieste and
Marseille. The places which are not wooded are covered with
a rather thick turi; intersperseelwith several aromatic plants, as
savory, thyme,juniper, &c.
On the table-land a few mountain masses rise consi(lerably
above the general level. Near the sea are :- Mount Vegli Verch,
N. of the town of Risano, which is built at the terminationof the
northern brauch of the Gulf of Cittaro; and Mount Lovtshin, or
Monte Sella, at the northern base of which stands the town of
Cattaro. But the highest summits are found in the interior of
the plateau: they are, taking them in succession, from N. to S.,
Mount Pusti Lissaz, M. Stavor, Doberstik, Zeklinsta, an(l
Virayl. Their sides are not precipitous, but their sunlmits are
5000 feet, or even more, above the sea-level.
Near its eastern edge the general level of the table-land becomes somewhat lower, and sinks into the low and level country
which estends along the river Moratsha,by successine deressions
terminating in gorges. These gorges, however, are very narrow,
an(l easily (lefended against an inva(ling enemy. A few inconsiderable streams issue from them, and fall into the river hIoratsha or the Lake of Skutari. Proceeding from N. to S., the
IllOSt importantof these rivulets are,- the (:)realuk,draininga fertile and populous valley of the same name; the Sussitza, which
rises on the eastern declivity of Mount Garatsh, one of the high
summits of the Zernagora; the Siniatz; and the Zernoyearish.
Owing to the height of the table-lan(l above the suriace of the
sea, great part of the Zernagorais an inclement country,with a long
winter, an(l lnucl-lcol(l weather in autumn and spring. 'J'his, to-

COUntK\RACZAY'S
GeogrcsllvAicaZ
Accoltn! o

Ibaniu. 49

,ether with the rockysoil anelxvantof water,ren(lersagriculture


precariousand of lilnited extent. In(lian cornan(lpotatoesare
grown,andseveralkindsof vegetables,especiallycal)bages. The
inhabitantslive principallyon the pro(luceof theirflocksof sheep
an(lgoats: cattleand horses are scarce, but hogs ale more numerous. As the inhabitantsare exclutle(lfIom the bazaarsof
the Turkish towns near the mountainregion, they (lisposeof
their surluluspro(luce,their smoke(lmutton (calledcastratina),
sheep-skins and coalse wool, cheese, tallow, bacvn, bees'wax, an(l lis-e stock, to the inhalitants of Cattaro. They also
carryfirexvood
an(lthe Venus sumachto thayttowrl,an(ltake back
a little wineand spirits, salt, oil, iron, anel some manufacture(l
articles,especiallyarirlsand gunpowder.
There are no artificialroads in the Zernat,ora,and the inhabitantsdo not make them, lest they shouldgive facilitiesto in^aders. The l aths which connectthe hamletsor small villat,es
with each otherare in generalimpractical)le
for beastsof lourden.
Eventhe line of columunication
alongwhichtlle internalcommerce
of the countryis carriedon, whichlea(lsfrornCattaroto Zettinie,
tlle residenceof the Vlaelika,or spiritualgovernorof the republic
of Montenet,ro, is in this condition,an(l the two lines which
connectthe w-alleyof the riverZenta with Cattaro. Tlle more
southernroa(l of the two last mentione(lrunsalongthe courseof
tlle riv-erSussitzato a small lTillat,e
calleelGellishi; then passes
througha narlowgorgeto a funnel-shaped
(lepressionof the plateau, cal]e(l Yednoss, in which is the village of Miogost; antl
thencewestvardthrougha chainof (leplessions,till it meets the
northernroa(l at Resna. The northernroallleaves the valley of
the riverZenta at Stubizza,antlpasses throughCelovo antlOranide in a southela (lirectionto Resna. From Resna the roal
continuessouthwxrdto Niegussi, whence it runs westwar(lto
Cattaro. In manyplacesthese paths are so bad that the goceds
snustloecarlie(lon the backsof men.
The portionof the mountainregion of Zernagorawhich lies
S. of a line drawnfromthe town of Budua, on the A(lriatic,to
the northernextremityof the Lake of Skutari,containsa single
rangeof mountains,whicll withitsofl^sets,
fills up the wholespace
betweenthe lake and the sea. The higherpartof the rangemay
be about3000 feet abovethe sea-level, and a few of its summits
rise still higher, as for example,l\/IountShaptina,nearthe point
where the territoriesof the republic of Montenet,roand the
Austrianand Turkishempiresmeet; AlountRumia, fartherS.;
and Mount Mossura,a few ]niles N. of Dulcigno. This range
has less precipitousdec]ivitiesthanthe hills fartherN., and they
are frequentlybroken by ravines an(l watercoursesformin
sulall ^alloys,an(lterminating,at least in the vicinityof the Lake
+ OL.XII.
E:

50

(Seogrcrphicczl
JeCGltqt
of S16ant.
CountI(ARACZ1\rSS

OfSkutari,in level tractsof small extent. The higherportionof


the rangeis piartlywooded,especiallyorl the side next the lake.
The lowerdeclivities,with the valleys,presentconsiderabletracts
fit for agriculturalpurposes. The countrysurroundingMount
Rumia is only fit for pasturage,and is inhabitedl;)yherdsmen
possessinglalge flocks of sheep. In this mountaintract much
corn,particularlymaize,is grown. There arealsolargevineyards
and orchards,-ieldinb every kind of fruit of excellentquality,
such as peaches and quinces. Vegetalalesof every kind are
cultivated-potatoes,cauliflowers,cabbages,and turnips,as also
melons, of which some are of excellent flavour,an(l the Mczmordica baljamica, or balsam apple. This poltion of the
Zernagoragives rise to two small rivers,the Gralzovlianand the
Zernitza,whichfall into the Lake of Skutari:some smallstreams
join the river:[3oyana. Tllere are no wilulbeastsof greatsize ill
these mountains;ltut there are considerablenumbersof hares,
squirrelJ,partridges,and snipes. The turtle is fourldin solme
places.
with the exceptionof
The mountainregion of the ZernaXora,
the portionS. of 42? ] O',whichformspartof the Turkishempire,
an(lof the provinceof Cattaro,on the coastof the A(lriatic,which
is unelerthe dominionof Austria, is the telritory of the rcpulJlicof Xvlontenegro.The inhabitants,called by the Italians
l\fontenigrini,and in their own language Zernagorzi,sulemitte(l
to the Turks,whenthat nationtowardsthe middleof the fifteenth
centuryexten(ledtheir conqueststo this part of tlle European
continent. The conquerors,however,were unable to establish
their military colonies in the mountaindefiles, and contented
themselvessvithimposingon the inhabitantsa small tribute,anel
leavirsgthemto governthemsels-esby their own law.
In 1712, whenthe Zernagorzitook up armsill favourof Peter
the Great,they (lefeateda numerousTurkish army near BlIount
Vrana, an(l since that time the most inaccessiblepart of the
country,the Nahia (caaeton)Katunska,has consielereditself quite
independent. Since the defeat of the Turks near MountRusso^rnik,in 1796, the inhabitantsof the more southerndistricts
have joinecl the inhabitantsof the KatunskaNahia, anel submitte(lto the swayof the Vladika. These districtsnowforln the
ahiasof Rietshka,Zermnitshka,an(l Lieshanskaeandthe united
cantorlsconstitutethe republiccf Montenegro. Their population
axnountsto about 56,000 individuals,of whom25,()00are in the
Nahiaof Watunska,12,0()0in that of Rietshia, 13,000 in N. Zermnitshka,an(l 6000 in N. Lieshanska.Someothertriles, which
areallieelto the confederation,will be notice(lhereafter.
At the easternbase of the Zernagorais a salley, (lvair.edby tlle
river Zenta anel lgy the lowel course of the lVIoratsha. The

CountKAK.AC22tY'S GevyralJhiccll
il ccotent
of Xlbani.

51

Zenta, or, as it is ealle(lby the nati^res,


Zetta,riseson the southert
declivityof the lower?ortionof the mountainrange lvhich eonneets the ZernagoraX-iththe Dinarian Alps. Tllree small
rivers,descen(liIlgfromthe lnountains,unite at theirbase, near
the ^7illage
of lArenoshtiza,andformthe river,whiehrunsat first
througha narrosvvallev nowherea mile in lvidth,untilit reaehes
the villageof Frutak,wherethe valleyopens, and maybe, on an
average,nearly2 miles aeross. Near the sma]lTurkishfortress
of S)uss the mountainsagaineome elose to the ris-eron both
banks,so as to forma gorge, in whichthere is seareelyrooInfor
a llarrowroad. After emergingfrom this (lefile the riverflows
in a valley ahout 5 ln;Lesbroad, till it falls into the river
Moratsha,eomin(rfromthe N.E.
Though the valleyof the Zentais not wide, the deelivitiesof
the adjaeentmountains,lJeinggentle and suseeptibleof tillage,
are eultivatedin manyplaeesto a (listaneeof nearly3 miles on
eaeh si(le of the liver. A good deal of maizeis grown; but the
floelisof sheep andgoatsconstitutethe principalrichesof the inhabitants,an(lsuply themlvithfoo(lan(larticlesof barter. The
mountainsloes are woo(ledsvithoak, elm, and acacias; and the
/lZbS COtZn7.lS abounds.
The lTalleyof the Zenta is inhabiteelby a tribe of AlE)anians,
calle(l Bieloposlitshi,who ^erc formerlysubjecttotheTulks,
but wh) joinetl the confederationof the Zernagorzi,as allies,
aI)outthe bet,innin^,
of the presentcentury,an(lforma cantonof
theirrepublic; which,howe^Ter,
is not callell Nahia, I)ut Berda.
The populationof this tractis estimate(lat 15,000 individuals.
l\iTount
Silielratzis situatedxvherethe ridgewhichconnectsthe
Zerna^,ora
w-iththe DinarianAl}s turnsnorth. Its heightis consiflerable. This rielgejoins the princilral
at MountJavor.
From lVIountJalor the DinaIian Alps run E.S.E. to l\{ount
Rovtzi,near42?50t N. lat., wherethey turnsouthwar(l,an(lcontinue in that direction(for about15 yniles) to 42? 35t, an(l then
turn againto the E. They retainthis easterly(lirectionto Mount
Troiz%a,
a distanceof aT}c)ut
30 miles, an(l then they run,for upwar(lsof 10 miles, to the E. of N., to an elevate(lsummitcalle(l
flSobrolJul-Planina.Hence, I)etweenMountRovtziand ^NIount
I)ol)robuk-Planina,the gre&tchain forms nearly a semicircle,
an(l does not exten(l,as is erroneouslyrepresente(lin our maps,
in a straightline betweenthesesummits. The riverwhichissues
fromthe Lake of Plava,an(l is ma(le in the Inaps to join the
Zievna,an affluentof the lHoratsha,
reallyrunsto the N., andafter
forcingits xvaythrough another,less elevated, mountainrange,
joins the Lim, an affluentof the Danube. This northernrange,
whichfromone of its elerate(l summitsmavloe called the range
of A!Ivurt
Visiter,anellvbicl-lhasits contitizil;y
brokenhy thegorge,
rantre

