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Air-Operated Valve Evaluation Guide


TR-107322

Final Report, May 1999

EPRI Project Manager


J. Hosler

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA
800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES


THIS PACKAGE WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK
SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI).
NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW, NOR
ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM:
(A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH
RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM
DISCLOSED IN THIS PACKAGE, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED
RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS PACKAGE IS SUITABLE
TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR
(B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING
ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED
OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS
PACKAGE OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN
THIS PACKAGE.
ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS PACKAGE
Duke Engineering & Services, Inc.

ORDERING INFORMATION
Requests for copies of this package should be directed to the EPRI Distribution Center, 207 Coggins Drive, P.O. Box
23205, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523, (925) 934-4212.
Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
EPRI. POWERING PROGRESS is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
Copyright 1999 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

EPRI Licensed Material

CITATIONS
This report was prepared by
Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.
215 Shuman Boulevard
Suite 172
Naperville, Illinois 60563
Principal Investigators
D. Caron
J. Holstrom
S. Korn
L. Lutz
M. Murphy
S. Swanigan
P. Young

MPR Associates, Inc.


320 King Street
Alexandria, Virginia 22314-3238
Principal Investigators
M. Albers
P. Damerell
P. Knittle
T. Walker
This report describes research sponsored by EPRI.
The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following
manner:
Air-Operated Valve Evaluation Guide: EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1999. TR-107322.

iii

REPORT SUMMARY

Proper engineering evaluation and setup of air-operated valves is critical to the safe
operation of a nuclear power plant. This Guide provides an overview of air-operated
valves and how to complete an engineering evaluation of them. Also discussed are
methods for evaluating design basis system conditions, required thrust or torque, airactuator output thrust/torque capability, and operating margin. Guidelines also are
given for static and dynamic tests on air-operated valves and for interpreting test
results.
Background
In 1994, EPRI completed the EPRI Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance
Prediction Program to develop and validate methods for predicting performance of
motor-operated valves in nuclear power plants. Nuclear utilities have applied these
methods extensively in response to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Generic Letter 8910. In 1996, EPRI initiated a pilot program at several nuclear plants to apply the lessons
learned and methods developed under the MOV Performance Prediction Program
toward the development and implementation of plant air-operated valve programs.
This Guide incorporates the lessons learned and methods developed in these pilot
programs.
Objectives
To provide comprehensive guidelines for engineering evaluations and testing of airoperated valves to demonstrate their capability to function under design basis flow and
differential pressure conditions.
Approach
EPRI teamed with four utilities to develop and implement technically sound and costeffective air-operated valve programs. The process included evaluation of design basis
system conditions (media, temperature, flow, and differential pressure), required
actuation thrusts and torques, air-operator output thrust/torque capability, and margin
for selected air-operated valves.
Where applicable, researchers used validated methods developed under EPRIs MOV
program to define required thrust/torque. In cases where such methods were not
applicable, new methods were developed. Specifically, the EPRI balanced globe valve
model includes a plug side loading term that is considered overly conservative for
v

many caged globe valve designs. Project researchers applied a refined balanced globe
valve modelwhich explicitly accounts for plug imbalance area and neglects plug side
loadingfor such valve designs. In addition, the EPRI unbalanced globe valve model is
currently applicable to water flow up to 150F (65.6C). For nominal flow cases where
fluid temperature was above 150F, researchers applied the EPRI unbalanced globe
valve model as the best available methodology. Plans call for validation of these
modeling approaches in 1999. First-principles-based methods also were developed and
applied for double-seated and three-way globes, as well as ball valve designs.
Project researchers developed first-principles methods for evaluation of air-actuator
output thrust/torque capability for air-actuator designs commonly applied in nuclear
service. They used these methods, as well as actuator vendor information, to determine
actuator output capability.
Results
The EPRI Performance Prediction Methodology (PPM) applied directly to most airoperated gate and butterfly valves and to unbalanced globe valves with operating
temperatures below 150F. The pilot programs defined a need for additional data to
define friction coefficients for butterfly valve non-metallic bearings and to refine and
extend the applicability of the EPRI globe valve methodology.
EPRI Perspective
This Guide provides an excellent basis for developing and implementing a technically
sound air-operated valve program. It incorporates lessons learned and tools developed
under the EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Research Program and several pilot airoperated valve programs.
TR-107322
Keywords
Valves
Air-operated valves

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EPRI Licensed Material

ABSTRACT
This guide presents methods for conducting an engineering evaluation of the design
basis capability of air operated valves in nuclear power plants. The methods presented
incorporate lessons learned and tools developed as part of the EPRI Motor Operated
Valve Performance Prediction Research Program and during EPRI pilot AOV programs
implemented at several nuclear power plants.
The guide includes methods for determining design basis operating conditions,
required thrust/torque, actuator output capability, and thrust/torque margin for AOV
applications. Guidance is also provided for static and dynamic testing of AOVs.
The methods are applicable to most rising stem gate and globe valve designs and onequarter turn butterfly and ball valves. Actuator types covered include cylinder,
diaphragm, scotch yoke, and rack and pinion.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The following individuals and organizations are acknowledged for their support and
guidance in the preparation and review of this Guide:
Pilot AOV Program Utilities
Alliant /IES Utilities
Mr. Clifford McDonald
Consumers Energy Company
Mr. Robert Gambrill
Mr. Gary Foster
Detroit Edison Company
Mr. A. Nayakwadi
TU Electric Company
Mr. Ben Mays
Additional Technical Reviewers
Mr. Kenneth Beasley, Duke Energy Corporation
Mr. Daryl Bradford, Southern California Edison Company
Mr. Timothy Chan, Tennessee Valley Authority
Mr. Mark Colemen, Public Service Electric and Gas Company
Mr. Kevin Cortis, Northeast Utilities Company
Mr. James Hallenbeck, PECO Energy Company
Mr. Frank Pisarsky, American Electric Power Company
Mr. Robert Poole, Tennessee Valley Authority
Ms. Sonja Waters, Arizona Public Service Company

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EPRI Licensed Material

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1-1
1.1 Purpose and Objective ................................................................................................. 1-1
1.2 Scope of Evaluation Guide ........................................................................................... 1-2
1.3 Organization of the Evaluation Guide ........................................................................... 1-2
1.3.1 Overview of AOV Evaluation Methodology (Section 2) .......................................... 1-3
1.3.2 Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves (Section 3) .......... 1-3
1.3.3 Definition of AOV Functional and Design Requirements (Section 4) ..................... 1-3
1.3.4 Determining Required Thrust or Torque (Section 5).............................................. 1-4
1.3.5 Evaluation of Valve / Actuator Rated and Survivable Thrust and Torque
(Section 6)....................................................................................................................... 1-5
1.3.6 Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability (Section 7) ............... 1-5
1.3.7 Calculating and Evaluating Margins (Section 8)..................................................... 1-5
1.3.8 AOV Testing (Section 9) ........................................................................................ 1-5
1.3.9 References (Section 10) ........................................................................................ 1-6
1.3.10 Appendices.......................................................................................................... 1-6
1.4 Basis for Guide.............................................................................................................. 1-6

OVERVIEW OF AOV EVALUATION METHODOLOGY ................................................. 2-1

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION AND INTRODUCTION TO AIR-OPERATED


3
VALVES ................................................................................................................................. 3-1
3.1 Valves ........................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.1

Globe Valves (unbalanced, balanced, double seat, three-way, piloted) ............... 3-2

3.1.1.1 Unbalanced Disc Globe Valves....................................................................... 3-8


3.1.1.2 Balanced Disc Globe Valves........................................................................... 3-9
3.1.1.3 Double Seat Globe Valves............................................................................ 3-10
3.1.1.4 Three-Way Globe Valves.............................................................................. 3-11
3.1.1.5 Balanced Disc Globe Valves With Pilot......................................................... 3-12

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3.1.2 Gate Valves......................................................................................................... 3-13


3.1.3 Butterfly Valves................................................................................................ 3-14
3.1.4

Ball Valves......................................................................................................... 3-17

3.1.5

Plug Valves........................................................................................................ 3-20

3.2 Air Actuators............................................................................................................... 3-21


3.2.1 Diaphragm, Rising Stem ...................................................................................... 3-21
3.2.2 Diaphragm, Rotating Stem................................................................................... 3-23
3.2.3 Piston .................................................................................................................. 3-24
3.2.4 Rack and Pinion .................................................................................................. 3-25
3.2.5 Scotch Yoke ........................................................................................................ 3-26
3.3 Accessories................................................................................................................ 3-26
3.3.1 Boosters, Accumulators, Solenoid valves ............................................................ 3-26
3.3.1.1 Boosters ....................................................................................................... 3-26
3.3.1.2 Accumulators................................................................................................ 3-27
3.3.1.3 Solenoid Valves ............................................................................................ 3-27
3.3.1.4 Handwheels / Manual Overrides ................................................................... 3-28
3.3.1.5 Positioners.................................................................................................... 3-29

DEFINITION OF AOV FUNCTIONAL AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ......................... 4-1


4.1 Valve Structural and Design Requirements .................................................................. 4-1
4.2 Actuator Structural and Design Requirements.............................................................. 4-2
4.2.1 Linear Actuators .................................................................................................... 4-2
4.2.1.1 Diaphragm ...................................................................................................... 4-2
4.2.1.2 Piston ............................................................................................................. 4-3
4.2.1.3 Double Acting ................................................................................................. 4-3
4.2.1.4 Single Acting (spring return)............................................................................ 4-4
4.2.2 Rotary Actuators.................................................................................................... 4-4
4.2.3 Controls ................................................................................................................. 4-5
4.2.3.1 Control Voltage Electric Power Supply............................................................ 4-5
4.2.3.2 Non-safety-Related AOVs............................................................................... 4-5
4.2.3.3 Safety-Related AOVs...................................................................................... 4-5
4.3 AOV Capability Requirements...................................................................................... 4-6
4.3.1 Functional Requirements....................................................................................... 4-6
4.3.2 Stroke Time Requirements .................................................................................... 4-7
4.3.3 Failure Modes........................................................................................................ 4-8

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4.3.4 Determination of Limiting Operating Conditions ..................................................... 4-8


4.3.5 Allowable Leakage Rate ...................................................................................... 4-11
4.3.5.1 Non-safety-Related AOVs............................................................................. 4-11
4.3.5.2 Safety-Related AOVs.................................................................................... 4-11
4.4 Air Supply System Requirements ............................................................................... 4-12
4.5 External Operating Environment................................................................................. 4-13
4.6 AOV Orientation ......................................................................................................... 4-14
4.7 AOV Accessibility ....................................................................................................... 4-15
4.8 Industry Technical Issues ........................................................................................... 4-16

DETERMINING REQUIRED THRUST OR TORQUE ...................................................... 5-1


5.1 Required Input Information ........................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 Variables ...................................................................................................................... 5-2
5.3 Definitions .................................................................................................................... 5-7
5.4 Globe Valves................................................................................................................ 5-8
5.4.1 Unbalanced Disc Globe Valves ............................................................................. 5-9
5.4.1.1 Total Required Thrust ...................................................................................... 5-9
5.4.1.1.1 Opening Stroke ........................................................................................ 5-9
5.4.1.1.2 Closing Stroke ......................................................................................... 5-9
5.4.1.2 Disc and Stem Weight .................................................................................... 5-9
5.4.1.3 Packing Load................................................................................................ 5-10
5.4.1.4 Upper Seal Friction Load .............................................................................. 5-10
5.4.1.5 Stem Rejection Load .................................................................................... 5-10
5.4.1.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load .................................................................. 5-11
5.4.1.7 DP Load ....................................................................................................... 5-11
5.4.1.8 Sealing Load (Closing Only) ......................................................................... 5-13
5.4.2 Balanced Disc Globe Valves................................................................................ 5-14
5.4.2.1 Total Required Thrust ................................................................................... 5-14
5.4.2.1.1 Opening Stroke ...................................................................................... 5-14
5.4.2.1.2 Closing Stroke ....................................................................................... 5-14
5.4.2.2 Disc and Stem Weight .................................................................................. 5-15
5.4.2.3 Packing Load................................................................................................ 5-15
5.4.2.4 Upper Seal Friction Load .............................................................................. 5-15
5.4.2.5 Stem Rejection Load .................................................................................... 5-15
5.4.2.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load .................................................................. 5-16

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5.4.2.7 DP Load ....................................................................................................... 5-17


5.4.2.8 Sealing Load (Closing Only) ......................................................................... 5-18
5.4.3 Balanced Disc Globe Valves With Pilot Disc ........................................................ 5-19
5.4.3.1 Total Required Thrust ................................................................................... 5-19
5.4.3.1.1 Opening Stroke ...................................................................................... 5-19
5.4.3.1.2 Closing Stroke ....................................................................................... 5-19
5.4.3.2 Disc and Stem Weight .................................................................................. 5-20
5.4.3.3 Packing Load................................................................................................ 5-20
5.4.3.4 Upper Seal Friction Load .............................................................................. 5-21
5.4.3.5 Stem Rejection Load .................................................................................... 5-21
5.4.3.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load .................................................................. 5-21
5.4.3.7 DP Load ....................................................................................................... 5-21
5.4.3.8 Sealing Load (Closing Only) ......................................................................... 5-21
5.4.3.9 Pilot spring force ........................................................................................... 5-22
5.4.4 Double Seat Globe Valves................................................................................... 5-22
5.4.4.1 Total Required Thrust ................................................................................... 5-22
5.4.4.1.1 Opening Stroke ...................................................................................... 5-22
5.4.4.1.2 Closing Stroke ....................................................................................... 5-22
5.4.4.2 Disc and Stem Weight .................................................................................. 5-23
5.4.4.3 Packing Load................................................................................................ 5-23
5.4.4.4 Upper Seal Friction Load .............................................................................. 5-24
5.4.4.5 Stem Rejection Load .................................................................................... 5-24
5.4.4.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load .................................................................. 5-25
5.4.4.7 DP Load ....................................................................................................... 5-25
5.4.4.8 Sealing Load (Closing Only) ......................................................................... 5-26
5.4.5 Three-Way Globe Valves..................................................................................... 5-26
5.4.5.1 Total Required Thrust ................................................................................... 5-26
5.4.5.1.1 Opening Stroke.......................................................................................... 5-26
5.4.5.1.2 Closing Stroke ........................................................................................... 5-26
5.4.5.2 Disc and Stem Weight .................................................................................. 5-27
5.4.5.3 Packing Load................................................................................................ 5-28
5.4.5.4 Upper Seal Friction Load .............................................................................. 5-28
5.4.5.5 Stem Rejection Load .................................................................................... 5-28
5.4.5.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load .................................................................. 5-29

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EPRI Licensed Material

5.4.5.7 DP Load ....................................................................................................... 5-29


5.4.5.8 Sealing Load................................................................................................. 5-30
5.5 Gate Valves ............................................................................................................... 5-30
5.5.1 Packing Load....................................................................................................... 5-31
5.5.2 Sealing Load (Closing Only) ................................................................................ 5-31
5.5.3 Valve Factor Method............................................................................................ 5-32
5.5.4 Unwedging Load (Opening Only)......................................................................... 5-33
5.6 Butterfly Valves .......................................................................................................... 5-34
5.6.1 Packing Torque ................................................................................................... 5-35
5.7 Ball Valves ................................................................................................................. 5-35
5.7.1 Total Required Torque......................................................................................... 5-35
5.7.1.1 Opening......................................................................................................... 5-35
5.7.1.2 Closing .......................................................................................................... 5-36
5.7.2 Packing and Static Seat Torques......................................................................... 5-36
5.7.3 Dynamic Seat Torque .......................................................................................... 5-37
5.7.4 Bearing Torque.................................................................................................... 5-37
5.7.5 Hydrodynamic Torque ......................................................................................... 5-37
5.8 Calculation Worksheets.............................................................................................. 5-38

6
EVALUATION OF VALVE / ACTUATOR RATED AND SURVIVABLE THRUST
AND TORQUE........................................................................................................................ 6-1
6.1 Valve Limits.................................................................................................................. 6-1
6.2 Actuator Limits ............................................................................................................. 6-2

EVALUATION OF AIR ACTUATOR OUTPUT THRUST / TORQUE CAPABILITY ........ 7-1


7.1 Required Input Information ........................................................................................... 7-1
7.2 Actuator Output Capability Evaluations ........................................................................ 7-2
7.2.1 Overview ............................................................................................................... 7-2
7.2.1.1 Cylinder Actuators for Rising Stem Valves.................................................... 7-11
7.2.1.1.1 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Single Ended .............................................. 7-11
7.2.1.1.2 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Double Ended ............................................. 7-13
7.2.1.1.3 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting (Spring to Retract).................. 7-15
7.2.1.1.4 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting (Spring to Extend) .............. 7-18
7.2.1.1.5 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting (Spring to Retract) ................... 7-21
7.2.1.1.6 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting (Spring to Extend) ............... 7-24

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7.2.1.2 Diaphragm Actuators for Rising Stem Valves ............................................... 7-27


7.2.1.2.1 Direct Acting Diaphragm (Spring to Retract) .......................................... 7-27
7.2.1.2.2 Reverse Acting Diaphragm (Spring to Extend) ....................................... 7-31
7.2.1.2.3 Direct Acting Diaphragm (with Increased Mechanical Advantage) ......... 7-35
7.2.1.2.4 Reverse Acting Diaphragm (with Increased Mechanical Advantage)...... 7-35
7.2.1.3 Scotch Yoke Actuators (Quarter Turn Valves) .............................................. 7-36
7.2.1.3.1 Scotch Yoke, Double Acting Air Cylinder................................................ 7-36
7.2.1.3.2 Scotch Yoke, Single Acting Air Cylinder, Spring Return ........................ 7-39
7.2.1.4 Diaphragm Actuators (rotary)........................................................................ 7-41
7.2.1.5 Rack and Pinion Actuators............................................................................ 7-45
7.2.1.5.1 Rack & Pinion, Double Acting Air Cylinder, Rotary................................. 7-45
7.2.1.5.2 Rack & Pinion, Single Acting Air Cylinder, Spring Return, Rotary .......... 7-47
7.2.2 Calculation Considerations .................................................................................. 7-49
7.2.2.1 Diaphragm Area............................................................................................ 7-49
7.2.2.2 Spring Rate Degradation .............................................................................. 7-49
7.2.2.3 Pressure Drift................................................................................................ 7-49
7.2.2.4 Tolerances.................................................................................................... 7-50
7.3 Stroke Time Evaluation .............................................................................................. 7-51
7.3.1 Increasing Stroke Speed ..................................................................................... 7-51

CALCULATING AND EVALUATING MARGINS ............................................................ 8-1


8.1 Actuator Capability Margin ............................................................................................ 8-1
8.1.1 Accounting For Potential Degradation ................................................................... 8-1
8.1.2 Examples............................................................................................................... 8-2
8.2 Component Allowable Margin....................................................................................... 8-3
8.3 Accounting for Uncertainties......................................................................................... 8-4
8.3.1 Types of Uncertainties ........................................................................................... 8-4
8.3.2 Applying Uncertainties ............................................................................................ 8-5
8.4 Addressing Inadequate Margin..................................................................................... 8-7

AOV TESTING ................................................................................................................ 9-1


9.1 Bench Set Testing ........................................................................................................ 9-2
9.2 Analysis of Static Diagnostic Traces............................................................................. 9-3
9.2.1 Bench Set.............................................................................................................. 9-8
9.2.2 Stem Packing Friction............................................................................................ 9-8

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9.2.3 Seat Load .............................................................................................................. 9-9


9.2.4 Spring Rate ......................................................................................................... 9-10
9.2.5 Valve Stroke Length ............................................................................................ 9-10
9.2.6 Valve Stroke Time ............................................................................................... 9-11
9.2.7 Total Unwedging or Unseating Load (Gate and Butterfly Valves)......................... 9-11
9.2.8 Other Operating Parameters................................................................................ 9-12
9.2.9 Analysis of Other Static Test Data ....................................................................... 9-13
9.3 Analysis of Dynamic Diagnostic Traces...................................................................... 9-13
9.3.1 Opening Against Differential Pressure ................................................................. 9-14
9.3.2 Closing Under Flow and Differential Pressure...................................................... 9-15
9.3.3 Analysis of Other Dynamic Test Data .................................................................. 9-16

10

REFERENCES.............................................................................................................. 10-1

VALVE WORKSHEETS ..................................................................................................A-1

ACTUATOR WORKSHEETS..........................................................................................B-1

PACKING LOAD METHODOLOGY................................................................................C-1


C.1 Nomenclature ..............................................................................................................C-1
C.2 Methodology................................................................................................................C-2
C.2.1 Rising Stem Packing Loads .................................................................................C-2
C.2.2 Quarter Turn Packing Loads ................................................................................C-2
C.3

Calculation worksheets............................................................................................C-2

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EPRI Licensed Material

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1 AOV Evaluation Methodology ................................................................................ 2-3
Figure 3-1 Principle Components of Air Operated Valve ......................................................... 3-1
Figure 3-2 Basic Flow Path of a Globe Valve .......................................................................... 3-3
Figure 3-3 Flow Passages in the Cage.................................................................................... 3-3
Figure 3-4 Top Guided Valve .................................................................................................. 3-4
Figure 3-5 Flow Curves with Constant Differential Pressure.................................................... 3-4
Figure 3-6 Flow Curves Corrected for Piping Losses .............................................................. 3-5
Figure 3-7 Equal Percentage Flow Characteristics.................................................................. 3-6
Figure 3-8 Three Types of Stem Packing ................................................................................ 3-7
Figure 3-9 Globe Valve ........................................................................................................... 3-8
Figure 3-10 Unbalanced Disc Globe Valve.............................................................................. 3-9
Figure 3-11 Balanced Disc Globe Valves .............................................................................. 3-10
Figure 3-12 Double Seat Globe Valve ................................................................................... 3-10
Figure 3-13 Converging Three-way Valve ............................................................................. 3-11
Figure 3-14 Diverging Three-way Valve ................................................................................ 3-12
Figure 3-15 Piloted Disc Valve .............................................................................................. 3-13
Figure 3-16 Gate Valve ......................................................................................................... 3-14
Figure 3-17 Butterfly Valve.................................................................................................... 3-15
Figure 3-18 Butterfly Valve Body Styles ................................................................................ 3-15
Figure 3-19 High Performance Butterfly Valve ...................................................................... 3-16
Figure 3-20 Floating Ball Valve ............................................................................................. 3-18
Figure 3-21 Trunnion Mounted Ball Valve ............................................................................. 3-18
Figure 3-22 V-Notch ball valve .............................................................................................. 3-19
Figure 3-23 Eccentric Rotating Plug Valve ............................................................................ 3-20
Figure 3-24 Direct Acting Spring and Diaphragm Actuator .................................................... 3-22
Figure 3-25 Reverse Acting Spring and Diaphragm Actuator ................................................ 3-23
Figure 3-26 Spring Return Direct Acting Rotary Diaphragm Actuator .................................... 3-24
Figure 3-27 Air Cylinder, Spring Return................................................................................. 3-25
Figure 3-28 Double Acting Rack and Pinion Actu.................................................................. 3-25
Figure 3-29 Scotch Yoke Actuator......................................................................................... 3-26

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Figure 3-30 Pressure Booster ............................................................................................... 3-27


Figure 3-31 Solenoid Valve ................................................................................................... 3-28
Figure 5-1 Free Body Diagram of an Unbalanced Globe Valve ............................................... 5-9
Figure 5-2 Free Body Diagram of a Balanced Globe Valve ................................................... 5-14
Figure 5-3 Free Body Diagram of a Balanced Globe Valve with Pilot Disc ............................ 5-20
Figure 5-4 Free Body Diagram of a Double Seat Globe Valve .............................................. 5-23
Figure 5-5 Free Body Diagram of a Three Way Globe Valve................................................. 5-27
Figure 5-6 Hydrodynamic Torque Factor vs Equivalent System Resistance.......................... 5-38
Figure 7-1 Rising Stem Actuator Type Flowchart .................................................................... 7-6
Figure 7-2 Rising Stem Valve and Actuator Position Correlation Flowchart............................. 7-7
Figure 7-3 Valve and Actuator Position Correlation Flowchart................................................. 7-8
Figure 7-4 Quarter Turn Actuator Type Flowchart ................................................................... 7-9
Figure 7-5 Quarter Turn Valve and Actuator Position Correlation Flowchart ......................... 7-10
Figure 7-6 Available Force Plot for Double Acting Air Cycinder ............................................. 7-12
Figure 7-7 Double Acting Air Cylinder,Rod Extension ........................................................... 7-12
Figure 7-8 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Rod Retraction.......................................................... 7-12
Figure 7-9 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Double Ended ........................................................... 7-14
Figure 7-10 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting ........................................................... 7-15
Figure 7-11 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting ....................................................... 7-18
Figure 7-12 Available Force Plot for Single Acting Air Cylinder ............................................. 7-22
Figure 7-13 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting, Fully Extended ................................... 7-22
Figure 7-14 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting, Retracted............................................ 7-22
Figure 7-15 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting, Fully Retracted ................................... 7-22
Figure 7-16 Available Force Plot for Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting ................... 7-24
Figure 7-17 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting, Fully Extended................................ 7-25
Figure 7-18 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting Retracted......................................... 7-25
Figure 7-19 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting, Fully Retracted ............................... 7-25
Figure 7-20 Available Force Plot for Diaphragm Actuator...................................................... 7-27
Figure 7-21 Diaphragm Actuator, Fully Extended.................................................................. 7-28
Figure 7-22 Diaphragm Actuator , Retracted......................................................................... 7-28
Figure 7-23 Diaphragm Actuator, Fully Retracted ................................................................. 7-28
Figure 7-24 Available Force Plot for Reverse Acting Diaphragm ........................................... 7-31
Figure 7-25 Reverse Acting Diaphragm, Fully Extended ....................................................... 7-31
Figure 7-26 Reverse Acting Diaphragm, Retracted ............................................................... 7-32
Figure 7-27 Reverse Acting Diaphragm, Fully Retracted....................................................... 7-32
Figure 7-28 Direct Acting Diaphragm with Link Arm .............................................................. 7-35
Figure 7-29 Reverse Acting Diaphragm with Link Arm .......................................................... 7-36
Figure 7-30 Scotch Yoke, Double Acting Air Cylinder............................................................ 7-37

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Figure 7-31 Percentage of Break Torque Plot for Scotch Yoke, Double Acting ..................... 7-37
Figure 7-32 Scotch Yoke, Single Acting Air Cylinder ............................................................. 7-39
Figure 7-33 Percentage of Ending Torque Plot for Scotch Yoke, Singlele Acting .................. 7-40
Figure 7-34 Rotary Diaphragm Actuator................................................................................ 7-42
Figure 7-35 Percentage of Ending Torque Plot for Rotary Diaphragm................................... 7-42
Figure 7-36 Double Acting Rack & Pinion, Rotary ................................................................. 7-46
Figure 7-37 Available Torque Plot for Double Acting Rack and Pinion .................................. 7-46
Figure 7-38 Single Acting Rack and Pinion, Rotary ............................................................... 7-47
Figure 7-39 Available Torque Plot for Single Acting Rack and Pinion.................................... 7-48
Figure 8-1 AOV Margins and Uncertainties ............................................................................. 8-6
Figure 9-1 Example AOV Static Test Diagnostic Data Traces ............................................... 9-17
Figure 9-2 Example Direct Acting AOV Static Test Diagnostic Data Plot............................... 9-18
Figure 9-3 Analysis of Example Direct Acting AOV Static Test Data ..................................... 9-19
Figure 9-4 Determination of Unwedging Load from Air Operated Gate Valve Static Test
Data .............................................................................................................................. 9-20
Figure 9-5 Analysis of Example Reverse Acting AOV Static Test Data ................................. 9-21
Figure 9-6 Analysis of Example Double Acting AOV Static Test Data ................................... 9-22
Figure 9-7 Example Air Operated Gate Valve Dynamic Test Data ........................................ 9-23
Figure 9-8 Example Air Operated Gate Valve Dynamic Test Data - Details........................... 9-24

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 7-1 Parameter Definitions.............................................................................................. 7-3
Table 8-1 AOV Component Ratings ........................................................................................ 8-4
Table A-1 Required Thrust for Unbalanced Disc Globe Valves (Section 5.4.1) ....................... A-2
Table A-2 Required Thrust for Balanced Disc Globe Valves (Section 5.4.2) ........................... A-4
Table A-3 Required Thrust for Balanced Disc Globe Valves With Pilot Valve (Section
5.4.3) ............................................................................................................................... A-6
Table A-4 Required Thrust for Double Seat Globe Valves (Section 5.4.4)............................. A-10
Table A-5 Required Thrust for Three-Way Globe Valves (Section 5.4.5)............................... A-12
Table A-6 Sealing/Wedging Loads for Gate Valves (Section 5.5).......................................... A-16
Table A-7 Required Torque for Ball Valves (Section 5.7) ...................................................... A-18
Table B-1 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Double Acting Air Cylinder
Actuator).......................................................................................................................... B-6
Table B-2 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Single Acting Air Cylinder
Actuator)........................................................................................................................ B-19
Table B-3 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Diaphragm Actuator)......................... B-29
Table B-4 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Diaphragm Actuator)......................... B-36
Table B-5 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Diaphragm Actuator)......................... B-43
Table B-6 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Diaphragm Actuator)......................... B-51
Table B-7 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Scotch Yoke Actuator) ...................... B-59
Table B-8 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Scotch Yoke Actuator) ...................... B-66
Table B-9 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Rotary Diaphragm Actuator) ............. B-74
Table B-10 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Rotary Diaphragm Actuator) ........... B-81
Table B-11 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Rack & Pinion, Double Acting) ........ B-88
Table B-12 Actuator Capability Calculation Worksheet (Rack & Pinion, Single Acting) ......... B-91

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1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose and Objective


The purpose of the Evaluation Guide is to present methodology for:
x

Defining the functional and design requirements for an air-operated valve (AOV)
and its accessories including code requirements and design basis/normal operating
conditions.

Evaluating valve design features that can affect AOV operation and calculating
valve thrust/torque requirements.

Evaluating air actuator design features that can affect AOV operation, calculating
the actuator output thrust/torque, and evaluating the compatibility of the actuator
and the valve.

Evaluating the available margin between the actuator output thrust/torque and the
required stem thrust/torque (i.e. capability margin), and evaluating valve/actuator
survivable thrust and torque.

Performing and interpreting baseline static and dynamic testing to confirm actuator
output thrust/torque and margin.

In summary, the major objectives of the Evaluation Guide are to provide: (1) practical
methods for evaluating whether existing AOVs meet the design and functional
requirements for their applications in nuclear power plants, and (2) suggested
approaches for resolving AOV application problems. The guide does not address AOV
maintenance issues or requirements. Maintenance issues are covered in EPRI report
NP-7412, Revision 1, Maintenance Guide for Air Operated Valves, Pneumatic
Actuators, and Accessories (Reference 10.9).

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Introduction

1.2 Scope of Evaluation Guide


The Evaluation Guide is applicable to Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized
Water Reactors (PWRs). The Evaluation Guide covers both nuclear safety-related and
nonsafety-related valves.
The Evaluation Guide is applicable to the following valve designs:
x

Globe Valves (Balanced and Unbalanced, 2-way, 3-way, Piloted, Double seated)

Gate Valves (Solid wedge, Flexible wedge, Anchor/Darling double disk, Aloyco
split wedge)

Butterfly Valves (Symmetric disk and single offset)

Ball Valves (Floating ball and Trunnion)

While other types are found in nuclear power plants, the four types covered by the
Guide are the most widely used in AOV applications in United States nuclear power
plants.
The Evaluation Guide is applicable to the following air actuator types:
x

Diaphragm

Piston

Rack and Pinion

Scotch Yoke

These actuators encompass the majority of air actuators found in the nuclear industry.

1.3 Organization of the Evaluation Guide


The Evaluation Guide is organized to provide a framework around which a plantspecific AOV evaluation program can be developed. The Guide contains introductory
material, analysis methods for evaluating AOV performance, and suggested approaches
for resolving AOV application problems.
Users are strongly encouraged to consult other sources of information to supplement
the Guide. Good sources include:
x

1-2

Valve and actuator vendors

EPRI Licensed Material


Introduction

Other utilities and utility organizations (e.g., AOV Users Group, AOV Joint Owners
Group)

Technical references and reports (such as those listed in Section 10)

Reference 10.14 provides a comprehensive summary of all EPRI PPP research


activities.

This Guide is organized into ten sections and three appendices, as follows:

1.3.1 Overview of AOV Evaluation Methodology (Section 2)


Section 2 describes an overall approach for evaluating an AOV application. A flowchart
is included defining the path for engineering evaluation of an AOV.

1.3.2 Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves (Section 3)


Section 3 presents a brief introduction to AOVs. The intent is to provide general
background information, including descriptions of the principal components (valves,
actuators, and accessories) and their operation. Emphasis is placed on design
limitations and characteristics important to the application of the AOVs for nuclear
plant service. The section provides an overview of the subject and a basis for
understanding the discussions contained in later sections.
The functional description and introduction to AOVs is presented in the following
sections:
x

Valves (Section 3.1)

Air Actuators (Section 3.2)

Accessories (Section 3.3)

1.3.3 Definition of AOV Functional and Design Requirements (Section 4)


x

Section 4 presents a suggested methodology for defining the functional and design
requirements for an AOV application. Specific subsections address definition of
requirements considering:

Valve Structural and Design Requirements (Section 4.1)

Actuator Structural and Design Requirements (Section 4.2)


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Introduction

AOV Capability Requirements (Section 4.3)

Air Supply System Requirements (Section 4.4)

External Operating Environment (Section 4.5)

AOV Orientation (Section 4.6)

AOV Accessibility (Section 4.7)

Industry Technical Issues (Section 4.8)

1.3.4 Determining Required Thrust or Torque (Section 5)


Section 5 presents analytical methods for calculating the required stem thrust/torque to
open and close AOVs, along with the applicability and limitations of each method.
There are many valve designs and valve vendors, and the specific details for a
particular valve may limit the applicability of the evaluation methods presented in the
Guide. The analytical methods do not cover all possible configurations and careful
judgment is needed in applying the equations. In some cases, the valve vendor may
need to be consulted to confirm the methods and design inputs that are used for
calculating required stem thrust/torque.
Methods for evaluating required thrust/torque is presented for the following valve
designs:
x

Globe Valves (Section 5.4)

Gate Valves (Section 5.5)

Butterfly Valves (Section 5.6)

Ball Valves (Section 5.7)

Calculation sheets for applying the methods presented in this section are provided in
Appendix A.

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Introduction

1.3.5 Evaluation of Valve / Actuator Rated and Survivable Thrust and Torque
(Section 6)
Section 6 presents considerations for determining the valve rated thrust and torque and
the valve survivable thrust and torque. In addition, considerations for the functional
and structural ratings/limits for the actuator and accessories are presented.

1.3.6 Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability (Section 7)


Section 7 presents analytical methods for calculating the thrust/torque capability for
each style of actuator, along with methods for evaluating stroke time.
The evaluation of air actuators is presented in the following sections:
x

Required Input Information (Section 7.1)

Actuator Output Capability Evaluations (Section 7.2)

Stroke Time Evaluation (Section 7.3)

1.3.7 Calculating and Evaluating Margins (Section 8)


Section 8 discusses methods for determining AOV operating margins and illustrates
how the various margins are related.
x

Actuator Capability Margin (Section 8.1)

Component Allowable Margin (Section 8.2)

Accounting for Uncertainties (Section 8.3)

Addressing Inadequate Margin (Section 8.4)

1.3.8 AOV Testing (Section 9)


Section 9 presents both static and dynamic testing techniques to determine actual valve
loads, and includes recommended measurements and interpretation of test results.
The AOV testing is presented in the following sections:
x

Bench Set Testing (Section 9.1)

Static Testing to confirm actuator output capability and setup (Section 9.2)
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Introduction

Dynamic Testing to confirm operating loads (Section 9.3)

1.3.9 References (Section 10)


1.3.10 Appendices
Appendix A presents valve calculation worksheets. These worksheets summarize the
information provided in Section 5.0 for each type of valve arrangement and provide the
user with an organized and systematic approach for evaluating valve thrust/torque.
Appendix B presents actuator vendor data sheets and calculation worksheets. The
vendor data sheets present a convenient and systematic approach for gathering actuator
required information from vendors. For the users convenience, variables were left off
one set of data sheets for their actual use in the field. The worksheets summarize the
information provided in Section 7.0 for each type of actuator arrangement and provide
the user with an organized and systematic approach for evaluating actuator
thrust/torque.
Appendix C presents methodology for determining packing load for both rising stem
and quarter turn valves, along with calculation worksheets.

1.4 Basis for Guide


The Evaluation Guide addresses the principal known industry issues related to the
application of AOVs. Guidance for addressing these issues incorporates:
x

Lessons learned and methods developed as part of the EPRI MOV Performance
Prediction Research Program (Reference 10.2).

Lessons learned as part of utility implementation of NRC Generic Letter 89-10


requirements.

Lessons learned and methods developed during implementation of EPRI Pilot AOV
programs at several plant sites.

Review of published research.

Review of NRC and AEOD publications related to MOV and AOV performance.

Review of valve and actuator manufacturers information and publications.

Input from a Technical Advising Group made up of utility MOV and AOV
engineers.

