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GATE Questions on

MOSFET, CMOS &

Introduction to VLSI
(1987 to Till Date)
1988
1.

1.

In MOSFET devices, the N-channel type is

better than the P-channel type in the following
respects
a.
It has better noise immunity
b. It is faster
c.
It is TTL compatible
d. It has better drive capability
Solution
SR3ug
1989
In a MOSFET, the polarity of the inversion
layer is the same as that of the
a.
Charge on the gate electrode
b. Minority carriers in the drain
c.
Majority carriers in the substrate
d. Majority carriers in the source
Solution
Xa0NT0

Solution
UybI4

1992
1. An n-channel MOSFET having a threshold
voltage of 2 volts is used in the circuit shown in
figure. Initially the transistor is OFF and is in
steady state. At time t = 0, a step voltage of
magnitude of 4 volts is applied to the input so
that the MOSFET turns ON instantaneously.
Draw the equivalent circuit and calculate the
time taken to the output Vo to fall to 5 volts.
The device constant of the MOSFET, K = 5
mA/ V2, CDS =0 and CDG = 0.

1990
1. Which of the following effects can be
caused by a rise in the temperature ?
a. Increase in MOSFET current
b. Increase in BJT current
c. Decrease in MOSFET current
d. Decrease in BJT current
Solution
Q2eN6o

Solution
5_sQQ

1991
1.

In the figure shown, the n-channel

MOSFETs are identical and their current
voltage characteristics are given by the
following expressions.
Find the current IDC as shown

1.

1994
The threshold voltage of an n-channel
MOSFET can be increased by
a.
Increasing the channel dopant
concentration
b. Reducing the channel dopant
concentration
c.
Reducing the gate oxide thickness
d. Reducing the channel length

Solution
Gguu0

Oto9Pk

1998
2.

The transit time of the current carriers

through the channel of an FET decides its
. characteristics.
Solution
HNsn3I

3.

Channel current is reduced on application of

a more positive voltage to the gate of a
depletion mode n-channel MOSFET. (TRUE /
FALSE)
Solution
Wifl15o

1.

The threshold voltage for each transistor in

figure is 2 volts. For this circuit to work as an
inverter, Vi must take the values

a.
-5 volts and 0 volts
b. -5 volts and 5 volts
c.
0 volts and 3 volts
d. 3 volts and 5 volts
Solution
yw4Ko

4.
A typical CMOS inverter has the voltage
transfer characteristic (VTC) curve as shown in
the figure.
Evaluate the value of the
inverter threshold VINV, which is the value of
the input at which Vo falls
by
Vo = VTn + VTp.
3.

Given NMOS circuit as shown. The

specifications of the circuit are :
VDD = 10 volts, = nCox(W/L) = 10-4 Amp/V2,
VT = 1 volt and IDS = 0.5 mA.
Evaluate VDS and RD. Neglect body effect.

Solution

1999
1.

In the CMOS inverter circuit shown in

figure, the input Vi makes a transition from
VOL (= 0 volts) to VOH (= 5 volts). Determine
the High to Low propagation delay time (tpHL)
when it is driving a capacitive load (CL) of 20
pF.
Device data :

Solution

0.156 Sec

h7E_0

Which of the following is correct.

a.
Only S1 is TRUE
b. Only S2 is TRUE
c.
Both are TRUE
d. Both are FALSE
Solution
4kv7NU

2001
1.

2.

MOSFET can be used as a

a.
Current controlled capacitor
b. Voltage controlled capacitor
c.
Current controlled inductor
d. Voltage controlled inductor
Solution
byh8Q
The effective channel length of a MOSFET in
saturation decreases with increase in
a.
Gate voltage
b. Drain voltage
c.
Source voltage
d. Body voltage
Solution
Iv7hiw

2002
1.

Consider the following statements in

connection with the CMOS inverter in figure,
where both the MOSFETs are of enhancement
type and both have a threshold voltage of 2
volts.

S1: T1 conducts when VI 2 volts.

S2: T1 is always in saturation when
Vo = 0 volts.