S. ?

5Q CollntKARACZ
AY'5GeoysalvilicalA ccountof AlDclnir.
throughwhichthe riverof Plava findsits waynorthwar(l,extenals
nearly(lue W. an(l E., betweenMountRovtzi an(l Mount Dobrobuk-Planina. The countrywhich is enclose(lby the range
of MountVisitor and the principalchainof the DinarianAl?s,
belongsto Albania, an(l is known by the name of the Plain of
Plava. Its surfaceis ratherhillythanmountainous,
analit contains
a considerableportionof fertileland, but the difficultyof bringing the agriculturalpro(luceto marketprecludestlle extensionof
ti]lagebeyondwhatis requiredfor the consumptionof the inhabitants. They export,however,the pro(luceof their her(ls an(l
flocks (hides,wool, and cheese), anela consi(lerablequantityo?
wax, to the townsof Servia,especiallyto Sienizzaand Yenibazar.
This elistrictis ratherpopulous, containin,23 large villages,of
from30 to 100 houses,anda populationwhichis estimate(lat betweenGOOO
and 7000 in(livieluals,
antlslhichhas probablymuch
increasedsince that estimate was ma(le. The inhabitantsare
Catholics. They (lo not pay any tril)uteto the Turks, but are
boun(lto maintaina certainnumberof si)ahis.
rlzoreturnto the DinarianAlps: wherethis great chain, S. of
3VIount
Rovtzi,makesa len(l to tlaeS., rises one of its mostelexate(lan(lextensis-emountainmasses,A+ountKoln,the summitof
whichis coveredwith snoxreluringgreatpartof the year. The
base of the mountainexten(ls6 or 7 milesfromW. to E.; it terminates in two peaks, *shich ;lre steep ancl inaccessible,and are,
accordingto estimate,I)etween8500 and 9()00 feet above the
sea. In the upper regionsof the mountainonly a few stunted
tlees are founcl; but about4000 feet abovethe sea-levelthere are
lalge forestsof pine and fir. The pasture-grounds
areindiXerent,
and only fit for goats. On the easterneleclivityof MountKom is
a small lake, calle(lRikawetz,whichhas no issue. At some (listanceto the S. is a much lower mountain,calle(l Mount1(oritts.
W. of Mount Kom is a mountainousand brokencountry,lvhich
extendsbeyon(lthe river !\+oratshaand joins anothelmountain
rangecomingfromMountSilievatz. This rangeterluinatesin high
hills, N. and E. of the Turkishfortressof Spuss: it is calle(lthe
mountainof Polievizza,an(l is nearly5000 feet abovethe level
of the sea. The westerndeclivity(towardsthe Zentariver)is flequentlypreci)itous,butin someplacesit (lescendsby a gentleslope.
lahe countryE. of the mountainsof Polievizza,as far as hIount
lQom,is a high table-land,with a very ruggedsurface. The river
Moratshanearlybisectsit: this riverhas its rise on the southern
declivityof the Dinarian Alps, near the elevated summitsof
MountDormitoranelMountLukavitza,not far fromthe sources
of the river Nalenta, whichfalls into the Adriatic,and those of
thc Tara,one of the l?rincipalaffluentsof the rixor Drinayhich
runsto the Danube.

Count KartczAY'.s Gengl al/ziccul Jecotllle

nf

Xlba7Zect.
53

The high mountains which surround the upper course of the


Moratsha are inhabited by a small tribe of Albanese mountaineers calle(l Uskotzi. The valley in which the river flows
is very narrow as far as Ritshani-properly speaking, it is a
mere glen, and must have a great elevation abcevethe sea-level,
for the temperatllreis in general very low, and nothing thrives bllt
oats and potatoes, except in a few sheltered places, where a little
wheat is grown. Common fruit-trees growv but their pro(luce is
of indiXerentquality. The mountains, however, have good sheepwalks, and the inhabitants live chiefly on the produce of their
flocks. The forests, which extend over a considerable portion of
the (listrict, consist chiefly of oak, ash, and elm. A clayey earth,
from which the inhabitants collect small garnets, is found in the
xralley. Near Ritshani the Moratsha is joine(l from the E. by a
small river called Mala-rieka, which brings down the waters collected on tlle western declivities of Mollnt Rovtzi and WIount
Kom. Below the point where it receives tllis stream the Moratsha runs southward, gra(lually declining to the S.Wt., till it
enters the Plain of Skutari, a few miles N. of Podgorizza, and is
soon afterwardsjoined by the river Zenta. The Iniddle +alley of
the l\oratsha is much wider than the upper valley; the hills recede to a greater distance, especially on the E. but the level
tract alont, the leanks is sery lo^v, an(l in many places swampy.
The soil is much more fertile, an(l the climate less severe. Cultivation is carried on to a greater extent, and maize yiel(ls rich
crops. There are no forests, but numerous small groups of oak
and elm, mixed with juniper-trees, the sorbus domestica, apI)le
and pear trees in a wil(l state, and e]der-trees. Vines do not
thrilre, nor are almon(l-trees or fig-trees found in the valle.
Though the inhabitants of the valley derive some advantagefrom
the trees, an(l still more from their cultivate(l fields, they rely for
their principal subsistenee on the produce of their herds and
flocks; sheep an(l goats l)eing very numerous here, as is the case
all over the mountainousparts of Albania.
The valley of the Moratsha, above Podgorizza, and the mountain tract to the W. anfl E., are inhabiteelby five tribes of Albanese mountaineers: next >to the sources of the river are the
Uskotzi; and near them the Moratshi; somewhat lower down the
Rovtzi. These three small tribes, amounting to about 10,000
souls, are united into one political body, called the Ber(la Moratshka and Rovatzka; they are allies of Zernagorzi, and quite
independent of the Turks. They joined the confederationsince
the beginning of the present century. The country S. of Ritshani
is dividedlvetweentwo other tribes of mountaineers, the Piperi and
the Kutshi; the former living on the W., and the latter on the E.
side of the ri^-erWIoratsha. Each tribe forms a sel?aratepolitical

434 CountKARACZ
AY'SGeogrhicat acco^ntof Albania.
body,connectedwith the confederation
of Montenegro;the first
is called Berda Piperska, and the secondl3er(1aKutshka. The
populationof the Piperi is estilnatedat 9000, and that of the
Kutshiat 17,000 souls: the latterestimate,howevel, is evidently
too great. The Kutshidid notjoin the uniontill 1831.
The inhabitantsof the four berdas(Bielopovlitshka,Piperska,
Kutshka,and Moratshka)are distinguishedin the confederation
of the Montenigriniby the nameof Berdiani;whilstthose of the
Zernagoraare calledZerrlagorzi.The wholepopulationof these
countriesadheresto the tenets of the Greek church,arldconsequently submits without reluctance to the directionsof the
Vladika,or Greek bishop, residinz at Zettinie, who unites the
supremepoliticaland ecclesiasticalpowerin his person.
The river Ziesna, called by the Turks Sim-su, flows from
MountTroizzawestward,along the base of the principalchain;
passesthe southernprolongationof the rangeof A1ountKom, at
no great distance from Mount Kakaritska,the most southern
summitof that range; entersthe Plain of Skutarinear Dinossi;
andjoins the A{oratshanear Gerlic, 10 miles fromthat town,and
about5 miles l)elowPodgorizza.
The valleyof this riveris in generalnarrow,but at somepoints
it widefnsso as to admitof cultisation.This has enabledthe Turks
to formseveralestablishmentsin it, of vvhicllthe mostimportant
is Seliste. A-sthe countryto the W. is inhabitedexclusivelyby
independenttribes, the roacltraversingthe valley of the river
Zievnais the mostwestern line of communicationletween the
Turkishprovinceswhichare situatedS. andN. of the greatchain
of the DinarianAlps. This road crossesthe rangea few miles
E. of Seliste, near A{ountMusishinand leaJs to Gusinie,in the
Plain of Pla^ra.To securethis pass, andplotect tralrellers
against
the depredationsof the predatorytribesinhabitingthe neighbour
ing mountains,the Turks havebuilt a fortress,called by the inhabitantsof the districtCastelli-nowri,
in which a garrisonof 500
men is kept. The number of houses -vvithinand aroundthis
fortressis about500.
Anotherchain of mountains,which bounds the valleyof the
Zievnaon the S., mayl)e called, from the tribeswhich inhabit
xt,the mountainsof the Climentiand .Hotti. They are lowerthan
the principalchain, but suiciently high to deserle the nameof
mountains. Few summitsrise abovethe level of the groupe the

highestis MountVeletsiko. Thischainis severalmilesin w idth,


andterminates
on the W., about10 miles fromthe lanksof thc
riverMoratsha,
S.E. of Dinoss;. The ClitnentialldHotti lilre
exclusivelyon theproduceof theirshee) an(lgoats;theypayno
tributeto the Turks, but havenot joined the confefleration
of the
Zernagorzi,as they are strictadherentsto the RomanCatholic