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Introduction

Lessons learned from EPRI and utility Motor Operated Valve (MOV) programs and
pilot EPRI AOV programs show that AOV performance and reliability could be
enhanced via improvements in sizing, setup, testing, and maintenance practices. Some
of the specific observations include:
x

Thrust requirements for gate valves may have been under predicted during initial
sizing.

The appropriate area (seat vs. guide) needs to be chosen for differential pressure
applications for unbalanced globe valves.

The side loading algorithm in the EPRI balanced globe valves modeled may be
overly conservative for some valve designs.

Butterfly valve bearing coefficients may have degraded from those values used in
sizing.

Packing loads may be a significant contributor to the required operating loads.


Changes in packing material or gland stress may be critical.

Spring safe loads need to be considered if changes to vendor supplied preloads are
made.

This guide addresses these issues and provides guidance for evaluating AOV
applications in nuclear power plant service.

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2
OVERVIEW OF AOV EVALUATION METHODOLOGY

The AOV Evaluation Guide provides a comprehensive synopsis of the evaluation


techniques which have been developed, to date, from pilot EPRI AOV technical
evaluation projects. Additionally, the guide provides design and testing considerations
to be accounted for based on available industry experience and other EPRI documents
related to the verification of proper AOV actuator sizing and set point establishment
under normal and accident conditions in Nuclear Power Plants. This Evaluation Guide
is designed to be used by everyone from the novice to the expert, and the trades person
to the professional. Thus, there are numerous ways of using the Guide. Figure 2-1
provides one logical flow path for the guides use. The numbers inside the decision
blocks refer to the applicable section numbers.
The user begins at Start in the Flow Chart and proceeds to define AOV
design/functional requirements and characteristics. A comparison is made between the
AOV characteristics and the system requirements (such as pressure, temperature, and
EQ requirements) to ensure the appropriate AOV application. If the AOVs
characteristics are not appropriate, then the function requirements are reconsidered or
the AOV is modified. The worst case system operating requirements are then
established based on the valves functional review (Section 4.3). Using these
requirements, determine the required stem thrust / torque using the methods provided
in Section 5.0. Next, the actuator output capability is determined using the required
inputs (Section 7.1) and methods presented in Section 7.2. The resultant Actuator
Output Capability is calculated using methods from Section 8.1. The user must take
into consideration uncertainties associated with input parameters and / or potential
degradation of valve / actuator performance. Consideration for these uncertainties and
degradations can be applied directly into the margin calculation or accounted for in the
acceptance criteria. Section 8.4 provides guidance on margin enhancement.
In addition to Actuator Output Capability Margin, one must consider structural and/or
performance limits of the valve, actuator and accessories. Section 8.2 provides methods
for evaluation of the Component Allowable Margin. Section 8.4 also provides guidance
on margin enhancement.
If the component and actuator margins are not adequate, adjustments are made to the
valve / actuator to increase the margin (Section 8.4). If adjustments to the valve /
actuator will not give adequate margin or are not feasable, then evaluate conservative
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EPRI Licensed Material


Overview of AOV Evaluation Methodology

assumptions in system conditions or component inputs and re-calculate component


capabilities. This starts the process over again.
After adequate actuator / component margin has been established, set up and design
input assumptions should be confirmed by testing or other engineering analysis
(Section 9.1, 9.2).

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Overview of AOV Evaluation Methodology

Start

Define AOV design/functional requirements and


AOV characteristics (4.1 through 4.8)

Obtain a match between the AOV functional /


design requirements and AOV characteristics by:
Developing an engineering justification for changing
the design/functional requirements
or modifying the AOV

Are the AOV


characteristics
compatible with
design/functional
requirements?

No

Yes
Determine worst case system requirements for the
valve's operation based on the functional review
(4.3.4)

For the valve determine:


Required stem thrust/ torque (5.1-5.7)
Valve thrust/torque limits (6.0)

For the actuator determine:


Actuator output capability (Min. & Max.) (7.2)
Actuator thrust/ torque limits (6.2)

Evaluate conservative assumptions in system


conditions and actuator / valve inputs to increase
Actuator and Valve margins.

For the Accessories determine:


Pressure ratings (8.2)
Temperature ratings

No
Is the Actuator Capability Margin
sufficient including potential
degradations and uncertainties? (8.2)

Make adjustments or modifications to valve and / or


actuator using the guidance of Section 8.4.

Yes
No

No
Will the adjustments give
adequate Component and
Actuator margin?

Is the Component Allowable Margin


sufficient including potential degradation
and uncertainties? (8.1)

Yes
Yes
Confirm AOV set up and design input assumptions
by testing or other engineering analysis as required.
(9.1, 9.2)

End

Figure 2-1
AOV Evaluation Methodology

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3
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION AND INTRODUCTION TO
AIR-OPERATED VALVES

3.1 Valves
This section describes rising stem gate and globe valves along with quarter turn valves
commonly used for AOV applications in nuclear power plants. Air operated valves are
used extensively in the power generation industry for process control and system
isolation functions. Proper operation of these valves is critical to running a safe,
dependable, and economic plant. This section is included to provide the user with an
understanding of the principle components of common air operated valves (see Figure
3-1).

Figure 3-1
Principle Components of Air Operated Valve

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EPRI Licensed Material


Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Valve

Linear (Gate or Globe)

Quarter Turn (Butterfly or Ball)

Air Actuator

Linear (Diaphragm or Piston)

Rotary (Diaphragm or Piston with rotary transmission)

Controls

Solenoid Valve

Positioner

Speed controls

Position transmitter

I/P converter

Supply System

Volume Boosters

3.1.1 Globe Valves (unbalanced, balanced, double seat, three-way, piloted)


A globe valve uses a cylindrical or spherical shaped, tapered disc or plug. In a globe
valve the fluid must change direction several times. With the direction change, the disc
moves parallel to the flow when opening and closing the valve. The advantage of the
globe valve is that it is well suited for flow regulation. Fluid flow begins as soon as the
disc and seat separate, allowing for a more efficient throttling of flow with a minimum
of seat erosion. In some cases, such as small valves, globe valves are used for isolation,
since the availability of small gate valves is limited. The disadvantage of globe valves is
that they have a higher flow resistance (higher pressure drop) than gate valves due to
the abrupt changes in the flow paths in the globe valves. The basic flow path of a globe
valve is depicted in Figure 3-2.

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Figure 3-2
Basic Flow Path of a Globe Valve

Note: Valves that are used as block valves to isolate a section of a piping system are generally
required to provide tight shutoff. Globe valves are typically designed to modulate flow and often
operate in mid-flow or at a throttled position. These valves are typically built to withstand
process pressures and high-cycle service but are not designed for tight shutoff.
Desired flow characteristics can be obtained by changing the shape of the flow passages
in the cage (Figure 3-3) and by replacing or modifying the valve disc and seat in top
guided valves (Figure 3-4).

Figure 3-3
Flow Passages in the Cage

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Figure 3-4
Top Guided Valve

These changes in trim components affect the flow characteristics of the valve. The three
most common trim types are equal percentage, linear operation, and quick open.
Figure 3-5 shows typical flow curves for these trim types with a constant differential
pressure across the valve. Figure 3-6 shows the flow curves adjusted for typical piping
losses. The objective of trim selection is to obtain optimum process control. A general
rule of thumb is to select a linear flow characteristic if the pressure drop is constant with
increasing flow rate and an equal percent characteristic when the differential pressure
decreases with increasing flow rate.

Figure 3-5
Flow Curves with Constant Differential Pressure

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Figure 3-6
Flow Curves Corrected for Piping Losses

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Equal percentage trim is most commonly used because many systems use centrifugal
pumps. In these systems, an increase in flow rate results in decreased pressure drop at
the control valve based on the head/flow characteristic of the pump. The flow
characteristic for equal percentage resembles Figure 3-7.

Figure 3-7
Equal Percentage Flow Characteristics

Quick Open trim is used for On-Off applications and provides maximum flow quickly.
If a valve does not appear to fit the existing process conditions, check with a
manufacturer's technical representative or with a valve services vendor. Many times
the exchange of trim can be accomplished at the next outage at a reasonable cost.
Stem packing is used to seal the stem opening in the bonnet, and the gland is used to
pre-load the stem packing. The packing may be live loaded (e.g., by Belleville springs),
pressure energized or torque preloaded (e.g., by torquing the gland bolts). Live loaded
packing uses springs to maintain a nearly constant load on the packing even though the
packing may shrink. Shrinkage may be due to thermal expansion, aging, and
consolidation. Pressure energized packing is usually a TFE V-ring type lip seal. This
packing has some initial loading from the spring and system pressure is used to seal the
packing lip to the packing box wall and valve stem. Square compression packing relies
on the compressive force exerted on the packing by tightening the packing gland bolts.
All three types are shown in Figure 3-8.

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Live Loaded

Pressure Energized

Torque Preloaded
Figure 3-8
Three Types of Stem Packing

The stem is a shaft that has a smooth portion that passes through the packing and a
threaded portion that engages the actuator coupling. The valve disc has a hardened
surface, which contacts the seat ring to provide sealing.

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Components of a typical T-pattern unbalanced globe valve, as shown in Figure 3-9,


include the valve body, bonnet, gland, stem packing, stem, disc (plug), and seat. For Ypattern globe valves, the stem is not perpendicular to the piping. The body, bonnet,
yoke, stem, and stem packing function are as described previously for the Tee pattern
valve.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Plug Stem
Packing Box Studs
Packing Box Stud Nuts
Packing Flange
Packing Follower
Packing

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Spacer
Bonnet
Valve Body Studs
Valve Body Stud Nuts
Valve Body Gaskets
Guide Bushing

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Seat Ring
Valve Plug
Plug Stem Pin
Body
Drive Nut

Figure 3-9
Globe Valve

3.1.1.1 Unbalanced Disc Globe Valves


In unbalanced trim (Figure 3-7), upstream pressure is fully applied to one side of the
disc and downstream pressure to the other. The result is that the full valve pressure
differential is taken across the disc. In high-pressure drop applications, the force can be
considerable, requiring a very large actuator to operate the valve disc.
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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Figure 3-10
Unbalanced Disc Globe Valve

3.1.1.2 Balanced Disc Globe Valves


Balanced disc globe valves have openings or "pressure balancing" ports drilled through
the disc (Figure 3-11). The ports allow pressure to equalize above and below the disc,
lessening the differential pressure load and allowing the use of smaller actuators. Piston
or seal rings generally provide a seal between the area above the disc and the outlet
port. Many air-operated balanced disc globe valves are cage guided.

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

Figure 3-11
Balanced Disc Globe Valves

3.1.1.3 Double Seat Globe Valves


Double seat valves are considered semi-balanced trim designs,(Figure 3-12). Double seated
valves have two discs and two ports of slightly different diameters. Due to the two port
design, hydrodynamic forces on the valve discs tend to cancel each other out, except for the
difference in disc seat diameters.

Figure 3-12
Double Seat Globe Valve

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

3.1.1.4 Three-Way Globe Valves


Three way valves are also called converging or diverging valves depending on how the
valve is installed. Three-way valves have three separate ports. In converging threeway valves (Figure 3-13), the fluid flows into the common port from one or both of the
other ports (mixing the fluids). These valves are generally designed with a single disc
(with two seats) positioned between the body seats so that flow is under the seat for
both discs. V-ported discs may be used to provide more accurate control of the flow.
Converging valves can only isolate flow of one inlet port at a time. The other port will
be open.

Figure 3-13
Converging Three-way Valve

In diverging valves (Figure 3-14), the fluid flows from the common port to one or both
of the other two ports (diverting the flow). These valves are generally designed with
two discs, one on each side of the body seats so that flow is under the seat for both
discs. As in converging valves, V-ported discs may be used to provide more accurate
control of the flow. Diverging valves can only isolate flow to one inlet port at a time.
The other port will be open.

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Figure 3-14
Diverging Three-way Valve

3.1.1.5 Balanced Disc Globe Valves With Pilot


Piloted globe valves are special application valves used when high shutoff capability
and reduced differential pressure loading is required. These valves are typically
designed to work properly only when installed with flow overseat. For the closing
stroke, a spring between the pilot disc and the main disc keeps the pilot valve open
until the main disc hits the body seat. At this point, the actuator must provide thrust to
compress the pilot spring and close the pilot valve. With the main disc and pilot disc
closed, upstream pressure leaks past the disc seal ring to the cavity above the main disc.
This pressure then aids in the sealing force applied to both discs. For the opening
stroke, the actuator first lifts the pilot disc, allowing the pressure to equalize above and
below the main disc, creating a balanced disc. Since the main disc acts as a balanced
disc valve, a smaller actuator can be used for these valves. An example of a piloted disc
is shown in Figure 3-15.

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Figure 3-15
Piloted Disc Valve

3.1.2 Gate Valves


A gate valve uses a gate-like disc, or wedge, to stop the flow. The disc moves
perpendicular to the direction of flow during opening and closing. Gate valves are
used for isolation and initiation of flow. One advantage of the gate valve is that it can
accommodate full flow without a restriction in the pipe, resulting in a low piping flow
resistance (low-pressure drop). Additional advantages of gate valves is that they are
small in size compared to a globe valve, useful for applications where the valve is used
only to shut off flow, and often cost less. Also, the operating force for a gate valve is
usually less than for an unbalanced disc globe valve. A disadvantage of the gate valve
is that it is not as well suited for throttling service as a globe valve. Gate valves are also
susceptible to pressure locking and thermal binding.
The components of a typical bolted bonnet gate valve are shown in Figure 3-16. They
include the valve body, bonnet, yoke, stem packing, gland, stem, disc (wedge),
backseat, T-slot connection, and seat rings. The valve body, bonnet, and
body-to-bonnet bolting form the major part of the piping system pressure boundary for
the valve assembly. The stem-packing chamber in the bonnet allows the stem to
penetrate into the valve body. The yoke is used to connect the operator to the valve
body or bonnet.
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Figure 3-16
Gate Valve

Stem packing is used to seal the stem opening in the bonnet, and the gland is used to
preload the stem packing. The packing may be live loaded (e.g., by Belleville springs)
or torque preloaded (e.g., by torquing the gland bolts) as shown in Figure 3-8. Live
loaded packing uses springs to maintain a nearly constant load on the packing even
though the packing may shrink. Shrinkage may be due to thermal expansion, aging, or
consolidation.
The stem is a shaft that has a smooth portion that passes through the packing and a
threaded portion that engages the actuator coupling. Typically the stem is attached to
the valve disc by a "T" slot connection. The valve disc has two hardened seating
surfaces, which engage with the seat rings. These surfaces are the sealing surfaces of
the valve.
Gate valves normally have a backseat, which can be used to seal the stem to the bonnet,
when the valve is in the fully open position. The backseat seal is provided for
maintenance purposes.
3.1.3 Butterfly Valves
Butterfly valves are high pressure recovery valves. They offer minimal friction losses
due to the location of the disc in the center of flow at the full open position. Butterfly
valves allow more flow with less pressure drop than globe valves. Figure 3-14 shows a
conventional symmetric disc butterfly valve. When the disc is rotated 90 degrees from
the closed position, the disc is in-line with the process flow and adds very little pressure
drop or turbulence.

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Figure 3-17
Butterfly Valve

Butterfly valves are constructed into three different body styles; wafer style, lugged,
and flanged (Figure 3-18). The wafer style is lighter, requires very little additional
piping support, and is easy to install. The main benefit of the lugged style is the ease of
installation. They are typically used for end-of-line installations. Flanged butterfly
valves provide much greater support for the valve but require additional strength
piping for valve support.

Wafer

Lugged

Flanged

Figure 3-18
Butterfly Valve Body Styles

High performance butterfly valves are similar in principle to conventional models.


Their high performance distinction results from the incorporation of an offset (eccentric)
disc in conjunction with pressure assisted seals (Figure 3-19).

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Figure 3-19
High Performance Butterfly Valve

Most high performance discs are double offset; that is, the shaft is offset from the plane
of the sealing surface and it is also offset from the center of the body bore. The double
offset swings the disc face away from the seal during the initial 10 to 15 degrees of
rotation and minimizes disc to seal contact throughout the remainder of rotation. This
minimizes the possibility of permanent depressions in the seal caused by prolonged
disc to seal contact. The disc must be rotated in the proper direction and should never
be permitted to overtravel. These two actions are the most frequent causes of
permanent seal damage. Proper sealing depends on the very fine finish between the
disc and the sealing edge.
Pressure assisted seals require a minimum pressure drop across a closed valve to
maintain the rated shutoff. To seal, process pressure is ported behind the seal, forcing
the seal against the sealing edge of the disc. As pressure is increased, shutoff becomes
tighter and tighter. Seals are available for various materials and configurations. PTFE
seals are used for tight shut off (ANSI/FCI 70-2 Class VI shut off) at temperatures up to
450 F. The seals are supported by stainless steel springs that compensate for wear and
distortion; stainless steel spring seals are used between 450 F and 1000 F with reduced
shutoff capabilities.
The shaft is a round bar that has a smooth portion that passes through the packing and
a keyed portion that engages the actuator coupling. Typically the shaft is attached to
the valve disc by a keyed, pinned or bolted connection. The valve disc has a seating
surface that contacts a seating surface in the valve body when in the closed position.
The seating surfaces may be of a corrosion resistant material (e.g. stainless steel, Monel,
inconel) or may be a combination of a corrosion resistant and an elastomer or plastic
material (e.g. rubbers or Teflon).
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A butterfly valve is a pipeline flow control device that operates by rotating what is
essentially a thin circular disc within the pipe on a major diametrical axis of the disc.
The disc is supported in the valve body by a shaft and two sleeve bearings located in
two valve body trunnions. The shaft may be a single or two piece construction. Full
stroke (open to closed) disc rotation is essentially through a 90 arc. (Note: Not all valve
designs travel the full 90.) When the disc is parallel to the pipe axis, full pipeline flow
results. This position is referred to as the full open or 90 open position. When the disc
is perpendicular to the pipe axis, the valve is closed; there is no flow and the edge of the
disc comes into contact with a seal in the valve body. This position is referred to as the
fully closed or zero degree (0) position. The disc is rotated within the valve body by
the actuator shaft that extends through the valve body to its exterior where an actuating
device is mounted on the body trunnion to rotate and hold the valve disc in the full
open, full closed or intermediate positions. Larger valves have thrust bearings that
center and support the disc and shaft as well as the fluid pressure end loads on the
valve shaft.
Shaft packing is used to seal the shaft opening(s) in the valve body. The shaft will
penetrate the body at the actuator connection trunnion but may not penetrate to the
exterior of the body at the non-actuated body trunnion. Therefore there may be one or
two packing glands. In pull down or compression style packing, a gland is used to
preload the shaft packing. The packing may be either live loaded (e.g., by Belleville
springs) or torque preloaded (e.g., by torquing the gland bolts) as shown in Figure 3-5.
Live loaded packing glands use springs to maintain a nearly constant load on the
packing even though the packing may shrink. Shrinkage may be due to thermal
expansion, aging, or consolidation. Packing may also be of the chevron or o-ring style.
These packing types are generally compressed by the physical dimensions of the gland
or groove and are pressure activated or loaded to seal. This style of packing gland
does not generally have springs or mounting bolts that permit adjustment.

3.1.4 Ball Valves


Ball Valves use a full or partial sphere as a plug that rotates within the valve body to
throttle the flow. Four basic styles are presented: floating ball, trunnion mounted,
V-notch, and eccentric rotating plug valves. These valves are used where high capacity,
tight shutoff, and minimal pressure loss are desired.
Floating ball valves (Figure 3-20) control flow with a rotating sphere. The valve's bore
is slightly reduced below the piping size, allowing the valve to immediately control
flow as it is rotated from the fully open or fully closed position. Because this design has
no bearing above or below the ball, the DP load across the valve pushes the ball against
the valve seat, causing it to seat. The ball is typically preloaded between the seats to
minimize the effect of DP on the ball loads.

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Figure 3-20
Floating Ball Valve

Trunnion mounted ball valves (Figure 3-21) support the ball with a bearing supported
trunnion instead of relying upon the valve seats, as in a floating ball valve. With the
trunnion carrying the differential pressure across the valve, lower actuation torque is
required and hence the trunnion mounted ball valves can be used for higher pressures
and larger sized valves.

Figure 3-21
Trunnion Mounted Ball Valve

Shaft seals prevent upstream pressure from leaving the shaft bores. These seals
perform the same job as packing does for other types of valves. Seats and/or flow rings
provide a seal between the ball and the valve ports.
Some ball valves have a single soft-seal design, which provides a pressure-assisted seal
when fluid flows toward the seal. A metal protector ring is commonly used to protect
the seal from damage. Shims between the valve body and the ball seal determine the fit
between the seals and ball.
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Some ball valves have a double soft seal design, which provides tight shutoff in either
flow direction. This seal also provides a "block and bleed" feature, which allows the
body to be bled of any internal pressure as a means of checking seal integrity, or to be
purged between uses. A metal flow ring can be used when conditions dont allow the
use of soft seals; such as in high temperature or corrosive service. Because no seal is
used, the flow ring has some clearance with the ball and only moderate shutoff can be
obtained.
A V-Notch ball valve is a modification to a standard ball valve where a "V" shaped
notch is cut out of the ball face. The geometry of the V-Notch valve ball segment
(Figure 3-22) combines with the straight through flow path of a ball valve to provide
wide range ability or the ability to control both very low flow rates and very high flow
rates. Flow is controlled from when the notch just begins to expose the port to the full
open position. The V-Notch ball segment is supported and positioned by a drive shaft
and a guidepost. The drive shaft and ball are attached with a splined connection. The
ball's opposite side is supported by a guidepost. A gasket between the guidepost and
the body prevents leakage. Packing arrangements of different materials are available to
seal the shaft and prevent leakage of fluid to the atmosphere. The main shaft bushing
which supports the drive shaft is precisely located to keep the ball segment aligned in
the center of the body for proper contact with the seals. The seals are generally
shimmed to zero deflection, meaning the seal is just in contact with the ball.

Figure 3-22
V-Notch ball valve

Sealing can be accomplished with stainless steel seals to temperatures of 1000 F with
leakage less than ANSI/FCI 70-2 Class IV leak allowance. Stainless steel seals have
limited pressure drop ratings. Composition seals of PTFE and polymer binders provide
tight shutoff at temperatures below 450 F. Because of their ability to control a wide
range of flow rates, these valves work well in steam and drain service.
Shaft packing is used to seal the shaft opening(s) in the valve body. The shaft will
penetrate the body at the actuator connection trunnion but may not penetrate to the
exterior of the body at the non-actuated body trunnion. Therefore there may be one or
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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

two packing glands. In pull down or compression style packing a gland is used to
preload the shaft packing. The packing may be either live loaded (e.g., by Belleville
springs) or torque preloaded (e.g., by torquing the gland bolts) as shown in Figure 3-8.
Live loaded packing glands use springs to maintain a nearly constant load on the
packing even though the packing may shrink. Shrinkage may be due to thermal
expansion, aging, or consolidation. Packing may also be of the chevron or o-ring style.
These packing types are generally compressed by the physical dimensions of the gland
or groove and are pressure activated or loaded to seal. This style of packing gland
does not generally have springs or mounting bolts that permit adjustment.

3.1.5 Plug Valves


Eccentric rotating plug valves (Figure 3-23) are designed specifically for flow control
and erosive service. They have an open flow path and can be made of durable
materials.
Rotating plug valves differ from other ball valves in that the ball segment or disc
operates on an eccentric path. This keeps the plug out of contact with sealing surfaces
during throttling. This design helps reduce seat wear and requires less operating
torque.
The valve seat design uses a solid metal shutoff surface without thin elastomer or metal
seals to erode in service. On more advanced designs, the seat is held in position by a
retainer but is allowed to float. The plug closing against it centers the seat ring. This
self-centering feature eliminates many alignment problems during maintenance.
The seat ring is symmetrical and can be reversed to provide a new seating surface. This
feature provides economical extra life and extended shutoff capability.

Figure 3-23
Eccentric Rotating Plug Valve

The shaft is a round bar that has a smooth portion that passes through the packing and
a keyed portion that engages the actuator coupling. Typically the shaft is attached to
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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

the valve disc by a keyed, pinned or bolted connection. The valve disc has a seating
surface that contacts a seating surface in the valve body when in the closed position.
The seating surfaces may be of a corrosion resistant material (e.g. stainless steel, Monel,
inconel) or may be a combination of a corrosion resistant and an elastomer or plastic
material (e.g. rubbers or Teflon).
Shaft packing is used to seal the shaft opening(s) in the valve body. The shaft will
penetrate the body at the actuator connection trunnion but may not penetrate to the
exterior of the body at the non-actuated body trunnion. Therefore there may be one or
two packing glands. In pull down or compression style packing a gland is used to
preload the shaft packing. The packing may be either live loaded (e.g., by Belleville
springs) or torque preloaded (e.g., by torquing the gland bolts) as shown in Figure 3-8.
Live loaded packing glands use springs to maintain a nearly constant load on the
packing even though the packing may shrink. Shrinkage may be due to thermal
expansion, aging, or consolidation. Packing may also be of the chevron or o-ring style.
These packing types are generally compressed by the physical dimensions of the gland
or groove and are pressure activated or loaded to seal. This style of packing gland
does not generally have springs or mounting bolts that permit adjustment.

3.2 Air Actuators


Air actuators are of two major design types: linear or rotary. Each type may be either
single or double acting. A double acting actuator uses air pressure to move the valve
stem in both directions. A single acting actuator uses air pressure to move the valve
stem in only one direction. Force in the opposite direction is provided by other means
such as gravity, springs, or fluid forces within the valve.
An actuator in which the air is supplied to the chamber opposite the actuator stem or
rod, causing an "extension" of the rod is designated as a "direct acting" actuator.
Extending the actuator rod on increasing air pressure may cause the valve to open or
close, depending on whether the valve is direct or reverse acting. An actuator in which
air pressure is supplied to the chamber containing the actuator stem or rod, causing a
"retracting" motion of the rod is designated as a "reverse acting" actuator. Retracting
the actuator rod on increasing air pressure may cause the valve to open or close,
depending on whether the valve is direct or reverse acting. Cross sections of each of
these actuator types are shown as Figures 3-24 and 3-25.

3.2.1 Diaphragm, Rising Stem


Diaphragm actuators have a flexible diaphragm placed between two casings. At least
one of the two chambers on either side the diaphragm is sealed and has a piped
connection port through which air is supplied. Air pressure acts on the diaphragm to
provide force and linear motion to the actuator stem or rod. Single acting actuators
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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

have only one chamber sealed and air pressure is used to move the valve stem in only
one direction. The return motion of a single acting actuator is provided by other means
such as gravity, springs or fluid dynamic forces. If a spring is installed in one of the
chambers, the spring force opposes the force generated by the air supply pressure
acting on the diaphragm.

DIAPHRAGM
CASE

DIAPHRAGM
PLATE

AIR INLET

DIAPHRAGM

ACTUATOR SPRING
ACTUATOR
STEM OR ROD
SPRING SEAT

YOKE

Figure 3-24
Direct Acting Spring and Diaphragm Actuator

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

&+#2*4#)/ 2.#6'
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Reverse Acting Spring and Diaphragm Actuator

3.2.2 Diaphragm, Rotating Stem


Diaphragm actuators for rotary shaft valves (ball, butterfly, or plug valve) are often
adaptations or modifications of the actuators used for sliding stem valves. The
difference is that the rotary shaft actuators convert force and linear motion into torque
and rotary motion in order to stroke the valve. This conversion is often provided via a
lever assembly attached between the actuator rod and the valve shaft. Bushings or
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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

bearings in the actuator housing support either the lever assembly or the valve shaft. A
typical cross section of this actuator type is shown in Figure 3-26.
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Figure 3-26
Spring Return Direct Acting Rotary Diaphragm Actuator

3.2.3 Piston
A piston actuator is similar to a diaphragm actuator, except that air pressure is applied
to a piston, which moves to provide linear motion of the actuator stem. Piston actuators
provide some advantage over diaphragm actuators in that they can typically withstand
higher pressures. Therefore, they are capable of delivering more output force for the
same actuator size. Additionally, diaphragm operators are often limited to shorter
stroke lengths; cylinder stroke lengths may be longer. The total work available from
either a diaphragm or cylinder is the product of the force available times the distance
traveled. As the cylinder actuator can often withstand higher pressure and also
provides greater travel lengths, the total work capability of the cylinder actuator is
much greater than a diaphragm actuator. Piston actuators can either be double acting
or single acting (generally spring opposed). However, the typical application is the
positioning of control valves in conjunction with a positioner by use of balancing air
pressures alone (double acting). A typical cross section of this actuator type is shown in
Figure 3-27.
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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

#&,756#$.' 5612
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Air Cylinder, Spring Return

3.2.4 Rack and Pinion


Rack and pinion actuators are used for rotary valves (e.g. ball, butterfly, plug valves).
These actuators convert force and linear motion from the piston to torque and rotary
motion of the valve stem using a rack and pinion gear arrangement. The rack is part of
the actuator stem and the pinion is connected to the valve shaft. Rack and pinion
actuators are available as either double acting or single acting, with or without a spring
return. A cross section of a double acting rack and pinion is shown in Figure 3-28.
ADJUSTABLE

D CYLINDER DIAMETER
SLIDING SEAL

GUIDE ROD

ACTUATOR STEM

"d" PISTON
ROD
DPG PINION
GEAR PITCH
DIAMETER

AIR
INLET
PISTON
RACK

PINION

Figure 3-28
Double Acting Rack and Pinion Actuator

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Functional Description and Introduction to Air-Operated Valves

3.2.5 Scotch Yoke


Scotch yoke actuators are used for rotary valves (e.g. ball, butterfly or plug valves).
These actuators convert force and linear motion from the piston to torque and rotary
motion of the valve stem using a lever arm. This type of actuator is available as either
double acting or single acting, with or without spring return. A cross section of a scotch
yoke actuator is shown in Figure 3-29.
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Scotch Yoke Actuator

3.3 Accessories
3.3.1 Boosters, Accumulators, Solenoid valves
3.3.1.1 Boosters
There are two types of boosters -- pressure boosters and volume boosters. A volume
booster takes an input signal, typically from a controller or positioner, and increases the
volume of air available to operate the actuator. Volume boosters are typically installed
to increase the speed of operation of the actuator. The signal received from the
controller requires approximately one cubic inch of air to reposition the pilot valve in
the booster; therefore, the volume of air in the connecting signal tubing is very small.
When the booster pilot valve shifts, it allows operating air from a separate source to
pass through the large capacity pilot in the booster to stroke the actuator. This action
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allows the valve to stroke more quickly. The system designer needs to be aware that if
a pressure-reducing valve is used for the supply pressure side of the booster, it may
limit the output capacity of the booster. The system designer also needs to be aware
that if a pressure reducing valve is not used, the volume booster may apply a pressure
to the actuator that is greater than the actuator is rated for.
Pressure boosters increase the pressure from the input signal to a higher value. Typical
pressure boosters are piston type air pumps using the input signal for both the driving
force and the supply for booster output. The ratio for pressure increase is the ratio of
the piston area of the driving and driven pistons of the booster. Figure 3-30 is an
outline of a typical pressure booster.

Figure 3-30
Pressure Booster

3.3.1.2 Accumulators
Accumulators are pressure vessels used to store an additional volume of air. This
separate volume may be used as an "Emergency source" of air to stroke the actuator on
loss of normal actuating air. This volume may also be used to ensure a valve will
maintain position during loss of normal operating air.
3.3.1.3 Solenoid Valves
Solenoid valves are used to control the flow of air to an air actuator. Solenoid valves are
used most frequently in "On - Off applications," where the valve is either fully opened
or closed, but not throttled. When the AOV is required to move to its failure position,
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the solenoid valve positions itself to isolate the air supply to the actuator and to vent air
from the actuator. When the AOV is required to stroke in the opposite direction, the
solenoid valve positions itself to allow air to the actuator. Typical installations are
shown in Figure 3-31. More complex configurations can use SOVs in conjunction with
positioners to achieve a fail safe position.

Figure 3-31
Solenoid Valve

3.3.1.4 Handwheels / Manual Overrides


Air actuators may have various mechanical override mechanisms. These may be
mechanical levers, screws, handwheels, or hydraulic secondary actuating mechanisms.
Some may directly override an actuator output force while others must have the
actuator air source disabled before engaging. Engagement methods vary with type and
manufacturer, but in all cases, the mechanism must be disengaged to allow proper and
full actuator normal operation. Many handwheel and screw type mechanisms must be
set in a neutral position to not inhibit normal operation. Plant procedures should be
clear on the steps required to assure the override will not interfere.

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3.3.1.5 Positioners
Positioners are used to control the flow of air to the air actuator. Positioners are used in
applications where continuous throttling (modulating) of the fluid system is needed. A
positioner generally works by comparing an input signal (pressure or current) to the
valve position and it increases or decreases the air pressure to the actuator until a
balance is reached. For a further explanation see Reference 10.9.

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4
DEFINITION OF AOV FUNCTIONAL AND DESIGN
REQUIREMENTS

This section discusses the functional and design requirements which should be defined
as a first step in conducting an evaluation of the adequacy of an air-operated valve
application. Specifically, the following considerations are addressed:
x

Valve Structural and Design Requirements

Actuator Structural and Design Requirements

AOV Capability Requirements

Air Supply System Requirements

External Operating Environment

AOV Orientation

AOV Accessibility

4.1 Valve Structural and Design Requirements


The structural and design requirements for the valve should equal or exceed the design
requirements of the piping system in which the valve is installed. Design parameters
which should be considered include:
x

System design and operating pressures

System design and operating temperatures

Acceptable maximum pressure drop across the open valve due to frictional losses in
the valve at system design flow rate (Note that for throttling valves, the pressure
drop as a function of position should be specified.)

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Definition of AOV Functional and Design Requirements
x

Fluid medium and phase (Note that the phase can change from water to steam or a
two-phase mixture for AOVs whose applications include isolation of high energy
lines following a postulated pipe rupture.)

Fluid chemistry

Safety-related system classification

Seismic classification

ANSI classification

All these requirements should be obtained from system design basis documentation.
New and replacement safety-related AOVs should be qualified in accordance with
ASME QME-1, Qualification of Active Mechanical Equipment Used in Nuclear Power
Plants, which is currently undergoing revision to reflect lessons learned from EPRI and
other industry research programs.

4.2 Actuator Structural and Design Requirements


Actuator structural and design requirements for each of the most common actuator
design types are discussed in the following subsections.

4.2.1 Linear Actuators


4.2.1.1 Diaphragm
A diaphragm actuator is a device in which the fluid pressure acts upon a flexible
member, the diaphragm, to provide a linear motion to the actuator stem (or rod). The
structural and design requirements for the actuator should equal or exceed the
requirements of the piping in which it is installed. (Note: In many cases there may be a
design rating change just prior to the actuator at the location of the pressure regulator
with relieving capability.) Design parameters that should be considered include:
x

System design and operating pressures

System design, environmental, and operating temperatures

Fluid medium (air, nitrogen, or other gas)

System safety classification

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Definition of AOV Functional and Design Requirements
x

System seismic classification

Maximum pressure rating

Maximum structural rating

Stem (or rod) diameter

Effective diaphragm area as a function of stroke (or full area and efficiency as a
function of stroke)

Full stroke length

Spring pre-load range

Spring rate and tolerance

Maximum acceptable spring force

This information should be obtained from the valve or actuator vendor or published
design documentation.
4.2.1.2 Piston
A piston actuator is a device in which the fluid pressure acts upon a moveable
cylindrical disc member, the piston, to provide a linear motion to the actuator stem
(a.k.a. cylinder rod or piston rod) as the disc or piston moves the cylinder barrel bore.
The structural and design requirement for the actuator should equal or exceed the
requirements of the piping in which it is installed. (Note: In many cases there may be a
design rating change just prior to the actuator at the location of pressure regulator with
relieving capability.) Design parameters that should be considered are provided below.
4.2.1.3 Double Acting
x

System design and operating pressures

System design, environmental, and operating temperatures

Fluid medium (air, nitrogen, or other gas)

System safety classification

System seismic classification


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x

Maximum pressure rating

Maximum structural rating

Stem (or rod) diameter

Cylinder breakaway and/or run pressure or force

Full stroke length

Cylinder Bore Diameter

4.2.1.4 Single Acting (spring return)


In addition to the above information the following information should be considered:
x

Spring pre-load range

Spring rate and tolerance

Maximum acceptable spring force

Reduced cylinder stroke length or stop tube length, if applicable

This information should be obtained from the valve or actuator vendor or published
design documentation.

4.2.2 Rotary Actuators


Rotary actuators employ some mechanical linkage to convert the linear translation
output motion of the diaphragm or cylinder to a rotary motion. The following design
parameters should be considered for rotary actuators, in addition to the above
mentioned requirements for the appropriate cylinder or diaphragm:
x

Included output rotation angle (e.g. 90q)

Type of mechanism (i.e. link and lever, pivoting actuator, scotch yoke, rack &
pinion)

Structural strength of the mechanism

Mechanism Efficiency (Conversion factor from linear motion to rotary motion)

Lever length or pinion gear diameter

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x

Direction of rotation for spring and air strokes, if single acting

This information should be obtained from the valve or actuator vendor or published
design documentation.

