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IPA07-G-091

PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Thirty-first Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2007
THE PALEOGENE BASIN WITHIN THE KENDENG ZONE, CENTRAL JAVA ISLAND, AND
IMPLICATIONS TO HYDROCARBON PROSPECTIVITY
Eddy A. Subroto*
Dardji Noeradi*
Awali Priyono*
Handoyo E. Wahono**
Eddy Hermanto**
Praptisih***
Kuwat Santoso****

ABSTRACT
A large part of the E-W trending Kendeng Zone of
Central Java, is covered by Quaternary volcanic
products with some windows of late Tertiary
outcrops, especially in the northern part. The NESW structure found in the area is generally
associated with a Paleogene basin and has been
proven as the locus of hydrocarbon source-rock
deposition (e.g. Central Deep). The regional gravity
map of Central Java shows that the zone is a deep
basin. The gravity map also indicates that the
Kendeng Zone is dissected by a NE-SW structural
lineament that can be interpreted as the southward
prolongation of the Paleogene structural trend. Field
observations have proven that in the southern part
of Java, Paleogene outcrops are located along these
lineaments (eg. Cimandiri, Luk Ulo, Nanggulan,
and Bayat). Stratigraphic studies in some Paleogene
outcrops in the southern part of Java revealed that a
Paleogene basin was present in the southern part of
the island.
A series of sediment samples comprising Paleogene
and Neogene intervals have been collected during
this study. Detailed geochemical analyses have been
performed on some selected sediments. The
characteristics of the sediments from both
stratigraphic intervals have therefore been defined.
Several oil samples were available for this study.
Most of the oil samples have experienced severe
biodegradation. Even though the samples are
biodegraded some detailed geochemical analyses,
such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry
(GC-MS) and stable isotope analyses, were still
conducted. The results indicate that there is
relatively good correlation of the biomarker
*
**
***
****

Institute of Technology Bandung


BPMIGAS
Indonesian Institute of Research, LIPI
UPN Veteran

characteristics of the crude oils with those of the


Mio-Pliocene Halang Formation. However, as the
Halang Formation is not sufficiently mature to
produce liquid hydrocarbons, the source of the
crude oils is most possibly the Wungkal Formation
(Paleogene) that has similar depositional
environment to the Halang Formation but occurred
in a deeper stratigraphic position.
INTRODUCTION
Central Java (Figure 1), except the northeast part
that is very close to the East Java Basin, is a
mysterious area. Some hydrocarbon seeps have
been found within the area but problems with regard
to the petroleum system are still unsolved. Papers
reporting about the geology and petroleum system
of the East and West Java basins are relatively
abundant, but only a few papers have discussed the
geology in relation to the petroleum system of the
Central Java area (e.g. Muchsin et al., 2002;
Noeradi et al., 2006; Satyana, 2006; Subroto et al.,
2006). One of the reasons why workers are less
interested in exploring this area might be the
occurrence of thick volcanic rocks covering the
Central Java area. Other reasons are the lack of
good potential hydrocarbon source rock outcrops in
the region, the limited number of well sections
where the Paleogene sediments have been
penetrated, and the lack of reliable geochemical
data from such well sections.
Regarding the source rocks of the Central Java area,
it is generally accepted that they occur in two
intervals: Paleogene and Neogene. The Paleogene is
thought to contain two potential sources, i.e. the
Paleogene coal and clastics intervals, while the
Neogene source is contained within the Miocene
prodelta marine clastics. The main problem in
defining the source rock is that the biomarker