of SlDenia. 55
Acco?lnt
Geographical
COUntKARACZAY'S
cleed, an(laverseto submitto the ordersof a Greekbishop. The
Clirnenti,whoinhabitthe mountainsnear MollntTroizzaan(lthe
of Castelli-nosi,are saill to consistat presentonly
mountain-pass
of alJout3000 indivi(luals:the greaterpartof the tribee,migrate(l
alont,nvithtllebishopof Ipek, (luringtlle last century,to Hunoary,
^here they settle(l, and are still known underthe name of Climcntini. Tlle Hotti, ^ho occuI)ythe mountainsS. of Seliste,are
sai(lto lJe4000 in number.
Fiom the southernsi:(leof the mountainsof the Climenti an(l
Hotti extensivemountainmassesltranchof towardsthe S., *vhich
fill uy)by far tlle greatestpartof the space inters-eningbetween
thatrange anel tlle salley of the Drin. These mountainmasses
a(lsanceso close to tlle l)allks of the river that in most places
grounelenough for a roa(l,an(lthe line of comthereis not
municationfromSkutaritothe townsof Jacovaan(lPrisren(llea(ls
overthe hills whichexten(lalongtlle rivel. The mountainswhich
cover the greatest l ortion of this countryare in somcplacesof
consideral)lellei,ht, anel form large masses; but they have the
appearanceof being isolated, for they are connecte(llrith the
rangeof Climentian(l Elotti only by low ridtes. Sucll isolate(l
mountainmassesare MountNarmayain the centre, an(l AIount
Zukal in the vesternelistricts. The si(lesof these mountainsare
covereel^vithtimber-trees:the (lepressionsan(l xalleysletveen
them are(lraine(lI)ythree livers, one an affluentof the BoJana,
ansltwo affluentsof the Drin. Tlley are calleel (fromXV.to E.)
])rinossor Khiri, Shalla, an(l WIarturi.The tractof this mountainregion, contiguous to the mountainsof the Climenti anel
I4otti, containsa lrerysmall portionof lan(l fit for abricultural
purposes; an(lits inhabitants(lepenzlfor f;)o(lantlclotllingupon
their flocks of sheep an(lgoats. They belongto txvo tribes of
mountaineers,calle(l Shalla an(l Shossi; are RomallCatholics,
an(l in(lepen(lentof the Turks. The populationof each tribe is
state(l to amount to about 1200 in(livi(luals. The four in(lepen(lenttribes- the Climenti,ISotti,Shalla, an(l.Shossi-al e comun(ler the generalnamcof l\/Ialasori(the inhal)itants
prehen(leel
of the Four Mountains). They are lery lvarlike,an(l extremely
skilful in the use of theirarms. Thc southernpartof this region,
a(ljoiningthc river Drin, containsa greater quantityof level
the mountainmasses,antlconsequentlya2,riculgroun(lI)etxveen
ture is more attendedto. The bulk of the pol ulation in this
region is compose(lof All)anese, of the RomanCath^liccreed.
Tlley pay an annualtribute to the Turliishbovernment;to collect hich batimbashi,or collectors,resi(le among them, who are
sc)metimescalled uponto settle disputes +shiclltheir llere(litary
chiefs are unable to (leci(le. In or(linarycases the chiefs )roounceju(lgmentaccor(lingto rules cstablishedby custom.
The Plain of Metojalics E. of this region; and that of Skutari
le^Tel

56

Count *\RA

CZ2tY'ts' G'e)yrrzlvAiccll

s*ssbcozent of Alba11za.

jOillsit OlltheW. The Plain of iNfetojais contifruous


to theprincipalchain of mountains. From the swnmit of the Dobrobul<Planinathis chainextendsS.E. its directionbeingin(licatedly
the summitscalle(l Peklin, Hajla, Glieb, an(l Golish-until it
meets the large mountain-knotcalle(l SharraTagh; it extends
between42? 10' and 42?20t N. lat., and between20? 50' an(l21?
E. long. Fromthis mountain-knot
the twogreatmotlntainranges,
called WIount
:[3alkan
andMountPindus,blanchof to the E. an(l
to the S.; the formerterminatingon the shoresof the Black Sea,
an(lthe latterin tlle Peninsulaof Morea. The rangewhichseparates the basin of the Ak-Drin fromthe rivers fallint,into the
Danubeis xeryhigh, rocky, vindwoo(led,as far as MountGlieb,
but betweenthis summitandthe SharraTagh it sinlisso lowthat,
*shenseen froma distance,no mountainrange appearsto intervene between the Plain of WIetojaanel that of KossovoPolie,
of which the townof Pristinais tlle capital,and which is draineel
by the riversIbar anel Sitnizza,affluentsof the Danube. The
SharraTagh rises tv such an elevationthat its summitsale coxeredwith snownearlyall the yearround.
Along the base of this range runs the riverAk Drin, which
rises on thedeclivitiesof MountDobrobuk-Planina,an(l l\fount
Balza, a mountainlshich rises betlveen that summitand Abount
Troizza. The uppercourseof the ris-erlies amongthe mountains
which cover the countrybetween Mount Troizza and WIount
ISajla. The alley of the riveris here vely narroxv,
but it wi(lens
consi(lerahlyin the xicinityof Ipek, and fromthat place to the
listrictof Trisrenelthe countryon both sides of the rix7er
is an undulatin^,plain seseral miles in breadth. This is a ery fertile
tractof country,al)ouneling
in manykindsof glain anzltruits; but
tlaoseo?the soutllerrlcountriesof Europeall(llrineselonot thrive,
+w-hich
sho^vsthatthe plain of Metoja must be considerablyelevateelabo^7e
the sea. The valleys which open into this plain are
l altly woodeel,but large tractsin them are cleare(land *vellcultivated,especiallythose on the westof the river,whichare drained
by the BistrizzaanelErvenik. The bulk of the populationof this
countryconsistsof Albaneseplofessingthe Catholiccreed; but a
greatnumberof Turks are settledamongthem. The Christian
inhabitantsare called Gheghusheni,or Ghegues. They are a
lTeryindustriouspeople, cultivatingthe ground witll care,an(l
manufacturing
guns of gooll quality.
Belos the mouthof the riverTopolavhathe Ak Drin turnsto
the S.E., an(l descendsfrom the plain throughthe Val Salki,
^rhichis narrowin the upperpart,but widensas it approachesthe
KaraI)rin into a small plain,tllat takesits namefromthe w-illat,e
of Brut, built nearlyin the middleof it. In this plain the Ak
Drin uniteswith the Kara(Black) Drin.
The Plain of Skutari,formerlycalle(lZenta,is, properlyspeak-

C(?L1
l1t IS.\RACz ,&
\ S Gf ogral?/-!
icctl X CC0 1C1tt

(3f

A lbaBTia.

57

illg, on]y the loweran(l wi(lerportionof tlle valley of the Moratsha,or ratherthe continuationof thatof the Zenta Ri^7er. At
its southernextremityis the Lake of Skutari,whichextendsfrom
N.XV. to S.E. upwardsof '20 lniles, its averagewidth being 5
lniles, thoughat some places it increasesto nearly7. Fromthe
north-eastern
side of the lake an artnl)ranchesoff,whichextends
al)out5 miles inland,but cloesnot muchexcee(l1 mile in brea(lth
whercwidest. There areseveralislan(lsin the lake,of whichfiste
are inhabite(l SS. Niclo (le l:Jranina,Oscagorizza,Stavelnagorizza, Morakovish,and Gorizza. The lake aboundsin fish,
especially salmon an(l the scoranzo. The latter is called by
the nativesvklieva; it is about the size of a herring,an(lenters
the lake in autumnfrom the riverBoyana: it is then found in
astonisijingnumbers. There are places in the lake shich have
a smoothlJottoln,
and presentbesi(lesthe appearanceof springs
issuingfrom tlle earth. These places,called oko, are visite(lby
the scoranziwhen the weatherbecomescold, ljecausethe temperatureof thc springsis moreelevate(lthanthatof the *vaterof the
lake: theirnumberis then so great at these places, that an oar
pushedinto the waterremainsfixe(l. 'lthe oko are the property
of a few individuals,chieflyTurks, an(lare, at the beginningof
the coldseason,surrounde(l
+vithIlets,in +shichan incrediblequantityof fisll is taken: theyare(lried,and forma considerableartiele
of coinmerce. Trouts are plentiful, and sometimesweigh 50 or
60 llJs. The lake is also frequente(lby water-fowl:a kind of
lliver,calledsmergo in Italian, is tlainefl to (tssistthe fishermen
in takingthe scoranzi.
The Plain of Skutariextends along the easternshoresof the
lake, andfartherN. alont,the MoratshaRiver, as far as the confluenceof the Zenta. The average*vi(lthof the plain is 5 or 6
miles to the N. of the north-eastern
armof the lake: moreto the
S. it becomesmuchnarrower. It is themostfertilesoil in Albania;
studeledw-ithvillages an(l cultivatedwith greatcare, antl interspersedwith extensivetractsof forestgrountlandlorchards. This
lain producesall kindsof grain cultivatedin Italy, with the exceptionof rice, an(leverykind of fruitmet ^;ithin the southern
countriesof Europe. The mea(lowsan(lastures are excellent.
The numberof Turks settle(l in this districtis much greaterin
y)roportion
to its extentthanin any otherpart of Albania. The
forests,+hich consistof full-grosn finetimber-trees,affordrefuge
to sviklcattle,I)ears,wild hogs, (leerof diSerentkinds, mountaingoats (Capraibex), lynxes,wild cats, and foses; thereare a very
few-wolves. Fish is abundantin the rilrerMoratsha,and a Turk
hasestablisheela ery extensivefisheryat the sil]ageof Alomisichi,
oppositethe townof Podgorizza. The who]eplain is frequellt]y
ealle(lZenta: the portionwhichlies on the right side of the river