4.2.3 Controls
4.2.3.1 Control Voltage Electric Power Supply
The electric power supply requirements are based on the AOV safety class. The most
frequent use of control voltage is for operation of solenoid valves (SOVs) associated
with the control of the AOV.
4.2.3.2 Non-safety-Related AOVs
If the AOV is non-safety-related, specifying the nominal AC or DC voltage is sufficient
(typically, single-phase power 24 VAC, 120 VAC, 125 VDC or 250 VDC). Normally, the
supply voltage range for non-safety-related AOVs is not specified because the nominal
line voltage is assumed to be maintained within the component design limits (10% of
nominal voltage).
4.2.3.3 Safety-Related AOVs
For safety-related AOVs, the minimum AC voltage is normally based on the emergency
diesel generator load carrying capability during sequencing. Sometimes it is based on
degraded grid conditions. Each plant has a specific reduced line voltage basis that is
typically in the range of 70% to 80% of nominal line voltage.
For those applications where the AOV must operate to maintain plant safety during loss
of all AC power (station blackout), the AOVs should be supplied with 125/250 VDC
power or other non-interruptible power source. The reduced DC line voltage at the
AOV is based on the specific plant design basis. Power (AC or DC) cables should be
sized to ensure that at least the specified minimum voltage is available at the AOV
component terminals when the component is drawing current at the in-rush (for SOVs).
Assurance of SOV performance at this reduced voltage is considered an important
design feature of the AOV assembly.
If the safety function of the valve is only related to a control voltage loss at the SOV and
no further operations are required, this review may not be required on the basis that the
failure will cause the safety function to be performed.

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If an existing AOV electrical component is not capable of performing the design


function at the minimum specified voltage, consider the following approaches:
x

Modify the AOV electrical component to increase its operating capability with the
reduced voltage or redesign the power supply system to provide the required
voltage.

Perform an evaluation to establish the minimum voltage that is actually available at


the AOV. If the actual minimum voltage is greater than the specified value (which is
often conservative), design modifications to the AOV or power supply system may
not be necessary.

4.3 AOV Capability Requirements


4.3.1 Functional Requirements
Functional requirements for an AOV are determined by conducting a review to identify
all functions (open, close, or remain closed) that may be required under normal, testing,
and emergency operation of the plant.
Some scenarios and functions may be readily apparent, however, some may be hidden
in less obvious sections or documents.
Example: A normally open valve on the HPCI Steam Supply Line condensing pot drain
line may not be required to close to support the HPCI systems safety function of
supplying high pressure water for reactor makeup and flooding. The closing of this
valve is not an active safety function from a HPCI system function standpoint.
However, the drain line may lead from the HPCI room (in the Reactor Building) to the
main condenser (in the Turbine Building). Failure of the valve to close would allow a
path from the reactor through the steam supply line and the drain line to the condenser,
thereby bypassing secondary containment. Therefore, this HPCI system valve does not
have an active close safety function to support HPCI operation, but does have an active
close safety function to support secondary containment integrity.
The overall function of the AOV can be discussed to provide a synopsis of the
operational requirements for the AOV. This should also include a discussion of any
interlocks, permissives, or controls associated with the AOV. Additionally, the
following general information should be documented as part of the functional review:
x

Type of Valve (Gate, Globe, Butterfly, etc.)

Valve Noun Name (i.e., as stated in procedures)

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x

Normal Valve Position

Valve Fail Position upon Loss of Air or Power

Valve Size

Valve pressure class

Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID) Number and Revision

Isometric Drawing Number and Revision

Each operating scenario for the AOV should be documented. This documentation
includes:
x

Valve stroke direction (open to close, close to open, unseating scenario (if
applicable)),

Scenario basis (normal, design basis, or beyond design basis operation) as


applicable,

A detailed scenario description (initial system conditions/alignment, initiating


actions, and resultant system operation/configuration),

Identification and basis of upstream and downstream pressure sources.

4.3.2 Stroke Time Requirements


For each of the active functions (open or close) identified as part of the functional
review, the maximum allowable stroke time (if any) should be specified in order to
meet system functional requirements. Stroke time requirements can be determined
through a review of plant design basis documentation and plant technical
specifications.
A minimum allowable stroke time should also be specified to avoid system pressure
surges (water hammer).
As a rule of thumb, approximately one second for every 200 feet of pipe can be used to
determine a minimum closing time. This rule is based on a pressure wave flowing in
steel pipe. Reference 10.2 provides detailed screening criteria to determine if pressure
surges (water hammer) are a concern for a particular system configuration and stroke
time.

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4.3.3 Failure Modes


In many cases, the AOV is required to perform its desired function on the basis of air
supply failure, control voltage failure and/or control signal failure. The failure mode
for an AOV may be fail closed or fail open. The failure mode should be identified for
each of the possible failures if applicable.

4.3.4 Determination of Limiting Operating Conditions


The limiting operating conditions review for an AOV includes identifying the system
conditions (line pressures, differential pressure, fluid media, fluid temperature, fluid
flow) under which the AOV is required to function. For conservatism, in most cases the
maximum expected differential pressure (MEDP) across the valve should be identified.
The valve design should be reviewed to determine what impact the differential
pressure (i.e., upstream and downstream line pressures) has on the required thrust or
torque for the valve. In some instances, maximizing the differential pressure does not
produce the most limiting required thrust or torque. Consideration should be made of
applicable relief valve setpoints and calculated maximum credible pressures based on
system conditions.
Each valves operating scenarios should be reviewed to determine which scenario
represents the worst case operating condition. The goal is to determine which opening
scenario and which closing scenario results in the maximum differential pressure across
the valve. In addition, valves with a safety function to remain closed require review to
determine if there is an unseating concern. This is due to the fact that AOVs do not
have a self locking mechanism and may be forced open by an increase in system
pressure.
The limiting scenario may be readily apparent for some valves or specific stroke
directions. For these cases, the MEDP should be determined and documented for that
specific scenario only. However, for those valves for which it is not readily apparent
which scenario represents the worst case operating conditions, the differential pressure
for each scenario should be calculated and the worst case then documented in the
calculation. Valves that have scenarios which have equal MEDPs but unequal line
pressures, flow rates, or temperatures should use the scenario that produces the most
limiting value when used in determining the required operating loads for the valve
design in question.
Care must be taken when documenting the basis for selecting upstream and
downstream pressure sources. Valve type and orientation, and the effects of line
pressures on the required operating loads should be considered. This selection process
may involve the assumption of a single active failure to provide the basis for the
conservative values. For example, parallel flow path valves that are required to be
opened procedurally prior to opening the subject valve may be assumed closed.
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The following steps can be used to determine the limiting operating conditions:
1. Determine and document the direction of differential pressure and flow (e.g. over or
under disc for globe valves, shaft upstream or downstream for butterfly valves)
2. Determine and document the AOV elevation in feet. Note that upstream and
downstream pressures are corrected for elevation differences. These differences
may be insignificant for valves in systems where the process fluid is steam or gas.
3. Determine the type of fluid that flows through the valve (i.e. water, steam, gas, twophase flow). Additionally, the minimum and maximum fluid temperatures and
associated densities should be documented. (Note that the phase can change from
water to steam or a two-phase mixture for AOVs whose applications include
isolation of high energy lines following a postulated pipe rupture.)
4. Determine the maximum upstream pressure for the scenario, elevation, and source
(tank level drawings, pump curves, test data, relief valve set pressure, orifice data,
procedural trip/alarm set points, etc.).
5. Determine the minimum downstream pressure for the scenario, elevation, and
source (tank level drawings, sink elevations, tank pressures, procedural trip/alarm
set points)
6. Evaluate and document the potential for higher differential pressures as a result of
heat-up of the process media after closure of a valve.
7. Once the pressure inputs are determined for the specific scenario, the pressures
upstream and downstream of the valve can be determined. First the upstream and
downstream source pressures are corrected for elevation head to obtain the
pressures at the valve. The MEDP is then calculated by subtracting the downstream
pressure from the upstream pressure.
8. The maximum flow rate that the AOV can be subjected to should be documented by
reviewing the design requirements of the system, which may include reviewing
existing analyses. The maximum flow rate is needed to calculate hydrodynamic
torque for quarter turn valves and when implementing the Performance Prediction
Methodology (PPM) for gate valves. The system design flow rate can be used as the
design condition for non-safety-related AOVs and for safety-related AOVs that are
not required for isolating line breaks. For safety-related AOVs whose application
includes isolation of a line break, the design condition should be the flow rate
through the ruptured line.
The following should be considered when performing MEDP calculations:

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x

This document uses the expression "worst case operating scenario" to describe the
set of operating parameters that yield the worst case calculated MEDP.

Upstream and downstream are defined by direction of flow during the scenario
under consideration.

Potential leakage of downstream check valve(s) should be evaluated for impact on


the downstream pressure for determining the maximum MEDP.

Piping frictional losses are not normally considered in the calculation of MEDP. In
most cases the DP across the valve is a maximum at the moment when the valve is
either seating or unseating. At this time the flow in the line that contains the valve is
zero, which makes the line losses zero. Note that momentum effects are also not
considered in the calculation of MEDP. The momentum effect is a transient and
therefore does not need to be considered since the air actuator output is
continuously applied.

Tolerances and accumulation (if necessary) on relief valve setpoints and level
setpoints.

The documents and references to be used to determine the MEDP and system
conditions for a scenario include (as applicable) but are not limited to the following:
x

Isometric Drawings

Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&ID)

Pump Curves

UFSAR/Technical Specifications

System Normal/Abnormal/Emergency Operating Procedures

Alarm/Equipment Set Point List/Database

System Design Basis Documents

Tank Drawings and Orifice Data

Component Database Information

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4.3.5 Allowable Leakage Rate


Two leakage paths through a closed valve are considered when establishing an
allowable leakage rate, leakage through the valve (between the valve seat and disc) and
leakage through the stem packing. The allowable leakage rate is dependent upon
system operating requirements and limitations. It is important to realize that all valves
leak at some level (whether in terms of gallons per minute or 10-9 cc/hr). The leakage
requirements may have a significant effect on the actuator output, valve seat, and
packing materials which will impact actuator size, total valve assembly cost, and
maintenance frequency.
4.3.5.1 Non-safety-Related AOVs
For a non-safety-related AOV, a typical allowable leakage rate is 10 cc/hr/in of nominal
valve size for leakage between the valve seat and disc (Reference ANSI B16.104 / FCI
70-2 for leakage class identifications). Normally, no packing leakage rate is specified
because the leakage is assumed to be small in comparison to the leakage between the
seat and disc. Although packing leakage can be greater than seat leakage, it is normally
detectable and correctable without valve disassembly.
4.3.5.2 Safety-Related AOVs
A safety-related AOV may have multiple functions. For example, a "containment
isolation valve" may also be used for isolation during maintenance of other components
or isolation of a system during a postulated pipe break downstream of the valve, as well
as for containment isolation in the event of a line break upstream of the valve.
The operating conditions (e.g., system pressure, temperature, and differential pressure)
may affect the valve leakage characteristics. Valves that are leak tight at high
differential pressures (e.g., 1250 psi in a BWR and 2500 psi in a PWR) may not
necessarily be leak tight at low differential pressures (e.g., 20-40 psi). Typically, gate
valves and globe valves (flow over the seat) are designed to be self-sealing at high
differential pressures. In a self-sealing design, the differential pressure across the disc
pushes the disc hard enough against the seat to create a seal. At low differential
pressures, an additional sealing load may be necessary to keep the disc tight against the
seat. This sealing load must be provided by the stem and actuator.
The manner in which a valve is leak-tested in situ may also affect the leakage
characteristics. For example, AOVs used for containment isolation are leak-tested in
accordance with 10 CFR 50, Appendix J (Reference 10.11) to confirm containment and
penetration integrity. The pipe volume between two isolation valves is pressurized
with air and the leakage is determined by the rate at which the pressure decays in the
pipe volume. The total leakage is measured in these tests. The number and location of
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leakage paths depend on the test method. If the packing is not pressurized, the
measured leakage is through the seat or seats and pipe joints. Some system
configurations require pressurizing the packing in at least one valve being tested. In
these instances, the measured leakage includes leakage through the packing.
The allowable leakage rate should be specified for each of the important multiple
functions of an AOV. A typical allowable leakage rate for a nuclear quality,
safety-related valve is 2 cc/hr/in of nominal pipe size (Reference 10.11). This leakage
specification is applicable to newly manufactured valves and, if satisfied, should ensure
system leakage rate limitations will not be exceeded. Actual leakage will increase with
wear of the valve, and purchase specification leakage limits may be exceeded during
service. Periodic surveillance is performed to ensure that system leakage limitations are
maintained. Valve maintenance may be required to maintain maximum system leakage
limits.

4.4 Air Supply System Requirements


Operating air pressure ranges are an important and fundamental aspect of the design
process. If the regulator is set below system pressure, then that set point becomes the
most limiting. But for valves with multiple fluid supplies (i.e. backups) or valves that
have no regulator and are receiving full system pressure, the limiting pressures must be
closely analyzed.
A determination of the minimum required stem thrust or torque is required to establish
the minimum operating air pressure setting of the AOV.
The design parameters of the air supply system that should be considered include:
x

Maximum air system pressure and tolerance

Minimum air system pressure and tolerance

Gas filtration level

Moisture content

Lubrication

Regulator set point, tolerance and drift

Pressure rating of components

Safety classification

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x

Redundancy or susceptibility to single failure

4.5 External Operating Environment


External operating environmental parameters that affect the selection of the valve and
actuator are:
x

Seismic design requirements

AOV location and ambient conditions (pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation,


and presence of corrosive products)

Inside containment

Outside containment

Vibration (amplitude and frequency) of piping system due to fluid and mechanical
excitation during system operation.

External loads applied to the AOV as a result of the design basis event (e.g., pipe
reaction due to line breaks).

These parameters can be determined from a review of plant specific system drawings
and design documents.
For safety-related AOVs that are required to operate during a design basis event (DBE),
the ambient conditions may include high pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation,
and a harsh chemical environment.
Note: Regulators and diaphragm and cylinder actuators are often affected by the
exhaust or local environmental atmospheric pressure. The effect of a rising containment
pressure on actuator output thrust/torque and stroke time should be evaluated.
Temperature effects on elastomers should be addressed by each plants equipment
qualification program.
Active controls such as the SOV(s) and positioner may need to be environmentally
qualified (EQ) for these conditions in accordance with IEEE Std 382-1985 (Reference
10.12) or similar requirements. This qualification testing should include thermal aging,
ambient pressurization, radiation aging, vibration aging, seismic simulation, DBE
radiation exposure (high radiation), and DBE environmental (harsh environment) tests.
IEEE Std 382-1985 requirements for vibration aging are not intended to be
representative of actual plant operating conditions. The purpose of the vibration aging
testing is to accumulate operating time with a reasonable amount of vibration prior to
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the DBE tests. If an AOV/SOV is installed in a system with high vibration, the expected
vibration should be compared to IEEE Std 382-1985 requirements. If they are
significantly different, steps should be taken to reduce the system vibration or to check
with the valve vendor to evaluate the suitability of the equipment for the application.
In summary, there is a wide range of potential operating environments. Examples
include:
I.

Inside containment AOVs:

II.

A.

Safety-related and EQ (high radiation and harsh environments)

B.

Safety-related and Not EQ

C.

Non-safety-related

Outside containment AOVs:


A.

Safety-related and EQ (high radiation and harsh environment )

B.

Safety-related and not EQ

C.

Non-safety-related

The extent of the environmental qualification for a given AOV should be consistent
with its application.

4.6 AOV Orientation


The following standard orientation should be used whenever possible:
x

Horizontal pipe

Vertically upward valve stem (operator located above valve) - the stem of a Ypattern globe valve should be in the vertical plane

Vertical SOV and positioner

Flow direction through the valve in accordance with the manufacturers


recommendation and actuator sizing methodology assumptions

If the standard AOV/SOV and/or positioner orientation is not used, the reason for not
selecting this orientation (e.g., plant space limitation, orientation of piping) should be
documented and the valve vendor should be consulted about nonstandard valve
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orientation. Any special precautions that need to be taken into account in the design,
operation, testing, and maintenance should be appropriately documented. Potential
problems with a nonstandard orientation include:
x

If an AOV was qualified in accordance with ANSI B16.41 (Reference 10.13) in the
standard orientation, this functional qualification may not be applicable in a
nonstandard orientation.

Special rigging and fixtures may be required to handle and position the AOV
components during installation and maintenance. For example, it is more difficult
to lap the valve seats if the valve stem is oriented in any position other than vertical.

Accelerated wear of the valve and actuator internals may occur. For example, if a
valve is oriented such that the stem movement is horizontal and the disc guide is not
designed to support the disc in the horizontal position, there may be greater than
expected friction between the disc and the guide. This can increase the stem thrust
requirements, increase the load on the actuator, accelerate operator and valve wear,
and complicate the setting of the AOV control and protection devices.

Seat leakage requirements may be more difficult to meet if the stem is not vertical.
The valve designer normally assumes a vertical stem with the disc not supported by
the disc guides.

If the valve is located upside down, radioactive materials may accumulate in the
valve bonnet and packing, thus increasing the potential radiation exposure to plant
personnel.

Stem packing leakage of borated water (or other process fluid), which can cause
corrosion of the actuator parts, may be higher for non-vertical installations.

The SOV may be more susceptible to mechanical binding (lock-up) if not vertical.

These problems can be avoided by using the standard orientation.

4.7 AOV Accessibility


Satisfactory access for maintenance, testing, and manual operation of the AOV should
be confirmed. Use piping isometrics, plant arrangement drawings, valve and actuator
outline drawings, and an in-plant walkdowns to evaluate the space requirements for:
x

AOV installation/removal

Stem travel and operating clearances (e.g. some valve cylinder and diaphragm
casing move during actuation)
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x

Functional setup and operability testing

Installation of diagnostic (valve signature) equipment for AOV set-up and baseline
testing (including access to pressure sources, position indication, and limit switches)

AOV manual operation (when applicable)

Actuator removal and set-up

Limit switch and electrical compartment cover removal

Operator partial disassembly (e.g. diaphragm and seal replacements)

Valve disassembly

Relapping seats and repacking the valve

The installation should be reviewed to ensure that items such as seismic supports or
cable trays do not interfere with operation of or access to an AOV.

4.8 Industry Technical Issues


There are several industry issues that may have direct impact on the evaluation of
AOVs. These issues include:
Effective Diaphragm Area: The development of force in a spring opposed diaphragm
actuator for the non spring stroke is produced by air pressure applied over the actuator
diaphragm area. The diaphragms effective area is a primary input in determining the
output capability of this type of actuator. Additionally, traditional setup of the actuators
uses this area to set the spring preload. Testing performed by various groups and using
a variety of methods show that the effective diaphragm area (i.e., that area which
pressure acts upon) varies over the stroke of the actuator and varies with the pressure
supplied for certain diaphragm designs. This changing area can affect the actuator
capability evaluation. Additionally, some original equipment manufacturers (OEMs)
published EDAs have been found to be non conservative (Ref. 10.16, LaSalle County
Station Units 1 and 2, 10CFR Part 21 Notification 9605 dated October 4, 1996).
Conversely, the affect of EDAs which are too conservative (i.e., bounding), can cause
improper setup (e.g., too high bench set or exceeding structural limit).
Spring Relaxation: The output force of the spring return (fail safe stroke in most cases)
for an air actuator is dependent upon the amount of stored energy in the spring.
Actuator sizing for air actuators requires the establishment of required set points for
spring preload and air pressure requirements to move the actuator in the non-spring
direction. Relaxation (change in spring rate over time under compression) in the spring
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rate and/or relaxation in the spring length, if not accounted for, can affect the available
force. If adjustments are made for these items, they can also impact the spring safe load
margin. Most OEMs, when asked about spring rate and length relaxation, had not
experienced these types of problems or had not had indications from field reports that
these issues were prevalent. The cause of relaxation could be excessive or improper
usage of the spring application. (i.e., number of cycles, percent of life at fully
compressed position, valve operation outside of normal design loading conditions).
There has been some work done by the spring manufacturers that indicates that springs
will relax under static loading and is dependent upon the stress, material, and duration
of loading.
Butterfly Valve Bearing Coefficient of Friction: The EPRI Performance Prediction
Methodology (Ref. 10.4) data is based upon normal metallic bearing coefficients of 0.25
for clean fluid and a dissimilar metal coupling and 0.6 for unclean water service or
similar metal couplings i.e. stainless steel against stainless steel. Many quarter turn
valves in nuclear service employ various types of bearing material combinations and
many use non-metallic materials which are known for low bearing coefficients of
friction and other good bearing properties. This friction (same is true for metallic
bearings) is generated by the rubbing of two cylindrical surfaces rotating relative to
each other which is a different load case than represented by linearly actuated rising
stem valves which have two flat surfaces rubbing along a plane and translating in a
linear motion. Additionally, the non-metallic materials have coefficients of friction
which are load dependent and often become more efficient at higher load levels and at
higher temperatures. The limited industry knowledge of this type of friction and the
effects of the different materials, operating temperatures and operating fluids, and the
potential for wear induced removal of the non-metallic coating on the metal base
material, forces the use of higher bounding valves for conservative results. The use of
higher required actuating force will likely increase the actuator size and can reduce the
control range and sensitivity of positioners and controllers. The correct selection of this
coefficient is important to quarter turn actuator sizing and design calculations as the
bearing friction torque is often the most influential torque requirement in many valve
applications. Additional data are needed to provide validated bearing friction
coefficients for non-metallic bearing materials.
Globe Valve Disc Guide-to-Body Friction (Side Loading): Side loading is an
additional thrust requirement that may be present with certain types of globe valves
caused by plug to body/cage friction. At this point, no validated prediction techniques
exist for evaluating the magnitude of this load. The EPRI PPM (Ref. 10.6) does contain a
correlation for predicting side loading based on one resource for non-caged balanced
globe valves and limited validation testing. However, this correlation may be overly
conservative for balanced caged valves. Most OEMs do not account for this type of
load in their actuator sizing methods. Lack of sufficient quality test data (dynamic
testing with thrust measurement by position and measurement of upstream and
downstream pressure) for balanced and pilot operated globe valves makes correlation
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of a prediction method for side loading difficult at this point. EPRI is planning
evaluation of available industry data and additional testing to provide a basis for
refinement of the side loading assumptions in the PPM balanced globe valve model.
Mid-position loads may be greater than fully seated loads: Dynamic loads may peak
at stroke positions other than the fully seated position due to flow-induced effects or
bernoulli effects. In addition, for gate valves, there can be significant stem motion on
opening prior to flow establishment and resulting DP reduction. This can result in
reduced actuator capability at the flow initiation point relative to the fully seated
position. The exact stroke location and/or the magnitude of these effects may vary
based on design and/or system conditions. Because the actuator output changes over
the stroke for some air actuator designs, the actuator output thrust may actually be
lower during mid-position thereby reducing the available margin.

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5
DETERMINING REQUIRED THRUST OR TORQUE

The purposes of this section of the Evaluation Guide are to:

Discuss inputs necessary for determining required thrust or torque,

Present methods and equations for determining required thrust and torque for airoperated gate, globe, butterfly and ball valves, and

Provide worksheets for performing required thrust and torque calculations.

This section presents prediction techniques used to establish the thrust or torque
requirements for a particular valve. In some cases, the use of testing can remove
analytical conservatisms and validate an AOVs performance. Refer to Section 9 for
more information.
The results of this section will be used in conjunction with the actuator output
capability from Section 6 to evaluate margin in Section 8. Calculation worksheets for
the equations presented in this section are provided in Appendix A.

5.1 Required Input Information


Information required to calculate required thrust or torque for air-operated globe valves
can generally be determined from existing plant documentation or vendor
catalogues/manuals. For some evaluations, specifically those involving use of the EPRI
MOV Performance Prediction Methodology (PPM) for gate and butterfly valves,
additional valve internals information will need to be obtained from the valve
manufacturer. Alternatively, valve dimensions can be determined by measurement of
the valves or spare parts.

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5.2 Variables
This section lists and describes the variables used for each valve type. The following
variables are used in this Guide for evaluating globe valves.
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5-2

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

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5-3

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

#RRNKECDKNKV[
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5-4

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

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EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

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EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.3 Definitions
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5-7

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.4 Globe Valves


This Guide provides methods to predict the required thrust to open or close the
following globe valve types.

Unbalanced disc globe valves (Section 5.4.1)

Balanced disc globe valves (Section 5.4.2)

Balanced disc globe valves with pilot disc (Section 5.4.3)

Double seat globe valves (Section 5.4.4)

Three-way globe valves (Section 5.4.5)

Equations in this Guide cover the following thrust components.

Disc and stem weight (FDS),

Packing load (FP),

Upper seal friction load (FUS),

Stem rejection load (FSR),

Disc-to-body/cage friction load (FDF),

DP load (FDP),

Sealing load (FSL) and

Pilot spring force (FSF)

Note that there is no torque reaction load for AOVs because the actuator does not
transmit torque to the valve disc.
Globe valve required thrusts are generally proportional to the DP across the valve. As a
result, the maximum required thrust for a globe valve will typically occur at the fully
seated position if the DP force opposes disc motion. If the DP force assists disc motion,
the maximum required thrust might occur at the fully open position. Since for many air
actuators, the available thrust from the actuator varies as the valve strokes (e.g., due to a
spring in the actuator), this guide provides equations for required thrust at the fully
open and fully closed positions.

5-8

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

The sections below discuss the thrust components as they apply to each of the globe
valve types. Note that positive thrusts values must be overcome by the actuator
(required thrusts), and negative thrust values assist disc motion.

5.4.1 Unbalanced Disc Globe Valves


5.4.1.1 Total Required Thrust
5.4.1.1.1 Opening Stroke

FO = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP

(5.1a)

5.4.1.1.2 Closing Stroke

FC = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP + FSL

(5.1b)

See Figure 5-1 for a free body diagram of the closing stroke of an uncaged unbalanced
globe valve.
FC

FP

FSR
FDS

FSL

FSL
FDP

Figure 5-1
Free Body Diagram of an Unbalanced Globe Valve

5.4.1.2 Disc and Stem Weight


The stem thrust due to disc and stem weight is calculated as follows.
FDS = (WDS )(cos )

(5.2)

FDS calculated from this equation can be positive or negative. The value calculated
should be multiplied by +1 or 1, as shown in the table below.
5-9

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

1RGPKPI
%NQUKPI

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This equation is applicable at both the fully open and fully closed positions.
5.4.1.3 Packing Load
Packing load (FP) should be determined from static test data. If test data is not available,
values for packing load can be obtained from the valve or packing manufacturer.
Appendix C can also be used to determine packing load if none of the above are
available.
Since packing friction always opposes disc motion, FP is always positive. FP is
applicable at both the fully open and fully closed positions.
5.4.1.4 Upper Seal Friction Load
Upper seal friction load (FUS) is not applicable to unbalanced disc globe valves.
5.4.1.5 Stem Rejection Load
The stem thrust due to stem rejection load is calculated as follows.

FSR = (PB ) d S2
4

( )

(5.3)

At the fully closed position, the bonnet pressure, PB, is determined as follows.
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272 K &2
272

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272
272 K &2

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

The table above covers the conditions that apply the most resistance (or least assistance)
to the stem when the valve is fully open. If the specific system conditions at the valve
when it is fully open are known, a less conservative result may be obtained. For
example, if the bonnet pressure with the valve fully open is known, that pressure can be
used to calculate stem rejection load, rather than the value in the table above.
The sign for FSR is as shown in the table below.
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This equation is applicable to globe valves that have a stem that penetrates the valve
pressure boundary. For other designs (e.g., valves with a diaphragm seal), the valve
manufacturer should be consulted to determine an appropriate method for determining
stem rejection load.
5.4.1.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load
Disc-to-body/cage friction covers friction loads between the disc and the body guides,
stem bearing or cage, as applicable.
For unbalanced disc globe valves in incompressible flow applications (temperatures up
to 150F), disc-to-body friction load is considered negligible and is set to zero. Test data
from the EPRI MOV Program provided justification for this modeling approach.
For unbalanced disc globe valves in compressible flow applications or with
temperatures greater than 150F, disc-to-body friction load is also set to zero. However,
an additional factor is included in the DP load (see section below) for some globe valves
and flow conditions, to account for the potential for disc-to-body/cage friction load.
Data from the EPRI MOV Program indicated that thrust requirements for unbalanced
disc globe valves can be higher for compressible flow applications. Therefore, use of
this Guide to evaluate unbalanced disc globe valve applications with temperatures
greater than 150F should be considered best available information.
5.4.1.7 DP Load
For unbalanced disc globe valves, the stem thrust due to DP load is essentially zero at
the fully open position since there is negligible DP across the valve disc.
The stem thrust due to DP load at the fully closed position is calculated as follows.
5-11

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque


FDP = (DP ) d 2DP
4

( )

(5.4)

Reference 10.2 provides guidance for selecting dDP, i.e., whether the seat area or guide
area should be used. Guide-based means that for a portion of the valve stroke (prior to
seating), the DP across the globe is acting over the projected guide area. Seat-based
means that the DP is acting over the seat area for the entire stroke. Determination of
whether a valve is seat-based or guide-based is the responsibility of the user. This
parameter is determined by analyzing the valve assembly drawing. Reference 10.2
(Appendix D) provides guidance for determining whether a particular globe valve is
guide-based or seat-based. If, after applying the guidance in Reference 10.2, there is any
doubt as to whether the globe valve under evaluation is guide-based or seat-based,
guide-based must be specified. The resulting prediction will be conservative, relative to
a seat-based prediction. When the seat area is used, the maximum seating surface
diameter (rather than the mean seat diameter) should be used.
The sign for FDP is as shown in the table below.
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(NQY WPFGT 
(NQY QXGT 
(NQY WPFGT

Equation 5.4 is applicable to single disc unbalanced disc globe valves in incompressible
flow applications. The NRC SE for the EPRI MOV Program (Reference 10.7) states that
the PPM is justified for use with globe valves with water at less than 150F. This
applicability range is based on testing of unbalanced disc globe valves in the EPRI MOV
Program. Only one globe valve was tested at elevated temperature. This valve was an
unbalanced disc, Y-pattern Rockwell-Edward globe valve tested under two-phase
flashing water conditions with flow underseat. The measured result for this test was
about 1.48 (Reference EPRI TR103674-V3P3). This component of thrust was 48% greater
than predicted (multiplied by 1.48). The most probable cause of the high thrust
requirement is that flashing of the fluid around the valve disc resulted in pressure
distributions that produced significant disc side loading. Disc-to-body friction then
caused the increased thrust requirements.
For globe valves with a design similar to the EPRI test valve and in applications similar
to the EPRI valve test conditions, applying the results of the EPRI test is considered to
be the best choice for determining thrust requirements. The following approach should
be used in applying this equation for unbalanced disc globe valve applications that
have a temperature of more than 150F or a fluid medium that is compressible (e.g., air,
steam or flashing water).
5-12

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

1. Use this equation multiplied by a factor of 1.5 based on the EPRI test result, for
valves that meet all of the following criteria.
- Valve is Y-pattern globe,
- disc is not guided within a cage,
- flow is opposing disc motion, and
- fluid is two-phase flashing water
This factor is applied for closing strokes with flow underseat and opening strokes
with flow overseat since the DP load resists disc motion. Because of the similarity to
the EPRI test valve and test conditions, this prediction is considered best available
information.
For strokes where the DP load assists disc motion (closing strokes with flow
overseat and opening strokes with flow underseat), the peak thrust occurs at the
fully open position, where the DP and DP load are essentially zero. For these strokes, the
DP load is not included in the required stem thrust, and these predictions are considered valid
(rather than best available information).
2. For other designs (e.g. T-Pattern globe valves), this equation should be used with no
factor applied (1.0). Based on engineering judgment, the disc side loading for other
designs is not as severe as for the EPRI test valve. Therefore, the EPRI test results
are not applied. Since the PPM methodology has not been formally approved by the
NRC above 150 F, this equation is considered best available information if the DP
load resists disc motion. As discussed above, if the DP load assists disc motion, the
DP load is not included in the required stem thrust, and the results are considered
valid.
5.4.1.8 Sealing Load (Closing Only)
Sealing load is only applicable for closing strokes, and the stem thrust due to sealing
load is zero at the fully open position. The stem thrust due to sealing load can be
calculated by the method listed below; however, there are alternate methods available.
FSL = (SSEAT * A SEAT )(sin + S cos )

(5.5)

2
2
A SEAT = OD SEAT
ID SEAT
4

(5.6)

Where:

Since sealing load always opposes disc motion, FSL is always positive. Typical values for
SSEAT are shown below (Reference 10.1).
5-13

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

2TGUUWTG VQ DG 5GCNGF
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If the width of the valve seat is not known, a width of 1/16 inch should be assumed.
Values of S for Stellite seats are given in Section 5.5.2.

5.4.2 Balanced Disc Globe Valves


5.4.2.1 Total Required Thrust
5.4.2.1.1 Opening Stroke

FO = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP

(5.7a)

5.4.2.1.2 Closing Stroke

FC = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP + FSL

(5.7b)

See Figure 5-2 for a free body diagram of the closing stroke of a balanced disc globe
valve.
FC

FP
F SR

FD F

FD F
FU S

FU S
FD S

FSL

FSL
FD P (Most Cases)

Figure 5-2
Free Body Diagram of a Balanced Globe Valve

5-14

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.4.2.2 Disc and Stem Weight


The stem thrust due to disc and stem weight is calculated as follows.
FDS = (WDS )(cos )

(5.8)

FDS calculated from this equation can be positive or negative. The value calculated
should be multiplied by +1 or 1, as shown in the table below.
5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

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This equation is applicable at both the fully open and fully closed positions.
5.4.2.3 Packing Load
Packing load (FP) should be determined from static test data. If test data is not available,
values for packing load can be obtained from the valve or packing manufacturer.
Appendix C can also be used to determine packing load if none of the above are
available.
Since packing friction always opposes disc motion, FP is always positive. FP is
applicable at both the fully open and fully closed positions.
5.4.2.4 Upper Seal Friction Load
Upper seal friction load (FUS) should be determined from static test data. Note that static
test data typically yields information on the sum of the packing load and upper seal
friction load. If test data is not available, values for this load may be obtained from the
valve manufacturer.
Since upper seal friction load always opposes disc motion, FUS is always positive. FUS is
applicable at both the fully open and fully closed positions.
5.4.2.5 Stem Rejection Load
The stem thrust due to stem rejection load is calculated as follows.

FSR = (PB ) d S2
4

( )

(5.9)
5-15

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

At the fully closed position, the bonnet pressure, PB, is determined as follows.
(NQY &KTGEVKQP

7PFGTUGCV
1XGTUGCV

&KTGEV #EVKPI

72

72

&2

4GXGTUG #EVKPI

72

72

&2

At the fully open position, the bonnet pressure is determined as follows.


5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

1RGPKPI
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&KTGEV #EVKPI

72

&2

72

4GXGTUG #EVKPI

72

72

&2

The table above covers the conditions that apply the most resistance (or least assistance)
to the stem when the valve is fully open. If the specific system conditions at the valve
when it is fully open are known, a less conservative result may be obtained. For
example, if the bonnet pressure with the valve fully open is known, that pressure can be
used to calculate stem rejection load, rather than the value in the table above.
The sign for FSR is as shown in the table below.
5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

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&KTGEV #EVKPI

4GXGTUG #EVKPI

This equation is applicable to globe valves that have a stem that penetrates the valve
pressure boundary. For other designs (e.g., valves with a diaphragm seal), the valve
manufacturer should be consulted to determine an appropriate method for determining
stem rejection load.
5.4.2.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load
Disc-to-body/cage friction covers friction loads between the disc and the body guides,
stem bearing or cage, as applicable. Note that the sign of this term is always positive
since it always opposes disc motion.
For balanced disc globe valves, the stem thrust due to disc-to-body/cage friction load is
essentially zero at the fully open position since there is negligible DP across the valve
disc.
5-16

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

The stem thrust due to disc-to-body/cage friction load at the fully closed position is
calculated as follows (from Reference 10.6).

FDF = ( 0.66)(G )(DP ) d G2


4

( )



Where,
G = 0.5039*(H2/dG) for flow overseat, and
G = 1.25*(H2/dG) for flow underseat
The side load factor, G, was developed from testing one Y-pattern balanced disc globe
valve with both overseat and underseat flow and is applicable for H2/dG ratios less
than or equal to 0.25. Accordingly, there is a technical basis tied to test data for
applying this correlation to both overseat and underseat flow. However, data from
testing of only one balanced disc globe valve was available for validation of the model
in the EPRI MOV Program. Since this valve was only tested with flow underseat, the
applicability of this equation is limited to valves with flow underseat. If the equation is
used for overseat flow, the results should be considered best available information.
As discussed above, data from the EPRI MOV Program has shown that thrust
requirements for unbalanced disc globe valves are higher for compressible flow. There
is no applicable data to determine if the disc guide/body friction load for balanced disc
globe valves is higher for compressible flow applications. If this equation is used for
compressible flow applications, the results should be considered best available
information.
This equation is based on testing of an un-caged Y-pattern globe valve. This equation is
judged to be bounding for other types of globe valves. However, some balanced disc
designs have features that are intended to minimize the disc side loading, for example,
a cage around the disc. As a result, this equation may provide an excessively
conservative prediction of disc-to-body/cage friction load. For some designs (e.g.,
valves that are cage-guided), users may choose to neglect disc-to-body/cage friction
loads until test data is available to more accurately predict this load. If the user chooses
to neglect side loading, the resulting prediction must be considered best available
rather than a design standard.
5.4.2.7 DP Load
For balanced disc globe valves, the stem thrust due to DP load is essentially zero at the
fully open position since there is negligible DP across the valve disc.