distributions of both the Paleogene and Neogene


intervals are relatively similar. The aim of this
paper is to first establish a regional Paleogene and
Neogene stratigraphic framework in the Central
Java Basin and then to correlate between the crude
oils and source rocks in order to try establishing the
source rock that is responsible for the occurrence of
the crude oils in the area.
GEOLOGICAL SETTING
a. Tectonics
Asikin (1974), based on field observations of a
mlange complex in the Luk Ulo area, Central Java,
proposed two tectonic models for the evolution of
Java during the Tertiary. In the Late Cretaceous to
Paleocene, a subduction complex trending NE-SW
occurred in the area, extending from the Luk Ulo
area to the Meratus Mountains in South Kalimantan.
According to this model, Central and East Java are
considered as part of a non-subducted, oceanic
basin. The subduction trend changed to an E-W
direction since the Neogene and therefore Central
and East Java changed their status from an oceanic
basin to an island-arc system. It appears that the
model needs some revisions, especially in the
Paleogene since some new evidence indicates that
the basement affinity of Central and East Java is
more continental than oceanic.
New data from oil and gas exploration (onshore and
offshore) of East Java indicate that two rift basin
systems developed during Eo-Oligocene times
(Sribudiyani et al., 2003). The first rift system,
striking NE-SW follows the Meratus structural
trend of Kalimantan and the second system,
trending in E-W direction is parallel with the RMK
(Rembang-Madura-Kangean) structural trend. Both
rift systems are prolific hydrocarbon basins
(Figure 2). Sribudiyani et al. (2003) compiled
surface and subsurface data in the eastern part of
East Java (Figure 2). The results indicate that the
NE-SW structural trend is still present in the middle
of the island and extends to the southern part. This
fact may imply that the Paleogene rift basin
observed in the offshore area of East Java is also
present in middle and southern parts of Java Island,
following the NE-SW structural trend.
The Neogene basin is another system. The main
controlling factor of basin development during this
period was the emplacement of the Java magmatic
arc that is striking in a E-W direction. In the East
Java region this structural trend is an overprint of
the RMK lineament. The Kendeng Deep was one of

the E-W trending deep basins that developed in the


back-arc
setting
during
this
period
(Smyth et al., 2003).

b. Stratigraphy
The eastern part of Java Island, in terms of its
physiographic characters, can be divided into four
zones, i.e. from south to north, respectively: the
Southern Mountain zone, Solo zone, Kendeng zone,
and the Randublatung-Rembang zone (van
Bemmelen, 1949). However, based on the more
recent gravity data, only three geological provinces
can be observed. They are the Southern Mountains,
Kendeng zone and the Rembang zone (Smyth et al.,
2005). The three geological provinces reflect more
the Neogene to present geological conditions rather
than the Paleogene geology.
Three areas in the Southern Mountain zone where
Paleogene sections crop out have been used as
reference; they are the Karangsambung Luk Ulo
area of northern Kebumen, the Nanggulan area of
the Kulon Progo high, and the Bayat area of
southern Yogyakarta. Figure 3 shows the
stratigraphic column of the three areas. In the
Karangsambung Luk Ulo area, the Paleogene
section consists of broken formations with tectonic
mlange at the base followed by an olistostrome
unit comprising deformed marine shales with some
blocks of conglomerate, limestones, sandstones and
pillow lavas. Tuffaceous sandstones and breccias
were deposited over the broken formation in the
upper
part
of
the
Paleogene
section.
Lithostratigraphically, the Paleogene section
belongs to the Karangsambung and Totogan
Formations of Eocene to Oligocene age. The
Neogene section is marked by a thick interval of
gravity mass-flow breccias with fragments
dominantly of volcanic rocks (Waturanda
Formation). The Waturanda Formation is a
manifestation of early Neogene volcanism in
southern Java. Higher up, the Middle Miocene
section is characterised by marine sediments,
including a volcano-calci-turbidite sequence named
the Penosogan Formation. The volcano-calciturbidite deposition continued until Pliocene times
with the deposition of Halang Formation. The basin
was deformed and uplifted during the PlioPleistocene tectonic event.
The Paleogene stratigraphy of the Kulon Progo
high is characterised by shallow marine to deltaic
sediments of the Songo Beds. The formation
consists of interbedded quartz sandstones, shales

with thin coal streaks at the base, followed by


marine shales with tuffaceous sand intervals. The
base of this formation does not outcrop in Kulon
Progo area; however the quartz sandstones that is
assign being the Kulon Progo Formation (equivalent
with Songo Beds) found in the Nanggulan area
indicate that the basement is composed of
continental rocks (metamorphic?). The Neogene
section in the Kulon Progo area is occupied by the
Watu Puru Beds of Late Oligocene to Early
Miocene age and consists of volcanic breccias and
lava flows. The volcanic rock characteristics
indicate that Kulon Progo area was a centre of
volcanic activity during Late Paleogene to Early
Neogene times.

rocks were deposited in a fluvial to deltaic setting at


the foot of a volcanic cone.