Geoyeczphicalilccountof Albanicz.
58 CountKARACZAY'S
is distinguishelby the name of LiesLo-polie,that on the left is
called Zetezka-polie.
The valleyof the Boyanamaybe consideredas the continuation
of thatof the Zenta. This riveris the channelby xvhichthe Lake
of Skutaridischargesits watersintothe Adriatic. Issuingfromthe
extremity,it flowssouthward,and aftera
lake at its south-eastern
courseof about 20 miles enters the sea, formint,at its mouth,
whereit is 400 fathomsbroa(l, a harbourfor small vessels. The
Boyanais navigablefor l)oatsfromthe sea to the townof Skutari,
of moderatesize can ascendit as far up as the
and coasting-vessels
villageof ISobotti, about 15 miles from its mouth, xvherethere
are somewarehousesand a customhouse. The valley throu^,h
hich the riverruns is hardly inferiorin fertilityand cultivation
to the Zenta, but it is muchnarrower,lgeing little more than
2 miles across,excepttowardsthe embouchureof the river,where
it widensto doulolethat extent. The banks of the Boyanaare
marshs,anclat two places it elllargesso as to forma smalllake.
The central part of Albania, or that
ALBANIA.CENTRAL
Drin, antl extendsto the ridgeterluinatwhichlies S. of the ri^7er
int, at Cape Redoni, is not less mountainousthan the northern
portionhithertodescribe(l,loutdiffersfromit in this respect,that
parts are found in the interior,+shilstthe
the most mountainous
morelevel districtsextendalongthe shoresof the Adriatic. The
of
great chain,^Jhichstretchessouthwar(lfronlthe mountain-knot
SharraTagh, has no generalnamein the country,the designations
Mount Yetzi, Magnani,Petrin, Spiridion,anci others applying
only to single summits,or at the most to some small portionof
the range. The ancientname of Pindusis thereforeretaine(lto
the whole range. The infortnationcontainedin the
Resit,nate
Collnt'smanuscriptrespectingthis rangeis Xeryscanty,on account,
as he observes,of its being ralelytraversedby anytravellersexcept
Turks; but the mountainsare said to attainsuch an elevationin
many places as to be coveredwitll snowfor the greaterpartof
the year. Anotherchain,scarcelyless elevated,runs parallel to
the principalrange, with which it is connectedby a transverse
ridge,whichboundsthe Lake of Ochridaon the S. andE. This
lake is nearly 2Qmiles long, and on an averageabout4 miles
it on all sides slope downto
wide. The mountainssurrounding
a gentle declivity-,so as to admit of cultivatioll.
its shores *X-ith
The country being shelteredon all sides from the winds, its
climateis rathermoretemperatethanthat whichprevailsin other
partsof Albania,andvines,and eventhe moredelicatefruit-trees
tolerablywell,thoughit is certainthat
of southernE:urope,thrisTe
its elevationabove the sea must be consi(leral)le,as the current
of the river Drin is ratherrapid throughoutits course, which

ylecountof SIbarlia. ,59


C;eographical
COUntKARACZAY'S
exceeds200 miles. The Black Drin,or ItaraDrin-su
prol)aluly
issuesfromthe northerllextremityof the Lake of Ochri(la,antl
runs northwardfor nearly70 miles (41? 10' to 42? 10'). In the
l?lainof Brut it is met by the Ak I)rin-su, or WhiteDrin: at the
place of confluencethe united waters turn to the W. The
Drin flows more than 80 miles in this (lirection,formillg,however,a large semicircularlend torartlsthe N. About 20 miles
fromits mouthit declinesgraduallyto the S., and reachesthe sea
below Alessio. The (listancesare here given in straightlines.
If the smallerbendsof the riverare included,its courseprobably
exceeds 200 miles. The Drin attains its maximumbreadtllof
40OfatholnsnearAlessio; at its mouth it is only 160fathoms
broa(l.

The valley of the KaraDrin is confined: on each si(le the


ofEsetsof the mountainmasses advanceto a short distancefrom
the banksof the river,and leave but narrolvlevel tractsalongthe
rizrer;these only are fit for tillage, for the declivities of the
mountainsare in general too steep to be cultivated: they are,
however,well woodedvand affordgood pasture-grotmds.The
inhal)itantsof this valley are for the most part Albanese of
the Catholicchurch,called Ghegues,an(l sulejectto the Turks.
The chainof mountainsW. of the valleyof the KaraDrin occupies a l)ase 10 or 12 miles, or even more, in width, an(l
several of its summitsare coveredsvith snosvfor six or eight
months. The mostelevateelof thesesummits(fromS. to N.) are
A/IoMount Spileon, MountI(onaj, AbountShintit, and lXlIount
prettylofty ri(lgesbranchoff fromthe vestern side
niglia. rw-O
of this range, and extend to the vicinityof the Adriatic,where
theyterminatein llills, sometimesclose to the shore,sometimesat
such a (listancefromthe coastas to leave a level tract alongthe
sea. The mostnorthernof these lateral chains,whicll branches
Moniglia,is calle(llJysomethe KerubiMountains:
off nearWIount
it extentlsalongthe southernbanlisof the Drin, where this river
runsfrom E. to W., and its declivities advanceso close to the
of the river,that thereis not sufficientspaceleft for a road;
lJa1alss
the paththereforepassesoverthe ridge itself, near two elesatecl
summits,calledPurkand Tollljon,whichriseupwardsof 200 feet
above the sea-level. This ridge terminateson the banksof the
atIvanceto the S.) from
masses
Drin; but considerableInountaill
wllereit terminates,as far as the Fan(li, an affluentof the AIatt
River. WIountKreska, Mount Lais, Mount Veglia, an(l some
other summitsof these masses attain a consideral)leele^ation.
The high hills terminateat a distanceof several miles from the
sea.
Tlle southernlateral chainleavesthe westernparallelrangeat
AIountSpileon, an(l runs nearly W. as far as the meridianof

60

CountKA

RACZAX'SS

G8D9raPAiCAJ
XCCOUnZ
0SAlbanin.

(:roya,and so far it is sufficientlyelevatedto (leservethe nalneof


a mountain-ri(lge.Farther W. it declines to the N., and sinlts
downto hills, lvhichextendclose to the shore of the Aflriatic.
terminclting
in Cape Re(loni. These hills are well woode(l,an(l
affordgood pastures,but the higherportion of the ridge is stony
an(lbarren.
The two ridgesof mountainsjust nlentionedare, where they
branchoff fromtheir principalrange,more than30 miles distant
fromeach other,but at their termination
the spacebetweenthem
is scarcely10 miles+vide. The countrywhichtheyencloseis traversedby ridges *)f less extent and elevation,which folloxvthe
same direction,but sink elo^n to hills at a (listanceof about
10 milesfromthe sea, andleavea level plainbetweenit aneltheir
extremities,which may be on an average5 miles wi(le. These
secondaryridges contailllTalleysof mo(leratewidth, ^^Thich
are
draine(lby fie rivers,four of wllich unite into one before they
reachthe sea, and enter it under the name of the MattRiler;
its mouthis nearly at an equal distancefromthe embouchureof
the rizer Drin an(l from Cape Redoni. The confluentswhich

formthis riverare (fiomN. to S.) GreatFandi,LittleFandi,


Oracha,andMatt. The fifthriver,cal]edHismo,or Ismo,falls
intothe bayimmealiateiy
N. of CapeRedoni.
The valleys(lrainedby these rivers are verynarrowtowar(ls
theirsources,I)utexpan(las theyapproach
the W. The upper
valleyshavea coldclimate;theinhabitantscultivatea littlegraLin
andsomevegetables,butdependchieflyontheircattle,sheep, and
goats for subsistence. Lower downmaizeis ratherextensinJely
grown,and at severalplaces tllere are vineyards;orcharalsare
frequent;peachesand quincesare abundantand of goo(l quality.
But even here the inhabitantsrely for their food, in a great
measure,on theirflocksof sheepandgoats: they llave,however,
also cattle,horses,and mules. Game too is abundant;a part of
the adjacentridgesbeing clothedwith wood.
These valleysare inhabitedby twotribesof Albanese,the lVfiriditi an(lthe Madiani:the formerare CatholicCilristians,and the
latterMohamme(lans.The Miriditiinhabitthe valleysof the two
rivers calle(l Fandi, an(l form a populationexceeding 18,000.
They acknowledgethe padishahas their sovereign,but are governe(lby theirnati^eprinces,the Prenk-Lesci,vho assertthatthey
are the descendantsof the famousScanderbegh. These princes
reside at Orossi,a small place, inhabitedby about700 persons:
they visit annuallythe principaiwillagesssubjectto their sway,
wherethey hold courtsof justice and decideall kindsof disputes,
butdonot inflictthe punishment
of (leath. The tribute^rhichthey
payto the Sultan does not exceed 15 palas for es-eryinhabiteel

house.

Count K KR
.tCz .\\ 'S Geoyraphic(ll
alecountof A/hania. GI
The Maelianiinhabit the countryon both sides of the riser
Mattan(lthe adjacentmountainsan(lhills. Very little is knowll
of them; their numberis sai(l not to excee(l6000. They (lo not
sufferChlistiansto settleamongthem,an(lif a Christianhas some
l)usinessto transactin their country,lle must l)e accompanie(lby
one of the Madiani. They are in a state of permanentinsurrection. The Miriditi anfl Ma(lianiare not immediateneighbours; thereis lJetsseenthem, on the banlisof the riverOracha,
a populationo? CatholicChristiansin a district calle(l Itsella,
consistingof about'i000 indivieluals.
SOUTHERN
ALBANIA.The part of Albania between Capc
Redoniand CapeLint,uettais not less mountainous
in the interior
thanthe central and northernportions,but has a largezlain on
the shoresof the Adriatic,whichexten(lsalongthe coastfromtlle
mouthof the riverUskomobinto the neighlsourhoo(l
of Avlona,
antlneally 10 miles inlan(l. The mostextensiveof the mountainrangesly which this (listrictis traversedis calleelKandavi: it
branchesoS fromthe Pindusrangenear40 30t N. lat., an(lruns
in a nolth-Xsestern
(lirectionbetvv-een
the uprercourseof the ri^-ers
Uskomobinan(lCilersTesta,
but turnsmoreto the W. afterpassing
N. of 41? N. lat. 1Mount
'romoros,xvhichseparatesthe basinof
the riverChelvestafrolnthatof the Voyussa,and whichrunsdue
W., is only a brancl1of WIountECan(lavi,
an(ldivergesfromit near
the place wherethatran^,equits tlle Pin(lusMountains. Mount
Tomoros,hossTever,
formslarge andelevateelxnasses,which(lescen(l
withgreatsteepnessonthe Voyussa,betweenthe townsof Klissura
and of Depe(lelen. The most southeln range of mountainsin
AllJaniais that whichterminatesat Cai)e Linguetta,an(lis known
by the nameof Khimera:it is connectetlwith the l'in(lus Mountainsnear4()?N. lat., antlis of greatwidth,coveringan estensive
countrybetween 39?50t an(l40C20t N. lat. It rises to a great
elevation,and *sas known to the ancients untler the name of
Acroceraunian
Mountains.
The most remarkablerivers in this part of All)ania are tlle
Uskoulobin,or Scombi, the Chervesta,and the Voyussa. The
Uskomobinrisesin the PindusMountains,and E. of the Lake of
Ochriela,in an alpine lake, and encircles nearly by its curve(l
coursethe lake on the S. an(lW. In the parallelof the northern
extremityof the lake it turnsto run W.: it falls into the A(lriatic
a fewmilesbelowPeklin. The ChervestaRiverrisesin thecountly
whereMountTomorosbranchesofffromtlse KandaviMountains,
an(lflowingnearlydue W., passesnearthe townof Arnau(lBerat,
anelentersthe sea not farfromthe Lakeof Trebuki. The Turks
call tllis river Semene. The Voyussa originateson the westcrn
(leclivityof WIounthIezzovoin the Itintlus rant,e, antl floxYsfor

62

Count

ARACZAY'S

Geogt-phical
Xccountof Xlbania.

morethanhalf its coursethrougha nrarrow


valley,but afterpassint, Depedelen it runs with a rathergentle currentthrougha
lowercountry,antlnearthe sea throu,,ha plain. In summerthis
riveris frequentlywithoutwater. The Turkscall it Vussa.
The southernportion of Albania is inhabitel by Mohammedansor ly Christiansof the Greekcreefl: there are no Roman
Catholics. To this circumstancemust be ascribedthe wantof
moredetailedinformation
in CountWarakczzy's
ulanuscript;as that
which he has collecte(l on the northernand centraldistrictsof
Albaniawas derive(l,in a greatmeasure,fromthe accountsof the
residentCatholicclergy. The scantv informationwhich he obtainedfromtravellersis eml)odiedin his account of the political
divisionsof the country,an(lin that of the principalroadswhich
traverseit.