2003
1.

For an N channel type MOSFET, if the source

is connected at a higher potential than that of
the bulk (i.e. VSB > 0 volts), the threshold
voltage VT of the MOSFET will
a.
Remain unchanged
b. Decrease
c.
Change polarity
d. Increase
Solutoin
ND6-BxI

2. When the gate to source voltage (VGS) of a

MOSFET with threshold voltage of 400 mV.
The drain current observed is 1 mA. Neglecting
the channel length modulation effect, and
assuming that the MOSFET is operating at
saturation, the drain current for an applied
VGS of 1400 mV is
a.
0.5 mA
b. 2.0 mA
c.
3.5 mA
d. 4.0 mA
Solutoin
hK9c

3. If P is passivation, Q is n-well implant, R is

metallization and S is source/drain diffusion,
then the order in which they are carried out in
a standard n-well CMOS fabrication process is
a.
P-Q-R-S
b. Q-S-R-P
c.
R-P-S-Q
d. S-R-Q-P
Solutoin
GppUig

2005
2004
1.

The given figure is the voltage transfer

characteristic of

1.

An N-channel MOSFET and its transfer curve

is shown in figure, then the threshold voltage
is

Solution
AWeSg

2.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Consider the following statements S1 and S2.

S1: the threshold voltage (VT) of a MOS
capacitor decreases with increase in gate oxide
thickness
S2: the threshold voltage (VT) of a MOS
capacitor decreases with increase in substrate
doping concentration.
Which of the following is correct?
S1 is FALSE and S2 is TRUE
Both S1 and S2 are TRUE
S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE
Both S1 and S2 are FALSE

Solution

2.

Both transistors T1 and T2 in figure have a

threshold voltage of 1 volt. The device
parameters K1 and K2 of T1 and T2 are
36 A/v2 and 9 A/v2 respectively. The output
voltage Vo is

Solution
Cr0xa0
3. The drain of an N channel MOSFET is shorted
to the gate so that VGS = VDS. The threshold
voltage (VT) of MOSFET is 1 volt. If the drain
current (ID) is 1 mA for VGS = 2 volts, then for
VGS = 3 volts, ID is
a.
2 mA
b. 3 mA
c.
9 mA
d. 4 mA
Solution
LgZIA

Solution
zffIo

3. A MOS capacitor made using P type substrate

is in the accumulation mode. The dominant
charge is due to the presence of
a.
Holes
b. Electrons
c.
Positively charged ions
d. Negatively charged ions
Solution
L4C0

Kn2hUU

2.

In the CMOS inverter circuit shown, if the

Transconductance parameters of the NMOS
and PMOS transistors are Kn =
Kp = nCox(Wn/Ln) = pCox(Wp/Lp) =
40A/V2 and their threshold voltages are VTn =
|VTp| = 1 volt, the current I is

2006
1.

An N-channel depletion MOSFET has the

following two points on its ID verses VGScurve
are
(i) VGS = 0 at ID = 12 mA and
(ii) VGS = -6 volts at ID = 0 mA
Which of the following Q-points will give the
highest Transconductance gain for small
signals?
a.
VGS = -6 volts
b. VGS = -3 volts
c.
VGS = 0 volts
d. VGS = 3 volts
Solution
qv1vU

2007
1.

Group I lists four different semiconductor

devices. Match each device in Group I with its
characteristic property in Group II.

Solution

a.
0 Amp
b. 25 A
c.
45 A
d. 90 A
Solution
HXLOA
3. The figure shows the high frequency
capacitance voltage (C V) characteristics of
MOS capacitor having an area of 1x10-4 cm2.
Assume that the permittivity of silicon and
SiO2 are 1x10-12 and 3.5x10-13 F/cm
respectively.

i.
The gate oxide thickness in the
MOS capacitor is
a.
50 nm
b. 143 nm
c.
350 nm
d. 1 m

ii.
The maximum depletion layer
width in silicon is
a.
0.143 m
b. 0.857 m
c.
1 m
d. 1.143 m
iii.
Consider the following
statements about the C V characteristics plot
:
S1: The MOS capacitor has an N type
substrate
S2: If the positive charges are introduced in
the oxide, the C V plot will shift to the left.
Then which one of the following is TRUE .
a. Both S1 and S2 are TRUE
b. S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE
c. S1 is FALSE and S2 is
TRUE
d. Both S1 and S2 are FASLE

Solution
anv2g
3.