The Paleogene sediments in the Bayat area nonconformably overly the basement rocks which
consist of metamorphic rocks, phyllite, marble and
schist. The Paleogene sediments belong to the
Wungkal Formation which is composed of
conglomerates, quartz sandstones, shales and
Nummulitic limestones of Eocene age. The rock
series were deposited in shallow marine conditions
occupying the littoral to neritic zone. The basement
rock characters as well as the clastic Paleogene
sediments show that the tectonic setting during
Paleogene was continental. The Neogene section in
this area is occupied by the Kebobutak Formation of
late Oligocene to Early Miocene age and consists of
volcanic breccias and lava flows. Overlying the
Kebobutak Formation is the Wonosari Formation of
late Miocene age , consisting of mainly reefal
limestones.

c. Reconstruction of the Paleogene Basin

Figure 4 illustrates the stratigraphic column of the


Kendeng Zone according to Pringgoprawiro (1983).
The Paleogene rocks do not crop out in this zone.
The oldest outcrop in this area is the Pelang
Formation of Late Oligocene to Early Miocene age.
The formation consists of deep-water marls and
claystones with calcarenite intercalations containing
large forams. Gravity data modelling in this zone
indicates that the deepest part of the zone is about 8
km. The model might indicate that the Paleogene
section could also be present in this zone. The
Neogene interval consists of deep-water sediments
of marls and claystones with turbiditic intervals of
tuffaceous calcareous sandstones in the lower
section (Pelang, Kerek and lower Kalibeng
Formations) and gradually changes to shallow
marine in the upper section (upper Kalibeng). The
Pleistocene interval consists of thickly-bedded
sandstones and breccias with predominantly
tuffaceous material of the Pucangan, Kabuh, and
Notopuro Formations (Figure 4). The Pleistocene

The second reconstruction indicates that the


Paleogene basin in the Southern Mountain, as
evidenced from the stratigraphic data of the
Southern Mountain, is the prolongation of the NESW Meratus Trend that is observed clearly in the
offshore area (Figure 6). Two lineaments are also
found to coincide with Paleogene outcrops in the
southern part of Java (Luk Ulo and Bayat). The two
scenarios are possible and regardless whichever
model is used, it is most likely that the Paleogene
basin must exist below the Kendeng Zone.

The Paleogene stratigraphy of the Rembang Zone is


characterised by rift-related sedimentation. The synrift sediments correspond to the lower Ngimbang
unit deposited in a lacustrine to marine setting
during the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene. The
rift-sagging period is represented by the Kujung
Formation which is composed of limestones and
shales of Late Oligocene age. The Neogene interval
consists of shallow marine to beach sediments of
marls and limestones and sandstones of the Tuban,
Ngrayong, Wonocolo, Ledok, and Mundu
formations.

Based on the results of this study, two basin


reconstructions of the Paleogene structural trend
and stratigraphy are proposed. The first
reconstruction is that the Paleogene basin in the
northern part of East Java follows the RMK
structural trend (E-W), extending to the south in the
Kendeng Zone, then it curves to a S-W direction.
The interpretation is based on the gravity map of the
Kendeng Zone that is segmented by NE-SW
lineaments (Figure 5). Two lineaments are apparent
and they coincide with the Paleogene outcrops.
Moreover, the geology of the Kulonprogo and
Bayat areas support this interpretation. The form of
Paleogene basin in this model resembles a horsetail
structure related to sinistral strike-slip movement
along the RMK Zone.

GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
Samples
During this study, a series of sedimentary rocks
comprising sections from Paleogene and Neogene
intervals have been collected. The samples
represent some formations, i.e. Halang, Rambatan,
Pemali, Lawak, Totogan, and Karangsambung. The

samples were partly weathered. This condition may


influence the source richness. The variation of
carbon organic content in the samples is between
poor and fair (0.2 to 0.9%) andthe samples
containing fair organic carbon contents were then
subjected to detailed geochemical analyses such as
stable isotope and GC-MS to assess the biomarker
distribution. These samples are in fact from the
Halang (HL), Rambatan (RB), Pemali (PM), and
Karangsambung (KS) Formations (Figure 7). Please
note that Pemali Formation is found in northern
Serayu that is equivalent to Pelang and Kerek
Formations in the Kendeng Zone.

saturated fraction carbon-isotope analyses were


performed for potential source rock extracts and,
therefore, they are indicated by a vertical line on the
Sofer (1984) plot in Figure 9. One sample of the
Karangsambung Formation and two samples of the
Halang Formation plot very close to the crude oils
whereas the positions of other samples of these
formations are relatively far from the crude oils.
Therefore, it cannot be interpreted that the two
formations have a good correlation with the crude
oils. It is apparent that these techniques cannot be
effectively used to separate the source rocks and
crude oils.

Figure 7 also indicates the geographical position of


the crude oil samples. Four crude oil seeps were
involved in this study. They were collected from the
Karangnangka-1 (KRN-1), and Gunung Wetan-1
(GNW-1) wells, Kali Panjatan, Lawen (KP-L) and
Karangkobar (LW-05A). These crude oil samples
were also subjected to detailed geochemical
analyses. Two samples (KRN-1 and GNW-1) have
experienced biodegradation, so that they could not
be fully used in the correlation with the source
rocks. The other two samples are relatively
unbiodegraded.

Another technique that can be applied relatively


well to indicate the source rock within the area is
the correlation between source rocks and crude oils
using triterpanes and steranes. On the basis of
biomarkers and stable isotopes, it is apparent that
the crude oils belong to one family. These crude
oils, in terms of their triterpanes biomarkers, are
characterised by a relatively high abundance of
oleanane material. Figure 10 shows a comparison of
triterpane distribution in the crude oil and in the
source rocks, based on mass chromatograms of m/z
191. It is clear that the Pemali Formation does not
contain oleanane; the Karangsambung sample
indicates a small concentration of oleanane, and the
Halang and Rambatan Formations show a relatively
high concentration of oleanane (labeled as OL in the
mass chromatograms). In this case, the Pemali
Formation can be disregarded as the source rock of
the crude oils in the area, whereas the other three
formations are still possible sources.

Source Rock to Oil Correlation


Correlation between source rocks and crude oils
was based on some techniques, such as the stable
isotope and biomarkers distribution. It should be
noted, that in general, the geochemical
characteristics of the four sedimentary formations
and the crude oils are relatively similar. Such a
similarity might be due to the relatively similar
conditions of the paleoenvironment, i.e.,
fluviodeltaic with organic matter contribution from
marine and higher plants. Therefore, the distribution
of n-alkanes and isoprenoids (pristane/n-C17,
phytane/n-C18, pristane/phytane ratios), some
steranes, and bicyclic biomarkers (drimanes and
rearrange drimanes) cannot be used to differ and
separate between the source rocks and crude oils.
Figure 8 shows the traditional sterane triangle
diagram of Huang and Meinschein (1979). It is
apparent that the plot indicates a unity in the middle
of the area suggesting a mixture between marine
and terrestrial organic matter. A plot of the stable
isotopes is given in Figure 9. Again, in general, the
isotope distribution of the crude oils (represented
only by two samples) is very close one to another.
The isotope distribution for the source rocks spreads
around that of crude oils. It is to note that only

Figure 11 illustrates a comparison of extended


steranes shown by mass chromatograms of m/z 217.
On the basis of the concentration of the short
steranes (C21 and C22) and diasteranes (labeled as A
and B), it is apparent that only Halang Formation
has the best match with the crude oil. However, the
geological age of Halang Formation is MioPliocene and it is not likely that its thermal maturity
has reached a sufficient level to generate
hydrocarbons. If this is the case, the most possible
source rock in the Central Java is a formation whose
biomarker distributions resemble those of the
Halang Formation but with much higher maturity.
Since, the other formations such as the Rambatan,
Pemali, and Karangsambung are unlikely
formations for source rocks, one of the possible
sources of the crude oils is the Middle to Late
Eocene Wungkal Formation deposited in a shallow
marine environment, because this formation, in
many aspects, has similar characters with Halang
Formation.