TURRISH
POLITICAL
DIVISIONS
OFALBANIA.The political divisionof the Turkish3rotincesis subjectedto greaterand
morefrequentchangesthanthat of o$hercountries. Before the
rebellion of A1; Pasha of Janina, the southerndistrictsof A1baniaxvereunitedto the viziratof Epirus, or Toskria, and the
remaindelforme(l the vizirat or ejalet of Skutari. After some
minorchanges,this viziratwas in 1837 abolished,andthe country
placedimmediatelyuntler the vizir of Rum-Ili; but in 1838 it
was re-established,thoughsomeportionswere dismemleredfroln
it. The sub(livisions
into pashaliks,or sanjaks,and into ka(liliks,
are less sulJjectto change; an(lo?thesedivisionsCountKarakczay
has givenan account.
I. The sanjakor pashalikof Skutari extends over the northern partsof Albania, and adxrances
southwar(lto the vicinity of
Cape Rcdoni,lout it does not reach inland to the great chain c)f
the DinarianAlas and Mount Sharra Tagh. This sanjak is
divi(ledinto sis kadiliks:1. The kadilikof Kara-tathcolnprehendsthe countrieswhich
constituteat laresentthe republicof Montenegro. The Turkish
governmenthas nelTeracknowledgetlthe independenceof this
country,but looks on it as a )roxrincein a state of rebellion,an(l
considersit as still forminga partof the sanjakof Shutari.
2. The kadilikof lNntivariextendsoxterthe greaterpart of the
isthmusbetweenthe Adriaticand the Lake of Skutari,an(lis on
the N. contiguousto the Austrian provinceof Cattaroand tlle
territoriesof l\{ontenegro. The populationis estimatedat 10,000
souls. It has extenssveplantationsof olinTe-trees,
andthe quantity
of oil which is annually exported amounts to 5000 barrels.
Turks lile only in the town; the inhabitantsof the countryare
Christiansof the Greek and RomanCatholiccleeds. The town
of Antisari is built on a rocT;yhill, surrotlntleil
l)y steep lmoun-

Count

KARACt.&Y'S

Geogra29fiical
AccotcntoMAlbania. 63

ta.irls,alJout2 miles from the sea. It has a castle, in ^^7hich


are
4()0 houses; the tOsxZll
itself contains540 houses, and a suburb
160. The whole populationis sait1 not to exceed 2500 indixi(luals;1Jutthis is proleablyan untler-estimate:it furnishes600
soldiersin time of war. The base of the hill on whichthe town
is l)uilt is lvashe(lby a small river, calleflRichanatz,by whichit
communicateswiththe sea. At the mouthof this riveris a little
bav, in whichthere is anclloragefor small vessels. There are
lQ0 shops in the lJazar. The inhabitantsare partlyTurks ane1
eartlyChristians. The southerncommuneof thiska(lilikis called
Markovichi;it consistsof a numlJerof villabesin a verymountainoustract,callet1Lissigna,notoriousfor the great number of
poisonousplantswhichit produces.
3. The kaxlilikDulcigno is to tlle southof Antivari,and extendsfiom the Atlriaticto the riverBoyana. It is saielto contain
a populationof about20,000, by fiarthe greaterpalt of whomare
Christians. Turks arefoundonlyin the townof Dulcigno,where
they constitutealJoutone-half of the population. This tlistrict
pro(lucesmuchoil; al)out7nvolearre]sare annuallyexporte(l. It
hAs
also extensivevinearels, yielding annuallytnorethan 1000
casksof wine. Enoughof salt is manufactured
for the consumption of the inhal)itants. The town of Dulcignois built 01l an
isolateelllill Xrmilzc,a care, whichis unitedto the mainlan(lby a
10E iSthIlltlS.
The surroundingcountryis a plain interspersed
vi'h
100X- hills, an(lveryfertile. Dulcignois the seatof a Catholic
bish(3p,an(l contains about 100()housesan(lfrom70ao to 8000
inhalsJitants,
who lis-emostlyon the y)ro(luceof thelr estates,escept a few familiesene,age(lin commerce,or in the fisheriesof the
ri-er lNo>ana. Tlley send 2DO0soldiersto the army.
41-.The liadililvof Skutaricomprehendsthe (listrietsaeljoining
the Lakeof Skutarion theE., S., an(l\v., an(lthe tiact of country
lnint betveen the riversBoyanaan(l lArin. The level countryE.
Ofthe lake was formerlyknorn by the nameof the LO\NTer
Ze11ta,
an(lthe hilly tract betweenits westernshoresantl WIountRumia
is ca]lexlWraina.The po}ulationof this (listrictexceeds100,()00;
of svhoinaboutone-half are RomanCatholics,an(lthe remaintleI
Alohammedans
an(lChristiansof the Greek church. It is a rich
country: the mountainous
partsare coveredwith forestscontaining excellent timber-tlees, and the lake and rivers yiel(l large
quantitiesof fish. The merchantsof Skutari are rich, an(l the
principaltra(lersin this partof Turkey: they exportthe protluce
of the country,consistingchiefly of wool, bees'-was:,hi(les,hare^
skins,tobacco,anddrie(lfish, shich they sen(lto Trieste,Venice,
an(l Avlona,and importin return co5ee andothercolonlal proluce, silk, anelseveralmanufactured
articles,especia]lysilk stufEs,
cloth, brocadesof golel, Ac. They carrythe importedgvoelsto

64

CouteltIs suacz

AY'S

Gf

eogeaay)AlCbal
>4ccoXwlt
of SlDctnicu.

the gleat fairs,*s-hichare helfl annuallyin the tosvnsof Perle)ie


in Rum-Ili, of Pristina in Servia, an(lof Elbassan in AllJania.
The tosn of Skutaricontainsupwardsof 40,000 inhabitants:it is
built not far from the lake?,between the rivers Bo-ana an(l
Drinoss,or Khiri,an(lconsistsof threeparts-the castle, 'raleaki,
an(llzersia. rl'hecastlestandson a high hill, anflcommandsthe
townan(lthe leazar,a lart,e square buildingof stone to the F,.
In the castleis the palace(serai)of the governor,the loarracl;s,
an
arsenal,and severalmagazines. The houses of the town, more
than4000 in numlJer,are mostlyenclose(lby walls,whichcauses
it to occupy a large space of groun(lcomparedwith its population. In the mi(lelleof the streets are watercourses,most of
which have sufficientfall to turn mills. The part of the town
which is calle(lTabalsiis built on the southern
of thc
hill on which the castle stands,and is only inhal)iteelby lzurks.
Tersia,inhabiteclly Christians,is on the E. side of the hill, a1](1
is morethan2 miles long an(l a mile wi(le; loutthereare gar(lens
among the houses. The l)azar contains 4000 ^X-ell-arrange(l
sho)s. There are several mosquesin Skutari, one of which,
calledAia Sofia,was formerlya Christianchurch; thereare also
severalChristianchurchesan(lconvents. About one-half of the
populationare Roman Catholics: there are a felv families of
Greek Christians. The RomanCatholicshaxrea bishop here.
Thele are three l)ridgesnear the town, two across the :Ol-inoss
(one of stone an(lone of wood),anclone (of ood) acrossthe
Boyana,belowits confluencewith the Drinoss. At LIobotti,the
highest point to which sea-vessels ascenflthe Boyana, are the
custom-housean(lextensivewarehouses. A greatfairis annvrallv
hekl here. About 4 miles N.E. of Skutari, an(l nearthe banks
of the Drinoss,is the old toss-nof Drivast,or, as the Turks call it,
Drislat,built OI1 the declivityof a rock. It llas a castieand al)out
1000 inhabitants;all Turks, except one family.
5. The kadililiof Podgolizzaexten(ls,accoldincto the Turks,
overthe mostnorthernportionof Albatia E. of the valleysof the
Zenta and Moratsha,includingthe coulltrieswhich contain the
Berdas,or allies of the republicof Montenegro. ln this kadilik
are also the countriesof the Climenti, Hotti, Shalla,an(lShossi,
equally independenttribes,althoughnot alliedto the Zernagarzi.
The other tribes inhabitingthe mountainregions pay a fise(l
tribute,and a few Turks are settleclamongthemto collectit. It
is only in the level partof the ka(lilik,wllichextends along both
banksof the Zentaand Moratsha,thatany consi(lerable
portionof
the populationconsistsof Mohammedans.The numberof inhalitants of this ka(lilik does not, in all probability,fall short of
100,000 individuals. The townof Podgorizzais builton the left
lJankof the lbloratsha,at its confluencewitll tlle small rieer
(leclil7ity