For the circuit shown in the following figure,

transistors M1 and M2 are identical NMOS
transistors. Assume that M2 is in saturation
and the output is unloaded. The IX is related to
Ibias as

Solution
hVTL8
Solution
lx97A

2008
1.

2.

A silicon wafer has 100nm of oxide on it and

is inserted in a furnace at a temperature above
1000oC for further oxidation in dry oxygen.
The oxidation rate
a.
Is independent of current oxide
thickness and temperature
b. Is independent of current oxide
thickness but depends on temperature
c. Slows down as the oxide grows
d. Is zero as the existing oxide prevents
further oxidation
Solution
P2kA

4.

The measured Transconductance gm of an

NMOS transistor operating in the linear region
is plotted against the gate voltage VG at
constant drain voltage VD. Which of the
following figures represents the expected
dependence of gm on VG?

The drain current of a MOSFET in saturation

is given by ID = K(VGS-VT)2, where K is a
constant. The magnitude of the
Transconductance gm is

Solution
vt-M-4

S2: the channel potential increases from

source to drain
Which of the following is correct?
a.
Both are TRUE
b. Both are FALSE
c.
Both are TRUE, but S2 is not a reason
for S1
d. Both are TRUE, and S2 is a reason for
S1.
Solution
NCe_Q

5. Two identical NMOS transistors M1 and M2

are connected as shown below. Vbias is chosen
so that both transistors are in saturation. The
equivalent gm of the pair is defined to be dIout /
dVi at constant Vout, is

3.

a.
The sum of individual gms of the
transistors
b. The product of individual gms of the
transistors
c.
Nearly equal to the gm of M1
d. Nearly equal to gm1/gm2 of M2
Solution
D3Vtjg

2009
1.

The full forms of the abbreviations TTL and

CMOS in reference to logic families are
a. Triple Transistor Logic and Chip Metal
Oxide semiconductor
b. Tristate Transistor Logic and Chip Metal
Oxide semiconductor
c. Transistor Transistor Logic and
Complementary Metal Oxide semiconductor
d. Tristate Transistor Logic and
Complementary Metal Oxide semiconductor
Solution

2.

Consider the following two statements about

the internal conditions in an N channel
MOSFET operating in the active region.
S1: the inversion charge decreases from source
to drain

Consider the CMOS circuit shown, where the
gate voltage VG of the N channel MOSFET is
increased from zero, while the gate voltage of
the P channel MOSFET is kept constant at 3
volts. Assume that, for both transistors, the
magnitude of the threshold voltage is 1 volts
and the product of the transconductance
parameter and the (W/L) ratio i.e. the quantity
cox(W/L) is 1 mA/V2.

i.
For small increase in
VG beyond 1 volt, which of the following gives
the correct description of the region of
operation of each MOSFET?
a.
Both are in saturation region
b. Both are in triode region
c.
NMOS is in triode region
and PMOS is in saturation region
d. NMOS is in saturation region
and PMOS is in triode region
ii.
Estimate the output voltage,
Vo for VG = 1.5 volts. (Hint: use the appropriate
current voltage equation for each MOSFET,
based on the answer to above question)

Solution
B8FoBA

Solution
wlU6U

2010
1.

2.

At room temperature, a possible value for the

mobility of electrons in the inversion layer of a
silicon N channel MOSFET is (in cm2/volt-sec)
a.
450
b. 1350
c.
1800
d. 3600
=bXxmszDCh1U

2012
1.

The gate oxide in a CMOS process is

preferably grown using
a.
Wet oxidation
b. Dry oxidation
c.
Epitaxial deposition
d. Ion implantation
Solution
WZYEc

Solution
OFX7WA

2011
1.