CONCLUSIONS
There are two proposed basin reconstructions for
the Kendeng Zone, based on the Paleogene
structural trends and stratigraphy. The first
reconstruction is that the Paleogene basin in the
northern part of East Java follows the RMK
structural trend (E-W), turning to the south in the
Kendeng Zone then curving in a S-W direction. The
second reconstruction indicates that the Paleogene
basin in the Southern Mountains, as seen from
analyses of the stratigraphic data of the Southern
Mountains, is the prolongation of the NE-SW
Meratus Trend of southern Kalimantan that is
observed clearly in the offshore area.
Correlation studies suggest that the crude oils found
as seeps in Central Java might be derived from
source rocks that have biomarker characters like
that in the Halang Formation, but with higher
maturation. The most possible candidate is the
Eocene Wungkal Formation.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work is part of the joint project between
BPMIGAS and the Bandung Institute of
Technology (ITB) in 2005-2006. Therefore, we
would like to acknowledge the management of
BPMIGAS for financial support and permission to
publish this work. We also thank Messrs. John A.
Bates and Bruce Shapiro for
their valuable
comments and suggestions on the earlier version of
this manuscript.

hydrocarbon system of the southern Central Java


region. Proceedings the 31st Annual Convention of
Indonesian Association of Geologists, 58-67.
Noeradi, D., Subroto, E.A., Wahono, H.E.,
Hermanto, E., and Zaim, Y., 2006, Basin evolution
and hydrocarbon potential of Majalengka-Bumiayu
transpression basin, Java Island, Indonesia.
Proceedings AAPG International Conference and
Exhibition, Perth. Soft file CD version.

Pringgoprawiro, H., 1983, Biostratigrafi dan


Paleogeografi Cekungan Jawa Timur Utara.
Suatu Pendekatan Baru (Biostratigraphy and
Paleogeography of the north East Java Basin. A
New Approach). Doctor Dissertation, Bandung
Institute of Technology (ITB), Indonesia.
Rahardjo, W., Sukandarrumidi, and Rosidi,
H.M.D., 1995, Geological Map of the Yogyakarta
Sheet, Java. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan
Geologi, Bandung, Indonesia.
Satyana, A.H., 2006, New insight of Tectonics of
Central Java, Indonesia and its petroleum
implications. Proceedings AAPG International
Conference and Exhibition, Perth. Soft file CD
version.
Smyth, H., Hall, R., Hamilton, J., and Kinny, P.,
2005, East Java: Cenozoic basins, volcanoes and
ancient basin. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum
Association 30th Annual Convention &
Exhibition. Soft file: IPA05-G-045.

REFERENCES CITED
Asikin, S., 1974, Evolusi Geologi Jawa Tengah dan
Sekitarnya Ditinjau dari Segi Teori Tektonik Dunia
yang Baru (Geological Evolution of Central Java
and Surrounding in a Perspective of a New World
Tectonic Theory). Doctor Dissertation, Bandung
Institute of Technology (ITB), Indonesia.
Asikin, S., Handoyo, A., Prstistho, B., and Gafoer,
S., 1992, Geologic Map of Banyumas Quadrangle,
Jawa. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi,
Bandung, Indonesia.

