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8.

HAZOP

and What-If Worksheets

A worksheet (data base spreadsheet) form is used


to collect and collate the process hazard analysis
review data.
A computer software generated
spreadsheet is typically used.
For a complete
description of commercially available HAZOP or
What-If software, the user should refer to the
manufacturers HAZOP or What- If software User
Although pre-printed forms may be
Instructions.
used, they are highly inefficient and should be
maintained only as a backup in case of computer
hardware or software failures.
The worksheet is organized with identification data at the top of the page, followed with
columns for the review discussions and notes. The columns are usually organized from
left to right with the sequence of the review information that is gathered and analyzed.
In this respect the deviations are written on the left, causes and consequences in the
middle and safeguards, possible recommendations
and comments and remarks at the
right. Examples of suggested HAZOP and What-If worksheets are given in Tables 11
and 12 respectively.
8.1

HAZOP Worksheet
For a typical HAZOP worksheet the columns are identified
a description of the contents is given:

by the following

titles and

Guideword (GW): Simple word or phrase used to generate deviations by application


on a system or process activities (e.g. pressure, level, level, temp, etc.).
Deviation:
less, etc.).
Causes:

A departure from the design and operating intention

Reasons that deviations

(e.g. high, low, more,

occur (failures, wrong operation,

etc.).

Consequences: The effects of a deviation resulting from various causes (fire, explosion,
process upset, etc.).
Safeguards:
surveillance,

Measures taken to prevent or mitigate


instrumentation,
ESD, blowdown, etc.).

the risk of accidents

Severity: The magnitude of physical or intangible loss consequences


of consequences compared to industry experience).

53

(operator

(qualitative measure

54

Application

of EIAZOP

Likelihood: A measure of the expected frequency of an events occurrence


measure of probability based on historical data or theoretical estimate).

(qualitative

Ranking: The qualitative estimation of risk from severity and likelihood levels, in order
to provide a prioritizing of risk based its magnitude (refer to corporate risk matrix for
ranking based on severity and likelihood levels).
Recommendations:
Activities identified which may reduce a risk through the lowering
of a probability or consequence levels (suggested safety improvement to a process to
reduce risk level).
Comments:
(supplemental

Technical
information

notes of the facility, system,


about the issue being discussed).

Other information
Remarks:
pending studies, etc.).

GW

Dev.

CilUSeS

Cousequeuce

related to the review

Safeguards

or

(project

Table 11 Suggested HAZOP Worksheet

process

decisions,

Recs

Arrangement

under

study

related data,

Remarks

Comments

HAZOP
Company:
Facility:

Node:
1
Page: 1

S.arlcn:
2 03-30-93
Nod.: I V-116
Permeter:
Flou

Revfriar:
0
INLET SEPARATORINEW
Int.ntionrT450

_--__.._______.
.+-

Dug& 50151-01-016

PSIG a 175 DEGREESF

--.---_.-----+-.-----------_-..-...__-

CAUSES
..---.-.__.___.
v - 301

CONSECUEWCES 1
SAFESUARDS
I ------.---.----..+...-.---.-..--.-.__._.._.
.+-

tEClMMENOAllCUS1
REMARKS
.----~--~~.~~~.~+__.~~~_~~__~___-__.
M conwrnt
NOTE:
derlgneted V-116
as an inlet
reperator with
no rlug catching
rcquiremntr;
refer to ninutr
fran February
project revieu
ieeetin!g

CUWENTS
i
--.--.---_.__-_______+

ug voluw needs to k
tenabed for rlrlna
er.1

.l..s.
to flare
pstrem of the
sv
IOU releaser to
lore. including
,ecycl. frun
:arprerror8

cv - 34 v.lv.

Flow relerres
f lar.

eft

Ml1

In. pLUBg.d
i.e.,
nirt ped
01 lepacr)

Syota Boer Into


recycle; PIC-SO
rtleaeea rpstrem
flw to flare;
pressure bull&q
in verrsel

sV-401

Porafbl. high
Level and
carryover to
ldounstream node
i~~~-~-_---_~~-~_

.AN-150, LANN-151

thlfi

In8t~lllng
PSV101 directly on
ver8.1

.ocal LG-50 with operet


wrveillance
..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_.~~~

Btock vatv. to k
installed
*tree4
~IBI
donstrem
of PR
for servlclng

ROTE: Block
valve Installed;
refer to revised
PRIO Rev. B

Confllm SD
phi lo.MW

NOTE: Nigh-high
level in V-116
411 close 50-30
only;

__- - ___________. . _

sv-401 located on Iln.


nd will not relieve if
(no p1~g.d out of
easel

.AtlH-151 (Level Switch


iigh) activates SD on
xqwessors

55

No rignlflcmt
consqu.nc.s
node

._.___.._______

10TE: PSV-401
Inatelled;
refer
to revised PRID
Rev. B

111 opw - *yltan


)t rhut dan

perrtor training

0 flow from
pstrem nod.