In the circuit shown below, for the MOS

transistors, ncox = 100 A/V2 and the
threshold voltage VT = 1 volt. The voltage VX at
the source of the upper transistor is

a.
1 volt
b. 2 volts
c.
3 volts
d. 0.367 volts

expression Y is

2.

In the CMOS circuit shown, electron and

hole motilities are equal, and M1 and
M2transistors are equally sized. The device
M1 is in the linear region if

Solution
iqWIoU

3.

In the three dimensional view of a silicon N

channel MOS transistor shown below, = 20
nm. The transistor is of width 1 m. The
depletion width formed at every PN junction is
10 nm. The relative permittivitys of Si and
SiO2 are 11.7 and 3.9 respectively and 0 = 8.9
X 10-12 F/m.

Hius8
2.

In MOSFET operating in saturation region,

the channel length modulation effect causes
a.
An increase in gate source
capacitance
b. A decrease in Transconductance
c.
A decrease in unity gain bandwidth
product
d. A decrease in output resistance
Solution
h8OjSY
2014
Set 1 (15th February 2014 (Forenoon))

1.

i.
The gate source overlap
capacitance is approximately
a.
0.7 fF
b. 0.7 pF
c.
0.35 fF
d. 0.24 fF
ii. The source body capacitance
approximately
a.
2 fF
b. 7 fF
c.
2 pF
d. 7 pF
Solution
BxUfd8

If the fixed positive charges are present in the

gate oxide of an N channel enhancement type
a.
a decrease in the threshold voltage
b. channel length modulation
c.
an increase in substrate leakage
current
d. an increase in accumulation
capacitance
Solution
bA7po4

2013
1.

In IC technology, Dry oxidation(using dry

oxygen) as compared to Wet oxidation (using
stream or water vapor) produces..
a.
Superior quality oxide with a higher
growth rate
b. Inferior quality oxide with a higher
growth rate
c.
Inferior quality oxide with a lower
growth rate
d. Superior quality oxide with a lower
growth rate
Solution

Solution
j90XE
1995
1. Calculate the capacitance of a circular MOS
capacitor, of 0.5 mm dia and having a

SiO2layer of 80 mm thickness, under strong

accumulation. Assume the relative dielectric
constant of SiO2, r = 4 and o = 8.854 X 1014 F/cm. calculate the breakdown voltage of the
capacitor if the dielectric strength of SiO2 film
is 107 V/cm.
Solution
W9Bcw

Solution :
3.

1996
1.

The n-channel MOSFET shown in figure is

used as a voltage variable resistor. Determine
the expression for the resistance and compute
its value for Vi. Neglect body effect.
MOSFET Data :
Threshold voltage, VT = 1 volt
Channel Length Modulation
parameter, = - 0.3 V-1
Transconductance parameter, KN(W/L) =
40 A/V2

CLM)
Solution
mqdE7I

2.

A Silicon N-channel MOSFET has a

threshold voltage of 1 volts and oxide thickness
of 400 Ao. [r (SiO2) = 3.9, o = 8.854 x 1014 F/cm, q = 1.6 x 10-19]. The region under the
gate is ion implanted for threshold voltage
tailoring. The doping and type of the implant
(assumed to be a sheet charge at the interface)
required to shift the threshold voltage to -1 volt
are

a.
b.
c.
d.

1.08 x 1012/cm3, P type

1.08 x 1012/cm3, N -type
5.4 x 1011/cm3, P -type
5.4 x 1011/cm3, N -type

An N-channel silicon (EG = 1.1 eV) MOSFET

was fabricated using N+ poly silicon gate and
the threshold voltage was found to be 1 volt.
Now if the gate is changed to P+poly silicon,
other things remaining the same, the new
threshold voltage should be..volts.
a.
-0.1
b. 0
c.
1.0
d. 2.1

Solution
Wh-pz1c

1.