Huang, W.-Y. and Meinschein, W.G., 1979,


Sterols as ecological indicators. Geochimica et
Cosmochimica Acta, 43, 739-745.
Muchsin, N., Ryacudu, R., Kunto, T.W.,
Sribudiyani, Yulihanto, B., Wiyanto, B., Nurjayadi,
A., Rahardjo, K., and Riandra, F., 2002, Miocene

Sofer, Z., 1984, Stable carbon isotope compositions


of crude oils: application to source depositional
environments and petroleum alteration. Bull.
AAPG, 68, 31-49.
Sribudiyani, Muchsin, N., Ryacudu, R., Kunto, T.,
Astono, P., Prasetya, I., Sapiie, B., Asikin, S.,
Harsolumakso, A.H., and Yulianto, I., 2003, The
collision of the East Java microplate and its
implication for hydrocarbon occurrences in the East
Java Basin. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum
Association 30th Annual Convention &
Exhibition. Soft file: IPA03-G-085.
Subroto, E.A., Wahono, H.E., Hermanto, E.,
Noeradi, D., and Zaim, Y., 2006, Re-evaluation of
the petroleum potential in Central Java Province,
Indonesia: Innovative approach using geochemical
inversion and modelling. Proceedings AAPG

International Conference and Exhibition, Perth. Soft


file CD version.

van Bemmelen, R.W., 1949, The Geology of


Indonesia. Government Printing Office. 2 volumes.

INDONESIA

MALAYSIA

N
Not to scale

KALIMANTAN

SUMATRA

PAPUA

SULAWESI
JAVA SEA
JAVA
Study area

NUSA TENGGARA

INDIAN OCEAN

Figure 1 - Index map of the study area.

10900'BT

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T
00'B
112

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Mud volcano

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KILOMETERS
L
()09'
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Figure 2 - Paleogene and Neogene structural trends in Central and East Java area.

30

11500'BT (E)

Lithology

Bayat Area

Figure 3 - Stratigraphic correlation (Luk Ulo, Kulon Progo, and Bayat area) that indicates the occurrence of the
Paleogene interval. The blue dotted line is a boundary between Paleogene (below) and Neogene (above). The
stratigraphy columns were modified after Asikin et al. (1992) and Rahardjo et al. (1995).

Scale
(m)

N4-N12

EARLY

PELANG

Figure 4 - General stratigraphic column of the Kendeng Zone (modified from Pringgoprawiro, 1983). The
name of Pemali Formation is mentioned in the text. Pemali Formation is a formation found in
the northern Serayu area (Central Java), which is equivalent to Pelang and Kerek Formations in
the Kendeng Zone.

2500

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PU

I-K
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KE

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AN

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UN

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ms2

112oE

Modified after Smyth et al. (2005)

Figure 5 - Possible southward prolongation of the Paleogene basin. Evidence taken from gravity map
lineaments.
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Figure 6 - Reconstruction of the Paleogene basin in Central Java based on structural trend that is parallel
with the Meratus trend. Other legends can be seen in Figure 3.

HL-2
PM-1

HL-1

HL-5

RB-3

PM-2

HL-3
HL-4
RB-2
RB-1
KP-L

KRN-1

LW-05A

KS-2
KS-1

Cipari-1

KS-3
G. Wetan-1

Sample location
Oil seeps

Figure 7 - Map of Central Java showing locations of outcrop and crude oil seep samples.

100% C28

Planktonic

Open
Marine
or
Deep
Lacustrine

Estuarine
or

Shallow Lacustrine

100% C27

Legend:

Terrestrial
Higher
Plant

100% C29

Halang Fm. (5 samples)


Rambatan Fm. (3 samples)
Pemali Fm. (2 samples)

Crude oils (4 samples)

Karangsambung Fm. (3 samples)

Figure 8 - C27-29 steranes triangle diagram of Huang and Meinschein (1979) for crude oil and sediment
samples collected from the Central Java Basin.

Isotopic Characterisation of Sediments and Crude Oil

Terrigenous
KRN-1

GNW-1

KS
HL
RB
PM

Algal
(marine or non-marine)

Figure 9 - Sofers plot of carbon stable isotope for sediment and crude oil samples collected from Central
Java. Line and dotted symbols indicate that only saturate isotope available.

Figure 10 - Partial mass chromatogram m/z 191 showing distribution of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes in
sediments and crude oil collected from Central Java.

Figure 11 - Partial mass chromatogram m/z 217 showing distribution of steranes in sediments and crude
oil collected from Central Java.