5-17

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

The stem thrust due to DP load at the fully closed position is calculated as follows:
FDP = (DP )(A I )

(5.11)

The imbalance area, AI, should be obtained from the valve manufacturer or from
vendor catalogues. For balanced disc valves, the pressure above the disc is the same as
the pressure below the disc. Therefore, imbalance DP loads result from differences in
the sealing areas at the top and bottom of the disc. The table below shows the direction
of the imbalance load for different flow configurations and relative sealing areas. Note
that in this Guide, the lower seal is the disc-to-body seat (normally Stellite), and the
upper seal is the sliding seal on the disc.
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For most balanced disc designs, the upper seal area is greater than the lower seal area
(seat area). In this case, the sign for FDP is as shown in the table below.
5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

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(NQY QXGT
(NQY WPFGT 

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(NQY WPFGT
(NQY QXGT
(NQY WPFGT 

If the lower seal area is greater than the upper seal area, the sign for FDP is opposite of
that shown in the table above.
This equation is applicable to all balanced disc globe valves.
Use of the actual imbalance area represents a change from the approved PPM balanced
globe valve methodology. Accordingly, the results of the balanced globe valve
methodology described in this Guide must be considered best available information.
5.4.2.8 Sealing Load (Closing Only)
Sealing load is only applicable for closing strokes, and the stem thrust due to sealing
load is zero at the fully open position. The stem thrust due to sealing load is calculated
as follows.

5-18

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

FSL = (SSEAT * A SEAT )(sin + S cos )

(5.12)

2
2
A SEAT = OD SEAT
ID SEAT
4

(5.13)

Where:

Since sealing load always opposes disc motion, FSL is always positive. Typical values for
SSEAT are shown below (Reference 10.1).
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If the width of the valve seat is not known, a width of 1/16 inch should be assumed.
Values of S for Stellite seats are given in Section 5.5.2.

5.4.3 Balanced Disc Globe Valves With Pilot Disc


5.4.3.1 Total Required Thrust
5.4.3.1.1 Opening Stroke

FO = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP + FSF

(5.14a)

5.4.3.1.2 Closing Stroke

FC = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP + FSL + FSF

(5.14b)

See Figure 5-3 for a free body diagram of the closing stroke of a balanced disc globe
valve with a pilot disc.

5-19

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque
FC

FSR
FDS

FP
FDF

FDF

FUS

FUS

FSL

FSF

FSL

FDP (Most Cases)

Figure 5-3
Free Body Diagram of a Balanced Globe Valve with Pilot Disc

Two separate evaluations are required for these valves. The first evaluation covers the
main disc, which is a balanced disc valve because the pilot disc is in the open position
when the main disc strokes. The second evaluation covers the pilot disc, which is an
unbalanced disc because the main disc is in the closed position when the pilot disc
strokes. In general, these evaluations are performed as described in this Guide for
balanced and unbalanced disc valves. The sections below discuss any adjustments to
these approaches.
5.4.3.2 Disc and Stem Weight
For the main disc evaluation, the approach described in this Guide for balanced disc valves
should be used. For the pilot disc evaluation, the approach described in this Guide for
unbalanced disc valve should be used, except that the weight should not include the weight of
the main disc, i.e., WS should be used in place of WDS.
5.4.3.3 Packing Load
For the main disc evaluation, the approach described in this Guide for balanced disc
valves should be used. For the pilot disc evaluation, the approach described in this
Guide for unbalanced disc valve should be used.

5-20

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.4.3.4 Upper Seal Friction Load


For the main disc evaluation, the approach described in this Guide for balanced disc
valves should be used. For the pilot disc evaluation, the approach described in this
Guide for unbalanced disc valves should be used.
5.4.3.5 Stem Rejection Load
For the main disc evaluation, the approach described in this Guide for balanced disc
valves should be used. For the pilot disc evaluation, the approach described in this
Guide for unbalanced disc valve should be used, except that the bonnet pressure (PB)
used to calculate stem rejection load should be as follows.

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2
2  &2
72

72

*For valves with a port between the upstream area and the area above the
pilot disc, the larger of PUP and PUP-DP should be used.

This term is applicable for the pilot disc evaluation at the fully closed position and is set
to zero at fully open. These different pressures are used because the pilot disc strokes
after the main disc is closed, and there is typically no DP across the pilot disc.
5.4.3.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load
For the main disc evaluation, the approach described in this Guide for balanced disc
valves should be used. For the pilot disc evaluation, the approach described in this
Guide for unbalanced disc valve should be used.
5.4.3.7 DP Load
For the main disc evaluation, the approach described in this Guide for balanced disc
valves should be used. For the pilot disc evaluation, the approach described in this
Guide for unbalanced disc valves should be used.
5.4.3.8 Sealing Load (Closing Only)
For the main disc evaluation, the approach described in this Guide for balanced disc
valves should be used. For the pilot disc evaluation, the approach described in this
Guide for unbalanced disc valve should be used.
5-21

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.4.3.9 Pilot spring force


This component is not applicable for the main disc evaluation. For the pilot disc
evaluation, there is a spring that tries to keep the pilot disc open; therefore, a stem
thrust component (FSF) equal to the fully seated spring force is added to the predicted
thrust. The sign of FSF is as follows.
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The fully seated spring force can be obtained from the valve manufacturer or
determined from static test data.

5.4.4 Double Seat Globe Valves


5.4.4.1 Total Required Thrust
5.4.4.1.1 Opening Stroke

FO = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP

(5.15a)

5.4.4.1.2 Closing Stroke

FC = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP + FSL

(5.15b)

See Figure 5-4 for a free body diagram of the closing stroke of a double seat globe valve.

5-22

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque
FC

FS R

FP
FSL

FSL
FD P

FD F

FD F

FSL

FSL
FD S

FD F

FD F

Figure 5-4
Free Body Diagram of a Double Seat Globe Valve

5.4.4.2 Disc and Stem Weight


The stem thrust due to disc and stem weight is calculated as follows.
FDS = (WDS )(cos )

(5.16)

FDS calculated from this equation can be positive or negative. The value calculated
should be multiplied by +1 or 1, as shown in the table below.
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4GXGTUG #EVKPI




This equation is applicable at both the fully open and fully closed positions.
5.4.4.3 Packing Load
Packing load (FP) should be determined from static test data. If test data is not available,
values for packing load can be obtained from the valve or packing manufacturer.
Since packing friction always opposes disc motion, FP is always positive. FP is
applicable at both the fully open and fully closed positions.

5-23

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.4.4.4 Upper Seal Friction Load


Upper seal friction load (FUS) is not applicable to double seat globe valves.
5.4.4.5 Stem Rejection Load
The stem thrust due to stem rejection load is calculated as follows.

FSR = (PB ) d S2
4

( )

(5.17)

At the fully closed position, the bonnet pressure, PB, is determined as follows.
(NQY &KTGEVKQP

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72

&2

72

At the fully open position, the bonnet pressure is determined as follows.


5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

1RGPKPI
%NQUKPI

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72

&2

72

4GXGTUG #EVKPI

72

72

&2

The table above covers the conditions that apply the most resistance (or least assistance)
to the stem when the valve is fully open. If the specific system conditions at the valve
when it is fully open are known, a less conservative result may be obtained. For
example, if the bonnet pressure with the valve fully open is known, that pressure can be
used to calculate stem rejection load, rather than the value in the table above.
The sign for FSR is as shown in the table below.
5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

1RGPKPI
%NQUKPI

&KTGEV #EVKPI

4GXGTUG #EVKPI

This equation is applicable to globe valves that have a stem that penetrates the valve
pressure boundary. For other designs (e.g., valves with a diaphragm seal), the valve
manufacturer should be consulted to determine an appropriate method for determining
stem rejection load.
5-24

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.4.4.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load


Disc-to-body/cage friction covers friction loads between the disc and the body guides,
stem bearing or cage, as applicable. Note that the sign of this term is always positive
since it always opposes disc motion.
For double seat globe valves, the stem thrust due to disc-to-body friction load is
essentially zero at the fully open position since there is negligible DP across the valve
disc.
The stem thrust due to disc-to-body/cage friction load at the fully closed position is
calculated as follows.

FDF = (0.06)(DP ) d 2FOD + d 2P OD


4

(5.18)

This equation is based on engineering judgment and adaptation on the side load
correlation for balanced disc globe valves. At this time, no test data is available to
validate this equation. The results should be considered best available information.
5.4.4.7 DP Load
For double seat globe valves, the stem thrust due to DP load is essentially zero at the
fully open position since there is negligible DP across the valve disc.
The stem thrust due to DP load at the fully closed position is calculated as follows.

FDP = (DP ) d 2FOD d 2P OD
4

(5.19)

The thrust obtained from this equation may be positive or negative, depending on the
relative size of dF-OD and dP-OD. This thrust should be multiplied by +1 or 1, as shown in
the table below.
5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

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2CEMKPI FQYPUVTGCO  2CEMKPI FQYPUVTGCO 


2CEMKPI WRUVTGCO 
2CEMKPI WRUVTGCO 
2CEMKPI FQYPUVTGCO  2CEMKPI FQYPUVTGCO 
2CEMKPI WRUVTGCO 
2CEMKPI WRUVTGCO 

5-25

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.4.4.8 Sealing Load (Closing Only)


Sealing load is only applicable for closing strokes, and the stem thrust due to sealing
load is zero at the fully open position. The stem thrust due to sealing load is calculated
as follows.
FSL = (SSEAT * A SEAT )(sin + S cos )

(5.20)

Where:

[(


A SEAT = d 2F OD d 2F ID + d 2P OD d 2P ID
4

) (

)]



Since sealing load always opposes disc motion, FSL is always positive. Typical values for
SSEAT are shown below (Reference 10.1).
2TGUUWTG VQ DG 5GCNGF
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If the width of the valve seat is not known, a width of 1/16 inch should be assumed.
Values of S for Stellite seats are given in Section 5.5.2.

5.4.5 Three-Way Globe Valves


5.4.5.1 Total Required Thrust
5.4.5.1.1 Opening Stroke
FO = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP

(5.22a)

5.4.5.1.2 Closing Stroke


FC = FDS + FP + FUS + FSR + FDF + FDP + FSL
See Figure 5-5 for a free body diagram of a three way globe valve.

5-26

(5.22b)

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque
FC

FS R

FP

FD S
FSL

FSL
FD P

FDF

FDF

Figure 5-5
Free Body Diagram of a Three Way Globe Valve

The equations presented in this Guide for three-way globe valves are applicable to
designs that have a common port that is in-line with one of the other ports. The port
that is in-line with the common port is designated port 1; the disc that seals port 1 is
designated disc 1. The port that is perpendicular to the common port is designated port
2; the disc that seals port 2 is designated disc 2. Flow through these valves may be
diverging (common port upstream) or converging (common port downstream).
Three-way valves do not have an opening or closing stroke because port 1 is
opened as port 2 is closed, and vice versa. In this Guide, the stroke direction is
considered opening if stem tension is required to stroke the valve and closing if
stem compression is required. The terms direct acting valve and reverse acting
valve are not applicable to three-way globe valves. For either stroke direction
(opening or closing), two evaluations of required thrust are needed one at each
extreme of disc travel. One extreme is designated flow straight through, indicating
that the discs are positioned such that flow is allowed between the common port and
port 1 but not between the common port and port 2. The other extreme is designated
angle flow, indicating that the discs are positioned such that flow is allowed between
the common port and port 2 but not between the common port and port 1.
5.4.5.2 Disc and Stem Weight
The stem thrust due to disc and stem weight is calculated as follows.
FDS = (WDS )(cos )

(5.23)

FDS calculated from this equation can be positive or negative. The value calculated
should be multiplied by +1 or 1, as shown in the table below.
5-27

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

1RGPKPI
%NQUKPI

(CEVQT




This equation is applicable at both the flow straight through and angle flow positions.
5.4.5.3 Packing Load
Packing load (FP) should be determined from static test data. If test data is not available,
values for packing load can be obtained from the valve or packing manufacturer.
Since packing friction always opposes disc motion, FP is always positive. FP is
applicable at both the flow straight through and angle flow positions.
5.4.5.4 Upper Seal Friction Load
Upper seal friction load (FUS) is not applicable to three-way globe valves.
5.4.5.5 Stem Rejection Load
The stem thrust due to stem rejection load is calculated as follows.

FSR = (PB ) d S2
4

( )

(5.24)

The bonnet pressure, PB, is always the pressure in port 1. At the flow straight through
position, PB should be set to P11; at the angle flow position, PB should be set to P12.
The sign for FSR is as shown in the table below.
5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

1RGPKPI
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5KIP

This equation is applicable only to globe valves that have a stem that penetrates the
valve pressure boundary. For other designs (e.g., valves with a diaphragm seal), the
valve manufacturer should be consulted to determine an appropriate method for
determining stem rejection load.

5-28

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.4.5.6 Disc-to-Body/Cage Friction Load


Disc-to-body/cage friction covers friction loads between the disc and the body guides,
stem bearing or cage, as applicable. Note that the sign of this term is always positive
since it always opposes disc motion.
For three-way globe valves, the stem thrust due to disc-to-body/cage friction load is
calculated as follows.
At the flow straight through position:

FDF = (0.06) d 12OD PC1 P11 + d 22 OD PC1 P21


4

(5.25a)

At the angle flow position:



FDF = (0.06) d 12OD PC 2 P12 + d 22 OD PC 2 P22
4

(5.25b)

These equations are based on engineering judgment and adaptation on the side load
correlation for balanced disc globe valves. At this time, no test data is available to
validate these equations. The results should be considered best available
information.
5.4.5.7 DP Load
The stem thrust due to DP load is calculated as follows for three-way globe valves.
At the flow straight through position:

FDP = (PC1 P21 ) d 22OD (PC1 P11 ) d12OD


4

)]

(5.26a)

At the angle flow position:

FDP = (PC 2 P22 ) d 22 OD (PC 2 P12 ) d 12 OD


4

)]

(5.26b)

The thrusts obtained from these equations may be positive or negative, depending on
the relative size of the discs. These thrusts should be multiplied by +1 or 1, as shown
in the table below.

5-29

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5VTQMG &KTGEVKQP

1RGPKPI
%NQUKPI

(CEVQT




5.4.5.8 Sealing Load


For three-way valves, the sealing load is applicable for both opening and closing and
should be applied at the end of the stroke. The stem thrust due to sealing load is
calculated as follows.
FSL = (SSEAT * A SEAT )(sin + S cos )

(5.27)

Where:
At the flow straight through position:

A SEAT = d 22OD d 22 ID
4

(5.28a)

(5.28b)

At the angle flow position:

A SEAT = d12OD d12 ID


4

Since sealing load always opposes disc motion, FSL is always positive. Typical values
for SSEAT are shown below (Reference 10.1).
2TGUUWTG VQ DG 5GCNGF
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If the width of the valve seat is not known, a width of 1/16 inch should be assumed.
Values of S for Stellite seats are given in Section 5.5.2.

5.5 Gate Valves


Required thrust up to initial wedging (closing strokes) and after unwedging (opening
strokes) for gate valves can be evaluated using the EPRI MOV Performance Prediction
Methodology (as described in Reference 10.2). The PPM covers solid and flexible
wedge gate valves, Anchor/Darling double disc gate valves, Aloyco split wedge gate
5-30

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

valves, and Westinghouse gate valves. The gate valve performance prediction
methodology has been validated against full scale flow loop and in situ value data and
has been approved as a design standard by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. If the
PPM is used, adjustments to the inputs should be made to minimize the torque reaction
friction effect, which is applicable to MOVs but not AOVs. For solid and flexible wedge
gate valves for which the PPM software is used, the following adjustments should be
made.

Specify a low friction torque arm,

Input a torque arm length of 99.99, and

Input a stem factor of 0.0001.

For Anchor/Darling double disc, Aloyco split wedge, and Westinghouse gate valves,
PPM hand-calculation methods are implemented. For these calculations, the torque
reaction factor (TRF) should be set to 1.
Use of the PPM for evaluation of required stem thrust is recommended in cases where
insufficient test data is available to accurately define the seat friction coefficient (and
corresponding valve factor) for the valve and conditions (media, temperature) under
evaluation or in cases where high valve flowrates are to be evaluated. If such data is
available and nominal flowrates are to be evaluated, an alternative approach (Valve
Factor Method) can be applied (See Section 5.5.3).

5.5.1 Packing Load


The PPM does not predict packing load. Packing load can be determined from valve
specific static test data or estimated using valve/vendor methods or the method
presented in Appendix C.

5.5.2 Sealing Load (Closing Only)


The PPM does not predict sealing load. Sealing load is only applicable for closing
strokes.
The stem thrust required to seal to a desired seat stress at the fully closed position can
be estimated as follows.

FSL = 2 SSEAT * A SEAT d 2MS * DP [sin + S cos ]


4

( )

(5.29)

5-31

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

Where:

2
2
A SEAT = OD SEAT
ID SEAT
4

(5.30)

The value for S can be obtained from valve specifications or conservative estimations.

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5VGCO (NQY









Since the sealing load always opposes disc motion, FSL is always positive. Note that if
FSL is calculated to be negative, it should be set to zero. Typical values for SSEAT are
shown below (Reference 10.1). However, adequate sealing can be obtained at lower
values of seating stress. Based on successful experience, other lower values can be used.
2TGUUWTG VQ DG 5GCNGF
RUK

 K 
 K 
 K 

4GSWKTGF 5GCV 5VTGUU


RUK





5.5.3 Valve Factor Method


An alternative approach for determining required thrust after unwedging (opening
stroke) and at initial wedging (closing stroke) is the Valve Factor Method.
This method should only be applied when diagnostic test data is available to define the
seat friction coefficient (and corresponding valve factor) for the conditions (fluid media
and temperature) under evaluation. The method does not address mid-stroke effects
that are more pronounced under high flow conditions. Accordingly, the Valve Factor
Method is not recommended for high flowrate evaluations. High flowrate evaluations
should be conducted using the PPM.
5-32

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

A typical form of the Valve Factor equation is shown below:

(d s )2 Pup + (VF) (d ms )2 DP (valve closing)


4
4

Fo = Fp +

(5.31)

or
Fc = Fp

(d s )2 Pup + (VF) (d ms )2 DP (valve opening)


4
4

(5.32)

where
Fo =
Fc =
Fp =
ds =
Pup =
dms =
DP =
VF =

Required opening thrust after unwedging, lbs


Required closing thrust at initial wedging, lbs
Packing load, lbs
Stem diameter, inches
Valve upstream pressure, psig
Mean seat diameter of valve seat, inches
Valve differential pressure, psid
Valve factor determined by testing under like conditions (media,
temperature), dimensionless

The valve factor (VF) for gate valves can be determined by first determining the disc-toseat friction coefficient (s) using methods described in Section 8 of the EPRI MOV
Performance Prediction Program Implementation Guide, Reference 10.2. Once the discto-seat friction coefficient has been determined, the corresponding valve factor can be
evaluated as follows:
VF =

s
cos + s sin

for opening

(5.33)

VF =

s
cos s sin

for closing

(5.34)

where
= wedge half angle, degrees

5.5.4 Unwedging Load (Opening Only)


Unwedging load is only applicable for opening strokes. The stem thrust due to the
unwedging load is zero at the fully open position. This method does not account for
increased loads due to pressure locking and/or thermal binding.

5-33

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

The stem thrust due to the unwedging load is calculated as follows (Reference 10.2) at
the fully closed position.

FUW = (FCT )(B) + (FP )(1 B) + (DP ) d 2MS * C d S2


4

(5.35)

Since the unwedging load always opposes disc motion, FUW is always positive. B and C
are constants that depend on the half-wedge angle (), as shown below.

 FGITGGU






















The unwedging load calculated above should not be added to any other thrust
components. FUW should be compared directly to the available thrust from the actuator
to ensure the valve has margin for unwedging.
Note that this equation can be implemented several ways. The actual valve closure
thrust (maximum closing thrust achieved during the most recent static stroke) can be
used as FCT to obtain a predicted unwedging load based on current valve setup.
However, the recommended approach is to use the maximum allowable valve closure
thrust as FCT. The resulting predicted unwedging thrust then covers any valve setup, as
long as the maximum allowable valve closure thrust is not exceeded. If the predicted
unwedging load exceeds the actuator capability using this approach, then this equation
can be used to determine a new maximum allowable closing thrust to ensure positive
margin for unwedging.

5.6 Butterfly Valves


The torque required to actuate butterfly valves can be predicted using the EPRI MOV
Performance Prediction Methodology (PPM)(as described in Reference 10.2). The PPM
is applicable to the following butterfly valve disc types:

Symmetric disc

Single offset disc

5-34

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

The PPM butterfly valve methodology has been validated against flow loop and in situ
tests of butterfly valves and has been approved as a design standard by the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission. The PPM methodology covers the following torque
components.

Hub seal torque, THUB

Seat torque, TS

Bearing torque, TB

Hydrodynamic torque, TH

Hydrostatic torque, THS

Butterfly valve required torque is proportional to the DP across the valve disc, except
for the seat torque. The approach used in the PPM is to calculate two torque
requirements one at seating and one away from seating. At seating, all torque
components are included except for hub seal and hydrodynamic torques. Away from
seating, only the packing, hub seal, bearing and hydrodynamic torques are included.
The torque at seating can only occur at the fully closed position; the torque away from
seating could occur within a range of possible stroke positions.

5.6.1 Packing Torque


Packing torque (TP) should be determined based on information from the valve or
packing vendor, from static test data, or using the method presented in Appendix C.

5.7 Ball Valves


5.7.1 Total Required Torque
5.7.1.1 Opening
TO = TP + TSS + TDS + TH

For floating ball type

(5.36a)

TO = TP + TSS + TB + TH

For trunnion ball

(5.36b)

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EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.7.1.2 Closing
TC = TP + TSS + TDS

For floating ball type

(5.37a)

TC = TP + TSS + TB

For trunnion ball

(5.37b)

This Guide covers the following ball valve types:

Floating ball valves

Trunnion ball valves

The equations in this Guide cover the following torque components.

Packing torque, TP

Static seat torque, TSS

Dynamic seat torque, TDS

Bearing torque, TB

Hydrodynamic torque, TH

Ball valve required torques are proportional to the DP across the valve disc. The
approach used in this Guide for hydrodynamic torque is to combine the maximum
hydrodynamic torque for the entire stroke with the maximum values of the other torque
components. In this way, the maximum required torque is determined. This maximum
torque would only be expected to occur near the fully closed position. The maximum
torque that would be expected at the fully open position is the sum of the packing, static
seat, and hydrodynamic torques.
The sections below discuss the four torque components as they apply to the two ball
valve types. Note that all torques are positive, indicating that the actuator must provide
torque to overcome each component.

5.7.2 Packing and Static Seat Torques


Packing torque (TP) and static seat torque (TSS) should be determined based on
information from the valve vendor or from static test data. Note that the running load
during a static stroke includes both packing and static seat torques.

5-36

EPRI Licensed Material


Determining Required Thrust or Torque

5.7.3 Dynamic Seat Torque


For floating ball designs, the stem torque due to dynamic friction from the seats is
calculated using the following equation.

TDS =

(DP ) (d 2MS )(d B )


4

d 2B d 2MS

* S *

d B + d 2B d 2MS
48

(5.38)

For trunnion ball valves, the stem torque due to dynamic friction from the seats is zero
since the DP load is reacted by the bearings.

5.7.4 Bearing Torque


For floating ball designs, the stem torque due to bearing friction is zero since the DP
load is reacted by the seats.
For trunnion ball valves, the stem torque due to bearing friction is calculated using the
following equation.
d

TB = (DP ) d 2MS ( B ) S
4
24

( )



5.7.5 Hydrodynamic Torque


The stem torque due to hydrodynamic load is set to zero for closing strokes since it
tends to assists closing. For opening strokes, the stem torque due to hydrodynamic
load is calculated using the following equation.

( )

1
HTF 3
TH = (DP )
dP
12
100

(5.40)

The method in this Guide is not applicable for compressible flow. For incompressible
flow, the hydrodynamic torque factor, HTF, is determined from Figure 5-6, using the
equivalent system resistance, KSYS, which is calculated using the following equation.
894.01 * d 4P * DP 62.4

K SYS =
2

MAX

(5.41)

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Determining Required Thrust or Torque

6.00

5.00

HTF

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Equivalent System Resistance, Ksys

Figure 5-6
Hydrodynamic Torque Factor vs Equivalent System Resistance

5.8 Calculation Worksheets


Worksheets for performing required thrust and torque calculations are provided in
Tables A-1 A-7 in Appendix A.

5-38

EPRI Licensed Material

6
EVALUATION OF VALVE / ACTUATOR RATED AND
SURVIVABLE THRUST AND TORQUE

6.1 Valve Limits


The valve rated load (i.e., thrust or torque) is that load that is allowed to be applied to
the valve concurrent with design basis loadings including seismic accelerations.
The survivable stem load (i.e., thrust or torque) is that load that may be applied, on a
one time basis, and not result in a failure that prevents further operation.
The above loads are based on weak-link evaluations of a valve. These analyses are
performed by the OEM or other engineering organization. The inputs required to do
these analyses are: dimensional data of the components, material specifications of the
components, and design basis requirements for loading and stresses. The analyses take
into account the conditions under which the valve will operate. These conditions,
dictated by the design basis, include: system pressure, mass effects (including seismic),
and actuator forces. Design Basis documentation will also identify requirements
relating to stress combinations and allowable stress limits. Material specifications lead
to allowable stresses and stress intensities as well as yield and tensile strengths. These
values are taken from appropriate design codes such as the ASME B&PV Code. For
convenience, calculations are usually structured such that the stem thrust or torque that
will develop the allowable stress limit is determined. The allowable load is the capacity
of the weakest component. Alternatively, the torque/thrust output of the actuator can
be used as an input, combined with other design basis loads and the associated stresses
determined. If certified material test reports (CMTRs) are available, material properties
from them may be used for some cases where operability of a valve is of interest.
Air actuated valves are subjected to either thrust or torque due to actuation. Because
there is no thrust/torque interaction (as with MOVs), other mechanical forces due to
design basis loads have a more pronounced effect on the stress of the external
components of the valve. The components of interest vary somewhat based on valve
type (e.g., rising stem or quarter turn). Also, load level will influence which
components are more likely to be a weak link. Loads involving seismic loads will affect
external components more often. Typical valve parts which may be limiting are:
6-1

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Valve / Actuator Rated and Survivable Thrust and Torque

Stem

Stem Coupling

Shear Pins / Keys

Disc

Seat

Stop Blocks

Yoke / Actuator Mounting Bracket

Yoke / Actuator Mounting Bolts

6.2 Actuator Limits


Actuators are typically rated as an assembly. Thrust output is governed by air pressure.
Maximum allowable air pressures are dictated to maintain thrust within acceptable
levels. Air actuators are typically rated for a specific acceleration loading. Specified
allowable accelerations need to be compared to required design basis accelerations in
both magnitude and combination for acceptability. Typical actuator parts which may
be limiting are:
x

Diaphragm (maximum pressure)

Spring (safe load)

6-2

EPRI Licensed Material

7
EVALUATION OF AIR ACTUATOR OUTPUT THRUST /
TORQUE CAPABILITY

The purpose of this section of the Evaluation Guide is to:

Specify inputs necessary for evaluating actuator output

Determine air operated valve actuator thrust and torque

Evaluate stroke times

Provide worksheets for performing actuator capability calculations

The results of this section will be used to evaluate margins in Section 8. Calculation
worksheets for the equations presented in this section are provided in Appendix B.

7.1 Required Input Information


Actuator output is a function of various actuator design parameters. These parameters
can be obtained from vendor catalogues or from tests and measurements. Data
obtained from catalogues is generic and may not accurately represent an actuator that
has been in service for a period of time. To obtain more accurate information,
dimensions can be measured and other inputs can be obtained through testing and
inspections. This is valuable since deterioration as well as installation practices can
cause the actuator parameters to vary from published data.
Actuator data sheets listing inputs required for determining actuator output for the
actuator styles discussed in this evaluation guide are provided in Appendix B. An
input sheet is provided for both rising stem actuators and rotary actuators. A
worksheet is provided which shows the variable names as used in the equations and
one is provided without the variable names shown.

7-1

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

7.2 Actuator Output Capability Evaluations


7.2.1 Overview
The purpose of this section is to provide methods to determine air operated valve
actuator output thrust and torque capability. Actuator output thrust is calculated for
rising stem valves and actuator output torque is calculated for rotary valves. Tolerances
are applied to the equations to obtain minimum and maximum output values. The
minimum actuator output thrust/torque is calculated to determine the capability of
stroking a valve in the open and close directions and for maintaining the valve fully
open. The maximum actuator output thrust/torque is calculated for comparison with
the structural limits. The actuator output thrust and torque will be used to calculate
those margins listed in Section 8.
For rising stem valves, air operated actuators can be coupled with two basic types of
valves: direct acting valves (push-down-to-close) and reverse acting valves (pushdown-to-open). Evaluation of actuator output capability depends on the type of rising
stem valve with which the actuator is coupled. When coupled with direct acting valves,
the actuator output capability is evaluated at three locations: as the actuator rod is
approaching the fully extended position (for closing the valve), as the actuator rod just
begins to retract (for opening the valve), and as the actuator rod reaches the fully
retracted position (to ensure the valve remains open against the stem and plug weight).
For actuators coupled with reverse acting valves, the output capability is evaluated at
two locations: as the actuator rod is approaching the fully retracted position (for closing
the valve) and as the actuator rod just begins to extend (for opening the valve). The
actuators capability to hold the valve in the fully open position for reverse acting
valves may not be required since the weight of the stem and plug assists in holding the
plug open. Situations may exist where system pressure attempts to close the valve
while the valve is open. In such cases, the actuator output at the fully extended position
(for reverse acting valves) may need to be evaluated. Equations are provided in this
section for such cases.
For double acting actuators without a spring, the actuator output capability is the same
throughout the stroke. For actuator styles installed with springs, actuator output varies
with position. This is due to the changing force of the spring as the spring is being
compressed or released. Evaluation of actuator output capability for cases where the
actuator is coupled with direct and reverse acting valves is summarized below. Figures
7-1 and 7-4 provide the types of actuators discussed in this section and reference to the
applicable sections and worksheets. Figures 7-2, 7-3, and 7-5 also delineate the
correlation between actuator and valve position. Worksheets for calculations presented
in Section 7 are provided in Appendix B.

7-2

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Table 7.1 is a list of the Parameters used in the equations in the following sections and
the worksheets in Appendix B.

Table 7-1
Parameter Definitions

Symbol

Definition

Units

Angular position of the yoke, perpendicular to the line of force

degrees

Efficiency of rotary actuator

none

Aext

Effective Area of the diaphragm at the extended (Aext) and retracted


(Aret) positions. For diaphragm actuators only.

in2

none

Aret/tol

Effective Area Tolerance of the diaphragm at the extended (Aext) and


retracted (Aret) positions. This variable is input as a fractional number
(percent value divided by 100).

Atol

Diaphragm area tolerance for rotary diaphragm valves

none

Lever arm length for quarter turn diaphragm actuators

in

BSLower

The field or vendor supplied lower benchset

psig

BStol

The benchset tolerance. This variable is input as a fractional number


(percent value divided by 100).

none

BSU/max

The minimum and maximum force stored in the actuator when the
spring is fully compressed (full compression based on valve stroke
length). This variable is used for calculating the actuator output.

lbf

Aret
Aext/tol

BSU/min

Not calculated for actuators without springs.


BSUpper

The field or vendor supplied upper benchset.

psig

Distance from the piston or diaphragm actuator center line to the center
line of the lever or gear pivot.

in

Diameter of the Actuator Stem. Required for cylinder actuators only.

in

7-3

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Symbol

Definition

Units

Piston Diameter (generally the nominal cylinder size or seal diameter)

in

DPA

Differential Air Pressure (nominal) available to the cylinder actuator.

psid

DPA/max

Differential Air Pressure (maximum) available to the cylinder actuator

DPA/min

Differential Air Pressure (minimum) available to the cylinder actuator


Inputs required at close, open, and full open positions, if different.
Used for double acting cylinder actuators only.

DPG

Pinion gear pitch diameter

in

FA/max

Maximum Actuator Output for rising stem valves. Used for the
structural margins.

lbf

FA/min

Minimum Actuator Thrust Output Capability for rising stem valves.


Used to assess actuator capability.

lbf

FD

Piston Breakaway Force. The force required to overcome the static


friction in the cylinder actuator. The force may be provided directly or
calculated using the breakaway pressure (see PD).

lbf

Stroke Length used for actuator analysis. Either the smaller of the valve
rated travel, actuator rated travel, or the truncated stroke length if the
actuator stops are adjusted to limit valve stroke.

in

LBS

Actuator Length of travel for setting the benchset. This may or may not
be the same as L.

in

Npiston

Number of pistons in rotary actuators

none

PAdrift

Change in the supply pressure output over a period of time. This


variable is input as a fractional number (percent value divided by 100).

none

PA

Actuator Supply Pressure (Nominal), typically the air regulator setpoint

psig

PA/max

Maximum actuator supply pressure (Nominal+tolerance)

PA/min

Minimum actuator supply pressure (Nominal - tolerance)

7-4

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Symbol

Definition

Units

PA/tol

Actuator Supply Pressure Tolerance. This variable is input as a


fractional number (percent value divided by 100).

none

PD

Piston Breakaway Pressure. The pressure required to overcome the


static friction in the cylinder actuator. The breakaway force can be
calculated from PD or it may be provided directly (see FD).

psig

SP

Spring Pre-load (Nominal)

lbf

SP/max

Maximum Spring Pre-load (Nominal + tolerance)

SP/min

Minimum Spring Pre-load (Nominal - tolerance)

none

Note: The nominal value should include any spring degradation which
may occur.
SP/tol

Spring Pre-load Tolerance. This variable is input as a fractional number


(percent value divided by 100).

SR

Spring Rate (Nominal)

SR/max

Maximum Spring Rate (Nominal + tolerance)

SR/min

Minimum Spring Rate (Nominal - tolerance)

SR/deg

Spring Rate Degradation. This variable is input as a fractional number


(percent value divided by 100).

none

SR/tol

Spring Rate Tolerance. This variable is input as a fractional number


(percent value divided by 100).

none

TA/max

Maximum Actuator Output for rising stem valves. Used for the
structural margins.

in-lbf

TA/min

Minimum Actuator Thrust Output Capability for rising stem valves.


Used to assess actuator capability.

in-lbf

lbf/in

7-5

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

ACTUATOR TYPE
(Rising Stem)

DIAPHRAGM
ACTUATOR

No Increased
Mechanical
Advantage

AIR CYLINDER
ACTUATOR

Increased
Mechanical
Advantage

Double
Acting

No
Spring

Direct
Acting

Reverse
Acting

Direct
Acting

Reverse
Acting

Single
Ended

See Sect.
7.2.1.2.1
& App. B
Table
B.3

See Sect.
7.2.1.2.2
& App. B
Table
B.4

See Sect.
7.2.1.2.3
& App. B
Table
B.5

See Sect.
7.2.1.2.4
& App. B
Table
B.6

See Sect.
7.2.1.1.1
& App. B
Table
B.1

Figure 7-1
Rising Stem Actuator Type Flowchart

7-6

Double
Ended

See Sect.
7.2.1.1.2
& App. B
Table
B.1

Single
Acting

Spring
Assisted

Direct
Acting

Reverse
Acting

Direct
Acting

Reverse
Acting

See Sect.
7.2.1.1.3
& App. B
Table
B.1

See Sect.
7.2.1.1.4
& App. B
Table
B.1

See Sect.
7.2.1.1.5
& App. B
Table
B.2

See Sect.
7.2.1.1.6
& App. B
Table
B.2

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

VALVE TYPE
(Rising Stem)

DIRECT ACTING
(push-down-to-close)

REVERSE ACTING
(push-down-to-open)

Calculate Actuator Output:

Calculate Actuator Output:

Thrust available at the following positions:

Thrust available at the following positions:

Fully Extended:

For comparison with Close


Min Required Thrust.

Fully Retracted: For comparison with


Packing Load (fully open
valve position).
Retract:

For comparison with Open


Min Required Thrust.

Fully Extended:

For comparison with


Packing Load (fully open
valve position).

Fully Retracted:

For comparison with Close


Min Required Thrust.

Extend:

For comparison with Open


Min Required Thrust.

Note 1: Fully Extended is the actuator output as the actuator stem reaches the fully extended position (also refer to Figure 7.3).
Fully Retracted is the actuator output as the actuator stem reaches the fully retracted position.
Retract is the actuator output as the actuator stem just begins to retract.
Extend is the actuator output as the actuator stem just begins to extend.
Note 2: The actuator output to Fully Extended and Retract are both at the actuator fully extended position. However, the actuator
output is calculated differently since one may be a pressure stroke and the other one a spring stroke. Similarly, the actuator
output to Fully Retracted and Extend are both at the actuator fully retracted position but are calculated differently.