1997
For a MOS capacitor fabricated on a P-type
semiconductor, strong inversion occurs when
a.
Surface potential is equal to Fermi
level
b. Surface potential is zero
c.
Surface potential is negative is
negative and equal to Fermi potential in
magnitude
d. Surface potential is positive and equal
to twice the Fermi potential
Solution

2.

The gate delay of an NMOS inverter is

dominated by charge time rather than
discharge time because
a.
The driver transistor has larger
threshold voltage than the load transistor
b. The driver transistor has larger
leakage currents compared to the load
transistor
c.
The load transistor has a smaller W/L
ratio compared to the driver transistor
d. None of the above
Solution
y-ypk

3.

Given NMOS circuit as shown. The

specifications of the circuit are :
VDD = 10 volts, = nCox(W/L) = 10-4 Amp/V2,
VT = 1 volt and IDS = 0.5 mA.
Evaluate VDS and RD. Neglect body effect.

when it is driving a capacitive load (CL) of 20

pF.
Device data :

1.

4.15 Volts, 11.68 k
Solution
Oto9Pk

Solution
h7E_0

1998

2001

The threshold voltage for each transistor in

figure is 2 volts. For this circuit to work as an
inverter, Vi must take the values

a.
-5 volts and 0 volts
b. -5 volts and 5 volts
c.
0 volts and 3 volts
d. 3 volts and 5 volts
Solution
yw4Ko

1999
1.

In the CMOS inverter circuit shown in

figure, the input Vi makes a transition from
VOL (= 0 volts) to VOH (= 5 volts). Determine
the High to Low propagation delay time (tpHL)

1.

MOSFET can be used as a

a.
Current controlled capacitor
b. Voltage controlled capacitor
c.
Current controlled inductor
d. Voltage controlled inductor
Solution
byh8Q

2.

The effective channel length of a MOSFET in

saturation decreases with increase in
a.
Gate voltage
b. Drain voltage
c.
Source voltage
d. Body voltage
Solution
Iv7hiw

2002
1.

Consider the following statements in

connection with the CMOS inverter in figure,
where both the MOSFETs are of enhancement
type and both have a threshold voltage of 2
volts.

a.
0.5 mA
b. 2.0 mA
c.
3.5 mA
d. 4.0 mA
Solutoin
hK9c

S1: T1 conducts when VI 2 volts.

S2: T1 is always in saturation when
Vo = 0 volts.
Which of the following is correct.
a.
Only S1 is TRUE
b. Only S2 is TRUE
c.
Both are TRUE
d. Both are FALSE
Solution
4kv7NU

3. If P is passivation, Q is n-well implant, R is

metallization and S is source/drain diffusion,
then the order in which they are carried out in
a standard n-well CMOS fabrication process is
a.
P-Q-R-S
b. Q-S-R-P
c.
R-P-S-Q
d. S-R-Q-P
Solutoin
GppUig

2004
1.

The given figure is the voltage transfer

characteristic of

2003
1.

For an N channel type MOSFET, if the source

is connected at a higher potential than that of
the bulk (i.e. VSB > 0 volts), the threshold
voltage VT of the MOSFET will
a.
Remain unchanged
b. Decrease
c.
Change polarity
d. Increase
Solutoin
ND6-BxI

2. When the gate to source voltage (VGS) of a

MOSFET with threshold voltage of 400 mV.
The drain current observed is 1 mA. Neglecting
the channel length modulation effect, and
assuming that the MOSFET is operating at
saturation, the drain current for an applied
VGS of 1400 mV is

Solution
AWeSg

2.

Consider the following statements S1 and S2.

S1: the threshold voltage (VT) of a MOS
capacitor decreases with increase in gate oxide
thickness
S2: the threshold voltage (VT) of a MOS
capacitor decreases with increase in substrate
doping concentration.
Which of the following is correct?

a.
b.
c.

S1 is FALSE and S2 is TRUE

Both S1 and S2 are TRUE
S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE

d.

