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Destruction of forest is called deforestation.

Deforestation has serious effect


on human life and environment.
According to a survey of forest department, India has about 75 million hectares
of forest area.
Recently collected satellite imagery data have revealed that only about 17 per c
ent area is covered by forest. India is loosing 1.3 million hectare of forest ev
ery year. In the hilly region deforestation is so acute that economy and ecology
of the area are severely affected.
The original vegetation of Himalaya has been greatly destroyed which has resulte
d in gradual loss of the natural habitat and is posing a threat to natural resou
rces. Due to overpopulation, industrialization, urbanization, road construction,
mining and other developmental activities the natural habitats of the flora and
fauna are disturbed which have caused tremendous pressure on the living resourc
es.
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Many plant and animal species are on the verge of extinction or endangered. Fore
st destruction may also be caused by several adverse factors as landslides, drou
ght, flood, storm, earthquakes, diseases, water and air pollution and human inte
rferences. Other adverse factors such as lack of stable soil, aridity, swampines
s, biotic agencies, commercial exploitation, etc. may also be responsible for de
pletion of forest vegetation. Natural diversity of India is one of the richest i
n the world which is disappearing gradually due to aforesaid factors.
According to FAO report, the annual deforestation rate in India was 0.6 per cent
(0.34 million hectares during the period 1981 to 1990). According to Ravindra N
ath and Hall (1994) 1.44 million hectares was afforested every year. In 1990, th
e total afforested area in India was 70.6 million hectares of which 27 per cent
was under commercial plantations consisting mainly of Eucalyptus, teak and pine.
According to Khoshoo (1986), the total area under forest in the world was about
7000 million ha. In 1900, by 1975 it was reduced to 2890 million ha. The destruc
tion of forest cover in the ecologically sensitive Himalaya region has already s
tarted showing adverse impact in the form of increasing shortage of water, recur
rent landslides, increasing flood, high sedimentation in the rivers, shortage of
fuel and fodder and decrease in grazing land Due to deforestation the life supp
orting systems are disturbed. Underground water table is progressively going dee
per and deeper. Large area of the land becomes affected by drought and wells, tu
be- wells, lakes, ponds etc. dry up sooner than expected during summer months.
In Kumaon and Garhwal Himalaya the oak forests are maintaining general environme
nt and villagers depend to a great extent for fodder, fuel and some other necess
ities on these forests. But now oak forests are being destroyed to meet the ever
increasing demands of the people. This has resulted marked changes in the envir
onmental conditions.
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Consequently, the herbal vegetation and microbial community associated with oak
are destroyed. This may lead to the loss of medicinal herbs and shrubs associate
d with oak. The availability of fodder will be reduced and the age-old animal li
nk in the hill ecosystem would be broken.