ilecountof Alba7zicc.65
CountKAXACZAY'S Geographical
Chicuna,overwhichthereis a long bridgeof wood. It contains
andsends
6000 inhabitants,
four-fifthsof whomareMohamme(lans,
2000 men to the army,one half of whomserveon horseback. A
fesvlailes N. of the town,nearthe village of Slatizza,at the base
of a mountainarethe ruinsof the old townof Dioclea,nowcalled
Dickla, which appearsto have had a circumferenceof about
6 Iniles. The ruins consist of temples,palaces, and single columns, and an aqueductof about 12 miles long: Romancoins
are frequentlyfoun(l*amongthem, but tllese ruins diminish
rapidly,as the Turksof Podgorizzaemploythe materialsiil buil(ling their houses. Some miles farther N., near the village of
di S.
Stiena, are other ruins, called by the inhabitantsC;ra(lina
Simone. Their originis not known. Zabliaksor Zsabliak,is a
townanclfortressbuilt at the influxof the riverMoratshainto the
Lake of Skutari. The fortressis small, and only inhabitedby
Turks. Tha towncontainsabout250 housesand 100inhabitants:
it supplies3C)0men to the army. Spush,or Ispush,is a townand
fortressbuilt near the gorge by svhichthe riverZentaleaves the
countryof the Bielopavlitshi:it contains200()inhabitants,threefifthsof whomare Turks. The road from Albaniato the Herzegovinaiea(ls through the valley of the upperZenta; but the
Turksare exclude(lftom the use of this roatl by the Bielopavlitshi. East of Po(lgorizzais the small town of Medun,louilt
nearthe mountainsinhal)itedly the Kutshi,on the declivityof a
beautifulliill in a veryfertiletract: it is peopledby Mohammedans,
ho are famous for their valour, and governedby their own
aga, and who supply 200 men to the army. The hilly country
surloundingthe Lake of Plava,though situatedon the northern
sidc of the principalrange of the DinarianAlps, constitutesa
partof the kadilikof Podgorizza. In this district are the small
townsof Plavaand Gusinie.
the southernpartsof the
6. The kadilikof Alessiocomprehends
pashalikof Skutari,includingthe mountaindistrictsinhal)itedby
tlle Miri(litiand Madiani. Alessio, called Lesh by the Turks,is
l)uilton the left banksof the I)rin, not far fromits mouth: near
the river is the bazar,and at a short distance tlle fortressand
town. The fortressis small an(lin laad con(lition,an(l contains
only the barracksand a few Christianfamilies; but on the other
sideof the fortressis an extensivesuburb,ealledVaroslli,whichis
inhabitedonly by Turks,andis a thrivingplace. In the fortress
is a mosque, which was formerly a Christianchurch, called
S. Nicolo eli Bari. In this churchthe famousGeorge Castriota,
betterknownby the name of Scanderbegh,is buried. Varoshi
has morethan 1000 inhabitants. The countryabout this place
has very extensiveplantationsof olive-trees, but a portionof it
S.E. of the townis covere(lwith swamps. Several large villages
\-OL. X1T.

66

CountKARAC7.AY
s Geogrc(phical
Aceountof HIbanza.

are foun(lin this plain. kOrossi,theresidenceof the Prenk-Lesci,


or hereditaryprincesof the Miriditi,a smallplace, is built at the
base of MountShintit.
II. The sanjakor pashalikof Dukajinextendsoverthe northeasternportionof Albania,includingthe largerpartof the Plain
of Metoja. This countryis also called Dukaina,and is, for the
Inostpart, well inhabited,the populationbeing stated at nearly
2] 0,000 individuals:it is dividedinto threekadiliks:1. The ka(lilikof Dukajin, comprehending
the south-w-estern
partof the pashalik,is mountainous,
and containsonly the small
and decayed town of I)ukajin, situatedbetween mountainson
the left of the roadlea(ling from Skutari to Prisrend. It was
formerlythe seat of the pasha,and thereforethe pashalikbearsits
name.
2. The kadilikof Petsh, or Ipek, as the Turks call it, comprehen(lsthe upper basinof the Ak Drin anda part of the Plain of
Metoja. Petsh, or Ipek, the present seat of the pasha,is built
vn the banksof the riverBistrizza,at a considerabledistancefrom
the place where this river falls intc}the Ak Drin. It lies in a
valleywhichresemblesthat of Innspruckin Tvrol. On the N. a
high summitof the great mountain-chainis visible: it is called
Koprivnik,andisllways coveredwith snow. The ton is divi(led
into two partsby the river. They are called Jarinand Csenevia,
and are unitedby a high bri(lgewhichrestson fiXre
arches. The
Bistrizzadividesinto manychannels,andits rapidcllrrentturnsa
numberof mills. In the bazarare 960 shops. The lropulation
is stated to exceed 1'2,0G0individuals,among whom are a few
Christiansof the Greek persuasion,and one or two Catholics.
The Turkshave 16 mosques. Arms are maelein this town in
greatnumberand of good quality. A kindof apple, called the
srelvetapple,is grownin the neighbourhood:
it has a very(lelicate
flavour,and consi(lerablequantitiesare sent to Constantinople.
3. Tlle kaelilikof Jacova comprehendsthe central portionof
the Plain of Metoja and the adjacentdistricts. The town of
Jacovais a large place, containingSQ00houses and 18,000 inhabitants. The riverErvenikruns through it from west to east
anddiridesit intotwo parts,of which the northernis the larger.
The numberof Christians,both of the Roman Catholic and
Greek religion, is but small. The Turks haxeeles-enmosques.
There are 1100 shopsin the bazar.
III. The sanjakor pashalik of Prisrendcontainsonly a small
lsortionof the Plain of Metoja, but includes a large mountain
tractcontiguousto the westernside of the mountain-knot
of the
S;harraDagh. This tractis thinlypeopled. The whole popu]ationof the sanjak is said not to exceed 80.s000individuals,of
wllomonly 17,000 are Mohammedans. The capitalis Prisrend.,

Count

KARACZA\7S

Geogsculv7lilul1
Accouratof SIbastia. 67

or Perserim,called by the Turksalso Prisdren,a town of from


15,000 to '20,000inhabitants,partlyTurks alld partlyChristians
of both persuasions. It is built on the riverRieka,about4 or 5
miles fromits confluencewith the Drin, whichtakes place at the
villageof Stan. The Turkishgovernorresi(lesin a castleon the
adjacenthill. There are considerablemanufactories
of fire-arms
in Prisdren,the guns andpistolsmadehere being mucllvaluetl.
The townalso carrieson a considerabletraic with the adjacent
country,and has coinmercialrelationswith many of the large
townsin Albania, Rum-Ili, an(l Servia, on accountof the great
fair whichis held thereeveryyearin the monthof November.
IV. The sanjakor pashalik of Elbassanextends along the
shore of the Adriatic from Cape Redoni,whichdivi(lesit fiom
the pashalikof Ochrida,to the river Uskomoloin,which separatesit fromthe pashalikof Avlolla. It estendseastwardto the
rangeof the Kandavimountains. The greatestpartof this province is hilly; mountains,properlyspeaking,occuronly in the
easterndistricts. The mostremarkableplacesare:Elbassan,or Ilbassan,a town with a strong castle, in wl1;ch
the asha resides,is louilt on the banks of the riverUskomobin
or Scombi,in a very fertile plain, and has 5000 inhabitants,of
whichnumber3500 areMohammedans,
l000 of the Greekchurch,
and 500 Catholics. Its commerceis supportedby an annual
fair.

Durazzo,called l)y the AlbaneseDurtz, by the Turks Dratsh


or Drutsh,the ancientDyrachium,stan(lson tlle shoresof a bay
whichis fortnedby the capesPali an(lLaki,and containsbetween
9000 andl0,000 inhabitants. The harbour,or ratherroadstead,
is shallow,anslvesselsof moderatesize must anchorat a distance
of morethana mile fromthe shore. Near the toYvnare extensive
warehouses.
l'ekin, or Peklin,is a small townwith700 inhakitants,built on
the banksof the Uskomobinriver.
Kavayais rathera large place, and situatedon the banksof a
smallriver*hich bearsthe samename,and falls intothe Adriatic
about 3 miles below the town. It is almost eqlli-distantfrom
Durazzoand Peklin, and containsfrom9000 to l0,000 inhabitants, among whom are only about l00 Catholics and from 500
to 600 Christiansof the Greek creed. It llerivesits importance
fromthe fertileplain whichsurroundsit, and in which a cheese
is made which is muchvaluedand exportedto remoteparts of
the Turkishempire.
Tirana,or Terana, is a towrlenclosed by walls, and built on
the riverJacon, which has a veryrapid current,but in summer
is frequentlywithoutwater. The plain in the neighlJourhood
of
the townis very fertile, andproduceslarge quantitiesof grainof
F

68

CountKARACZAY s GeogsapAlical
Accountof SIba)zi.

differentkinds; thereare also extensivevineyardsandplantations


of olive-trees. Nearly 10,000 personslive in the town; about
1000 are Greek Christians,150 RomanCatholics,and the remain(lerTurks.
V. The sanjakor pashalikof Ochridaextendsover the whole
breaclthof Albaniafromthe Adriaticto the rangeof the Pindus
mountains;but on the shore it is narrow,comprehendingonly
the basin of the small river Hismo or Ismo, whilst along the
greatmountain-rangeit extends morethan 70 miles fromnorth
to south. The larger portionof the valleyof the Kara-Drinis
svithinthis pashalik. Though the easternportion is verymountainous,it includesa great numl)er of fertilevalleas, in which
much grain, wine, tobacco, and even cotton is grown; much
lloneyandwaxis also collected, and great numbersof cattle are
kept. I'he mostremarkableplacesare:Ochrida,an ancienttown on the northernbanksof the Lake of
Ochrida,and on the great Roman militaryroadwhich led from
Pella in bIacedonia,throughTesnia andBitoglia(Toli Monastir)
tc)I)urazzo, and which,thoughmuch neglected, is still used as
the commonroa(lfor troopssent fromConstantinople
to Albania.
It is alsothe mostfrequentedroaclbr the commercialintercourse
betsveenRum-Ili and Alleania. The town,whose populationis
said not to exceed 1000 in(lividuals,consistsof scattere(lhouses
built rounda hill, on the summitof which is a small fo]tress,the
resi(lenceof the pasha. Tlle populationis chieflycomposeflof
Greek Christians,mingled with whom are a few Turks, Bulgarians,andJews. There are minesof silverand sulphurin the
peighbouringmountains,but they are not worke(l.
In the salley of the Kara-Drirlare two places called Dibre,
distinguishedhy the epithets of Great and Little. Great Dibre
containsa populationof 2000 families, and is the residenceof a
mirimazim,who lives in a palace enclose(lby high walls. Near
this place are someleathscontainingsulphurand saltpetre,which
are muchused for several(liseases. Little Dibre is inhabite(lby
700 families. A smallportionof the inhabitantsof the KaraDrin are Christiansof the Greek Church.
Croya,or Kroya, also called Ak-Hissar, is an old town, and
famousfor havingbeen the residenceof Scanderlegh,who was
born here. It is built on the banks of the river Ismo, about
12 miles from its rtlouth,on a high hill, whichaSordsan extensive view over the level countrysurroundingthe townon three
sides. Its populationis said to exceed 15,000, partlyChristians
and partly Tulks. The great plain which extends roundlthe
town is called Matra, and is veryfertile. On the south of the
townis a ridgeof beautifulhills, whichextendto Cape Redoni.
In this place oLre
considerahlemanufactllres
of arms.