Figure 7-2
Rising Stem Valve and Actuator Position Correlation Flowchart

7-7

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

ACTUATOR POSITIONS

DIRECT ACTING VALVE COUPLED


WITH AN AIR ACTUATOR

REVERSE ACTING VALVE COUPLED


WITH AN AIR ACTUATOR

Valve Fully Open

Valve Fully Closed

Fully
Retracted

Extend

Fully
Extended
Valve Fully Closed

Retract

Figure 7-3
Valve and Actuator Position Correlation Flowchart

7-8

Fully
Retracted

Extend

Fully
Extended
Valve Fully Open

Retract

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

ACTUATOR TYPE
(Quarter Turn)

SCOTCH
YOKE

DIAPHRAGM
ACTUATOR

Double
Acting
(No Spring)

Single
Acting

Direct
Acting

See Sect.
7.2.1.3.1
& App. B
Table
B.7

See Sect.
7.2.1.3.2
& App. B
Table
B.8

See Sect.
7.2.1.4
& App. B
Table
B.9

Reverse
Acting

See Sect.
7.2.1.4
& App. B
Table
B.10

RACK & PINION


ACTUATOR

Double
Acting
(No Spring)

Single
Acting

See Sect.
7.2.1.5.1
& App. B
Table
B.11

See Sect.
7.2.1.5.2
& App. B
Table
B.12

Figure 7-4
Quarter Turn Actuator Type Flowchart

7-9

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

AOV CONFIGURATION
(Quarter Turn)

Actuator Pressure
Closes Valve

Calculate actuator output torque


available at the following positions:
Pressure Stroke: For comparison
with Minimum
Required Torque
in the Closing
direction (evaluate
at each angle).
Spring Stroke:

For comparison
with Minimum
Required Torque
in the Opening
direction (evaluate
at each angle).

Actuator Pressure
Opens Valve

Calculate actuator output torque


available at the following positions:
Pressure Stroke: For comparison
with Minimum
Required Torque
in the Opening
direction (evaluate
at each angle).
Spring Stroke:

For comparison
with Minimum
Required Torque
in the Closing
direction (evaluate
at each angle).

Figure 7-5
Quarter Turn Valve and Actuator Position Correlation Flowchart

7-10

Actuator Pressure
Opens & Closes Valve

Calculate actuator output torque


available at the following positions:
For Double Acting Scotch Yoke
type actuators only:
One equations is used for both
the opening and closing strokes.
Actuator output and valve
required thrust vary with
position angle.
For Double Acting Rack &
Pinion type actuators only:
Actuator output is constant
throughout entire stroke.

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

7.2.1.1 Cylinder Actuators for Rising Stem Valves


The output thrust of cylinder type actuators for opening and closing rising stem valves is
calculated for the following configurations:

Double Acting Air Cylinder, Single Ended

Double Acting Air Cylinder, Double Ended

Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting (spring to retract actuator stem)

Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting (spring to extend actuator stem)

Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting (spring to retract actuator stem)

Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting (spring to extend actuator stem)
7.2.1.1.1 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Single Ended

Available output force of a double acting air cylinder actuator is essentially constant
and linear throughout its stroke (see Figure 7-6). When air pressure is acting on the top
(non-rod side) of the piston, available force is represented by the solid line (see Figures
7-6 and 7-7). This stroke direction is referred to as the rod extension stroke. When air
pressure is acting from the under side (rod side) of the piston, available force is
represented by the dashed line (see Figures 7-6 and 7-8). This stroke direction is
referred to as the rod retraction stroke. The only difference between the extending and
retracting strokes is the loss of the piston rod area when pressure is applied to the rod
side of the piston. Therefore, if air supply pressure is equal for both the rod extension
and rod retraction strokes, the actuator will have less output capability during the rod
retraction stroke due to the loss in piston rod area.

7-11

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

DA CYLINDER
AVAILABLE
FORCE

PUSH

PULL

100

% TRAVEL

Figure 7-6
Available Force Plot for Double Acting Air Cycinder

PA

PATM

PATM

PA

FA

FA
Figure 7-7
Double Acting Air Cylinder,Rod
Extension

Figure 7-8
Double Acting Air Cylinder, Rod
Retraction

Extend and Fully Extended Positions. The minimum and maximum1 force output to
extend and fully extend the actuator stem of a double acting air cylinder is:
FA/min =

D 2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) FD


4

(7.1)

The breakaway force is intended to account for the parasitic effect of the internal static friction of the cylinder
actuator. For conservatism, the piston breakaway force is not subtracted from the maximum output force (FA/max).

7-12

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

FA/max =

D 2 DPA/max (1 + PA drift )
4

(7.2)

Retract and Fully Retracted Positions. The minimum and maximum1 force output to
retract and fully retract the actuator stem of a double acting air cylinder is:

(7.3)

(7.4)

FA/min =

D 2 d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) FD
4

FA/max =

D 2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift )


4

Breakaway Friction (FD):


For the non-rod side of the piston, the piston breakaway force is:
FD =

D2 PD
4

(7.5)

For the rod side of the piston, the piston breakaway force is:
FD =

D 2 d2 PD
4

(7.6)

Or, for simplicity and conservatism, Equation 7.5 can be used for both stroke directions.
The minimum and maximum supply differential air pressures are calculated as follows:
DPA /min = DPA (1 PA / tol )

(7.7)

DPA/max = DPA (1 + PA / tol )

(7.8)

The differential pressure may be the same or different for the extending and retracting
strokes. If different, the minimum and maximum differential pressures should be
calculated for each stroke position (fully extended, fully retracted, extended, and
retracted) and applied to the appropriate actuator output (actuator output to fully
extend, fully retract, extend, and retract).
7.2.1.1.2 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Double Ended

The double acting, double ended cylinder actuator (Figure 7-9) works the same way as
the single ended, double acting actuator (see previous section). The difference between
the double ended and single ended styles is the output capability for the rod extension
stroke. The actuator output for the rod extension stroke of the double ended actuator is
the same as the actuator output for the rod retraction stroke, assuming the actuator rod
is of the same diameter on both ends of the cylinder head. This is due to both ends of
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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

the actuator stem being exposed to atmospheric pressure. The equations for the double
acting, double ended style actuator are provided below.

Figure 7-9
Double Acting Air Cylinder, Double Ended

All Positions. The minimum and maximum2 force output of a double acting, double
ended air cylinder at all positions of the actuator stem (to extend, retract, fully extend,
and fully retract) is:

(7.9)

(7.10)

FA/min =

D 2 d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) FD
4

FA/max =

D 2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift )


4

The piston breakaway force and differential air pressure are calculated as follows:
FD :

Refer to Equation 7.6


(Equation 7.5 is not applicable to this type of actuator)

DPA/min :

Refer to Equation 7.7

DPA/max :

Refer to Equation 7.8

The breakaway force is intended to account for the parasitic effect of the internal static friction of the cylinder
actuator. For conservatism, the piston breakaway force is not subtracted from the maximum output force (FA/max).

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

7.2.1.1.3 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting (Spring to Retract)

For a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to retract), pressure is used to
extend the actuator stem, whereas both pressure and spring force are used to retract the
actuator stem (Figure 7-10).

Figure 7-10
Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting

Fully Extended Position. The minimum and maximum3 force output to fully extend the
actuator stem of a double acting, spring assisted (spring to retract) air cylinder is:

FA/min = D 2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) BSU/max FD


4

(7.11)

FA/max = D 2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) BSU/min


4

(7.12)

Fully Retracted Position. The minimum and maximum3 force output to fully retract the
actuator stem of a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to retract) is:

(7.13)

(7.14)

FA/min = D 2 d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) + SP/min FD


4

FA/max = D 2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) + SP/max


4

Retract Position. The minimum and maximum3 force output to retract the actuator stem
of a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to retract) is:

The breakaway force is intended to account for the parasitic effect of the internal static friction of the cylinder
actuator. For conservatism, the piston breakaway force is not subtracted from the maximum output force (FA/max).

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

(7.15)

(7.16)

FA/min = D 2 d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) + BSU/min FD


4

FA/max = D 2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) + BSU/max


4

Extend Position. The minimum and maximum3 force output to extend the actuator
stem of a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to retract) is:

FA/min = D 2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) SP/max FD


4

(7.17)

FA/max = D 2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) SP/min


4

(7.18)

The piston breakaway force and differential air pressure are calculated as follows:
FD :

Refer to Equation 7.5 for the non-rod side of the piston


Refer to Equation 7.6 for the rod side of the piston
Note: Using Equation 7.5 for all positions is conservative.

DPA/min :

Refer to Equation 7.7

DPA/max :

Refer to Equation 7.8

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload.
These methods are:
1. Spring preload and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Lower benchset (i.e., pressure at which the actuator begins its stroke while
uncoupled from the valve) and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Tolerance
SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )
SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

(7.20)

Option 2: Lower Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


7-16

(7.19)

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability
SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) 4 D2

(7.21)

SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) 4 D 2

(7.22)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring rate:
1. Spring rate and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Upper and Lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Rate and Tolerance
SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

(7.23)

SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

(7.24)

Option 2: Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


SR/min =

D 2 BSUpper BSLower (1- BS tol ) / L BS


4

(7.25)

SR/max =

D 2 BSUpper BSLower (1+ BS tol ) / L BS


4

(7.26)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum compressed spring
force. These methods are:
1. Spring preload and rate
2. Upper benchset (i.e., pressure at which the actuator is at full rated valve travel while
uncoupled from the valve) and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L

(7.27)

BSU/max = SP/max + (SR/max L)

(7.28)

where
SP/min, SP/max, SR/min, SR/max are calculated in the above equations
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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Option 2: Upper Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BStol )

D2
4

(7.29)

BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BStol )

D2
4

(7.30)

Caution: In the majority of actuator designs in nuclear power plants, the benchset is set
when the valve and actuator are uncoupled. If the valve and actuator are coupled when
setting the benchset, Spring Preload, Spring Rate, and Upper Benchset, Option 2
(Equations 7.21, 7.22, 7.25, 7.26, 7.29, and 7.30) should not be used since the benchset
pressure will include valve loads as well as spring force. This could produce false
results. Option 2 can be used if using the vendor supplied benchset since this value
typically is for the uncoupled configuration.
7.2.1.1.4 Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting (Spring to Extend)

For a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to extend), pressure is used to
retract the actuator stem and pressure and spring force are both used to extend the
actuator stem (Figure 7-11).

Figure 7-11
Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Fully Extended Position. The minimum and maximum4 force output to fully extend the
actuator stem of a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to extend) is:

FA/min = D 2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) + SP/min FD


4

(7.31)

FA/max = D 2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) + SP/max


4

(7.32)

Fully Retracted Position. The minimum and maximum4 force output to fully retract the
actuator stem of a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to extend) is:

(7.33)

(7.34)

FA/min = D 2 d2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) BSU/max FD


4

FA/max = D 2 d2 DPA/max (1 + PA drift ) BSU/min


4

Retract Position. The minimum and maximum4 force output to retract the actuator stem
of a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to extend) is:

(7.35)

(7.36)

FA/min = D 2 d2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) SP/max FD


4

FA/max = D 2 d2 DPA/max (1 + PA drift ) SP/min


4

Extend Position. The minimum and maximum4 force output to extend the actuator stem
of a double acting, spring assisted air cylinder (spring to extend) is:

FA/min = D 2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) + BSU/min FD


4

(7.37)

FA/max = D 2 DPA/max (1 + PA drift ) + BSU/max


4

(7.38)

The piston breakaway force and differential air pressure are calculated as follows:
FD :

Refer to Equation 7.5 for the non-rod side of the piston

The breakaway force is intended to account for the parasitic effect of the internal static friction of the cylinder
actuator. For conservatism, the piston breakaway force is not subtracted from the maximum output force (FA/max).

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Refer to Equation 7.6 for the rod side of the piston


Note: Using Equation 7.5 for all positions is conservative.
DPA/min :

Refer to Equation 7.7

DPA/max :

Refer to Equation 7.8

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload.
These methods are:
1. Spring preload and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Tolerance
SP/min = SP (1 SP/tol )

(7.39)

SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

(7.40)

Option 2: Lower Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}

SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) 4 D 2 d2

SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) 4 D 2 d2

(7.41)

(7.42)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring rate:
1. Spring rate and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Upper and Lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Rate and Tolerance
SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

(7.43)

SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

(7.44)

Option 2: Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}

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EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

) (

) (

SR/min =

D 2 d 2 BSUpper BSLower (1- BS tol ) / L BS


4

SR/max =

D 2 d 2 BSUpper BSLower (1+ BS tol ) / L BS


4

(7.45)

(7.46)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum compressed spring
force:
1. Spring preload and rate
2. Upper benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L

(7.47)

BSU/max = SP/max + (SR/max L)

(7.48)

where,
SP/min, SP/max, SR/min, and SR/max are calculated from the above equations.
Option 2: Upper Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}

(7.49)

(7.50)

BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BStol )

D 2 d2
4

BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BStol )

D 2 d2
4

Caution: In the majority of actuator designs in nuclear power plants, the benchset is set
when the valve and actuator are uncoupled. If the valve and actuator are coupled when
setting the benchset, Spring Preload, Spring Rate and Upper Benchset Option 2
(Equations 7.41, 7.42, 7.45, 7.46, 7.49, and 7.50) should not be used since the benchset
pressure will include valve loads as well as spring force. This could produce false
results. Option 2 can be used if using the vendor supplied benchset since this value
typically is for the uncoupled configuration.
7.2.1.1.5 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting (Spring to Retract)

The available force output of a direct acting cylinder actuator is essentially linear (but
not constant) throughout its stroke (Figure 7-12). For the direct acting type, the spring
is installed on the rod side of the piston. When air pressure is acting on top (non-rod
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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

side) of the piston (Figure 7-13), the available force is represented by the solid line.
During the spring stroke (Figures 7-14 and 7-15), the available output force is
represented by the dashed line.

AVAILABLE
FORCE

SPRING
STROKE

PA

PRESSURE
STROKE
0

% RETRACT

100

Figure 7-12
Available Force Plot for Single
Acting Air Cylinder

PATM
FA
Figure 7-13
Single Acting Air Cylinder,
Direct Acting, Fully Extended

PATM

PATM

P ATM

PATM
FA
Figure 7-14
Single Acting Air Cylinder,
Direct Acting, Retracted

FA
Figure 7-15
Single Acting Air Cylinder,
Direct Acting, Fully Retracted

Fully Extended Position. The minimum and maximum5 force output to fully extend the
actuator stem of a direct acting air cylinder is:

The breakaway force is intended to account for the parasitic effect of the internal static friction of the cylinder
actuator. For conservatism, the piston breakaway force is not subtracted from the maximum output force (FA/max).

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

FA /min = D 2 PA /min (1 PA drift ) BSU/max FD


4

(7.51)

FA /max = D 2 PA /max (1 + PA drift ) BSU/min


4

(7.52)

Fully Retracted Position. The minimum and maximum5 force output to fully retract the
actuator stem of a direct acting air cylinder is:
FA /min = SP/min FD

(7.53)

FA /max = SP/max

(7.54)

Retract Position. The minimum and maximum5 force output to retract the actuator stem
of a direct acting air cylinder is:
FA /min = BSU/min FD

(7.55)

FA /max = BSU/max

(7.56)

Extend Position. The minimum and maximum5 force output to extend the actuator
stem of a direct acting air cylinder is:
FA /min =

D 2 PA /min (1 PA drift ) SP/max FD


4

(7.57)

FA /max =

D 2 PA /max (1 + PA drift ) SP/min


4

(7.58)

The piston breakaway force is calculated as follows:


FD :

Refer to Equation 7.5


(Equation 7.6 is not applicable to this type of actuator)

The minimum and maximum supply pressure are calculated as follows:


PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

(7.59)

PA /max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

(7.60)

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EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload, the
minimum and maximum spring rate, and the minimum and maximum compressed
spring load. These methods are:
SP/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.19

SP/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.20

SP/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.21

SP/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.22

SR/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.23

SR/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.24

SR/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.25

SR/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.26

BSU/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.27

BSU/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.28

BSU/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.29

BSU/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.30

7.2.1.1.6 Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting (Spring to Extend)

Available force of a spring return air cylinder actuator is essentially linear (but not
constant) throughout its stroke (Figure 7-16). For the reverse acting type, the spring is
installed on the non-rod side of the piston. During the spring stroke (Figure 7-17),
available force is represented by the dashed line. When air pressure is acting from
under the piston (Figures 7-18 and 7-19), available force is represented by the solid line.

AVAILABLE
FORCE

PRESSURE
STROKE

SPRING
STROKE

% RETRACTED

100

Figure 7-16
Available Force Plot for Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

ATM

P ATM
FA

Figure 7-17
Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting, Fully Extended

FA
Figure 7-18
Single Acting Air Cylinder,
Reverse Acting Retractedt

PATM

PATM

PA

PA
FA
Figure 7-19
Single Acting Air Cylinder,
Reverse Acting, Fully Retracted

Fully Extended Position. The minimum and maximum6 force output to fully extend the
actuator stem of a reverse acting air cylinder is:
FA /min = SP/min FD

(7.61)

FA /max = SP/max

(7.62)

Fully Retracted Position. The minimum and maximum6 force output to fully retract the
actuator stem of a reverse acting air cylinder is:

The breakaway force is intended to account for the parasitic effect of the internal static friction of the cylinder
actuator. For conservatism, the piston breakaway force is not subtracted from the maximum output force (FA/max).

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EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

(7.63)

(7.64)

FA /min = D 2 d2 PA /min (1 PA drift ) BSU/max FD


4

FA /max = D 2 d2 PA /max (1 + PA drift ) BSU/min


4

Retract Position. The minimum and maximum6 force output to retract the actuator stem
of a reverse acting air cylinder is:
FA /min =

FA /max =

D 2 d2 PA /min (1 PA drift ) SP/max FD


4

D2 d2 PA/max (1 + PA drift ) SP/min


4

(7.65)

(7.66)

Extend Position. The minimum and maximum6 force output to extend the actuator
stem of a reverse acting air cylinder is:
FA /min = BSU/min FD

(7.67)

FA /max = BSU/max

(7.68)

The piston breakaway force and actuator supply pressure are calculated as follows:
FD :

Refer to Equation 7.6


(Equation 7.5 is not applicable to this type of actuator)

PA/min :

Refer to Equation 7.59

PA/max :

Refer to Equation 7.60

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload, the
minimum and maximum spring rate, and the minimum and maximum compressed
spring load. These methods are:

7-26

SP/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.39

SP/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.40

SP/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.41

SP/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.42

SR/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.43

SR/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.44

EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

SR/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.45

SR/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.46

BSU/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.47

BSU/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.48

BSU/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.49

BSU/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.50

7.2.1.2 Diaphragm Actuators for Rising Stem Valves


Methodologies for evaluating diaphragm actuator available forces for opening and
closing rising stem valves are presented for the following configurations:

Direct Acting Diaphragm (Spring to Retract)

Reverse Acting Diaphragm (Spring to Extend)


7.2.1.2.1 Direct Acting Diaphragm (Spring to Retract)

Available force of a direct acting diaphragm actuator is linear throughout its stroke
(Figure 7-20). When air pressure is acting on top of the diaphragm (Figure 7-21),
available force is represented by the solid line. During the spring stroke (Figures 7-22
and 7-23), available force is represented by the dashed line.

AVAILABLE
FORCE

SPRING
STROKE

PRESSURE
STROKE
0

% RETRACTED

100

Figure 7-20
Available Force Plot for Diaphragm Actuator

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EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

PA

P A TM

FA

Figure 23

Figure 7-21
Diaphragm Actuator, Fully Extended

P A TM

P A TM

P A TM

P A TM

FA
Figure 24

Figure 7-22
Diaphragm Actuator , Retractedt

FA

F igure 25

Figure 7-23
Diaphragm Actuator, Fully
Retracted

Fully Extended Position. The minimum and maximum force output to fully extend the
actuator stem of a direct acting diaphragm actuator is:

[
]
FA /max = [PA /max (1+ PA drift ) A ext (1 + A ext / tol )] BSU/min
FA /min = PA /min (1 PA drift ) A ext (1 A ext / tol ) BSU/max

(7.69)
(7.70)

Fully Retracted Position. The minimum and maximum force output to fully retract the
actuator stem of a direct acting diaphragm actuator is:
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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability
FA /min = BSU/min

(7.73)

FA /max = BSU/max

(7.74)

Extend Position. The minimum and maximum force output to extend the actuator stem
of a direct acting diaphragm actuator is:
FA /min = PA /min (1 PA drift ) A ret (1 A ret / tol ) SP/max

(7.75)

FA /max = PA /max (1 + PA drift ) A ret (1 + A ret / tol ) SP/min

(7.76)

The minimum and maximum supply pressure are calculated as follows:


PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

(7.77)

PA /max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

(7.78)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload.
These methods are:
1. Spring preload and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Tolerance
SP/min = SP (1 SP/tol )

(7.79)

SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

(7.80)

Option 2: Lower Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


S P/min = BS Lower (1 BS tol ) Aret (1 Aret / tol )

(7.81)

S P/max = BS Lower (1 + BS tol ) Aret (1 + Aret / tol )

(7.82)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring rate:
1. Spring rate and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Upper and Lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Option 1: Spring Rate and Tolerance


SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )
SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

(7.83)

(7.84)

Option 2: Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


SR/min =

SR/max =

( BS

Upper

)) (

A ext 1 A ext / tol BSLower Aret 1 + Aret / tol 1 BStol


LBS

(BSUpper Aext (1+ Aext / tol ) BSLower Aret (1 Aret / tol )) (1+ BStol )
LBS

(7.85)

(7.86)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum compressed spring
force:
1. Spring preload and rate
2. Upper benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L

(7.87)

BSU/max = SP/max + (SR/max L)

(7.88)

where
SP/min, SP/max, SR/min, and SR/max are calculated from the
above equations.
Option 2: Upper Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}
BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BS tol ) A ext (1 A ext / tol )

(7.89)

BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BS tol ) A ext (1 + A ext / tol )

(7.90)

Caution: In the majority of actuator designs in nuclear power plants, the benchset is set
when the valve and actuator are uncoupled. If the valve and actuator are coupled when
setting the benchset, Spring Preload, Spring Rate, and Upper Benchset, Option 2
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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

(Equations 7.81, 7.82, 7.85, 7.86, 7.89, and 7.80) should not be used since the benchset
pressure will include valve loads as well as spring force. This could produce false
results. Option 2 can be used if using the vendor supplied benchset since this value
typically is for the uncoupled configuration.
7.2.1.2.2 Reverse Acting Diaphragm (Spring to Extend)

Available force of a reverse acting diaphragm actuator is linear throughout its stroke
(Figure 7-24). During the spring stroke (Figure 7-25), available force is represented by
the dashed line. When air pressure is acting from under the diaphragm (Figures 7-26
and 7-27), available force is represented by the solid line.

AVAILABLE
FORCE

PRESSURE
STROKE

SPRING
STROKE
0

% RETRACTED

100

Figure 7-24
Available Force Plot for Reverse Acting Diaphragm

PATM

P ATM
FA

Figure 7-25
Reverse Acting Diaphragm, Fully Extended

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

PATM

FA

PA

Figure 7-26
Reverse Acting
Diaphragm, Retracted

P ATM

PA
FA

Figure 7-27
Reverse Acting
Diaphragm, Fully Retracted

Fully Extended Position. The minimum and maximum force output to fully extend the
actuator stem of a reverse acting diaphragm actuator is:
FA /min = SP/min

(7.91)

FA /max = SP/max

(7.92)

Fully Retracted Position. The minimum and maximum force output to fully retract the
actuator stem of a reverse acting diaphragm actuator is:

)]

(7.93)

)]

(7.94)

FA /min = PA/min 1 PA drift A ret 1 A ret/ tol BSU/max

FA /max = PA/max 1+PA drift A ret 1 + A ret/ tol BSU/min

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EPRI Licensed Material


Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

Retract Position. The minimum and maximum force output to retract the actuator stem
of a reverse acting diaphragm actuator is:

FA /min = PA /min 1 PA drift A ext 1 A ext/ tol SP/max

FA /max = PA/max 1+ PA drift A ext 1+ A ext/ tol SP/min

(7.95)
(7.96)

Extend Position. The minimum and maximum force output to extend the actuator stem
of a reverse acting diaphragm actuator is:

FA /min = BSU/min

(7.97)

FA /max = BSU/max

(7.98)

The minimum and maximum supply pressure are calculated as follows:


PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

(7.99)

PA /max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

(7.100)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload:
1. Spring preload and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Tolerance
SP/min = SP (1 SP/tol )

(7.101)

SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

(7.102)

Option 2: Lower Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


SP/min = BSLower (1 BS tol ) A ext (1 A ext / tol )

(7.103)

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SP/max = BSLower 1 + BS tol A ext 1 + A ext / tol

(7.104)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring rate:
1. Spring rate and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Upper and Lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Rate and Tolerance
SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

(7.105)

SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

(7.106)

Option 2: Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


SR/min =

SR/max =

( BS

Upper

)) (

)) (

Aret 1 Aret / tol BSLower A ext 1 + Aext / tol 1 BStol

(7.107)

LBS

(BS

Upper

Aret 1 + Aret / tol BSLower A ext 1 A ext / tol 1 + BStol


LBS

(7.108)

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum compressed spring
force:
1. Spring preload and rate
2. Upper benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L

(7.109)

BSU/max = SP/max + (SR/max L)

(7.110)

where
SP/min, SP/max, SR/min, and SR/max are calculated from the above equations.
Option 2: Upper Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}

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(7.111)

(7.112)

BSU/min = BSUpper 1 BS tol A ret 1 A ret / tol

BSU/max = BSUpper 1 + BS tol A ret 1 + A ret / tol

Caution: In the majority of actuator designs in nuclear power plants, the benchset is set
when the valve and actuator are uncoupled. If the valve and actuator are coupled when
setting the benchset, Spring Preload, Spring Rate, and Upper Benchset, Option 2
(Equations 7.103, 7.104, 7.107, 7.108, 7.111, and 7.112) should not be used since the
benchset pressure will include valve loads as well as spring force. This could produce
false results. Option 2 can be used if using the vendor supplied benchset since this
value typically is for the uncoupled configuration.
7.2.1.2.3 Direct Acting Diaphragm (with Increased Mechanical Advantage)

Direct acting diaphragm actuators with a linkage arm (Figure 7-28) are used to increase
the actuator output for a given size actuator. The equations for this type of actuator are
the same as for the standard direct acting diaphragm actuator (Section 7.2.1.2.1) with
the exception of a multiplier (mechanical advantage). The actuator output equations
(FA/min and FA/max) are multiplied by the mechanical advantage. The mechanical
advantage varies throughout the stroke and is generally the greatest at the fully
extended position of the actuator rod. The equations for actuators with increased
mechanical advantage are provided as part of the worksheets in Appendix B.

Figure 7-28
Direct Acting Diaphragm with Link Arm

7.2.1.2.4 Reverse Acting Diaphragm (with Increased Mechanical Advantage)

Reverse acting diaphragm actuators with a linkage arm (Figure 7-29) are used to
increase the actuator output for a given size actuator. The equations for this type of
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actuator are the same as for the standard reverse acting diaphragm actuator (Section
7.2.1.2.2) with the exception of a multiplier (mechanical advantage). The actuator
output equations (FA/min and FA/max) are multiplied by the mechanical advantage. The
mechanical advantage varies throughout the stroke and is generally the greatest at the
fully extended position of the actuator rod. The equations for actuators with increased
mechanical advantage are provided as part of the worksheets in Appendix B.

Figure 7-29
Reverse Acting Diaphragm with Link Arm

7.2.1.3 Scotch Yoke Actuators (Quarter Turn Valves)


Scotch yoke cylinder actuator available forces during opening and closing are calculated
for the following configurations:
1. Scotch Yoke, Double Acting Air Cylinder
2. Scotch Yoke, Single Acting Air Cylinder, Spring Return (Fail Open/ Fail Closed)
The equations for the fail open and fail close actuators are similar and are combined in
the following sections.
7.2.1.3.1 Scotch Yoke, Double Acting Air Cylinder

The Scotch yoke actuator generates torque by converting the force produced by
pressurized air on a piston into rotary motion. It does this by means of a slotted lever
arm and sliding yoke as shown in Figure 7-30.

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PRESSURIZED AIR

FORCE
OF
PISTON

YOKE

PISTON
PIVOT POINT
OF OUTPUT

Figure 7-30
Scotch Yoke, Double Acting Air Cylinder

Most scotch yoke actuators are of the type shown with the lever slot parallel to the lever
axis. There are variations of this mechanism referred to as slanted scotch yoke, where
the slot is at an angle relative to the lever axis. In this case the slot angle needs to be
included in the following analysis.
Torque characteristics of double acting scotch yoke type actuators resemble a U curve as
indicated in Figure 7-31. The torque at the base of the curve that occurs at mid stroke is
known as the run torque. This is also the minimum torque capability of the actuator.
The peak torque occurs at the beginning and end of the stroke and is known as the
break torque.

DOUBLE ACTING

PERCENTAGE OF
BREAK TORQUE

100
BREAK
TORQUE
RUN
TORQUE

50

0
- 45 o

0o

45 o

DEG. OF ROTATION

Figure 7-31
Percentage of Break Torque Plot for Scotch Yoke, Double Acting

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The minimum and maximum output torque of a double acting scotch yoke actuator
(with pressure acting on the non-rod side of the piston) as a function of rotation angle is
defined by the following equations:

T A /min = D P A /min (1 PA drift ) D 2 FD

4

cos 2

(7.113)

T A /max = D P A /max (1 + PA drift ) D 2

cos 2
4

(7.114)

The minimum and maximum output torque of a double acting scotch yoke actuator
(with pressure acting on the rod side of the piston) as a function of rotation angle is
defined by the following equations:

(7.115)

(7.116)

2
T A /min = D P A /min (1 PA drift ) D 2 d FD

4

cos 2
C

2
T A /max = D P A /max (1 + PA drift ) D 2 d

cos 2
4

where:
Start Position

-45

Mid Position

End Position

45

Note 1: Starting and ending positions may be either the open or closed position.
Note 2: may vary over the stroke and must be obtained from the actuator vendor.
Note 3: Equations 7.113 and 7.114 should be used for one stroke direction and Equations 7.115
and 7.116 for the other stroke direction. Which equations to use for a particular stroke direction
is based on whether pressure is acting on the rod side or non-rod side of the piston for a
particular stroke direction.
The piston breakaway force and differential air pressure are calculated as follows:
FD :

Refer to Equation 7.5 for the non-rod side of the piston


Refer to Equation 7.6 for the rod side of the piston
Note: Using Equation 7.5 for all positions is conservative.

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DPA/min :

Refer to Equation 7.7

DPA/max :

Refer to Equation 7.8

Note: The differential pressure may be the same or different for the open and close
strokes. If different, the minimum and maximum differential pressures should be
calculated for each stroke position and applied to the appropriate actuator output.
7.2.1.3.2 Scotch Yoke, Single Acting Air Cylinder, Spring Return

Spring return actuators use the same mechanism but have the added complication of a
varying spring force. The force available to produce torque by the piston is reduced by
the force of the spring. See Figure 7-32.

+45o

0o

-45o

FORCE OF
PISTON

Figure 7-32
Scotch Yoke, Single Acting Air Cylinder

The torque output produced by spring return actuators is expressed as ending torque.
The ending torque is the torque produced by the spring when the spring is in the
extended position. Torque values indicated by the solid line in Figure 7-33 follow the
approximate torque produced by the Scotch yoke mechanism as the spring extends
from break position, providing continually changing force values. The torque values
indicated by the dashed line follow the approximate torque produced as pressure
provides the force required to rotate the Scotch yoke from the end position,
compressing the spring.

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EN D IN G TO RQ U E

PERC EN TA G E O F

PRESSU R E
STRO K E

SPR IN G
STRO K E

150
SPRING RET U RN

100
50

EN D IN G
TO RQ U E

-45o

0o
D EG . O F R O TA TIO N

45 o

Figure 7-33
Percentage of Ending Torque Plot for Scotch Yoke, Singlele Acting

The curves in Figure 7-33 are defined by the following equations:


Pressure Stroke:
C

TA /min = PA /min (1 PA drift ) D2 SP /max + SR /max C (1 + tan ) FD


2
4

cos

TA/max = PA/max (1+ PA drift ) D2 SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg C (1 + tan)


4

cos2

(7.117)

(7.118)

Spring Stroke:

TA /min = SP /min + SR /min 1 SR / deg C (1 + tan ) FD


cos 2

)]

TA /max = SP /max + SR /max C (1 + tan )

C
cos 2

(7.119)
(7.120)

Depending on whether the valve is fail-open or fail-closed, the spring stroke shall
correspond to the failure mode direction. The efficiency () of the scotch yoke
mechanism must be obtained from the actuator vendor.
The piston breakaway force and actuator supply pressure are calculated as follows:
FD :

Refer to Equation 7.5


(Equation 7.6 is not applicable to this type of actuator)

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PA/min :

Refer to Equation 7.59

PA/max :

Refer to Equation 7.60

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload and
the minimum and maximum spring rate:
SP/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.19

SP/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.20

SP/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.21

SP/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.22

SR/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.23

SR/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.24

SR/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.25

SR/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.26

7.2.1.4 Diaphragm Actuators (rotary)


Diaphragm actuator available forces during opening and closing are calculated for the
following configurations:

Direct Acting Diaphragm Actuator, Rotary

Reverse Acting Diaphragm Actuator, Rotary

The equations for the direct and reverse acting actuators are similar and are combined
in the following section.
The rotary diaphragm actuator generates torque by converting the linear motion and
forces produced by pressurized air on a diaphragm into rotary motion. It does this by
means of a lever arm and a single (double pinned) linkage, as depicted in Figure 7-34.

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PA

-45o

0o

TA

b
Figure 7-34
Rotary Diaphragm Actuator

This does not cover actuators where the diaphragm actuator is pivot mounted and
swivels during operation.
The torque output produced by spring return diaphragm actuators is expressed as
ending torque, which is the torque produced by the spring when the spring is in the
extended position. Torque values indicated by the solid line in Figure 7-35 follow the
torque produced by the lever arm as the spring extends from break position, providing
continually changing force values. The torque values indicated by the dashed line
follow the torque produced as pressure provides the force required to rotate the lever
arm, compressing the spring.

PERCENTAGE OF
ENDING TORQUE

PRESSURE
STROKE

SPRING
STROKE

150

ENDING
TORQUE

100
50

SPRING RETURN
-45o

0o

45 o

DEG. OF ROTATION
Figure 7-35
Percentage of Ending Torque Plot for Rotary Diaphragm

The curves in Figure 7-35 apply to both direct acting and reverse acting diaphragm
actuators. The diaphragm effective areas used in the equations below should include
the reduction of area due to the actuator rod diameter, where applicable. Therefore, the
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equations are the same for both type actuators. The curves in Figure 7-35 are defined by
the following equations:
Pressure Stroke:

TA /min = PA /min (1 PA drift ) A (1 A tol ) SP /max


SR /max b (1 + tan ) b cos

(7.121)

TA /max = PA /max 1 + PAdrift A 1+ Atol SP/min


SR/min 1 SR/deg b (1 + tan ) b cos

(7.122)

Spring Stroke:

SR/min 1 SR/deg b (1 + tan ) b cos


TA /min = SP /min +

(7.123)

SR/max b (1 + tan ) b cos


TA /max = SP /max +

(7.124)

Depending on whether the valve is fail-open or fail-closed, the spring stroke shall
correspond to the failure mode direction.
The actuator supply pressure is calculated as follows:
PA/min : Refer to Equation 7.59
PA/max : Refer to Equation 7.60
Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload:
1. Spring preload and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Preload and Tolerance
S P/min = S P (1 S P/tol )

(7.125)

S P/max = S P (1 + S P/tol )

(7.126)

Option 2: Lower Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


S P/min =BS Lower (1 BS tol ) A (1 Atol )

(7.127)
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S P/max = BSLower (1 + BS tol ) A (1 + Atol )

(7.128)

where A is the diaphragm effective area at the applicable position, as follows:


For Direct Acting Actuators (spring below diaphragm):
A = Retracted Diaphragm Area (Aret)
For Reverse Acting Actuators (spring above diaphragm):
A = Extended Diaphragm Area (Aext)
Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring rate:
1. Spring rate and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
2. Upper and lower benchset and tolerance (measured or vendor supplied)
Option 1: Spring Rate and Tolerance
S R/min =S R (1 S R/tol )

(7.129)

S R/max = S R (1 + S R/tol )

(7.130)

Option 2: Benchset and Tolerance {see Caution below}


Direct Acting Actuator:
SR/min =

SR/max =

( BS

Upper

)) (

)) (

)) (

A ext 1 A tol BSLower Aret 1 + A tol 1 BStol


LBS

(BS

Upper

A ext 1 + A tol BSLower Aret 1 A tol 1 + BStol


LBS

(7.131)

(7.132)

Reverse Acting Actuator:


SR/min =

7-44

( BS

Upper

Aret 1 A tol BSLower Aext 1 + A tol 1 BStol


LBS

(7.133)

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

SR/max =

(BSUpper Aret (1+ A tol ) BSLower Aext (1 A tol )) (1+ BStol )


LBS

(7.134)

Caution: In the majority of actuator designs in nuclear power plants, the benchset is set
when the valve and actuator are uncoupled. If the valve and actuator are coupled when
setting the benchset, Spring Preload, and Spring Rate, Option 2 (Equations 7.127, 7.128,
and 7.131 through 7.134) should not be used. This is due to inclusion of valve loads and
the loss in efficiency at the moment arm in the benchset when the valve and actuator are
coupled. This could produce false spring preload and spring rate results. Option 2 can
be used if using the vendor supplied benchset since this value typically is for the
uncoupled configuration.
7.2.1.5 Rack and Pinion Actuators
Rack and pinion actuator available forces during opening and closing are calculated for
the following configurations:

Rack & Pinion, Double Acting Air Cylinder, Rotary

Rack & Pinion, Single Acting Air Cylinder, Spring Return, Rotary
7.2.1.5.1 Rack & Pinion, Double Acting Air Cylinder, Rotary

The double acting, rack and pinion actuator generates torque by converting the force
produced by pressurized air on one or two pistons into rotary motion. It does this by
means of one or more rack gears, each fixed to pistons, and a single pinion gear. (Figure
7-36)

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Figure 7-36
Double Acting Rack & Pinion, Rotary

A V A IL A B L E
TORQUE

Torque output produced by the double acting rack and pinion actuator is constant and
linear throughout its stroke (Figure 7-37). Whether the air pressure is acting on the
outside of each piston (P2) or on the inside of each piston (P1), the torque output is
represented by the solid line in Figure 7-37.