.cv- 150
Mlflnctlon

Cwlder

tcycle on conprerror

Worksheets

IO Floe
:Llquid
jut)

to

OTE: Check
alv. ad ona
nch byparr
nrtelted;
refer
0 revired PUO
I.V. n

and What-If

Q Flow
ter Out>

open

Ntelt
check
rive dour&rem
If ESV to prevent
eck flow of Ba.
roe the
:onprerrorr with
Block valve end
m-inch bypesr
lor starting and
xrrglng

HAZOP

N-34
llfuvxlon

Figure 1 Sample HAZOP Worksheet

0 rlgnlficmt
onsequcncc this
ode - posrlbl.
recess qmct
ptrem

+-.

56

Application of HAZOP

8.2

What-If Worksheet
For a typical What-If worksheet the columns are identified
description of their contents is given:

by the following

titles and a

What If: What-If questions scenarios that prompts process hazard analysis concerns.
Hazard: Characteristic, (physical or other) that has the potential for causing harm to
people, property, the environment, or continued business operation.
The effects of a deviation resulting from various cases.

Consequences:
Safeguards:
Severity:
Likelihood:

Measures taken to prevent or mitigate the risks of accidents.


The magnitude

of physical or intangible loss consequences.

A measure of the expected frequency

of an events occurrence.

Ranking: The qualitative estimation of risk from severity and likelihood


to provide a prioritizing of risk based on its magnitude.

levels in order

Recommendations:
Activities identified which may reduce a risk through the lowering
of probability or consequence levels.
Comments:
Remarks:

What-If

Technical

notes of the facility, sys:em, or process under study.

Other information

Hazard

Consequence

related to the review.

,%feguards

Recs

Remarks

Table 12 Suggested What-If Worksheet Arrangement

COIUIlleOtS

WA1

IF

system: 2
Page: 1

Cmpany:

Facility:
session: 1 08-10-93
Revision: 0 08-10-93
System: 2 tlycol Indirect Heater and utilities
UHAT IF...

HAZARD

Dug): 81C-It-02

CCUSECUENCES

Lou pressure gas line .oss of fuel for heater 'otslshutdoun


md lnstrunent gas
pLugg=J.
IUPPLY
Loss of fwl gss to
lter.

@Irate formation
blugging line

LOSS of fuel gas to


:alyticheater.

.ou a&lent tenp in


uilding

SAFEWARDS

REMARKS

v'alvesare
S afe,

fail
ESD occurs

Werprcssure upstream Local 11


iystem
PWs
on the
System
'ossiblee@poent

RECablENDATlONS

1 SL

mtall TSL on H-l


Itletend camon
an beacon

initiates ESD

SilWS

ndiract firs
i eater should
FIrovideheat
4iource
Loss of instrwnt
A system.

iemeas I1

above

Liquid build up In
el gas system.

'lugged instrments

System shutdom

Lbock

cut drus V-2

Liquid deep of V-2


ils closed.

Plug@
instrments,
liquid in system

System shutdowc

I.ocsl

level gauge

IWhanical

ESD system fails to


Failure of safety
devices due to pluggin operate
ard corrosion
Liquid duq~ of V-2
ils open.

No significant hazard

Tenperature
ntroller fails.

Possible loss of glyco


frm system from boil
over

IPeriodical
Inaintmance

tasting

xstsll desiccant
ryer on instrunent
BS (disposable type)

shutoff
and

nclude in operation
soUs

Tube is exposed.
1SH on V-l
Possible tube failure
TSH on H-l
Local TI
LSL

Possible high teep in


scrubber V-l
Flame arrestor
.ugs.

May exceed design tq 3 TSH on V-l


Equipment dsmsge

Insufficient ccotustic Loss of hestcr


equipnent shutdom,
air
possible equipment

Local TI
Air intake
designed 3 feet
above grou-d

lace in opsrator
onus1
squiraments for

58

8.3

Application

of HAZOP

Worksheet

Identification

worksheet should be provided with an identification and a means to correlate it to


the node and design conditions it was evaluated against. Locations for date, location,
node identification or description, and design parameters should be
drawing reference,
noted on each worksheet.

Every