CountKARACZAl'5S

Geo9waphical
Acco?zettof Athania. 69

VI. The sanjakor pashalikof Avlona,or Valona,extends over


the mostsouthernpart of AlUania,fromthe banks of the river
Uskomol)inon the north,to the rangeof the Khimeramountains
on the south. Its easterndistricts are mostly coveredwith estensivemountainmasses,letween which,however,thereare many
fertile,thoughin generalnarrowvalleys; in the westerndistricts
are someplainsof considerableestent. In generalit is a fertile
and populous country. It containslarge pine-forests,yielding
excellenttimber. It produceseverykind of grainin abundance,
as alsoolive-oil,cotton,wine, tobacco,and bees'-RvYax.
In many
placessalt is preparedfromsea-water. There are wells of earthoil in severalplaces,hich is collecte(l,and aSordsan article of
export. Valonia acornsare collected in considerablequantities.
The mostremarkableplacesare:Berat, called also Arnaut Berat, the seat of the pasha, is
built on the banks of the river Chervesta,which is also called
Arserta belowthe town. Berat standsin a valley distinguished
by fertility,and producinglarge quantitiesof grain,oil, andwine.
The populationis stated to be between 8000 and 10,000 individuals,of whom two-thirdsareGreeks,and one-thirdare Turks.
The Turks live in the new town,which is built abovethe ol(l
l'he latteris fortified,but has no (lrinkablenvater.
Avlona,or Valona,situateda qllarterof a mile fromthe shores
of the bay whichbearsthe samename,is built on a hill, whichis
surroundedby a wall. South of the town is a small fortress,
called Canina,which standson a steeprock. If the suburbsare
inclueled,the town mayhave a populationof between8000 and
10,000 inhabitants,Turks and Christians. The Christiansare
principallyengagedin commercialpursuits,andthe Turks nlanufacturediSerent kinds of woollen stuis and arms. The bay
formsa shelteredharbour but the anchorageis rockyand bad.
The best is foundat the custom-housenearthe town, andin the

mostsouthern
recessof the bay, calledPortoRagusano,near a
placecalledDukathes. Thereis a considerable
numberof Jews
in Avlona. Muchsalt andearth-oilis exported,witholive-oil
andvalonia.

Mesakiais a smallplace,nearthe mouthof the riverVoyussa,


wherevesselsfrequentlystop to takein water,whichis of excellentquality.

Depedelen, a market-townon the riverVoyussa)where it is


joined by the rierer
Ergir ur Argiro, which descends from the
Khimeramountains. At this place Ali Pasha of Janina was
born.
Argiro, or Ergir Kastro, called by the Turks Erghile, is situated on the banks of the Ergir river; the site of the town is
brokenlJy many deep ravines; the diSerentquartersare con-

70

GeographicalAccountof SIbania.
CountWARACZAY'S

neeted by stone laridges. AlJovethe town is a vell-fortified


castle, and most of the houses are surroundedby walls, which
haveloop-holes. This place defendsone of the most important
mountain-passes
(Derbendl)in this part of Albania. The population is said to consist only of 4000 individuals,having been
much reducedby the plaguein 1814.
Klissurais a small town louilt at the base of a verysteep anal
high mountain,in the valley of the riverVoyussa,an(l on the
principal road leading from Albania to lipirus an(l Greece.
Above the town is a fortifiedcastle. The poplllationdoes not
exceed 1500.
on the Voyussa,wherethe river runs
Pirimitiis a market-toxlvn
in a very narrowvalley,an(lwitll greatrapidity. The greatroad
leading to Epirus passes over a bridge at this place, whicil is
inhabiteclby 100 families, two-thirdso? wllom are Turks. It
carrieson somv traffic, as the plain opposite the town and the
it areratherpopulous,containing
mountainous
countrysurrounding
] 20 villages. There are manygipsiessettledin this town.
mostly inhabite(lby Greeks,among
Zagora is a market-town,
the mountainswhichseparateAlbania from Epirus, ill a popudistrict.
lous andwell-cultixrated

ROADS.In a tnountaillouscollntry,large tractsof whichare


the roadsmust,of course,be in a l)adstate,
nearlyuninhabite(l,
coinparedwith those of ulore fortunatecountries. None of the
roads in Albaniaare practicablefor wheele(lvehicles, but most
of them are for beastsof burden; whichare thereforeexclusively
used for conveyingarticlesof trafficfrom one place to another.
It cannotbe said that they are quite neglected,for they are in
general sufficientlywide, and l)ridgesare built over the rivers
whererequired. Where the roads pass throughswampytracts
they are paved. On the most frequentedroads, if they pass
or khans, as the
througha thinly-peopleddistrict, caravansarai,
Turks call them, have been built for the accommodationof
travellers. Some care has also been taken to avoi(lsteep hills.
In the dry monthsan armynot encumbered withheavyartillery
couldpass alongtheseroads. The mostimportantlines of commercia]intercoursebetweenAlbania and the adjoining.Turkish
provinces (Herzegovina,Servia, Rum-Ili, and Epirus) are as
follows:1. The road leading fromSkutarito Nixitshi in Herzegosina
runs along the easternbatlks of the Lake of Skutari,through
several large villages to the townof Zsal)liak,an(l thencealong
the banksof Moratshato Podgorizzaand Ispush; then,traversing
the gorge by which the Zentaenters the plain, it leadsthrough
the uppervaileyof that riverby the villagesof Frutakand Povia.

Accotentof Xlticzia. 71
COUntKARACZAY'SGeogrclphicat
place it crossesthe low rangewllich
Nrorthof the last-mentioned
separatesAlbania from the Herzegovina,which in this place is
called Planinizza. Descending from this rangeto the Plain of
Nixitshi, called Slivie Pianura,it passesnearthe placewherethe
smallriverswhichtlrainthis partof the plain are lost in an ozening at the base of tlle range. From Nixitshi roadslJranchofFin
diSerent(lirections,to Jezero and Piva in Bosnia by Drobniak,
to Gascoby Sipatshno,an(l to GrohovoanelI(lobukby Trubiela
and Omntish.
2. From Podgorizzaa roadleadsto Ipek. It passesalongthe
valleyof the ZievnathroughSeliste; crossesthe DinarianAlps
letween Castelli Novi and Gusinie, an(l after leavil, Plava,
againcrossesthe greatrangenearthe iMoulltBaba, intothe upper
valleyof the Ak-Drin, alollg shich it continuesto Ipek. This
was the roa(ltakenby the amloassdorsof Venice whenthey were
sent to Constantinople.
3. The roadfrom Ipek to Yenilzazarin Serviapassesthrough
Istok, and crossesthe DinarianAlps not far from l\IountDobrobuk-Planina. Yenibazar,or N ew Bazar, is a large commercial townwith 20,000 inhabitants,mostlyTurks and Jews.
It is the seatof a pasha.
4. The towns of Ipek, Jacova, and Prisrendareconnectedby
a roadwhichrunsthrollghthe Plain of AIetoja. Two tolerable
roadslead fromJacovaand Prisrendacrossthe plainsof lXIetoja
and KossovoPolie, and the range of mountainswhichseparates
them,to Pristinain Servia,a large commercial)lace, whence a
roa(lpracticablefor carriagesleads to Uskop or Skopiain RumIli, passingthrough the famousmountain-passcalle(lKatshanik,
on the banksof the riverVardar.
betweenPrisrendanal
5. A moredirect line of communication
Uskop crossesthe greatmountain-rangeS. of the mountain-knot
of the Sharramountains,an(lpasses throughthe townof Kalkandelen. Uskop is a large place ^vith26,000 inhabitants,for the
most part engaged in commerceand manufactures. There are
about2000 Greeks an(l 4000 Roman Catholics. Severalroa(ls
meet at this town. In a(ltlitionto those which connectit with
Pristinaand Prisren(l,one runs eastwar(lsto Filipopoli, passing
tllrough the tonvnsof Kumanovaand Kosterdil, and another
southwar(lto Salonichiand Seres,passingthroughKoprili.
6. The roaelwhich connects Skutariwith Prisren(lcrossesa
hilly countryS.E. of Skutari to Mied on the Drin riversand
afterwardsleaels eastwardover the l)roken mountainsof the
llerubi range, as the valley of the Drin is so narrowin these
partsthatthe road cannotpass along its banks. At the village
of Sposs, wherea well-builtkhan is found, the roatl crossesthe
river,and then continuesalongits banksto Prisrend.

72

Count

KARACZAY'SGECgrAlP/ISCaI
A CCO?.{?
t nf HIbaniz .