D eg. of R otation

90

Figure 7-37
Available Torque Plot for Double Acting Rack and Pinion

Torque output, in either direction, is defined for the double acting rack and pinion
actuator by the following equations:

7-46

TA /min = Npiston

D PG

DPA /min (1 PA drift ) D 2 FD

2
4

(7.135)

TA /max = Npiston

D PG

DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) D 2

2
4

(7.136)

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

The piston breakaway force and actuator supply pressure are calculated as follows:
FD :

Refer to Equation 7.5


(Equation 7.6 is not applicable to this type of actuator)

DPA/min :

Refer to Equation 7.7

DPA/max :

Refer to Equation 7.8

Note: The differential pressure may be the same or different for the open and close
strokes. If different, the minimum and maximum differential pressures should be
calculated for each stroke position and applied to the appropriate actuator output.
7.2.1.5.2 Rack & Pinion, Single Acting Air Cylinder, Spring Return, Rotary

The spring return, rack and pinion actuator generates torque by converting the force
produced by pressurized air and springs on two pistons into rotary motion. It does this
by means of two rack gears, each fixed to pistons, a single pinion gear and a set of
springs on the outside of each piston. See Figure 7-38.
0

TA
o
90 P 1
P2

Figure 7-38
Single Acting Rack and Pinion, Rotary

Torque output produced by the spring return rack and pinion actuator is linear
throughout its rotation (see Figure 7-39). When air pressure, P1, is acting on the inside
of each piston, available torque is represented by the solid line. During the spring
stroke, available torque is represented by the dashed line.
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AVAILABLE
TORQUE

PRESSURE
STROKE

SPRING
STROKE
0

Deg. of Rotation

90

Figure 7-39
Available Torque Plot for Single Acting Rack and Pinion

The curves in Figure 7-39 are defined by the following equations:


Pressure Stroke:
TA /min =

TA/max =

Npiston
2


DPG
DPG PA /min 1 PAdrift D2 -FD SP/max SR/max


90 4
4

DPG PA/max 1+PAdrift D2 SP/min SR/min 1 SR/deg DPG

2
4
90 4

Npiston

(7.137)

(7.138)

Spring Stroke:
TA /min =

Npiston

TA /max =

2
Npiston
2

DPG SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg


DPG FD

90 4

(7.139)

DPG SP/max + SR/max


DPG

90
4

(7.140)

Depending on whether the valve is fail-open or fail-closed, the spring stroke shall
correspond to the failure mode direction. Conversely, the pressure stroke shall
correspond to the other mode.
The piston breakaway force and actuator supply pressure are calculated as follows:
FD :

Refer to Equation 7.5


(Equation 7.6 is not applicable to this type of actuator)

PA/min :
7-48

Refer to Equation 7.59

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Evaluation of Air Actuator Output Thrust / Torque Capability

PA/max :

Refer to Equation 7.60

Two methods can be used to calculate the minimum and maximum spring preload and
the minimum and maximum spring rate:
SP/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.19

SP/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.20

SP/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.21

SP/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.22

SR/min (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.23

SR/max (Option 1):

Refer to Equation 7.24

SR/min (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.25

SR/max (Option 2):

Refer to Equation 7.26

7.2.2 Calculation Considerations


7.2.2.1 Diaphragm Area
The effective area of a diaphragm actuator generally varies slightly with actuator
position. The diaphragm area is typically largest at the fail position. For example, the
diaphragm area of a direct acting actuator is typically largest at the retracted position
and the diaphragm area of a reverse acting actuator is typically largest at the extended
position. The equations in the previous section use the applicable diaphragm area for
the position being evaluated. See Section 4.8 for more information on effective
diaphragm area.
7.2.2.2 Spring Rate Degradation
The output thrust and torque of a spring return air actuator is a function of the rate of
the installed spring. After a spring is in service for a period of time, the spring rate may
begin to degrade. The equations in the previous section account for this condition. The
spring rate degradation factor is only applied in cases where a minimum value results
in a more conservative (lower) actuator output capability. If a spring is not expected to
degrade, a value of zero is used for the spring rate degradation. See Section 4.8 for
more information on spring rate degradation.
7.2.2.3 Pressure Drift
The output thrust and torque of an air actuator is a function of the air supply pressure.
The pressure setting may change, or drift, from the setpoint after a period of time
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since the calibration. The equations in the previous section account for this condition.
If the setting is not expected to drift, a value of zero is used for the air pressure drift
factor. There is not a lot of industry information for this phenomenon. Plant specific
trending of pressure setpoints may provide technical justification for values to be used
for pressure drifts.
7.2.2.4 Tolerances
Many of the actuator parameters used in the actuator capability evaluations have
associated tolerances. These parameters include the pressure, benchset, diaphragm
area, spring preload, and spring rate. Tolerances are provided by the vendor or are
based on the calibration equipment tolerances. The equations in the previous section
account for such tolerances.
Pressure Tolerance. Actuator supply pressure tolerance is the tolerance associated with
the air regulator between the actuator supply source and actuator. The tolerance used
in the equations is the equipment calibration tolerance used to calibrate the air
regulator. A pressure setting tolerance is included on the data sheets since the vendor
may provide a tolerance. The vendor tolerance would only be used if the actual
tolerance is unknown.
Benchset Tolerance. The benchset tolerance is the tolerance associated with the
equipment used for calibrating the benchset. A benchset tolerance is included on the
data sheets since the vendor may provide a tolerance. The vendor tolerance would only
be used if the actual tolerance is unknown.
Diaphragm Area Tolerance. The vendor typically provides a manufacturing tolerance
with the diaphragm area. This tolerance is included on the vendor data sheets provided
in Appendix B. If the diaphragm area is measured (using pressure and force
measurements to calculate the diaphragm area), the tolerance associated with the test
equipment would be used.
Spring Preload Tolerance. The vendor typically provides a manufacturing tolerance
with the spring preload. This tolerance is included on the vendor data sheets provided
in Appendix B.
Spring Rate Tolerance. The vendor typically provides a manufacturing tolerance with
the spring rate. This tolerance is included on the vendor data sheets provided in
Appendix B.

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7.3 Stroke Time Evaluation


The stroking time of an air operated valve is a function of a number of AOV
characteristics. These characteristics are:

Actuator Size/Actuator Air Volume

Actuator Supply Pressure

Air Supply Flow Rate

Travel Length/Rotation

Spring Preload

Spring Rate

Air Vent Flow Rate

Valve Load

Stroke times for a particular actuator can generally be found in vendor catalogues or
obtained directly from the vendor. Published stroke times are generally applicable to
tested conditions and valve and actuator configurations. Changing any one of these
parameters may change the stroke time.

7.3.1 Increasing Stroke Speed


Increasing stroke speed can generally be accomplished by adjusting one or more of the
system and actuator parameters, as follows:

Install a volume booster to increase volumetric flow rates

Increase the venting port area for increased venting rates

Limit valve travel

Increase actuator supply pressure (may increase stroke speed of pressure stroke
only)

Install a heavier spring (increases stroke speed of spring stroke only; may decrease
stroke speed of pressure stroke).

Decrease parasitic loads such as packing


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Refer to Section 4 for additional information on stroke times.

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8
CALCULATING AND EVALUATING MARGINS

This section discusses the calculation and evaluation of AOV Margins. Included in the
discussion is an overview of parameters affecting margin calculations as well as
techniques for addressing inadequate margin.
There are two types of margins applicable to AOV evaluations: actuator capability
margin and component allowable margin. Each is addressed in the following sections.

8.1 Actuator Capability Margin


The actuator capability margin compares the actuator output thrust/torque (See Section
7 of this Guide) to the required thrust/torque (See Section 5). Capability margins are
typically calculated for both the opening and closing strokes and can be determined at
any valve position. The key positions to be evaluated are determined by the valve type.
For rising stem AOVs, capability margin should be evaluated for closing (shutoff),
opening, and at the full open position. For quarter turn valves, capability margin
should be evaluated at each angle of the stroke (both opening and closing). Typically,
evaluating margin at every 5 is adequate.
The following equation is used to calculate the actuator capability margin:
Actuator Capability Required Thrust/Torque
100 %
Required Thrust/Torque
In order to ensure a conservative result, the minimum expected actuator capability and
the maximum expected required thrust/torque should be used.

8.1.1 Accounting For Potential Degradation

The AOV margin evaluation needs to address potential degradations in AOV


performance. Degradation mechanisms that need to be considered are listed below.

Actuator spring relaxation

Internal valve friction coefficient degradation (gate valves)


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Bearing degradation (butterfly and ball valves)

Elastomer seat hardening (butterfly and ball valves)

Regulator Drift

For elements of available or required thrust/torque that can be monitored via periodic
testing, margin needs to cover degradations during the interval between tests. For
elements not addressed by periodic testing, margin needs to cover degradations during
the remaining life of the AOV.
Adequate margin can cover degradation in two fundamental ways.
1. Adequate margin can be ensured by building in values of degradation in the
parameters used to calculate the margin value (required thrust/torque and actuator
capability). When this approach is used, the calculated margin is conservative
compared to the true margin for the desired interval.
2. Adequate margin can be ensured by demonstrating that the calculated residual
margin (i.e., without degradation factors built in) is sufficient to cover degradation
for the desired interval.
In addition, various hybrids of the above two approaches can be used.

8.1.2 Examples
EXAMPLE 1: Calculation of the fully closed margin for a direct acting globe valve
driven by a reverse acting diaphragm actuator.
Given: Minimum force to fully extend the actuator stem: FAmin = 2000 lbf.
Maximum expected total required thrust to close the valve: Fc = 1700 lbf.
Close Capability Margin = [(FAmin Fc)/ Fc] * 100% =
[(2000 1700)/1700] * 100% = 17.65%
EXAMPLE 2: Calculation of the closing margin at 15 degrees from full closed for a
butterfly valve coupled to a direct acting scotch yoke diaphragm actuator.
Given: Minimum torque available in the closing at 15 degrees from the seat:
TAmin/15 = 200 ft*lb.
Maximum expected total required torque to close the valve at 15 degrees:
Tc/15 = 225 ft*lb.
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Calculating and Evaluating Margins

Close Capability Margin at 15 degrees from full closed =


[(TAmin/15 Tc/15)/ Tc/15] * 100% = [(200 225)/225] * 100% = -12.5%

8.2 Component Allowable Margin


The component allowable margin compares component limitations to the required
operating parameters. Component margins generally fall into two categories: pressure
and torque/thrust limitations. Often pressure limits are provided to address
functionality and structural integrity. The following equation should be used to
calculate component allowable margin.
Limitation OperatingParameter
100%
Limitation
Where:
Limitation = Component Allowable Rating
Operating
Parameter =

Maximum expected pressure, torque, or thrust to which the component


is subject during operation. Value used should encompass operating
conditions in both opening and closing strokes. Using the maximum
expected or measured operating condition ensures a conservative
margin result.

Table 8.1 lists the rating types for some standard AOV components along with the appropriate
operating parameter to be used in the margin comparison.

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EPRI Licensed Material


Calculating and Evaluating Margins
Table 8-1
AOV Component Ratings
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8.3 Accounting for Uncertainties


8.3.1 Types of Uncertainties
When evaluating AOV margins, there are many parameters to consider. Some of these
inputs have associated uncertainties that need to be considered in the margin
evaluation. Uncertainties include the following.

Diagnostic uncertainty, which depends on the diagnostic system employed,

Actuator spring pre-load and rate,

Actuator diaphragm effective area,

Air regulator setpoint and setpoint drift,

Valve friction coefficients (not required if default and PPM values are used), and

Statistical uncertainty, which can result from engineering analysis of test data.

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Calculating and Evaluating Margins

Uncertainties may be reduced by refining engineering analyses or employing more accurate


diagnostic systems. Large uncertainties associated with some input parameters can have a
significantly adverse effect on margin if the parameter is a significant contributor in either the
actuator capability, component allowable, or required thrust/torque calculations.

8.3.2 Applying Uncertainties


As mentioned above, uncertainties should be applied to margin calculations to ensure a
bounding result. The manner in which the uncertainties are applied varies.
Uncertainties such as the actuator tolerances outlined in Section 7 can be applied to
individual terms within the equations. Alternatively, uncertainties can be combined
into one term and applied to the overall calculation (e.g., to the required thrust/torque
or the actuator capability). Although grouping tolerances in this way can sometimes
simplify the analysis, it may come at the expense of added conservatism since some
calculation components may be affected by uncertainties that do not apply.
The most common method used to combine uncertainties is the square root sum of the
squares (SRSS) method, as shown in the equation below.
TotalE = re1 + re2 ... + ren + be1 + ...ben
2

Where:
TotalE = The total combined error or uncertainty.
re = Random error or uncertainty (%)
be = Bias error or uncertainty (%)
Note that the equation makes a distinction between bias and random uncertainties.
Random uncertainties are errors that have an equal probability of increasing or
decreasing the value of a parameter. Bias uncertainties are errors that tend to either
increase or decrease the value of a parameter. There are a number of statistical texts
that outline tests that can be performed in order to determine whether a given
uncertainty should be treated as a random or bias error. Examples of such methods
include frequency distributions and probability plots.
Figure 8-1 shows a graphical representation of the AOV margins. The figure shows
only some types of uncertainties to consider in the margin calculations. The figure may
not cover every possible uncertainty. Moreover, some uncertainties may not apply
depending upon the valve and actuator configuration and the set up method in
question. For example, if actuator output is measured at the valve stem, uncertainties
associated with springs and effective areas are irrelevant.

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Calculating and Evaluating Margins

Upper Scale

Thrust / Torque or Pressure

Raw Component Allowable


Minimum Component Allowable

Diagnostic Inaccuracy

Maximum Actuator Output

Component Allowable Margin

Nominal Actuator Capability

EDA Tolerance
Regulator Drift
Spring Uncertainty (Pre-Load, Rate)
Regulator Set Point Tolerance

Minimum Actuator Output

Actuator Uncertainty - (EDA, Mechanical Linkage, Friction)


Regulator Drift
Spring Relaxation
Spring Uncertainty (Preload, Rate)

Maximum Required Thrust / Torque


Raw Valve Required Thrust / Torque

Lower Scale
Figure 8-1
AOV Margins and Uncertainties

8-6

Actuator Capability Margin


Seating / Unseating Tolerance
Valve Factor Degradation
Diagnostic Inaccuracy

EPRI Licensed Material


Calculating and Evaluating Margins

8.4 Addressing Inadequate Margin


In general inadequate margins can be improved in one of three ways. The first and
most desirable alternative is to lower the associated tolerances and/or degradations
used in the margin assessment. In short this requires increasing the certainty of the
calculations input parameters. Again, use of valve diagnostics and/or refined analysis
techniques are effective tools. The second method is to adjust the existing component
configurations. Spring pre-load and air regulator setting changes are among the most
commonly employed solutions. The third means of increasing available margin is to
modify the configuration by replacing the AOV components with more capable
substitutes. Often the third alternative is the least attractive since the modification
process can be timely and expensive. Below is an outline of the three alternatives for
improving actuator capability margins along with their more specific alternatives.
1. Increase Certainty of Margin Calculation Input Parameters - Use Diagnostics to
verify or quantify the following parameters with more accuracy. Note: Monitoring
performance at the actuator/valve stem interface minimizes uncertainties.
a) Actuator

Spring Pre-load

Spring Rate

Diaphragm Effective Area

Thrust to Torque Converter Efficiencies (Scotch Yoke & Rack and


Pinion Actuators)

Trend Regulator Set Point to Drift

b) Valve

Required Packing Thrust/Torque

Required DP Loads (seat coefficients) Sealing load, DP load, Stem


Rejection, Cage Friction loads, etc.

Disc Wedging/Unwedging

Bearing Coefficients

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Calculating and Evaluating Margins

2. 2.Adjust Existing Component Configuration


a) Actuator
i) Air Stroke

Increase Available Air Supply by Increasing the Regulator Setting

Decrease Spring Force by Lowering Bench Set (pre-load)

ii) Spring Stroke

Increase Spring Force by Raising Bench Set (pre-load)

b) Valve - Decrease the Required Operating Force/Torque

Reduce the Required Packing Load by Applying Less Gland Stress

Leakage Requirements Lower or Eliminate the Required Sealing Load

Limit the Operation of the Valve Procedural Changes

3. Modify the Actuator or Valve


a) Actuator
i) Air Stroke

Increase available Air Supply by Modifying Boosters or Compressors

Decrease Spring Force by Installing a Lighter Spring

ii) Spring Stroke

Increase Spring Force by Installing a Heavier or Additional Spring(s)

b) Valve - Decrease the Required Operating Force/Torque

8-8

Reduce the Required Packing Load by Modifying the Packing Gland or


Employing a Lower Friction Material

Change the Valve Flow Direction (Over/Under the seat)

Install a More Appropriate Design for the Application

EPRI Licensed Material

9
AOV TESTING

The main forces involved in the operation of an AOV include the diaphragm or piston
force (depending on the type of actuator), the spring force (for spring-return or
spring-biased actuators), the valve stem packing friction, the valve disc and stem
weight, the valve disc seating force, and the valve fluid force. An acceptable AOV setup
should ensure that the actuator output capability exceeds the required stem thrust or
torque determined from the main operating forces, and the maximum actuator output
capability is below the thrust or torque rating of the AOV assembly.
One of the fundamental purposes of testing an AOV is to confirm by measurement that
the AOV will perform its desired functions under its design basis conditions (i.e., that
the AOV setup is acceptable). Three main types of AOV testing are used: (1) bench set
testing, (2) static testing, and (3) dynamic testing. The tests have different objectives
and not all tests are typically performed on every AOV.
Bench set testing is typically performed following an AOV maintenance or repair
activity. It is a simple test which does not require extensive equipment or digital data
recording systems. It is intended to confirm that the actuator is set up in a manner to
deliver the desired stroke length and the desired thrust (or torque) range in both
stroking directions. The thrust (or torque) range is confirmed by measuring pressures.
There is typically no direct confirmation of the thrust (or torque) output capability of
the actuator. Bench set testing does not provide information about the actual thrust (or
torque) required to stroke the valve.
Static testing is the simplest type of test which can be done on an AOV using digital
data recording equipment. In a static test, the AOV is stroked while there is no flow or
differential pressure (DP) in the pipe. Measurements are recorded during the stroke.
The information which can be reduced and analyzed from the test depends on which
data measurements are recorded, but typically some information about the actuator
output thrust (or torque) as well as some aspects of the valve required thrust are
obtained. Also, indications of valve problems or degradation might be revealed by the
data. Static testing does not provide information about the thrust (or torque) required
to overcome loads caused by fluid flow in the pipe.
Dynamic testing is typically the more difficult AOV test to perform, because it requires
the most extensive set of instrumentation to be meaningful and it requires coordination
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AOV Testing

of system operation with the testing. In a dynamic test, the AOV is stroked while there
is flow and DP in the pipe. Stem thrust (torque) measurements are recorded which can
be interpreted to determine the thrust (or torque) required to overcome the loads
caused by fluid flow. Further, valve problems which are only revealed by flow-induced
loads (such as damage to load bearing surfaces) might be observed in the data. To be
most meaningful, data measurements should include fluid conditions in the pipe (e.g.,
pressure, DP and/or flow). Test conditions should be evaluated to ensure that
sufficient DP load can be generated to provide meaningful results.
An effective AOV program uses a combination of bench set testing, static testing and
dynamic testing. These types of testing, the measurements which can be made and the
information which can be obtained are discussed in the sections below.

9.1 Bench Set Testing


Spring-return or spring-biased diaphragm and piston type actuators are set up through
selection of a bench set pressure range. This is the pressure range required to operate
the actuator full stroke without external forces on the actuator stem (such as valve stem
packing friction). For example, a direct acting actuator (uncoupled from the valve) with
a bench set of 3 to 11 psig will begin stroking (actuator stem starts moving) when the air
pressure applied to the actuator increases to 3 psig, and will reach full stroke (valve
rated travel) when the air pressure increases to 11 psig, assuming friction forces in the
actuator are negligible. The bench set pressure range values (or bench set points) are
established based on vendor design information, calculations, test equipment accuracy,
and plant operating experience. Note that the friction forces in a piston actuator (due to
piston seal friction) and a reverse acting actuator (due to packing friction) can affect the
pressures at which the actuator begins stroking and reaches full stroke and must be
considered when performing a bench set test.
The bench set procedure involves piping an air supply, with a test quality pressure
gauge and regulator, to the upper or lower half of the actuator diaphragm or piston case
(or piping two regulated air supplies to both halves in the case of some double-acting
actuators). The regulated air supply and pressure gauge are then used to determine the
bench set pressure range. On air to open valves, the pressure at which the stem starts to
move is critical for a valve which requires positive shutoff by the spring (i.e., the seat
load). Stem movement can be detected by feeling the stem as air pressure is applied.
More consistent results can be obtained using a measurement device such as a dial
indicator. On air to close valves, the pressure at which the actuator stem reaches rated
valve stroke length is critical for the spring to have enough force to overcome valve
friction and seat the valve. The full stroke differential pressure (difference between
bench set points) can only be changed by replacing the actuator spring. For actuators
with an adjustable bench set, the initial spring compression is adjusted during the bench
set test so that the desired actuator stem motion is achieved at the appropriate bench set
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AOV Testing

pressure point. Only one of the bench set points is adjustable and the critical point
should be the one adjusted.
When conducting a bench set procedure, the configuration of the actuator and valve is
defined by the valve manufacturer. The most common configuration is to have the
actuator disconnected from the valve stem (an uncoupled bench set). Some
manufacturers require that the packing load be removed but the valve disc and stem
remain attached to the actuator (a coupled bench set). This method accounts for the
weight of the stem and valve disc. Because the valve forces are not typically present
during a bench set procedure, the bench set pressure range is not the same as the
pressure required to stroke the valve in actual service.
Double-acting actuators which do not include a return or bias spring do not require
selection and adjustment of bench set points. These actuators are set up (coupled to the
valve) to ensure that the actuator stem mechanical stops will not interfere with
movement of the valve over its full required stroke length.

9.2 Analysis of Static Diagnostic Traces


The recommended operating parameters to record during an AOV static test include
the following:

The regulated supply air pressure to the actuator solenoid or positioner

The positioner output control air pressure to the actuator (both upper and lower control air
pressures for a double-acting actuator)

Stem displacement

Limit switch positions (if applicable)

The following additional recommended parameters may provide more insight for
assessing AOV condition and performance. These parameters are not necessarily
required to be measured to verify acceptable AOV setup. However, these data add
significantly to: (1) the ability to extrapolated data to other equipment, (2) the ability to
diagnose problems in AOV operation should they be encountered, and (3) the ability to
later review tracking and trending of maintenance issues and corrective actions.

The electric or pneumatic control signal to the actuator solenoid or positioner

The instrument air pressure signal generated by an electro-pneumatic positioner (if


possible)

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AOV Testing

Pressures in and out of accessories if not previously accounted for (i.e., volume
boosters)

Stem thrust (rising stem valves only)

Shaft torque (rotating shaft valves only)

The information provided by these parameters on the operating condition of the AOV
being tested is discussed later in this section.
Figure 9-1 provides an example of static test results (data traces) of a rising stem globe
valve (push down to close) equipped with a direct acting (air to extend, spring to
retract) diaphragm actuator. The air pressure to the diaphragm actuator is controlled
by an electro-pneumatic positioner. The AOV was instrumented as follows:

A current sensing transducer was used to measure the milliamp control signal
output from the AOV diagnostic system to the electro-pneumatic positioner (I/P
control signal).

A pressure transducer was used to measure the instrument control air pressure generated by
the electro-pneumatic positioner (control air pressure).

A pressure transducer was used to measure the regulated supply air pressure to the electropneumatic positioner (supply air pressure).

A pressure transducer was used to measure the electro-pneumatic positioner output control
air pressure to the actuator diaphragm (diaphragm pressure).

A spring-loaded feedback device was used to measure stem displacement.

A clamp-on strain gage was used to measure stem thrust.

The data traces include both the closing and opening strokes of a properly operating
AOV under static conditions. Eleven different points, indicated by the letters A through
K, are noted on the example traces. The following discussion interprets the points:
Point A

9-4

Valve is full open. Milliamp control signal output from diagnostic system
to the valve positioner I/P transducer begins fixed-rate ramp increase to
close the valve.
I/P Control Signal:

Begins fixed-rate ramp increase

Control Air Pressure:

Begins ramp increase in response to I/P control


signal ramp increase

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AOV Testing

Point B

Point C

Point D

Supply Air Pressure:

Steady at regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Zero pressure (valve full open setpoint)

Stem Displacement:

Valve full open

Stem Thrust:

Disk back-seated, stem in tension

Control air pressure increases to point where diaphragm pressure begins


increasing.
I/P Control Signal:

Continues fixed-rate ramp increase

Control Air Pressure:

Continues ramp increase in response to I/P control


signal ramp increase

Supply Air Pressure:

Pressure drop in response to increased air demand


by pneumatic positioner

Diaphragm Pressure:

Begins period of rapid increase prior to stem


movement

Stem Displacement:

Valve full open

Stem Thrust:

Begins transition from tension to compression

Diaphragm pressure force overcomes spring preload and valve friction


forces. Valve begins to close.
I/P Control Signal:

Continues fixed-rate ramp increase

Control Air Pressure:

Continues ramp increase in response to I/P control


signal ramp increase

Supply Air Pressure:

Recovering from pressure drop

Diaphragm Pressure:

Begins period of fixed-rate increase as actuator


spring is compressed

Stem Displacement:

Valve begins moving closed

Stem Thrust:

Constant compression at running load

Valve disc contacts valve body seat.


I/P Control Signal:

Continues fixed-rate ramp increase

Control Air Pressure:

Continues ramp increase in response to I/P control


signal ramp increase

Supply Air Pressure:

Recovered to slightly below regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Begins period of rapid increase following end of


stem movement
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Point E

Point F

Point G

9-6

Stem Displacement:

Valve fully closed

Stem Thrust:

Compression increases as disk seats

Control air pressure increases to point where diaphragm pressure stops


increasing. Full valve disc seating load is applied.
I/P Control Signal:

Continues fixed-rate ramp increase

Control Air Pressure:

Continues ramp increase in response to I/P control


signal ramp increase

Supply Air Pressure:

Recovers to regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Full pressure (valve fully closed setpoint)

Stem Displacement:

Valve fully closed

Stem Thrust:

Maximum compressive seating load

Valve is fully closed. Milliamp control signal output from the AOV
diagnostic system to the valve positioner I/P transducer begins a fixed-rate
ramp decrease to open the valve.
I/P Control Signal:

Begins fixed-rate ramp decrease

Control Air Pressure:

Begins ramp decrease in response to I/P control


signal ramp increase

Supply Air Pressure:

Steady at regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Full pressure (valve fully closed setpoint)

Stem Displacement:

Valve fully closed

Stem Thrust:

Maximum compressive seating load

Control air pressure decreases to point where diaphragm pressure starts


decreasing. Valve disc seating load is removed.
I/P Control Signal:

Continues fixed-rate ramp decrease

Control Air Pressure:

Continues ramp decrease in response to I/P control


signal ramp decrease

Supply Air Pressure:

Steady at regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Begins period of rapid decrease prior to start of


stem movement

Stem Displacement:

Valve fully closed

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

Stem Thrust:
Point H

Point I

Point J

Point K

Compression begins to be relieved

Spring compression force overcomes diaphragm pressure force and valve


friction forces. Valve begins to open.
I/P Control Signal:

Continues fixed-rate ramp decrease

Control Air Pressure:

Continues ramp decrease in response to I/P control


signal ramp decrease

Supply Air Pressure:

Steady at regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Begins period of fixed-rate decrease as actuator


spring compression is relieved

Stem Displacement:

Valve begins moving open

Stem Thrust:

Constant tension at running load

Valve disc contacts valve bonnet backseat.


I/P Control Signal:

Continues fixed-rate ramp decrease

Control Air Pressure:

Continues ramp decrease in response to I/P control


signal ramp decrease

Supply Air Pressure:

Steady at regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Begins period of rapid decrease following end of


stem movement

Stem Displacement:

Valve full open

Stem Thrust:

Tension increases as disk backseats

Control air pressure decreases to point where diaphragm pressure stops


decreasing.
I/P Control Signal:

Continues fixed-rate ramp decrease

Control Air Pressure:

Continues ramp decrease in response to I/P control


signal ramp decrease

Supply Air Pressure:

Steady at regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Zero pressure (valve full open setpoint)

Stem Displacement:

Valve full open

Stem Thrust:

Maximum tensile backseating load

Valve is full open. Milliamp control signal output from the AOV diagnostic
system to the valve positioner I/P transducer decreases to minimum value.
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AOV Testing

I/P Control Signal:

Steady at minimum value

Control Air Pressure:

Steady at minimum value in response to I/P control


signal minimum value

Supply Air Pressure:

Steady at regulated value

Diaphragm Pressure:

Zero pressure (valve full open setpoint)

Stem Displacement:

Valve full open

Stem Thrust:

Maximum tensile backseating load

Figure 9-2 shows the plot of diaphragm pressure and stem thrust versus stem
displacement for the same valve test stroke from full open to full closed and back to full
open. From the data traces shown in Figures 9-1 and 9-2, the following AOV operating
parameters can be determined.
Note: The examples in the following sections are based on air diagnostics only. With
this method, stem thrust calculations should be adjusted for pressure measurement
errors and effective diaphragm uncertainty. Use of direct thrust measurements requires
consideration for diagnostic equipment error only.

9.2.1 Bench Set


The data shown in Figure 9-2 can be used to verify the correct bench set of the AOV. If
the data shown in Figure 9-2 is averaged by drawing a line down the center of the
opening and closing stroke traces, the effects of valve and actuator friction loads are
eliminated and the as-tested bench set is found from the intersection points of this
average data line and the extremes of stem displacement (travel). Figure 9-3 shows the
average data line for the static test data, and identifies the upper and lower bench set
values based on the average data line. For the data shown in Figure 9-3, the measured
bench set is approximately 2.5 psi to 14.5 psi.

9.2.2 Stem Packing Friction


The data shown in Figure 9-2 can be used to calculate and verify the as-tested friction,
which include the valve stem packing and any actuator friction. The total valve and
actuator friction is calculated as one half the pressure difference between the opening
and closing stroke curves (at the same stem displacement) multiplied by the effective
diaphragm area. Figure 9-3 shows determination of the pressure difference between the
opening and closing stroke curves. For the data shown in Figure 9-3 and given an
effective diaphragm area of 69 square inches, the total valve and actuator friction is:
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AOV Testing

Total Friction = (7.0 6.0 psig/2)(69 in2) = 34.5 lbs


Stem packing friction is typically the major friction represented by the total friction
calculated above. However, other friction sources can contribute to the total friction.
Other friction sources include:

actuator stem seals (packing, pistons seals, o-rings)

spring side loading

binding caused by misalignment

internal friction between valve disc and valve body guides

internal valve disc seals

The total friction calculated above was determined using the actuator effective
diaphragm area, which is typically specified by the vendor. Actuator effective
diaphragm area, and other as-built design information obtained from valve
specifications or vendor manuals, may serve only as nominal information. For
example, actuator effective area may prove to be variable over the valve stroke or as
actuator pressure changes. Such uncertainties in design information may unacceptably
reduce the calculated margin in an AOV application and may complicate proper
actuator setup.
Direct measurement of stem thrust (or torque) can be used to quantify variations in
valve design information such as actuator effective diaphragm area. The uncertainties
in the quantified values are dependent upon the stem thrust (or torque) measurement
methods and equipment used. However, these uncertainties may still be less than the
inherent uncertainty in the as-built design information, and subsequent setup
calculations using the quantified values may result in improved margin. Other
advantages of direct measurement of stem thrust or torque include the ability to
distinguish the valve from the actuator as a source of high thrust or torque
measurements, and identification of incorrect valve coupling resulting in an actuator
hitting mechanical stops prior to valve seating or backseating.

9.2.3 Seat Load


The data shown in Figure 9-2 can be used to calculate and verify the maximum
developed contact load between the valve disc and the valve seat at the end of the valve
closing stroke. The point in the valve closing stroke when the valve disc contacts the
valve seat is clearly seen in Figure 9-2 (assuming the actuator does not hit its mechanical
stops prior to valve seating). Any additional diaphragm pressure force applied beyond
this point results in seat contact load. As shown in Figure 9-3, the diaphragm pressure
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AOV Testing

increase from seat contact to maximum diaphragm pressure is approximately 6 psi (15
psi to 21 psi). Given an effective diaphragm area of 69 square inches, the as-tested seat
load is:
Seat Load = (6 psig)(69 in2) = 414 lbs
Note that the final seat load for this valve may be different under dynamic (valve flow
and differential pressure) operating conditions. In particular, the stem ejection load will
reduce the final seat load achieved. For an unbalanced disk design, the differential
pressure load across the disc will increase the final seat load achieved if the valve is
flow over the seat, and will decrease the final seat load achieved if the valve is flow
under the seat. The effect is opposite for a balanced disk design. Also, as described
above, the use of actuator effective diaphragm area in calculating a valve operating
parameter (in this case, seat load) may introduce an uncertainty. If stem thrust (or
torque) is measured directly, the final seat load does not have to be calculated using
actuator effective diaphragm area. Direct measurement of stem thrust can also verify
that the actuator is not hitting its mechanical stops prior to valve seating.

9.2.4 Spring Rate


The data shown in Figure 9-2 can be used to calculate and verify the actuator spring
rate. The spring rate is equal to the slope of the opening or closing stroke curve during
stem movement multiplied by the effective diaphragm area. As shown in Figure 9-3,
the slope of the opening or closing stroke curve is:
Slope =

(Y 2 Y1) = (14 psi 4.5 psi ) = 15.83 psi/in


(X 2 X 1) (0.7 in 0.1in )

Given an effective diaphragm area of 69 square inches, the as-tested spring rate is:
Spring Rate = (15.83 psi/in)(69 in2) = 1093 lbs/in
Again, the use of the actuator effective diaphragm area in calculating a valve operating
parameter (in this case, spring rate) may introduce an uncertainty.

9.2.5 Valve Stroke Length


The data shown in Figure 9-2 can be used to calculate and verify the valve stroke length.
As shown in Figure 9-3, the beginning and end points of the opening and closing stroke
curves give the valve stroke length as:
Stroke Length = (0.75 in - 0.0 in) = 0.75 in
9-10

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

9.2.6 Valve Stroke Time


The start and stop points for the valve opening and closing stroke times are defined by
the utility for the specific valve application. The start and stop times can be determined
from the appropriate data trace shown in Figure 9-1. For example, if the start and stop
times are based on the points at which the valve stem displacement starts and stops,
then the closing stroke time would be based on points C and D, and the opening stroke
time would be based on points H and I. Note, however, that valve stroke times
determined from the data shown in Figure 9-1 are based on the valve diagnostic system
applying a fixed-rate ramping I/P control signal to the valve positioner. This control
signal ramp rate may not simulate the actual valve control signal (for example, if the
actual valve control signal is a step increase from full open to full closed). If the actual
valve control signal is different, the data shown in Figure 9-1 can not be used to
determine the valve stroke time during actual operation. In such a case, a second
diagnostic trace could be recorded using the actual valve control system to generate the
valve stroke signal, and the actual valve stroke time determined accordingly. If the
valve control system can not be used to generate the test signal, it may be possible to
reconfigure the diagnostic system to simulate the actual valve control signal.
Note also that the data in Figure 9-1 provides the static test stroke times for the valve.
The valve stroke times may be different under dynamic (valve flow and differential
pressure) conditions.

9.2.7 Total Unwedging or Unseating Load (Gate and Butterfly Valves)


Figure 9-4 shows an example of piston pressure and stem thrust vs. stem displacement
for an air operated gate valve with a reverse acting (air to retract, spring to extend)
piston actuator. The figure is marked to show the point in the valve opening stroke
when the valve disc unwedges. Note the take-up of valve disc T-slot clearances which
occurs in the opening stroke prior to disc unwedging. At disc unwedging, the piston
pressure is 45 psig. Given an effective piston area of 55.5 square inches, this pressure
generates a force to unwedge the valve disc of
Piston Force = (45 psig)(55.5 in2) = 2497.5 lbs
This force includes the disc unwedging load and the actuator spring compression force.
The spring compression force is determined by averaging the opening and closing net
piston pressures and multiplying by the effective piston area, as follows:
Spring Compression Force = (36+20 psig/2)(55.5 in2) = 1554.0 lbs
The total disc unwedging load is then
Disc Unwedging Load = 2497.5 lbs 1554.0 lbs = 944 lbs
9-11

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

As described above, the use of actuator effective piston area in calculating a valve
operating parameter (in this case, unwedging load), may introduce an uncertainty. If
stem thrust is measured directly, the unwedging load does not have to be calculated
using actuator effective piston area or the spring compression force.

