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CE 5331-X13: Design of Earth Retention Structures

Earth Pressure at Rest


Rankines Earth Pressure

Priyantha W. Jayawickrama, Ph.D


Sources:
Fundamental of Geotechnical Eng.,B.M. DAS (11.1 -11.3)
Soil Mechanics & Foundations, Budhu (10.0 10.3)

Contact Information

Room 161/CE Building


Phone 742-3471 ext. 245
Email: Priyantha.Jayawickrama@coe.ttu.edu
Office Hours:

Outlines
Earth pressure at rest
Rankines theory for active and passive earth
pressures
Working example (ex 10.2 pg 454)

Earth Pressure at Rest


Coefficient of earth pressure at rest

Ko

s 'h
s 'o

Where
so = gz
sh = Ko(gz)
g = gsat - gw

Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)


For coarse-grained soils

K0 = 1 sin f

(Jaky, 1944)

For fine-grained, normally consolidated soils


PI (%)
K o 0.44 0.42

100

(Massarch, 1979)

For overconsolidates clays


K o ( OC ) K o ( NC ) OCR
Where

OCR

Pc
s 'o

Basic Concepts on Earth


Pressures
s 'a

s 'h ( a )

s 'o

s 'h ( p )

Rankines Theory Assumptions

The lateral earth pressure coefficients are valid


for;

Vertical earth retaining wall


Smooth wall in which the interface between the wall
and soil is frictionless
The supported soil is homogeneous and isotropic
The soil is loose and originally in an at-rest state
Lateral earth pressures must be applied to effective
stress
Critical slip planes are oriented at 45o f/2

Rankines Active Pressures


The coefficient of Rankines active earth

pressure, Ka
Ka

s 'h ( a ) 1 sin f '


f'

tan 2 45
s 'o
1 sin f '
2

s 'a

s 'o

Rankines Passive Pressures


The coefficient of Rankines passive earth

pressure, Kp
Kp

Kp

1
Ka

s 'h ( p ) 1 sin f '


f'

tan 2 45
s 'o
1 sin f '
2

Earth Pressures For Partially


Submerged Soil
Hydrostatic pressure, u

u g w hw

Active lateral earth pressure, s h a

s h a

K as ' z K a q s u a

Pressure lateral earth pressure, s h p


s h p K ps ' z K p qs u p

Lateral Earth Forces


The lateral earth force is the area of the lateral

stress diagram
The lateral forces, Pa and Pp are located at the
centroid of the lateral pressure distribution
diagram

Working Example
(Joseph E. Bowles 5th Edition - Pg 607)

Working Example
(Joseph E. Bowles 5th Edition - Pg 607)
Latihan:
Coba kerjakan lagi soal di slide sebelumnya dengan urutan:
1. Hitung koefisien tekanan tanah kesamping aktif / Ka (untuk lapisan tanah
dibelakang tembok) dan koefisien tekanan tanah pasif / Kp (untuk tanah
didepan tembok)
2. Hitung tegangan vertical efektif di setiap lapisan tanah akibat beban luar
dan beban tanah
3. Hitung tegangan horizontal efektif aktif dibelakan tembok dan pasif
didepan tembok akibat tanah dan beban luar di setiap lapisan tanah
yang berbeda
4. Hitung tegangan horizontal aktif dibelakang tembok dan pasif didepan
tembok akibat air
5. Gambar diagram tegangan horizontal aktif dan pasif dari hasil hitungan
saudara diatas
6. Hitung besar gaya aktif dan gaya pasif serta titik tangkap gaya-gaya
tersebut.
7. Cek apakah hitungan saudara sama dengan contoh diatas