Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

01/12/2016

PhysicsLAB:DerivationofBohr'sModelfortheHydrogenSpectrum

ResourceLesson
DerivationofBohr'sModelfortheHydrogenSpectrum
Bythemiddleofthe19thcenturyitwaswellknownbychemiststhatexcitedhydrogengasemittedadistinctemissionspectrum.Itwasnotedthatthe
samelineswerealwayspresentandthatthespacingbetweentheselinesbecamesmallerandsmaller.

In1885,thefirstpersontoproposeamathematicalrelationshipfortheselineswasaSwisshighschoolphysicsteacher,J.J.Balmer.Wenowcall
hydrogen'svisiblespectrumtheBalmerseries.Balmer'sempiricalformulaexactlymatchedtheexperimentalists'observedwavelengths.

WhereRiscalledtheRydbergconstantandhasawellestablishedvalueof1.0974x107m1.

Itwasn'tuntil1913thatNielsBohrdevelopedatheoryoftheatomthatexplainedwhythisformulaworked.

Derivation

Inanhydrogenatom,thecentripetalforceisbeingsuppliedbythecoulombforcebetweenitandtheprotoninthehydrogennucleus.

Aeroelasticity
Online Course

RememberthatZrepresentstheatomicnumber(thenumberofprotons),thatelectronsandprotonshavethesamemagnitudecharge,e,andthata
negativeFelectrostaticmerelymeansthattheelectrostaticforceisattractive.Alsonotethatthevaluesofvnofrnareunknownsinthisequation.

Asameansofevaluatingthesetwounknowns,Bohrfirsthypothesizedthattheelectron'sangularmomentumwasquantized.

Learn Principles of
Aeroelasticity for
Aircraft and Wind
Turbine Design.
online-learning.tudelft.nl

Uponsolvingtheangularmomentumequationforvn,substitutingitintothecentripetalforceequationyieldsthefollowingexpressionforrn.

Foragroundstatehydrogenelectron,

orapproximatelyhalfofanAngstrom.

Bohr'ssecondhypothesisinhismodelwasthatanelectrononlylosesorreleasesenergy(andthereforeaphoton)whenitgoesthroughdeexcitationor
dropsfromahigherenergystatetoalowerenergystate.Inordertodeterminetheenergylostbytheelectron,anexpressionforanelectron'stotalenergy
hastobedeveloped.
Recallthattheelectricpotentialenergyforanelectronwouldequal

http://dev.physicslab.org/document.aspx?doctype=3&filename=atomicnuclear_bohrmodelderivation.xml

1/4

01/12/2016

PhysicsLAB:DerivationofBohr'sModelfortheHydrogenSpectrum

Byextendingthecentripetalforcerelationship,anexpressioncanalsobederivedfortheelectron'skineticenergy

Thus,thetotalenergy,En,ofanelectronequals

Inthisequation,noticethatthetotalenergyisnegative.Thisisinterpretingasmeaningthattheelectronistrappedinanenergywellaboutthenucleus
thatis,itwouldtaketheadditionofenergytoionizeorfreetheelectron.

Substitutinginthevalueforr1intothistotalenergyexpressionyieldsagroundstateenergyof2.18x1018Joulesor13.6eVforahydrogenatom.Using
thefactthatrn=n2r1

wecannowgeneratedthefirstfourenergylevelsforhydrogen.

E1=13.6eV
E2=E1/22=3.4eV

E3=E1/32=1.51eV
E4=E1/42=0.85eV
Bohr's second hypothesis combined with Planck's formula for quantized energy (E = hf) will now
allowustoderiveBalmer'sequation.Rememberthattheenergyreleasedbytheelectronduringde
excitationequalstheenergyoftheemittedphoton.

Let'sbeginbyassumingthatanelectronisfallingfromEj,ahighenergystate,toEi,alowerenergy
state.

http://dev.physicslab.org/document.aspx?doctype=3&filename=atomicnuclear_bohrmodelderivation.xml

2/4

01/12/2016

PhysicsLAB:DerivationofBohr'sModelfortheHydrogenSpectrum

Ifweleti=2,andj {3,4,5,6}thenwehavederivedBalmer'sempiricalformula!

PhysicsLAB
Copyright19972016
CatharineH.Colwell
Allrightsreserved.
ApplicationProgrammer
MarkActon

RelatedDocuments

BotaTticaRaptorCanoMdioCoyote

http://dev.physicslab.org/document.aspx?doctype=3&filename=atomicnuclear_bohrmodelderivation.xml

R$372

3/4

01/12/2016

PhysicsLAB:DerivationofBohr'sModelfortheHydrogenSpectrum

AtomicModelsand
Spectra

EnergyLevelDiagrams

PhysicsLAB:Famous
Discoveries:BohrModel

Excitation

FamousDiscoveries:The
FranckHertzExperiment

EnergyLevelDiagrams

June2005,Part3

HydrogenSpectrum

http://dev.physicslab.org/document.aspx?doctype=3&filename=atomicnuclear_bohrmodelderivation.xml

4/4