9.2.8 Other Operating Parameters


Other AOV operating parameters which can be determined from review of the static
test data shown in Figures 9-1 and 9-2 include:
Air Supply Pressure: Review of the supply air pressure trace in Figure 9-1 indicates
the capability of the supply air pressure source to provide adequate pressure
during valve operation. Excessive drops in air pressure or slow pressure recovery
times are indications that the supply air line is unable to supply sufficient volume
and should be replaced with a larger line or a volume booster should be installed.
Pneumatic Positioner Calibration: Proper calibration of the electro-pneumatic
positioner can be determined from comparison of the I/P control signal and control
air pressure traces in Figure 9-1. The comparison is simplified by combining the
two traces in a single plot.
Non-Linearity: The non-linearity of each measured AOV operating parameter can
be calculated by finding the average points between the opening and closing stroke
values of the parameter at each I/P control signal input, finding the best fit straight
line through each average point, determining the error of each average point with
the best fit straight line (usually expressed as a percent of rated stroke), and
identifying the maximum error. Excessive non-linearity can indicate such problems
as component sticking or binding, improper control calibration, or spring
degradation.
Dynamic Error: This parameter is the combination of hysteresis and deadband
error measured during a test with the valve continuously moving. Dynamic error
of the AOV assembly is calculated as the largest difference between valve stem
displacement during the opening and closing strokes at the same I/P control signal
input. Dynamic error of the valve positioner is calculated as the largest difference
between valve stem displacement during the opening and closing strokes at the
same control air pressure signal. Dynamic error provides a measurement of the
actuators ability to repeat the same stem position when approached from both the
close and open directions.

9-12

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

9.2.9 Analysis of Other Static Test Data


Figure 9-5 provides an example of static test results (diaphragm pressure versus stem
displacement) of a rising stem globe valve (push down to close) equipped with a
reverse acting (air to retract, spring to extend) diaphragm actuator with an effective area
of 69 square inches. The air pressure to the diaphragm actuator is controlled by an
electro-pneumatic positioner. Analysis of the data trace gives the following AOV
operating parameter values:

Bench Set = 6.5 psig to 18.5 psig

Stem Packing Friction = (1.0 psig/2)(69 in2) = 34.5 lbs

Seat Load = (6 psig)(69 in2) = 414 lbs

Spring Rate = (14 psi - 10 psi)/(0.25 in - 0.5 in) = -16 psi/in

Stroke Length = (0.75 in - 0.0 in) = 0.75 in

Figure 9-6 provides an example of static test results (stem displacement versus net
piston pressure) of a rising stem globe valve (push down to close) equipped with a
double acting piston actuator with an effective area of 120 square inches. This actuator
does not include a return or biasing spring. Note that the stem plot for a globe valve
with a double acting actuator would have the same general shape as the pressure plot.
Analysis of the data trace gives the following AOV operating parameter values:

Bench Set - Not Applicable

Stem Packing Friction = (10 psig/2)(120 in2) = 600 lbs

Seat Load = (95 psig - 5 psig)(102 in2) = 10,800 lbs

Spring Rate - Not Applicable

Stroke Length = (8.0 in - 0.0 in) = 8.0 in

9.3 Analysis of Dynamic Diagnostic Traces


The adequacy of an AOV setup can be verified by performing diagnostic tests under
actual operating conditions (dynamic testing). The purpose of dynamic tests is to
demonstrate that a particular AOV will perform its intended opening and closing
functions under the limiting system conditions. Therefore, dynamic tests should be
designed to cover, as much as practically possible, the most limiting system conditions
of flow, fluid conditions, temperature, and differential pressure. Dynamic tests provide
9-13

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

information on the magnitude of the torque or thrust developed by the actuator to fully
open or close the valve. In addition, when compared to the static test data, the dynamic
test data indicates the additional actuator torque or thrust required to overcome flow
and differential pressure induced forces such as stem ejection load, disc-to-guide or
disc-to-seat friction loads, dynamic valve stem packing load and butterfly valve
hydrodynamic load.
The recommended operating parameters to record during an AOV dynamic test include
the parameters listed in Section 9.2 for a static load test, as well as the following
additional parameters.

Valve upstream line pressure

Valve differential pressure

Fluid temperature

Fluid flow rate

Stem thrust (or torque)

Figure 9-7 provides an example of dynamic test results (piston pressure and stem thrust
vs. stem displacement) of a rising stem gate valve equipped with a reverse acting (air to
retract, spring to extend) piston actuator. For comparison, the figure shows the static
test results for the valve traced over the dynamic test results. Enlargements of the
unseating and seating portions of the data traces are shown in Figure 9-8. For the
dynamic test, the valve was stroked from fully closed to full open, and back to fully
closed. The differential pressure across the valve at the start of the opening stroke was
approximately 30 psid (30 psig upstream and 0 psig downstream). The line pressure
quickly dropped to near 0 psig on valve opening, and recovered to 30 psig on valve reclosing. A discussion of the comparison of the dynamic test results to the static test
results follows.

9.3.1 Opening Against Differential Pressure


Differential pressure induced forces affect the actuator thrust available to unwedge (or
unseat) and open a valve. Detail A of Figure 9-8 shows that the actuator piston pressure
is lower for a dynamic test than a static test during that portion of the valve opening
stroke which represents take-up of clearance between the valve T-slot and the valve
stem T-head. During the dynamic test opening stroke, pressure in the valve bonnet
assists in opening the valve (the stem ejection load). Given a valve stem area of 0.44
square inches (0.75 inch diameter) and a bonnet pressure of 30 psid, the stem ejection
load is:
9-14

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

Stem Ejection Load = (0.44 in2)(30 psid) = 13.2 lbs


Given an effective piston area of 55.5 square inches, the reduction in required piston
pressure during clearance take-up is expected to be:
Reduced Piston Pressure = (13.2 lbs)/(55.5 in2) = 0.24 psi
As shown in Detail A of Figure 9-8, the measured piston pressure data confirms the
calculated stem ejection load and provides verification of the manufacturers given
value of effective piston area (at that particular point in the valve stroke).
Detail A also shows that the valve disc unwedges at a lower pressure for the dynamic
test than the static test. The difference in actuator pressure again corresponds to the
stem ejection load which assists in opening the valve during the dynamic test. For a
short period after disc unwedging, the piston pressure data for both the static and
dynamic tests exhibits a transient response as the pressure control system reacts to the
quickly changing actuator piston position and the inertia of the valve and actuator
moving parts. Determinations of valve stem thrust based on piston pressure during
this period are inaccurate. Note that the stem thrust does not exhibit this transient
response. The stem thrust drops rapidly from the peak unwedging load to the required
thrust just after unwedging (due to packing friction, stem rejection load, DP load, etc.).
The piston pressure data transient response subsides between a stem displacement of
about 0.3 inches to 0.4 inches. At 0.4 inches the valve dynamic test data shows a
generally higher running load on the actuator which is indicative of differential
pressure and flow induced frictional loads between the valve disc and the valve body
guide rails and downstream seat. Referring to Figure 9-7, the static and dynamic test
data are essentially the same as the valve reaches the full open position. This is a result
of the loss of differential pressure across the valve as the valve strokes open.

9.3.2 Closing Under Flow and Differential Pressure


Flow and differential pressure induced forces affect the actuator thrust available to
wedge (or seat) a valve. Detail B of Figure 9-8 shows that the actuator piston pressure is
lower for a dynamic test than a static test at the point of valve disc wedging. At the
point of wedging, this difference in piston pressures is:
Piston Pressure Difference = 17.0 psig - 15.5 psig = 1.5 psig
The lower piston pressure at wedging during the dynamic test indicates that additional
forces exist which resist valve closing. During the dynamic test closing stroke, valve
differential pressure resists closing of the valve through the stem ejection load. As
calculated above, the piston pressure equivalent of the stem ejection load is calculated
to be 0.24 psig. Also during the dynamic closing stroke, flow and differential pressure
9-15

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

resist closing of the valve through increased disc-to-guide and disc-to-seat friction
loads. The piston pressure equivalent of the increased friction loads is the remaining
piston pressure difference of 1.26 psig.
The net result of the lower piston pressure at wedging during the dynamic test is a
reduction in the final disc seat load. For the static test, the seat load is:
Static Test Seat Load = (17.0 psig)(55.5 in2) = 943.5 lbs
For the dynamic test, the seat load is:
Dynamic Test Seat Load = (15.5 psig)(55.5 in2) = 860.3 lbs
The reduction in seat load for the dynamic test is:
Reduced Seat Load = 943.5 lbs - 860.3 lbs = 83.2 lbs

9.3.3 Analysis of Other Dynamic Test Data


Dynamic testing can also be used to calculate valve operating parameters such as diskto-seat coefficient of friction for gate valves, valve factor for gate and globe valves and
bearing coefficient and torque coefficients for butterfly valves. See References (10.1),
(10.2) and (10.15) for these methods.

9-16

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing
Valve
Open
A BC

Valve
Clos ing

Valve
Clos ed
DE
F
GH

Valve
Opening

Valve
Open
I J K

Diaphragm Pressure
(psig)

S upply Air Press ure


(psig)

Control Air Press ure


(psig)

I/P Control S ignal


(psig)

24
20
16
12
8
4
0
24
20
16
12
8
4
0
26
22
18
14
10
6
2
24
20
16
12
8
4

S tem T hrust
(lbs)

S tem Displacement
(Inches)

0
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

0.0

T ime

Figure 9-1.

Figure 9-1
Example AOV Static Test Diagnostic Data Traces

9-17

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

22
21

Pressure

20

T hrust

19

Valve Closed

18
17
16

S eat Contact
Point

15

13

11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Valve Open

1
0
-0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
S tem Displacement (Inches)

Figure 9-2
Example Direct Acting AOV Static Test Diagnostic Data Plot

9-18

0.7

0.8

0.9

S tem Thrust (lbs)

12

Diaphragm Pressure (psig)

14

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

Figure 9-3
Analysis of Example Direct Acting AOV Static Test Data

9-19

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

60

55

Partially Open
Dis c
Unwedges

50
Unwedging
Pres s ure

45

40

35

S tem T hrus t
(lbs )

Net Pis ton Pres s ure (ps ig)

Opening
Pres s ure

30

25
Clos ing
Pres s ure

20

15

10
Clos ed

Net Pis ton Pres s ure


S tem T hrus t

0
-0.5

0.0

0.5
1.0
S tem Dis placement (Inches )

1.5

Figure 9-4
Determination of Unwedging Load from Air Operated Gate Valve Static Test Data

9-20

2.0

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

Figure 9-5
Analysis of Example Reverse Acting AOV Static Test Data

9-21

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

Figure 9-6
Analysis of Example Double Acting AOV Static Test Data

9-22

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing
80
Net Piston Pressure, Dynamic
Net Piston Pressure, S tatic
S tem T hrust

70

S ee Figure 9-8,
Detail A

50

S tem T hrust
(lbs)

Net Piston Pressure (psig)

60

Open

40

30

20

10

S ee Figure 9-8,
Detail B

Closed
0
-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5
S tem Displacement (Inches)

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Figure 9-7
Example Air Operated Gate Valve Dynamic Test Data

9-23

EPRI Licensed Material


AOV Testing

50

S tem T hrust

Disc
Unwedges
45

Dynamic
T es t
S tatic
T es t

40

S tem T hrust
(lbs)

Net Pis ton Pressure (psig)

Net Pis ton Pres sure, Dynamic


Net Pis ton Pres sure, S tatic

Dynamic
T es t
S tem
E jection
Load

35
T -S lot
Clearance
30
-0.1

0.0

0.1
0.2
S tem Dis placement (Inches)

0.3

0.4

0.5

Detail A - Disc Unwedging

Dynamic
T es t

Disc
Wedges

20

S tatic
T es t

S tem T hrust
(lbs)

Net Pis ton Pressure (psig)

25

Dynamic
T es t
15
S eat
Load
Difference

Net Pis ton Pres sure, Dynamic


Net Pis ton Pres sure, S tatic

Closed

S tem T hrust
10
-0.1

0.0

0.1
0.2
S tem Dis placement (Inches)

0.3

Detail B - Disc Wedging

Figure 9-8
Example Air Operated Gate Valve Dynamic Test Data - Details

9-24

0.4

0.5

EPRI Licensed Material

10
REFERENCES

10.1

EPRI NP-6660-D, Application Guide For Motor-Operated Valves in Nuclear


Power Plants, March 1990.

10.2

EPRI TR-103244-R1, EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program Performance


Prediction Methodology Implementation Guide, Revision 1, October 1996.

10.3

EPRI TR-103229, EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program Gate Valve Model
Report, November 1994.

10.4

EPRI TR-103224, EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program Butterfly Valve


Model Description Report, September 1994.

10.5

EPRI TR-103235, EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program Stem Thrust


Prediction Method for Aloyco Split Wedge Gate Valves, August 1996.

10.6

EPRI TR-103227, EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program Globe Valve


Model Report, April 1994.

10.7

Safety Evaluation by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of Electric Power


Research Institute Topical Report TR-103237 EPRI Motor-Operated Valve
Performance Prediction Methodology, forwarded by NRC Letter to Mr. Thomas
E. Tipton (NEI) dated March 15, 1996.

10.8

EPRI TR-107321, Application Guide for Evaluation AOV Actuator Output


Capability, June 1997.

10.9

EPRI NP-7412, Revision 1, Maintenance Guide for Air Operated Valves,


Pneumatic Actuators, and Accessories, July 1992.

10.10 ANSI N278.1-1975, Self-Operated and Power-Operated Safety-Related Valves


functional Specification Standard, American Society of Mechanical Engineers:
New York.
10.11 10 CFR 50, Appendix J, Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for
Water-Cooled Power Reactors.
10-1

EPRI Licensed Material


References

10.12 ANSI/IEEE Std 382-1985,IEEE Standard for Qualification of Actuators for


Power Operated Valve Assemblies with Safety-Related Functions for Nuclear
Power Plants, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: New York.
10.13 ANSI B16.41-1983, Functional Qualification Requirements for Power-Operated
Active valve Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers: New York.
10.14 EPRI TR-103237-R2, EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program Topical Report,
April 1997.
10.15 "Application Guide for Motor-Operated Butterfly Valves in Nuclear Power
Plants", Revision of EPRI/NMAC NP-7501, Volume 2: Butterfly Valves, Final
Report, October 1998, for the Electric Power Research Institute.
10.16 10CFR Part 21 Notification 9605, LaSalle County Station Units 1 and 2, dated
October 4, 1996.

10-2

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FDP = (DP ) d 2DP
4

( )

'3 ORDG

VHH 6HFWLRQ 


'3

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LQFKHV

FSL = (SSEAT * A SEAT )(sin + S cos )

6HDOLQJ ORDG

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LQ

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LQFKHV

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LQFKHV

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Table A-4
Required Thrust for Double Seat Globe Valves (Section 5.4.4)

$291XPEHU
7KUXVW
&RPSRQHQW

(TXDWLRQ

6LJQ

FDS = (WDS )(cos )


'LVF DQG VWHP ZHLJKW

:'6


OEV
GHJUHHV

3DFNLQJ ORDG

'HWHUPLQH )3 IURP VWDWLF GDWD

8SSHU VHDO IULFWLRQ

ORDG

DOZD\V SRVLWLYH


( )

$

3%

SVLJ IXOO\ RSHQ

3%

SVLJ IXOO\ FORVHG

383

SVLJ

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SVL

G6

LQFKHV

&ORVLQJ6WURNH

)XOO\ 2SHQ

)XOO\ &ORVHG

)XOO\ 2SHQ

)XOO\ &ORVHG

see Section 5.4.4.2

FSR = (PB ) d S2
4

6WHP UHMHFWLRQ ORDG

2SHQLQJ6WURNH

see Section 5.4.4.5

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO

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7KUXVW
&RPSRQHQW

(TXDWLRQ

6LJQ


FDF = (0.06 )(DP ) d 2F OD + d 2P OD
4

'LVFWRERG\FDJH
IULFWLRQ ORDG

'3
G)2'
G32'

'3 ORDG

'3
G)2'
G32'

&ORVLQJ6WURNH

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)XOO\ 2SHQ

)XOO\ &ORVHG

)XOO\ &ORVHG

)
DOZD\V SRVLWLYH

SVL
LQFKHV
LQFKHV

FDP = (DP ) d 2F OD d 2P OD
4

2SHQLQJ6WURNH

VHH 6HFWLRQ 

SVL
LQFKHV
LQFKHV

see Section 5.4.4.7

FSL = (SSEAT * A SEAT )(sin + S cos )


66($7

SVL

$6($7
6HDOLQJ ORDG

always positive

G)2'

VHH 6HFWLRQ 

G),'

G32'
G3,'

2
: 6

LQFKHV
GHJUHHV

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Table A-5
Required Thrust for Three-Way Globe Valves (Section 5.4.5)

$291XPEHU
7KUXVW
&RPSRQHQW

(TXDWLRQ

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6WURNH

6LJQ

)ORZ 7KUX

FDS = (WDS )(cos )


'LVF DQG VWHP ZHLJKW

:'6


3DFNLQJ ORDG

'HWHUPLQH )3 IURP VWDWLF GDWD

8SSHU VHDO IULFWLRQ

OEV
GHJUHHV

ORDG

$QJOH )ORZ

&ORVLQJ &RPSUHVVLRQ
6WURNH
)ORZ 7KUX

$QJOH )ORZ

see Section 5.4.5.2

DOZD\V SRVLWLYH
VHH 6HFWLRQ 



FSR = (PB ) d S2
4

( )

3%
6WHP UHMHFWLRQ ORDG

3

SVLJ
SVLJ
XVH DV 3% IRU IORZ WKUX

3

SVLJ
XVH DV 3% IRU DQJOH IORZ

G6

$

LQFKHV

(-) for opening


(+) for closing
VHH 6HFWLRQ 

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7KUXVW
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(TXDWLRQ

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&ORVLQJ &RPSUHVVLRQ
6WURNH
)ORZ 7KUX

$QJOH )ORZ

$W WKH IORZ VWUDLJKW WKURXJK


SRVLWLRQ


FDF = (0.06) d12OD PC1 P11 + d22OD PC1 P21
4

$W WKH DQJOH IORZ SRVLWLRQ

'LVFWRERG\FDJH
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FDF = (0.06) d12OD PC2 P12 + d22OD PC2 P22
4
G2'
LQFKHV
3&
SVL
3
SVL
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$W WKH IORZ VWUDLJKW WKURXJK


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FDP = (PC1 P21 ) d 22OD (PC1 P11 ) d12OD
4

$W WKH DQJOH IORZ SRVLWLRQ

FDP = (PC 2 P22 ) d 22OD (PC 2 P12 ) d12OD


4
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G2'
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3&
3
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see Section 5.4.5.7

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FSL = (SSEAT * A SEAT )(sin + S cos )

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LQ

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Table A-6
Sealing/Wedging Loads for Gate Valves (Section 5.5)

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)XOO\ &ORVHG

FSL = 2 SSEAT * A SEAT d 2MS * DP [sin + S cos ]


4

( )

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SVL

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LQ

2'6($7
6HDOLQJ ORDG

LQFKHV

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GHJUHHV

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Table A-6
Sealing/Wedging Loads for Gate Valves (Section 5.5)

81:('*,1*/2$' 23(1,1*21/< 

FUW = (FCT )(B) + (FP )(1 B) + (DP) d2MS * C dS2
4

)&7

Applies for Opening Stroke at Fully Closed

OEV

%
8QZHGJLQJ ORDG

always positive

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&
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Table A-7
Required Torque for Ball Valves (Section 5.7)

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2SHQLQJ

TDS =

(DP ) (d 2MS )(d B )


4

d 2B d 2MS

* S *

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SVL

G06

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G%

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2SHQLQJ

&ORVLQJ

d B + d 2B d 2MS
48

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: 6

TB = (DP ) d 2MS ( B ) S
4
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&ORVLQJ

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For incompressible flow

( )

1
HTF 3
TH = (DP )
dP
12
100
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ACTUATOR WORKSHEETS

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
AOV ACTUATOR DATA SHEET (RISING STEM)
General
AOV Tag Number

Serial No.

Actuator Manufacturer

Shop Order #

Model
Actuator Type

Diaphragm

Cylinder

Actuator Function

Spring Return

Double Acting

Double Acting with Spring

Actuator Spring

Direct Acting
(Spring-to-Open)

Reverse Acting
(Spring-to-Close)

N/A

Cylinder/Diaphragm Inputs
Actuator Size
Actuator Rated Travel
Actuator Travel for Benchset

(LBS)

in
in

Actuator Rod Diameter


Benchset

(d)
(BSlower to BSupper)

in
psig

Tolerance:

(BStol)

Circle Unit
% or psig

Operating Pressure

(PA)

psig

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psig

(DPA)

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to fully retract actuator rod)

(DPA)

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to extend actuator rod)

(DPA)

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to retract actuator rod)

(DPA)

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psid

Max Rated Air Pressure

psig

Double Acting Actuator:


Min Differential Pressure
(to fully extend actuator rod)

Spring
Spring Number
Spring Preload

(SP)

lbf

Tolerance:

(SP/tol)

% or lbf

Spring Rate

(SR)

lb/in

Tolerance:

(SR/tol)

% or lb/in

Spring Max Safe Load

lbf

Tolerance:

Fully Compressed Length

in

Tolerance:

% or in

Spring Free Length

in

Tolerance:

% or in

% or lbf

Cylinder Actuator only


Piston Diameter
Piston Breakaway Pressure

(D)
(PD)

in
psig

Piston Breakaway Force

(FD)

lbf

Diaphragm Actuator only


Diaphragm Extended Area

(Aext)

in

Diaphragm Retracted Area

(Aret)

2
2

in

Tolerance:

(Aext/tol)

% or in

Tolerance:

(Aret/tol)

% or in

Does piston diameter include reduction of piston rod diameter when pressure acts on rod-side of piston?
Yes

No

Does diaphragm area include reduction of rod area when pressure acts on rod-side of diaphragm?
Yes

No

Actuator have increased Mechanical Advantage?

Yes

No

If yes, Mechanical Advantage at Extended Position __________________ at Retracted Position__________________


Prepared By:

Date:

Checked By:

Date:

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
AOV ACTUATOR DATA SHEET (RISING STEM)
General
AOV Tag Number

Serial No.

Actuator Manufacturer

Shop Order #

Model
Actuator Type

Diaphragm

Cylinder

Actuator Function

Spring Return

Double Acting

Double Acting with Spring

Actuator Spring

Direct Acting
(Spring-to-Open)

Reverse Acting
(Spring-to-Close)

N/A

Cylinder/Diaphragm Inputs
Actuator Size
Actuator Rated Travel

in

Actuator Travel for Benchset

in

Actuator Rod Diameter

Circle Unit

in

Benchset

to

psig

Tolerance:

% or psig

Min Operating Pressure

psig

Tolerance:

% or psig

Max Rated Air Pressure

psig
Tolerance:

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to fully retract actuator rod)

Tolerance:

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to extend actuator rod)

Tolerance:

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to retract actuator rod)

Tolerance:

% or psid

Double Acting Actuator:


Min Differential Pressure
(to fully extend actuator rod)

Spring
Spring Number
Spring Preload

lbf

Tolerance:

% or lbf

Spring Rate

lb/in

Tolerance:

% or lb/in

Spring Max Safe Load

lbf

Tolerance:

% or lbf

Fully Compressed Length

in

Tolerance:

% or in

Spring Free Length

in

Tolerance:

% or in

Tolerance:

% or in

Tolerance:

% or in

Cylinder Actuator only


Piston Diameter

in

Piston Breakaway Pressure

psig

Piston Breakaway Force


Diaphragm Actuator only

lbf

Diaphragm Extended Area


Diaphragm Retracted Area

in
in

2
2

Does piston diameter include reduction of piston rod diameter when pressure acts on rod-side of piston?
Yes

No

Does diaphragm area include reduction of rod area when pressure acts on rod-side of diaphragm?
Yes

No

Actuator have increased Mechanical Advantage?

Yes

No

If yes, Mechanical Advantage at Extended Position __________________ at Retracted Position__________________


Prepared By:

Date:

Checked By:

Date:

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
AOV ACTUATOR DATA SHEET (ROTARY)
General
AOV Tag Number

Station

Actuator Manufacturer

Serial No.

Model

Shop Order #

Actuator Type

Diaphragm

Cylinder

Actuator Function

Spring Return

Double Acting

___ Rack & Pinion

Double Acting with Spring

___ Scotch Yoke

Actuator Spring

Direct Acting
(Spring-to-Open)

Reverse Acting
(Spring-to-Close)

N/A

Cylinder/Diaphragm Inputs
Actuator Size
Actuator Rated Travel
Actuator Travel for Benchset

(LBS)

in
in

Actuator Diameter

(d)

in

Moment Arm Length

(b or C)

Actuator Efficiency

()

in Lever arm length or distance from actuator center to


center line of lever or pivot.

Pinion Gear Pitch Diameter


Benchset

(BSlower to BSupper)

in
psig

Tolerance:

(BStol)

Circle Unit
% or psig

Min Operating Pressure

(PA)

psig

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psig

(DPA)

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to fully retract actuator rod)

(DPA)

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to extend actuator rod)

(DPA)

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to retract actuator rod)

(DPA)

Tolerance:

(PA/tol)

% or psid

Max Rated Air Pressure

psig

Double Acting Actuator:


Min Differential Pressure
(to fully extend actuator rod)

Spring
Spring Number
Spring Preload

(SP)

lbf

Tolerance:

(SP/tol)

% or lbf

Spring Rate

(SR)

lb/in

Tolerance:

(SR/tol)

% or lb/in

Spring Max Safe Load

lbf

Tolerance:

Fully Compressed Length

in

Tolerance:

% or in

Spring Free Length

in

Tolerance:

% or in

% or lbf

Cylinder Actuator only


Piston Diameter
Piston Breakaway Pressure

(D)
(PD)

in
psig

Piston Breakaway Force

(FD)

lbf

Number of Pistons

(Npiston)

Diaphragm Actuator only


Diaphragm Extended Area
Diaphragm Retracted Area

(Aext)
(Aret)

in

in

(Aext/tol)

% or in

Tolerance:

(Aret/tol)

% or in

Does piston diameter include reduction of piston rod diameter when pressure acts on rod-side of piston?
Yes

No

Does diaphragm area include reduction of rod area when pressure acts on rod-side of diaphragm?
Yes

No

Prepared By:

Date:

Checked By:

Date:

%

Tolerance:

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
AOV ACTUATOR DATA SHEET (ROTARY)
General
AOV Tag Number

Station

Actuator Manufacturer

Serial No.

Model

Shop Order #

Actuator Type

Diaphragm

Cylinder

Actuator Function

Spring Return

Double Acting

___ Rack & Pinion

Double Acting with Spring

___ Scotch Yoke

Actuator Spring

Direct Acting
(Spring-to-Open)

Reverse Acting
(Spring-to-Close)

N/A

Cylinder/Diaphragm Inputs
Actuator Size
Actuator Rated Travel

in

Actuator Travel for Benchset

in

Actuator Diameter

in

Moment Arm Length

in Lever arm length or distance from actuator center to


center line of lever or pivot.

Actuator Efficiency
Pinion Gear Pitch Diameter
Benchset

Circle Unit

in
to

psig

Tolerance:

% or psig

Min Operating Pressure

psig

Tolerance:

% or psig

Max Rated Air Pressure

psig
Tolerance:

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to fully retract actuator rod)

Tolerance:

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to extend actuator rod)

Tolerance:

% or psid

Min Differential Pressure


(to retract actuator rod)

Tolerance:

% or psid

Double Acting Actuator:


Min Differential Pressure
(to fully extend actuator rod)

Spring
Spring Number
Spring Preload

lbf

Tolerance:

% or lbf

Spring Rate

lb/in

Tolerance:

% or lb/in

Spring Max Safe Load

lbf

Tolerance:

% or lbf

Fully Compressed Length

in

Tolerance:

% or in

in

Tolerance:

% or in

Tolerance:

% or in

Tolerance:

% or in

Spring Free Length


Cylinder Actuator only
Piston Diameter

in

Piston Breakaway Pressure

psig

Piston Breakaway Force

lbf

Number of Pistons
Diaphragm Actuator only
Diaphragm Extended Area
Diaphragm Retracted Area

in
in

2
2

Does piston diameter include reduction of piston rod diameter when pressure acts on rod-side of piston?
Yes

No

Does diaphragm area include reduction of rod area when pressure acts on rod-side of diaphragm?
Yes

No

Prepared By:

Date:

Checked By:

Date:

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-1 ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Double Acting Air Cylinder Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Double Acting Air Cylinder, Single Ended
Double Acting Air Cylinder, Double Ended

Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting (Spring to Retract)


Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting (Spring to Extend)

STEP
CALCULATION
1
Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [DPA/min and DPA/max]
DPA/min = DPA (1 PA / tol )
DPA/max = DPA (1 + PA / tol )
To Fully Extend Actuator Rod:
Differential Actuator Supply Pressure (DPA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig
%/100

To Fully Retract Actuator Rod:


Differential Actuator Supply Pressure (DPA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig
%/100

To Retract Actuator Rod:


Differential Actuator Supply Pressure (DPA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =
N/A if coupling with a push-down-to-open type valve
To Extend Actuator Rod:
Differential Actuator Supply Pressure (DPA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =
N/A if coupling with a push-down-to-close type valve

psig
%/100

psig
%/100

Note: The Differential Actuator Supply Pressure is the actuator supply


pressure available to the high pressure side of the piston minus the actuator
supply pressure on the low pressure side of the piston.
%

CALCULATION RESULTS
Min/Max Actuator Supply Pressure (Fully Extended):
DPA/min =

psig

DPA/max =

psig

Min/Max Actuator Supply Pressure (Fully Retracted):


DPA/min =

psig

DPA/max =

psig

Min/Max Actuator Supply Pressure (Retract):


DPA/min =

psig

DPA/max =

psig

Min/Max Actuator Supply Pressure (Extend):


DPA/min =

psig

DPA/max =

psig

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
2

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Breakaway Force [FD]


Breakaway Force:
Option 1: Measured,Vendor Supplied, or Assumed Breakaway Force
FD =
FD =

lbf

lbf

Option 2: Vendor Supplied Breakaway Pressure


FD =

D2 PD
4

Breakaway Pressure (PD) =


Piston Diameter (D) =
*Piston Rod Diameter (d) =

psig
inches
inches

*Set the piston rod diameter equal to zero for direct acting actuators
and double acting actuators- with no spring. The piston rod diameter
is included for reverse acting actuators and double acting, double
ended actuators. Setting the piston rod diameter to zero for all types
is conservative.

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor lower benchset
SP/min =
SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) 4 D2 d2

Max Spring Preload:

SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) 4 D2 d2

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Piston Diameter (D) =
*Piston Rod Diameter (d) =

SP/max =
psig
%/100
inches
inches

*Set the piston rod diameter equal to zero for direct acting actuators
Option 2: Using measured or vendor spring preload
SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )
SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =
Option 3: No Spring Installed in Actuator
SP/min = 0
SP/max = 0

%

lbf

lbf
%/100

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
CALCULATION
4
Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]

CALCULATION RESULTS
Min Spring Rate:

Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate


SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

D 2 BSUpper BSLower (1- BS tol ) / LBS


4

SR/max = D2 BSUpper BSLower (1+ BStol ) / LBS


4
SR/min =

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS) =
Piston Diameter (D) =
*Piston Rod Diameter (d) =

psig
psig
%/100
inches
inches
inches

*Set the piston rod diameter equal to zero for direct acting actuators
Option 3: No Spring Installed in Actuator
SR/min = 0
SR/max = 0

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
CALCULATION
5
Spring Force, Min and Max [BSU/Max and BSU/Min]

CALCULATION RESULTS
Min Spring Force:

Option 1: Using measured or vendor upper benchset


2
D d2
4

BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BStol ) D2 d2

4
BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BStol )

Nominal Bench Set (BSUpper) =


psig
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
%/100
Piston Diameter (D) =
inches
Piston Rod Diameter (d) =
inches
Set the piston rod diameter equal to zero for direct acting actuators.
Option 2: Using measured or vendor spring preload and spring rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L


BSU/max = SP/max + ( SR/max L)

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Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100
Stroke Length (L) =
inches

Option 3: Actuator type without a spring


BSU/min = N/A
BSU/max = N/A
%

BSU/min =

lbf

Max Spring Force:


BSU/max =

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
CALCULATION
6
Actuator Output - FULLY EXTENDED Actuator Stem (FA/min and
FA/max)
Note 1: The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Note 2: The appropriate actuator supply pressure should be used from Step
1 (i.e., DPA/min for fully extending should be used for the Fully Extended
Actuator Output, etc.).

CALCULATION RESULTS
Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY EXTENDED
Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY EXTENDED


Actuator Stem:

Option 1: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Single Ended (No Spring)

D2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) FD


4

FA/max = D2 DPA/max (1 + PA drift )


4
FA/min =

FA/max =

lbf

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Option 2: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Double Ended (No Spring)
2
D d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) FD
4

FA/max = D2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift )

4
FA/min =

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$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION
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Option 3: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting

FA/min = D2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) BSU/max FD


4

FA/max = D2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) BSU/min


4

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Option 4: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

FA/min = D2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) + SP/min FD


4

FA/max = D2 DPA/max (1 + PA drift ) + SP/max


4

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CALCULATION RESULTS

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
7

CALCULATION
Actuator Output - FULLY RETRACTED Actuator Stem (FA/min and
FA/max)
Note 1: The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Note 2: The appropriate actuator supply pressure should be used from Step
1 (i.e., DPA/min for fully retracting should be used for the Fully Retracted
Actuator Output, etc.).
Option 1: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Single or Double Ended (No
Spring)

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY RETRACTED


Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY RETRACTED


Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

2
D d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) FD
4

FA/max = D2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift )

4
FA/min =

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Option 2: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting

FA/min = D 2 d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) + SP/min FD

FA/max = D 2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) + SP/max

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION
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Option 3: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

FA/min = D 2 d2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) BSU/max FD

FA/max = D 2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) BSU/min

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CALCULATION RESULTS

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
CALCULATION
8
Actuator Output - RETRACT Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)
This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-to-close
valves only (not required for push-down-to-open valves).

CALCULATION RESULTS
Actuator Minimum Output - RETRACT Actuator
Stem:
FA/min =

Note 1: The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Note 2: The appropriate actuator supply pressure should be used from Step
1 (i.e., DPA/min for retracting should be used for the Fully Retracted
Actuator Output, etc.).

lbf

Actuator Maximum Output - RETRACT Actuator


Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

Option 1: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Single or Double Ended (No


Spring)
2
D d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) FD
4

FA/max = D2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift )

4
FA/min =

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Option 2: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting

FA/min = D 2 d2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) + BSU/min FD

FA/max = D 2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) + BSU/max

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION
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Option 3: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

FA/min = D 2 d2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) SP/max FD

FA/max = D2 d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) SP/min

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Option 4: N/A
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%

CALCULATION RESULTS

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
CALCULATION
9
Actuator Output - EXTEND Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)
This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-to-open
valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-close valves).