7. The loa(l from Antivarito Skutariruns partlythrough a


mountainouscountryand partly along the banks of the river
Boyana. I)epartingfromAntivari,it passes througha narrow
valleybetweenhigh hills, coveredwith plantationsof olive-trees,
until the crest of the mountainsis attainedby a ravine. The
ravineleadsto a level tract,overgrownwith timber-trees:timber
is conveyedfrom this place to the riverBoyana. On this part
of the road only a few isolateddwellings are met with. The
descent to the river Boyana is gradual,and the valleyis intersected by low hills. The rocks and stones disappear,and the
soil is soft andrich; the road is consequentlybad afterrain. In
the valley of the Boyana it has the banksof the riveron one
hand, anda rocky ridgeof low hills on the other. The river is
passed by a bridgeat a shortdistancefromSkutari. The road
from Dulcigno to Skutari crosses some hilly groundsnear the
former; it is pavedthere, andis about6 feetwide. It joins the
road from Antivarito Skutarion the right bank of the river
Boyana.
8. The road from Skutarito Alessio on leaving the town of
Tabakipassesalongthe stonelzridgeoverthe riverDrinoss,which
annua]lyinundatesthe adjacentcountry,and rendersit fertile.
The roadthenturnssouthward,and traver-ses
the districtbetween
the rivers :ESoyana
and Drin. This tract has an 1lndulatingsurface, andis, properlyspeaking,an extensivedepressionbetween
the western extremityof the Kerubi mountainsand an isolated
but small systemof hills whichextends alongthe shorebetlveen
the mouthsof these two rivers. The undlllatingcoasthas a rich
loamysoil, and is well cultivated;manyvillagesare built on it,
as Berlizze, Bushiatti, and Burbulushi,throughwhich the road
passes. The last-mentioned
village is l)uilt on the Drin, which
is passedon a ferryat the villageof Gramsi. At this place the
valleyof the Drin beginsto narrow,as the hills to the W. of it
advanceclose to the banks of the ri^7er.In this part of the
valley the soil is less ferti]e, and the road consequentlybetter,
except at some places, which havebeen paved at some remote
period,but are now quiteneglected.
9. The road from Alessio to Berat on the Chervestaleads
throughthe countriescontiguousto the Adriatic, and is rarely
anywheremore than 5 or 6 miles distant from its shores. On
leavingthe townof Alessio the road runs through a low wood,
consistingof wild vines, brambles,and thorn-bushes,which are
so entangledthat it is impossibleto enter them, the moreso as
the groundon which they growis an extensiveswamp,andlower
than the road,which is of convenientwidth, an(l p.aved. This
swampy ^^700dextends southwardto the banks of the river
Matt,but on approachingits banks the groundis higher,anclat

COUllt

KR A C Z .s

w 's

GeGy}
slh icai Sccoun
t of X Ibsl ia .

solne places less impeded by bushes and trees, so as to afford


pasture-ground for cattle. Oll the banks of the river is a khan.
South of thse river and along the shores of the sea is a woo(l
of full-grown forest-trees. The river Hismo is passed at Ismid
khan by a small wooden bridge. South of that river the ground
rises, and the road passes near a small fortress, called Fort
Skan(lerbegh, to the village of Lalikh, on the ridge of hills
wllich terminates at Cape Redoni. l'he hills are mostly coverecl
with wood, except at a few places, where pasture-grounds are
found; but there are no signs of cultivation in this hilly tract,
whose surface is much broken l)y ravines. On the southern declivity of this ridge is a fine glen, overgrown +vith high trees,
through +shich the road leads to a rather level tract, xvhich is
used as pasture for cattle, and extends to the banks of the small
river Shiakon. The plain continues to some distance, and is then
interrupted by some low hills overgrownwithtrees; but beyond
them it continues to the town of Kavaya.
South of Kavaya are some eminences consisting of gravel and
pebbles, along the slope of which the road leads till it (lescenels
into the level plain on the banks of the river Uskomobin. The
soil of the plain is a very soft eartht it is fertile, but the road is
hardly passable, except in the dry summer tnonths. The river
where crossed by a ferry is about 40 fathoms broad. The plain
continues S. of the lSskomobin, an(l is only interrupted by a fevv
hills of gentle ascent, beyond which the surface is again level,
partly cllltivatedand partly used as pasture-ground. West of this
pqXtionof the plain lies the lake of Trebuki (Tre lJocche), +hich
is parallel to the A(lriatic, and about 8 miles long. The country
E. of the lake is flat, and its shores are overgro^n with canes an(l
rushes; but between the lake and the sea is a ridge of some
height. Near the village of Lusenia, which is built on a hill, is
the boundary between the pashaliks of Elbassan and Av]ona.
After leaving Lusenia the country extends again into a level
plain, which contirluesto the Chervesta river, and in some parts
is ov-ergrownwith canes and rushes, and in others is used as
pasture-ground for large herds of cattle. In this plain is the
large village of Karbonater,called by the Turks Karabunar. In
approaching the river Chervesta the road passes the base of a
range of hills. At Berat the river is passed loy a stone bridge,
and the banks on the other side are steep and elevated.
1(). A road leads from Alessio to Toli Monastir, the seat of the
governor-generalof Rum-lli. It branches off from the road just
described on the banks of the river Hismo, and continues to run
along that riser to Kro-a, over a level tract, which is, however,
swampy in many places. From Kroya it turns southl1vardsto
Tirana. The greatest part of this space is occupied by a range

74

Collnt KARACZAY'S G{eographic


al A CCOU?tt of Albania.

Ofhigh hills lvhichare mostlywooded; as the hills are not steep,


the roads are tolerablygood. The countrywhich intervenes
betweenTiranaand Elbassan,wherethe hills attainthe elevation
of mountains,is much more broken. From the last-mentioned
place the road runs eastwardin the wide valley of the river
Uskomolin to Rukusa; but between this place and Usturga
(Sturga)the hilly and precipitouschain of mountainsto the W.
Ofthe Lakeof Ochridais crossed. Usturgais on the banks of
the Kara-Drin,not far from its effluxfromthe lake, and a good
road over a nearlyle+7elcountryleads to the town of Ochrida.
Betweenthis town and Tesnia is the greatrange of the Pindus
mountains,and the road in crossingthem makesa greatcircuit.
From Tesnia a -roa(lleads S.E. to Toli Monastir,and anotherE.
to Perlepie,a considerableplace, in whichfairs are held hich
are visitedfromall partsof Albaniaand Rum-Ili. This circllmstance has given more importanceto the roa(ljust described
than the occasional march of the Turkish troops froln Toli
Monastirto the diSerentdistrictsof Albania.
11. From the town of Berat a roa(l leads eastwardin the
valley of the river Chervesta through Kusovije, Pereshnik,
D6brin,and Dussarlito Voskopolie,whereit crossesthe Pindus
range to Koriji. No particularsare given by the Count respecting this roatl, but he vbservesthat it is muchfrequented
being the mostdirectline of commercialcommunication
bet^veen
Durazzoand Salonichi.
12. Another road leads from Berat to Janina(Joannina)in
Epirus After passingthe Chervestaby the stone bridge near
:Berat,the roadrunsalongthe baseof the high hills,whichextend
so close to the riveron the S., that, properlyspeaking,the roa(l
lies ^;ithinits bed. At theendof a fewmiles it leavestheriver,and
ascends a moderatelyelevatedhill overgrosznwith bushes. Entering the mountainsat this point, the road continuesto lie
betweenhigh ri(lgesto the veryoutskirtsof the town of Janina.
The whole space between the Chervestaand the Voyussa at
Klissurais filled up by an extensivemountain-mass,
whichis only
furrowedby narrowglens andravines,anddrairledby smallrivers.
Nearly the wholetractis uninhabited,withthe exceptionof four
or five khansbuilt for the accommodation
of traveller.s.Fromthe
last of thesekhans,which is called Jeposo, the road descendsa
very steep declivityto a small semicircularplain which lies on
the Voussa oppc}sitethe town of Klissura. The valley of the
riveraboveI(lissurais so narrow,that the road has beell made
over the adjacenthills to the vicinityof the town of Peramiti,
^^7here
it againdescendsto the banksof the Voyussa. Even near
Perataitithe level space between the ri^terand a veryhigh an(l
steep ridge of hills is of so little extent as to leave only a s7ery

CountK ARACZAY'S GeograAicalAtccount


of Albania. 75
narrowroa(l. Opposite the town of Peramiti the hills recede
fromthe banks of the river,and encircle .wplain of somc extent,
whichis ^vellcultivate(l. Above Peramitithe roadat times runs
lJetweenthe banlssof the Voyussaantlsteep hills: at timeswhere
theyterminatein precipiceson theedgeof the waterit crossestheir
crests. Upwards of 20 miles fromPeramitithe roadleavestlle
valleyof the river,and ascendsa steep acclivityto a high tableland, on which stands a village called Ostaniji, consistingof
lnore than 100 houses. At some distancebehindthis place is
the crest of the Khimerarange, an(l on it an elevatedsummitX
Mount Jumerka. The mount.ainsare coveredwith fineforests,
and exten(l for a great distanceon an unclulatingplain, whose
surfaceis only brokenby smallwatercourses. Proceetlingsouthwarcla fine salley, wvhichmaybe from3 to 4 miles wide, andin
which
the touTnof Kunijiis situated,is seen on the left. This
walley is (lraine(lby a riverwhichfalls intothe Voyussa. Farther
on the mountainplainis intersectedby ridges, and in one of the
depressionsis the villageof Reveniain a toleralvlywell cultivated
alley. Behind this villagethe ri(lgesdecreasein elevation,and
at last gis-e way to the undulatingplain, on which the townof
Janina is built, on the hanks of a lake which is about 4 or 5
mileslong. Janina containsa populationof about 36,000 inclividuals, among which are from 6000 to 7000 Jews, ancl20,000
Greeks. The housesof this townstandclosertobetherthanthose
of Skutari,but are nobso well built.

from Baron KOLLER'S


Itinerary of his Tour
to Petra, describing an Inland Route from Mout Sinai to
Akabah.*
March18th, 1840. Left tlle conventof WIountSinai at 4 P.M.
From the majesticWa(lyRaha (about1400 paces broad, and
runningN.W.-- S.E. to the convent)we turnedunderthe hill of
Aaron into the WadyScheik,400 pacesbroa(l,alldrunningin a
llorth-easterly
direction. After marching4 of an hour, a violent
storm,accompanie(l
by heavyrain,oblige(lus to pitch our tents.
19th. 'rhe storm continued: the rain, falling in torrents,
IV.-Extract

* A chartof the route, arlda (letailed topographicalslietch of the vicinity of the


morlasteryat MountSinai, accompaniedthis paper. It has not been deemednecessary
to have the rollte engrave(l,as the greatprecisionof BaronKoller will enal)le readers
to trace it for themselves on the maps. This account of the most direct route fiom
Sinai to Akabahis a valuable supplementto the informatiollrespectingthe persitlsula
of Sinai contairlel in Ruppell's rollte frotnSuez to Akab?3h,
the travelsof Cotlllt Leon
Laborde, alld the papel by Mr. Robinson in the Journal of the Royal Geographical
Society, vol. ix. pp. 295-308.-ED.