CALCULATION RESULTS
Actuator Minimum Output - EXTEND Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

Note 1: The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Note 2: The appropriate actuator supply pressure should be used from Step
1 (i.e., DPA/min for extending should be used for the Extended Actuator
Output).

lbf

Actuator Maximum Output - EXTEND Actuator


Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

Option 1: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Single Ended (No Spring)

D2 DPA /min (1 PA drift ) FD


4

FA/max = D2 DPA/max (1 + PA drift )


4
FA/min =

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Option 2: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Double Ended (No Spring)

FA/min = D2 d2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) FD

4
FA/max =

2
D d2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift )
4

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%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION
Option 3: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting

FA/min = D2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) SP/max FD


4

FA/max = D2 DPA/max (1 + PA drift ) SP/min


4

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Option 4: Double Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

FA/min = D2 DPA/min (1 PA drift ) + BSU/min FD


4

FA/max = D2 DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) + BSU/max


4

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Option 5: N/A
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CALCULATION RESULTS

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-2
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Single Acting Air Cylinder Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting (Spring to Retract)
(Spring to Extend)
STEP
1

Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

CALCULATION
Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]
DPA/min = DPA (1 PA / tol )
DPA/max = DPA (1 + PA / tol )
Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig
%/100

CALCULATION RESULTS
Min Actuator Supply Pressure:
PA/min =
Max Actuator Supply Pressure:
PA/max =

psig

psig

Breakaway Force [FD]


Option 1: Measured,Vendor Supplied, or Assumed Breakaway
Force
FD =
lbf

Breakaway Force:
FD =

lbf

Option 2: Vendor Supplied Breakaway Pressure


FD =

2
D d2 PD
4

Breakaway Pressure (PD) =


psig
Piston Diameter (D) =
inches
Piston Rod Diameter (d) =
inches
Set the piston rod diameter equal to zero for direct acting actuators

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor lower benchset
SP/min =
SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) 4 D2 d2

Max Spring Preload:

SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) 4 D2 d2

SP/max =

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


psig
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
%/100
Piston Diameter (D) =
inches
Piston Rod Diameter (d) =
inches
Set the piston rod diameter equal to zero for direct acting
actuators

Option 2: Using measured or vendor spring preload


SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )
SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

%

lbf

lbf
%/100

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset


2
D d2 BSUpper BSLower (1- BStol ) / LBS
4

SR/max = D2 d2 BSUpper BSLower (1+ BStol ) / LBS

4
SR/min =

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


psig
Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
psig
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
%/100
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS) =
inches
Piston Diameter (D) =
inches
Piston Rod Diameter (d) =
inches
Set the piston rod diameter equal to zero for direct acting actuators

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Force, Min and Max [BSU/Max and BSU/Min]


Min Spring Force:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor upper benchset
BSU/min =

BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BStol ) D 2 d2

4
BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BStol )

2
D d2
4

Nominal Bench Set (BSUpper) =


psig
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
%/100
Piston Diameter (D) =
inches
Piston Rod Diameter (d) =
inches
Set the piston rod diameter equal to zero for direct acting actuators

Option 2: Using measured or vendor spring preload and spring


rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L


BSU/max = SP/max + ( SR/max L)

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650LQ IURP6WHS =
lbf/in
650D[ IURP6WHS =
lbf/in
Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100
Stroke Length (L) =
inches
%

lbf

Max Spring Force:


BSU/max =

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

Actuator Output - FULLY EXTENDED Actuator Stem (FA/min and


FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

Option 1: Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting

FA/min = D 2 PA /min (1 PA drift ) BSU/max FD


4

FA/max = D 2 PA /max (1 + PA drift ) BSU/min


4

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

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Option 2: Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting
FA/min = SP/min FD
FA/max = SP/max

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(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
7

CALCULATION
Actuator Output - FULLY RETRACTED Actuator Stem (FA/min
and FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

Option 1: Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting


FA/min = SP/min FD
FA/max = SP/max

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Option 2: Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

FA/min = D 2 d2 PA /min (1 PA drift ) BSU/max FD


4

FA/max = D 2 d2 PA /max (1 + PA drift ) BSU/min


4

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Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
8

CALCULATION
Actuator Output - RETRACT Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)
Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toclose valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-open
valves).

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Minimum Output - RETRACT Actuator


Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Option 1: Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting

Actuator Maximum Output - RETRACT Actuator


Stem:

FA/min = BSU/min FD
FA/max = BSU/max

FA/max =

lbf

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Option 2: Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting

FA/min = D 2 d2 PA /min (1 PA drift ) SP/max FD


4
FA/max =

2
D d2 PA /max (1 + PA drift ) SP/min
4

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(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

Option 3: N/A
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%

CALCULATION RESULTS

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
9

CALCULATION
Actuator Output - EXTEND Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)
Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toopen valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-close
valves).

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Minimum Output - EXTEND Actuator


Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Option 1: Single Acting Air Cylinder, Direct Acting

D2 PA/min (1 PA drift ) SP/max FD


4

FA/max = D2 PA/max (1 + PA drift ) SP/min


4

Actuator Maximum Output - EXTEND Actuator


Stem:
FA/max =

FA/min =

lbf

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Option 2: Single Acting Air Cylinder, Reverse Acting
FA/min = BSU/min FD
FA/max = BSU/max

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(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
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CALCULATION
OEI

Option 3: N/A
$29LVDSXVKGRZQWRFORVHYDOYHW\SH

%

CALCULATION RESULTS

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-3
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Diaphragm Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Direct Acting Diaphragm (Spring to Retract)
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]


Min Actuator Supply Pressure:

PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

PA/min =
PA/max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =


Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig

Max Actuator Supply Pressure:


psig
%/100

PA/max =

psig

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
2

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring preload

SP/min =

SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )

Max Spring Preload:

SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

SP/max =
lbf
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor lower benchset


SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) Aret (1 A ret / tol )
SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) Aret (1 + A ret / tol )

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaphragm Area Tolerance (Aret/tol) =

%

lbf

psig
%/100
in2
%/100

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

SR/min =

SR/max =

( BSUpper Aret (1 A tol ) BSLower Aext (1 + A tol )) (1 BStol )


LBS

(BSUpper Aext (1 + A tol ) BSLower Aret (1 A tol )) (1 + BStol )


LBS

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS)=
Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=

psig
psig
%/100
inches
in2
%/100
in2
%/100
%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Force, Min and Max [BSU/Max and BSU/Min]


Min Spring Force:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor upper benchset
BSU/min =

BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BStol ) Aret (1 Aret / tol )

lbf

Max Spring Force:


BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BStol ) Aret (1 + Aret / tol )

Nominal Bench Set (BSUpper) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=

BSU/max =
psig
%/100
in2
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor spring preload and spring


rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L


BSU/max = SP/max + ( SR/max L)

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630D[ IURP6WHS 
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650LQ IURP6WHS =
lbf/in
650D[ IURP6WHS =
lbf/in
Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100
Stroke Length (L) =
inches

%

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - FULLY EXTENDED Actuator Stem (FA/min and


FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

FA/min = PA/min (1 PA drift ) A ext (1 A ext/ tol ) BSU/max ME


FA/max = PA/max (1+ PA drift ) A ext (1 + A ext/ tol ) BSU/min ME

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Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
in2
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=
%/100
$LU5HJXODWRU'ULIW 3$GULIW

6

Actuator Output - FULLY RETRACTED Actuator Stem (FA/min


and FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

FA/min = SP/min ME
FA/max = SP/max ME

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63PD[ IURP6WHS  OEI

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf
%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
7

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - RETRACT Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)


Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toclose valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-open
valves).
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Actuator Minimum Output - RETRACT


Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

Actuator Maximum Output - RETRACT


Actuator Stem:

Option 1: Coupling with Push-Down-To-Close Valve


FA/max =
FA/min = BSU/min ME
FA/max = BSU/max ME

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Option 2: N/A
$29LVDSXVKGRZQWRRSHQYDOYHW\SH

%

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lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
8

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - EXTEND Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)


Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toopen valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-close
valves).
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Actuator Minimum Output - EXTEND Actuator


Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

Actuator Maximum Output - EXTEND Actuator


Stem:

Option 1: Coupling with Push-Down-To-Close Valve

FA/min = PA/min (1 PA drift ) A ret (1 Aret/ tol ) SP/max ME

FA/max =

lbf

FA/max = PA/max (1 + PA drift ) Aret (1 + A ret/ tol ) SP/min ME

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Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
in2
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=
in2
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Option 2: N/A
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%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV

Table B-4
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Diaphragm Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Reverse Acting Diaphragm (Spring to Extend)
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]


Min Actuator Supply Pressure:

PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

PA/min =
PA/max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =


Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

%

psig

Max Actuator Supply Pressure:


psig
%/100

PA/max =

psig

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
2

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring preload
SP/min =

SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )

lbf

Max Spring Preload:


SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

SP/max =

lbf

lbf
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor lower benchset


SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) A ext (1 A ext / tol )
SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) A ext (1 + A ext / tol )

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
Diaphragm Area Tolerance (Aext/tol) =

psig
%/100
in2
%/100

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

SR/min =

SR/max =

( BSUpper Aret (1 A tol ) BSLower Aext (1 + A tol )) (1 BStol )


LBS

(BSUpper Aext (1 + A tol ) BSLower Aret (1 A tol )) (1 + BStol )


LBS

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS)=
Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=
%

psig
psig
%/100
inches
in2
%/100
in2
%/100

lbf/in

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Force, Min and Max [BSU/Max and BSU/Min]


Min Spring Force:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor upper benchset
BSU/min =

BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BStol ) Aret (1 Aret / tol )

lbf

Max Spring Force:


BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BStol ) Aret (1 + Aret / tol )

Nominal Bench Set (BSUpper) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=

BSU/max =

lbf

psig
%/100
in2
in2

Option 2: Using measured or vendor spring preload and spring rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L


BSU/max = SP/max + ( SR/max L)

630LQ IURP6WHS  
OEI
630D[ IURP6WHS 
OEI
650LQ IURP6WHS =
lbf/in
650D[ IURP6WHS =
lbf/in
Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100
Stroke Length (L) =
inches

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION
Actuator Output - FULLY EXTENDED Actuator Stem (FA/min and
FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

CALCULATION RESULTS
Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY
EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

FA/min = SP/min ME

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:

FA/max = SP/max ME

63PD[ IURP6WHS  OEI


63PLQ IURP6WHS   OEI
6

Actuator Output - FULLY RETRACTED Actuator Stem (FA/min and


FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

FA/min = PA/min (1 PA drift ) Aret (1 Aret/ tol ) BSU/max ME


FA/max = PA/max (1 + PA drift ) Aret (1 + Aret/ tol ) BSU/min ME

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%68PD[ IURP6WHS  
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%68PLQ IURP6WHS  
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Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
in2
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=
%/100
$LU5HJXODWRU'ULIW 3$GULIW  
%

FA/max =

lbf

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
7

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - RETRACT Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)


Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toclose valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-open valves).

Actuator Minimum Output - RETRACT Actuator


Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Option 1: Coupling with Push-Down-To-Close Valve

FA/min = PA/min (1 PA drift ) A ext (1 A ext/ tol ) SP/max ME

Actuator Maximum Output - RETRACT Actuator


Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

FA/max = PA/max (1 + PA drift ) A ext (1 + A ext/ tol ) SP/min ME

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3$0D[ IURP6WHS 
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63PD[ IURP6WHS  OEI
63PLQ IURP6WHS   OEI
Diaphragm Extended Area (A ext)=
in2
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=
%/100
$LU5HJXODWRU'ULIW 3$GULIW  

Option 2: N/A
$29LVDSXVKGRZQWRRSHQYDOYHW\SH

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
8

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - EXTEND Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)


Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toopen valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-close valves).

Actuator Minimum Output - EXTEND Actuator


Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Actuator Maximum Output - EXTEND Actuator
Stem:

Option 1: Coupling with Push-Down-To-Close Valve

FA/max =

FA/min = BSU/min ME
FA/max = BSU/max ME

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Option 2: N/A
$29LVDSXVKGRZQWRFORVHYDOYHW\SH

%

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lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-5
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Diaphragm Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Direct Acting Diaphragm - with Mechanical Advantage
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]


Min Actuator Supply Pressure:

PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

PA/min =
PA/max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =


Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig

Max Actuator Supply Pressure:


psig
%/100

PA/max =

psig

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
2

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring preload
SP/min =

SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )

lbf

Max Spring Preload:


SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

SP/max =
lbf
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor lower benchset


SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) Aret (1 A ret / tol )
SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) Aret (1 + A ret / tol )

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaphragm Area Tolerance (Aret/tol) =

%

psig
%/100
in2
%/100

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

SR/min =

SR/max =

( BSUpper Aret (1 A tol ) BSLower Aext (1 + A tol )) (1 BStol )


LBS

(BSUpper Aext (1 + A tol ) BSLower Aret (1 A tol )) (1 + BStol )


LBS

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS)=
Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=

psig
psig
%/100
inches
in2
%/100
in2
%/100
%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Force, Min and Max [BSU/Max and BSU/Min]


Min Spring Force:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor upper benchset
BSU/min =

BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BStol ) Aret (1 Aret / tol )

lbf

Max Spring Force:


BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BStol ) Aret (1 + Aret / tol )

Nominal Bench Set (BSUpper) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=

BSU/max =
psig
%/100
in2
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor spring preload and spring rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L


BSU/max = SP/max + ( SR/max L)

630LQ IURP6WHS  
OEI
630D[ IURP6WHS 
OEI
650LQ IURP6WHS =
lbf/in
650D[ IURP6WHS =
lbf/in
Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100
Stroke Length (L) =
inches

%

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - FULLY EXTENDED Actuator Stem (FA/min and


FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

FA/min = PA/min (1 PA drift ) A ext (1 A ext/ tol ) BSU/max ME


FA/max = PA/max (1+ PA drift ) A ext (1 + A ext/ tol ) BSU/min ME

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3$0D[ IURP6WHS 
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%68PD[ IURP6WHS  
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Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext) =
in2
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=
%/100
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Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

Actuator Output - FULLY RETRACTED Actuator Stem (FA/min and


FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

FA/min = SP/min ME
FA/max = SP/max ME

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%

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
7

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - RETRACT Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)


Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toclose valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-open valves).

Actuator Minimum Output - RETRACT


Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Option 1: Coupling with Push-Down-To-Close Valve

Actuator Maximum Output - RETRACT


Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

FA/min = BSU/min ME

lbf

FA/max = BSU/max ME

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%68PLQ IURP6WHS  
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Option 2: N/A
$29LVDSXVKGRZQWRRSHQYDOYHW\SH

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
8

CALCULATION
Actuator Output - EXTEND Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)
Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toopen valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-close valves).

CALCULATION RESULTS
Actuator Minimum Output - EXTEND Actuator
Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Option 1: Coupling with Push-Down-To-Close Valve

FA/min = PA/min (1 PA drift ) A ret (1 Aret/ tol ) SP/max ME


FA/max = PA/max (1 + PA drift ) Aret (1 + A ret/ tol ) SP/min ME

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3$0D[ IURP6WHS 
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63PD[ IURP6WHS  OEI
63PLQ IURP6WHS   OEI
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret) =
in2
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=
in2
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0HFKDQLFDO$GYDQWDJHDYDLODEOH
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Option 2: N/A
$29LVDSXVKGRZQWRFORVHYDOYHW\SH
%

Actuator Maximum Output - EXTEND Actuator


Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-6
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Diaphragm Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Reverse Acting Diaphragm - with Mechanical Advantage
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]


Min Actuator Supply Pressure:

PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

PA/min =
PA/max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =


Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig

Max Actuator Supply Pressure:


psig
%/100

PA/max =

psig

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
2

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring preload
SP/min =

SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )

lbf

Max Spring Preload:


SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

SP/max =
lbf
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor lower benchset


SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) A ext (1 A ext / tol )
SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) A ext (1 + A ext / tol )

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
Diaphragm Area Tolerance (Aext/tol) =

%

psig
%/100
in2
%/100

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

SR/min =

SR/max =

( BSUpper Aret (1 A tol ) BSLower Aext (1 + A tol )) (1 BStol )


LBS

(BSUpper Aext (1 + A tol ) BSLower Aret (1 A tol )) (1 + BStol )


LBS

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS)=
Diaphragm Extended Area (Aext)=
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=

psig
psig
%/100
inches
in2
%/100
in2
%/100
%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Force, Min and Max [BSU/Max and BSU/Min]


Min Spring Force:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor upper benchset
BSU/min =
lbf

BSU/min = BSUpper (1 BStol ) Aret (1 Aret / tol )


BSU/max = BSUpper (1 + BStol ) Aret (1 + Aret / tol )

Nominal Bench Set (BSUpper) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=

Max Spring Force:


psig
%/100
in2
in2

Option 2: Using measured or vendor spring preload and spring rate

) )

BSU/min = SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg L


BSU/max = SP/max + ( SR/max L)

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Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100
Stroke Length (L) =
inches

%

BSU/max =
lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION
Actuator Output - FULLY EXTENDED Actuator Stem (FA/min and
FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

FA/min = SP/min ME
FA/max = SP/max ME

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Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


EXTENDED Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - FULLY RETRACTED Actuator Stem (FA/min and


FA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

FA/min = PA/min (1 PA drift ) Aret (1 Aret/ tol ) BSU/max ME


FA/max = PA/max (1 + PA drift ) Aret (1 + Aret/ tol ) BSU/min ME

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Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Aret/tol)=
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Actuator Minimum Output - FULLY


RETRACTED Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

Actuator Maximum Output - FULLY


RETRACT Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
7

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - RETRACT Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)


Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toclose valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-open valves).

Actuator Minimum Output - RETRACT


Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Option 1: Coupling with Push-Down-To-Close Valve

FA/min = PA/min (1 PA drift ) A ext (1 A ext/ tol ) SP/max ME

Actuator Maximum Output - RETRACT


Actuator Stem:
FA/max =

lbf

FA/max = PA/max (1 + PA drift ) A ext (1 + A ext/ tol ) SP/min ME

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Diaphragm Extended Area (A ext)=
in2
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Aext/tol)=
%/100
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Option 2: N/A
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$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
8

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output - EXTEND Actuator Stem (FA/min and FA/max)


Note: This calculation is required when coupling with push-down-toopen valves only (not required for use with push-down-to-close valves).

Actuator Minimum Output - EXTEND


Actuator Stem:
FA/min =

lbf

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
Actuator Maximum Output - EXTEND
Actuator Stem:

Option 1: Coupling with Push-Down-To-Close Valve

FA/max =

FA/min = BSU/min ME
FA/max = BSU/max ME

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$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-7
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Scotch Yoke Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Scotch Yoke - Double Acting
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Set Sign Convention


N/A
Option 1:
Full Close: 45 (Pressure on non-rod side of piston closes valve)
Full Open: -45 (Pressure on rod side of piston opens valve)
Option 2:
Full Close: -45 (Pressure on rod side of piston closes valve)
Full Open: 45 (Pressure on non-rod side of piston opens valve)

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
2

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [DPA/min and DPA/max]


Min/Max Actuator Supply Pressure (Close):

DPA/min = DPA (1 PA / tol )


DPA/max = DPA (1 + PA / tol )

To Close Valve:
Differential Actuator Supply Pressure (DPA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig
%/100

To Open Valve:
Differential Actuator Supply Pressure (DPA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig
%/100

Note: The Differential Actuator Supply Pressure is the actuator supply


pressure available to the high pressure side of the piston minus the
actuator supply pressure on the low pressure side of the piston.

%

DPA/min =

psig

DPA/max =

psig

Min/Max Actuator Supply Pressure (Open):


DPA/min =
DPA/max =

psig
psig

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Breakaway Force [FD]


Breakaway Force (Closing Direction):
Option 1: Measured,Vendor Supplied, or Assumed Breakaway Force
FD =
FD =

lbf

lbf
Breakaway Force (Opening Direction):

Option 2: Vendor Supplied Breakaway Pressure


FD =

lbf

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4
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Breakaway Pressure (PD) =


Piston Diameter (D) =
*Piston Rod Diameter (d) =

D2 PD

psig
inches
inches

*Setting the rod diameter equal to zero is conservative and would give
an equal breakaway force for both stroke directions.

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output to Close Valve (TA/min and TA/max)

Force Output to Close the Valve:

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the Maximum
Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Angle ()
(in-lb)

Option 1 (see Step 1):


T A /min = D P A /min (1 PA drift ) D2 FD

cos2

T A /max = D P A /max (1 + PA drift ) D2

cos2
4

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-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15

T A /min =

2 2
C

D P A /min (1 PA drift ) D d FD

4
cos 2

-10
-5

2 2
C

T A /max = D P A /max (1 + PA drift ) D d

cos 2
4

-4
-3

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-2
-1
0
1
2
3

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
4
5
10
15
20

Force Output to Close the Valve (Cont.):


Angle ()
(in-lb)

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

25
30
35
40
45

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output to Open Valve (TA/min and TA/max)

Force Output to Open the Valve:

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the Maximum
Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Angle ()
(in-lb)

Option 1 (see Step 1):


C
2
T A /min = D P A /min (1 PA drift ) D2 d FD

cos 2

2
T A /max = D P A /max (1 + PA drift ) D2 d

cos 2
4

Option 2 (see Step 1):

45
40
35
30
25
20
15

T A /min = D P A /min (1 PA drift ) D2 FD

4

cos2

10
5

T A /max = D P A /max (1 + PA drift ) D2

cos2
4

4
3

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2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
-4
-5
-10
-15
-20

Force Output to Open the Valve (Cont.):


Angle ()
(in-lb)

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

-25
-30
-35
-40
-45

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-8
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Scotch Yoke Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Scotch Yoke - Single Acting, Spring Return
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Set Sign Convention


N/A
Pressure Stroke: 45 (End of pressure stroke corresponds to 45)
Spring Stroke: -45 (End of spring stroke corresponds to -45)
This worksheet will use the sign convention specified above.

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]


Min Actuator Supply Pressure:

PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

PA/min =
PA/max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =


Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

%

psig

Max Actuator Supply Pressure:


psig
%/100

PA/max =

psig

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Breakaway Force [FD]


Breakaway Force (Closing Direction):
Option 1: Measured,Vendor Supplied, or Assumed Breakaway Force
FD =
FD =

lbf

lbf
Breakaway Force (Opening Direction):

Option 2: Vendor Supplied Breakaway Pressure


FD =

lbf

FD = D2 PD
4

Breakaway Pressure (PD) =


Piston Diameter (D) =

psig
inches

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring preload
SP/min =

SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )

lbf

Max Spring Preload:


SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

SP/max =

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

lbf
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor lower benchset


SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol )

D2
4

SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol )

D2
4

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Piston Diameter (D)=

%

psig
%/100
in

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

D2 (1 BStol ) / LBS
4

D2 (1 + BStol ) / LBS
4

SR/min = BSUpper BSLower

SR/max = BSUpper BSLower

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS) =
Piston Diameter (D) =

psig
psig
%/100
inches
inches

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
6

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output of Pressure Stroke (TA/min and TA/max)

Force Output (Pressure Stroke):

For simplicity, the actuator output is specified as the pressure stroke.


Which stroke direction this corresponds to (open or close) depends on the
configuration of a particular AOV.

Angle ()
(in-lb)
-45

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

-40
-35

TA /min = PA /min (1 PA drift ) D 2 SP /max + SR /max C (1 + tan ) FD


4

cos 2

TA/max = PA/max 1 + PAdrift D2 SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg C (1 + tan )


2
4

cos

-30
-25
-20
-15

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-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3

%

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
4
5
10
15
20

Force Output (Pressure Stroke, Cont.):


Angle ()
(in-lb)

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

25
30
35
40
45

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
7

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output of Spring Stroke (TA/min and TA/max)

Force Output (Spring Stroke):

For simplicity, the actuator output is specified as the spring stroke.


Which stroke direction this corresponds to (open or close) depends on the
configuration of a particular AOV.

Angle ()
(in-lb)
45

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
.

C
TA /min = SP /min + SR /min 1 SR /deg C (1 + tan ) FD
cos2

)]

TA /max = SP /max + SR/max C (1 + tan )

C
2

cos

40
35
30
25
20
15
10

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5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

%

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
-4
-5
-10
-15
-20

Force Output (Spring Stroke, Cont.):


Angle ()
(in-lb)

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

-25
-30
-35
-40
-45

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-9
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Rotary Diaphragm Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Direct Acting Diaphragm Actuator - Rotary
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Set Sign Convention


N/A
Extend Actuator Rod: 45 (Spring compresses when rod extends)
Retract Actuator Rod: -45 (Spring relaxes when rod retracts)
This worksheet will use the sign convention specified above.

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]


Min Actuator Supply Pressure:

PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

PA/min =
PA/max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =


Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

%

psig

Max Actuator Supply Pressure:


psig
%/100

PA/max =

psig

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring preload
SP/min =

SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )

lbf

Max Spring Preload:


SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

SP/max =

lbf

lbf
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor lower benchset


SP/min = BSLower (1 BS tol ) Aret (1 A tol )
SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) A ret (1 + A tol )

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaphragm Area Tolerance (Atol) =

psig
%/100
in2
in2

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

SR/min =

SR/max =

( BSUpper Aret (1 A tol ) BSLower Aext (1 + A tol )) (1 BStol )


LBS

(BSUpper Aext (1 + A tol ) BSLower Aret (1 A tol )) (1 + BStol )


LBS

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS) =
Diaphragm Extended Area (A ext)=
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Atol)=
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Atol)=
%

psig
psig
%/100
inches
in2
in2
in2
in2

lbf/in

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION
Actuator Output to Extend Actuator Rod (TA/min and TA/max)

CALCULATION RESULTS
Force Output to Extend Actuator Rod:

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Angle () A (in2)
(in-lb)

SR/max b (1+ tan ) b cos


TA /min = PA /min (1 PA drift ) A (1 A tol ) SP /max
2

-45

TA /max = PA /max 1 + PAdrift A 1 + A tol SP/min


SR/min 1 SR/deg b (1 + tan ) b cos

-35

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%/100
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Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg)=
%/100
Diaphragm (A)=
See results table and note below
in2
NOTE:
A at 45 is the fully extended diaphragm area
A at -45 is the fully retracted diaphragm area
A at intermediate positions is equal to values between the extended
and retracted area. If not provided by the vendor, areas at
intermediate positions can be interpolated from the extended and
retracted areas.

TA/min (in-lb) TA/max

-40

-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
5
10
15
20

Force Output to Extend Actuator Rod (Cont.):


Angle () A (in2)
(in-lb)
25
30
35
40
45

%

TA/min (in-lb) TA/max

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
6

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Output to Retract Actuator Rod (TA/min and TA/max)

Force Output to Retract Actuator Rod:

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Angle ()
(in-lb)

2
TA /min = SP /min +
SR /min 1 SR /deg b 1 + tan
2

) b cos

SR /max b (1 + tan ) b cos


TA /max = SP /max +

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Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
4
3
2
1

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
Force Output to Retract Actuator Rod (Cont.):
Angle ()
(in-lb)

0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45

%

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-10
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Rotary Diaphragm Actuator)

AOV Tag No.


Reverse Acting Diaphragm Actuator - Rotary
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Set Sign Convention


N/A
Extend Actuator Rod: 45 (Spring relaxes when rod extends)
Retract Actuator Rod: -45 (Spring compresses when rod retracts)
This worksheet will use the sign convention specified above.

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]


Min Actuator Supply Pressure:

PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

PA/min =
PA/max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =


Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig

Max Actuator Supply Pressure:


psig
%/100

PA/max =

psig

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]


Min Spring Preload:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring preload
SP/min =

SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )

lbf

Max Spring Preload:


SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

SP/max =
lbf
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor lower benchset


SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) A ext (1 A tol )
SP/max = BSLower (1 + BStol ) A ext (1 + A tol )

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aext)=
Diaphragm Area Tolerance (Atol) =

%

psig
%/100
in2
%/100

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

SR/min =

SR/max =

( BSUpper Aret (1 A tol ) BSLower Aext (1 + A tol )) (1 BStol )


LBS

(BSUpper Aret (1 + A tol ) BSLower Aext (1 A tol )) (1 + BStol )


LBS

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS) =
Diaphragm Extended Area (A ext)=
Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Atol)=
Diaphragm Retracted Area (Aret)=
Diaph Retract Area Tolerance (Atol)=

psig
psig
%/100
inches
in2
%/100
in2
%/100

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION
Actuator Output to Retract Actuator Rod (TA/min and TA/max)

CALCULATION RESULTS
Force Output to Retract Actuator Rod:

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Angle () A (in2)
(in-lb)

SR/max b (1+ tan ) b cos


TA /min = PA /min (1 PA drift ) A (1 A tol ) SP /max
2

45

TA /max = PA /max 1 + PAdrift A 1 + A tol SP/min


SR/min 1 SR/deg b (1 + tan ) b cos

35

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Diaph Extend Area Tolerance (Atol)=
%/100
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Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100
Diaphragm Area (A)= See results table and note below
in2
NOTE:
A at 45 is the fully extended diaphragm area
A at -45 is the fully retracted diaphragm area
A at intermediate positions is equal to values between the extended
and retracted area. If not provided by the vendor, areas at intermediate
positions can be interpolated from the extended and retracted areas.
%

40

30
25
20
15
10
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4

TA/min (in-lb) TA/max

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
-5
-10
-15
-20

Force Output to Retract Actuator Rod:


Angle () A (in2)
(in-lb)

TA/min (in-lb) TA/max

-25
-30
-35
-40
-45

Actuator Output to Extend Actuator Rod (TA/min and TA/max)

Force Output to Extend Actuator Rod:


%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

2
TA /min = SP /min +
SR /min 1 SR /deg b 1 + tan
2

) b cos

SR /max b (1 + tan ) b cos


TA /max = SP /max +

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Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg) =
%/100

Angle ()
(in-lb)

TA/min (in-lb)

TA/max

-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

Force Output to Extend Actuator Rod (Cont.):

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
Angle ()
TA/min (in-lb)
TA/max
(in-lb)
0
1
2
3
4
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-11
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Rack & Pinion, Double Acting)

AOV Tag No.


Rack & Pinion - Double Acting Air Cylinder - Rotary
STEP
1

CALCULATION
Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [DPA/min and DPA/max]

Min/Max Actuator Supply Pressure (Close Valve):

DPA/min = DPA (1 PA / tol )


DPA/max = DPA (1 + PA / tol )

To Close Valve:
Differential Actuator Supply Pressure (DPA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig
%/100

To Open Valve:
Differential Actuator Supply Pressure (DPA) =
Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig
%/100

Note: The Differential Actuator Supply Pressure is the actuator supply


pressure available to the high pressure side of the piston minus the
actuator supply pressure on the low pressure side of the piston.

%

CALCULATION RESULTS

DPA/min =

psig

DPA/max =

psig

Min/Max Actuator Supply Pressure (Open Valve):


DPA/min =

psig

DPA/max =

psig

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
2

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Breakaway Force [FD]


Option 1: Measured,Vendor Supplied, or Assumed Breakaway
Force
FD =

lbf

Breakaway Force:
FD =

lbf

Option 2: Vendor Supplied Breakaway Pressure


FD =

D2 PD
4

Breakaway Pressure (PD) =


Piston Diameter (D) =
Actuator Output for Closing Valve (TA/min and TA/max)

psig
inches

The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the


Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

Actuator Minimum Output to Close Valve:


TA/min =

in-lb

TA /min = Npiston PG DPA /min (1 PA drift ) D2 FD

2
4

Actuator Maximum Output for Closing Valve:

TA /max = Npiston PG DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) D2

2
4

TA/max =

in-lb

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$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION
Actuator Output for Opening Valve (TA/min and TA/max)
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.

CALCULATION RESULTS

Actuator Minimum Output to Open Valve:


TA/min =

in-lb

TA /min = Npiston PG DPA /min (1 PA drift ) D2 FD

2
4
D

TA /max = Npiston PG DPA /max (1 + PA drift ) D2

2
4

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Actuator Maximum Output for Opening Valve:


TA/max =

in-lb

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
Table B-12
ACTUATOR CAPABILITY CALCULATION WORKSHEET
(Rack & Pinion, Single Acting)

AOV Tag No.


Rack & Pinion - Single Acting - Spring Return - Rotary
STEP
1

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
N/A

Set Sign Convention


Pressure Stroke: 90 (End of pressure stroke corresponds to 90)
Spring Stroke:
0 (End of spring stroke corresponds to 0)
This worksheet will use the sign convention specified above.

Actuator Supply Pressure, Min and Max [PA/min and PA/max]


Min Actuator Supply Pressure:

PA /min = PA (1 PA / tol )

PA/min =
PA/max = PA (1 + PA / tol )

Nominal Actuator Supply Pressure (PA) =


Supply Pressure Tolerance (PA/tol) =

psig

Max Actuator Supply Pressure:


psig
%/100

PA/max =

psig

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
3

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Breakaway Force [FD]


Option 1: Measured,Vendor Supplied, or Assumed Breakaway
Force

Breakaway Force:
FD =

FD =

lbf

Option 2: Vendor Supplied Breakaway Pressure


FD =

D2 PD
4

Breakaway Pressure (PD) =


Piston Diameter (D) =

%

psig
inches

lbf

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
4

CALCULATION
Spring Preload, Min and Max [SP/min and SP/max]

CALCULATION RESULTS

Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring preload

Min Spring Preload:

SP/min = SP (1 SP/ tol )

SP/min =

SP/max = SP (1 + SP/ tol )

Nominal Spring Preload (SP) =


Spring Preload Tolerance (SP/tol) =

lbf

Max Spring Preload:


lbf
%/100

SP/max =

lbf

Option 2: Using measured or vendor lower benchset


SP/min = BSLower (1 BStol ) 4 D2
SP/max = BSLower (1 + BS tol ) 4 D2

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Piston Diameter (D) =

psig
%/100
inches

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
5

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS

Spring Rate, Min and Max [SR/min and SR/max]


Min Spring Rate:
Option 1: Using measured or vendor spring rate
SR/min =

SR/min = SR (1 SR/ tol )

lbf/in

Max Spring Rate:


SR/max = SR (1 + SR/ tol )

SR/max =

Nominal Spring Rate (SR) =


Spring Rate Tolerance (SR/tol) =

lbf/in
%/100

Option 2: Using measured or vendor benchset

D 2 BSUpper BSLower (1- BS tol ) / LBS


4

SR/max = D2 BSUpper BSLower (1+ BStol ) / LBS


4
SR/min =

Lower Bench Set (BSLower) =


Upper Bench Set (BSUpper) =
Bench Set Tolerance (BStol) =
Benchset Stroke Length (LBS) =
Piston Diameter (D) =

%

psig
psig
%/100
inches
inches

lbf/in

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
6

CALCULATION
Actuator Output for Pressure Stroke (TA/min and TA/max)
For simplicity, the actuator output is specified as the pressure stroke.
Which stroke direction this corresponds to (open or close) depends on
the configuration of a particular AOV.
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
TA/min =

Npiston

TA/max =

Npiston

DPG
DPG PA/min (1 PAdrift ) D2 - FD SP/max SR/max

4
90 4

DPG PA/max (1+ PAdrift ) D2 SP/min SR/min 1 SR/deg DPG

90 4
4

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Spring Rate Degradation (SR/deg)=
%/100

CALCULATION RESULTS
Force Output (Pressure Stroke):
Angle ()
TA/min (in-lb)
TA/max (inlb)
0
1
2
3
4
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
70
75
80
85
90

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP
7

CALCULATION
Actuator Output for Spring Stroke (TA/min and TA/max)
For simplicity, the actuator output is specified as the spring stroke.
Which stroke direction this corresponds to (open or close) depends on
the configuration of a particular AOV
The Minimum Actuator Output is the actuator capability and the
Maximum Actuator Output is used for the Structural Margins.
TA /min =

Npiston

TA /max =

Npiston

DPG SP/min + SR/min 1 SR/deg


DPG FD

90
4

DPG SP/max + SR/max


DPG

90 4

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CALCULATION RESULTS
Force Output (Spring Stroke):
Angle ()
TA/min (in-lb)
TA/max (inlb)
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

%

(35, /LFHQVHG 0DWHULDO


$FWXDWRU :RUNVKHHWV
STEP

CALCULATION

CALCULATION RESULTS
4
3
2
1
0

%

EPRI Licensed Material

C
PACKING LOAD METHODOLOGY

C.1

Nomenclature
AP

cross-sectional area of the packing, in2

Dbolt

gland bolt diameter, in.

Ds

stem diameter, in.

FPL

packing load, lb.

Gstress

gland stress, psi

HP

height of the packing, in.

Klube

lubrication factor between a gland bolt and nut

Nbolt

number of gland bolts

Pup

coefficient of friction between the packing and stem materials and = 0.1 based
on EPRI data.

Psys

system design pressure, psi

Tbolt

gland bolt torque value, in-lb

TP

packing torque, in-lb

packing radial stress to axial stress transfer ratio and is assumed to = 0.5 and
remain constant. This assumption is based on industry experience.

WP

width of the packing, in.

C-1

EPRI Licensed Material


Packing Load Methodology

C.2

Methodology

C.2.1 Rising Stem Packing Loads


In order to predict rising stem packing loads, FPL, based on the packing configuration
and gland bolt torque the following equation is used and considered an industry
standard.
FPL = GstressQSDsHpPup
Where:
G stress

>

Tbolt N bolt
S
2
2
and A P
D s  2WP  Ds
4
D bolt K lube A P

C.2.2 Quarter Turn Packing Loads


To determine the packing torque, TP applied to a quarter turn valve, the packing load
can be converted into an equivalent torque. This is done by multiplying the packing
load (FPL) by one-half of the stem diameter Ds.
TP FPL

Ds
2

Per "Application Guide for Motor-Operated Butterfly Valves in Nuclear Power Plants,"
(Reference 10.1), the gland stress for chevron packing is typically estimated by using 1.5
Psys, where Psys is the system design pressure (psi). For ring type packing the gland
stress is estimated the same way but with a minimum value of 1000 psi. The coefficient
of friction, Pup can range from 0.1 to 0.2 (Reference 10.1).

C.3

Calculation worksheets

The attached worksheets are used to perform packing calculations.

C-2

EPRI Licensed Material


Packing Load Methodology

Table C-1. Packing Load for Rising Stem Valves


AOV Number:
Thrust Component

Equation

Sign

Opening and Closing Strokes


Fully Open and Fully Closed

Packing

FPL = GstressQSDsHpPup
Q = 0.5
Ds =
HP =
Pup = 0.1
Gstress = 2,000
Tbolt N bolt
G stress
D bolt K lube A P
Tbolt =
Nbolt =
Dbolt =
Klube = 0.15
AP =
AP

D  2W
4>

WP =

always positive

lbf

in.
in.
psi

in-lb.
in.
in2

 Ds 2

in.

C-3

EPRI Licensed Material


Packing Load Methodology

Table C-2. Packing Torque for Quarter Turn Valves


AOV Number:
Torque Component

Equation

Sign

Opening and Closing Strokes


Fully Open and Fully Closed

Packing

TP FPL

always positive

Ds
2

FPL = GstressQSDsHpPup
Q = 0.5
Ds =
in.
in.
HP =
Pup = 0.1 - 0.2
Gstress = 2,000 psi
Tbolt N bolt
G stress
or1.5Psys
D bolt K lube A P
Tbolt =
in lb.
Nbolt =
in.
Dbolt =
Klube = 0.15
AP =
in2
AP
or

C-4

D  2W
4>

WP =
Psys

 Ds 2

in.
psi

in-lbf