Solution
Cr0xa0

3. The drain of an N channel MOSFET is shorted

to the gate so that VGS = VDS. The threshold
voltage (VT) of MOSFET is 1 volt. If the drain
current (ID) is 1 mA for VGS = 2 volts, then for
VGS = 3 volts, ID is
a.
2 mA
b. 3 mA
c.
9 mA
d. 4 mA
Solution
LgZIA

2005
1.

An N-channel MOSFET and its transfer curve

is shown in figure, then the threshold voltage
is

Solution
zffIo

3. A MOS capacitor made using P type substrate

is in the accumulation mode. The dominant
charge is due to the presence of
a.
Holes
b. Electrons
c.
Positively charged ions
d. Negatively charged ions
Solution
L4C0
2006
1.

Solution

2.

Both transistors T1 and T2 in figure have a

threshold voltage of 1 volt. The device
parameters K1 and K2 of T1 and T2 are
36 A/v2 and 9 A/v2 respectively. The output
voltage Vo is

An N-channel depletion MOSFET has the

following two points on its ID verses VGScurve
are
(i) VGS = 0 at ID = 12 mA and
(ii) VGS = -6 volts at ID = 0 mA
Which of the following Q-points will give the
highest Transconductance gain for small
signals?
a.
VGS = -6 volts
b. VGS = -3 volts
c.
VGS = 0 volts
d. VGS = 3 volts
Solution
qv1vU

2007
1.

Group I lists four different semiconductor

devices. Match each device in Group I with its
characteristic property in Group II.

SiO2 are 1x10-12 and 3.5x10-13 F/cm

respectively.

i.
The gate oxide thickness in the
MOS capacitor is
a.
50 nm
b. 143 nm
c.
350 nm
d. 1 m
ii.
The maximum depletion layer
width in silicon is
a.
0.143 m
b. 0.857 m
c.
1 m
d. 1.143 m
iii.
Consider the following
statements about the C V characteristics plot
:
S1: The MOS capacitor has an N type
substrate
S2: If the positive charges are introduced in
the oxide, the C V plot will shift to the left.
Then which one of the following is TRUE .
a. Both S1 and S2 are TRUE
b. S1 is TRUE and S2 is FALSE
c. S1 is FALSE and S2 is
TRUE
d. Both S1 and S2 are FASLE

Solution
Kn2hUU

2.

In the CMOS inverter circuit shown, if the

Transconductance parameters of the NMOS
and PMOS transistors are Kn =
Kp = nCox(Wn/Ln) = pCox(Wp/Lp) =
40A/V2 and their threshold voltages are VTn =
|VTp| = 1 volt, the current I is

Solution
hVTL8
a.
0 Amp
b. 25 A
c.
45 A
d. 90 A
Solution
HXLOA
3. The figure shows the high frequency
capacitance voltage (C V) characteristics of
MOS capacitor having an area of 1x10-4 cm2.
Assume that the permittivity of silicon and

2008
1.

A silicon wafer has 100nm of oxide on it and

is inserted in a furnace at a temperature above
1000oC for further oxidation in dry oxygen.
The oxidation rate
a.
Is independent of current oxide
thickness and temperature
b. Is independent of current oxide
thickness but depends on temperature
c. Slows down as the oxide grows
d. Is zero as the existing oxide prevents
further oxidation

Solution
P2kA

2.

The drain current of a MOSFET in saturation

is given by ID = K(VGS-VT)2, where K is a
constant. The magnitude of the
Transconductance gm is

Solution
anv2g
3.

For the circuit shown in the following figure,

transistors M1 and M2 are identical NMOS
transistors. Assume that M2 is in saturation
and the output is unloaded. The IX is related to
Ibias as

Solution
lx97A

4.

following figures represents the expected

dependence of gm on VG?

The measured Transconductance gm of an

NMOS transistor operating in the linear region
is plotted against the gate voltage VG at
constant drain voltage VD. Which of the

Solution
vt-M-4

5. Two identical NMOS transistors M1 and M2

are connected as shown below. Vbias is chosen
so that both transistors are in saturation. The
equivalent gm of the pair is defined to be dIout /
dVi at constant Vout, is

a.
The sum of individual gms of the
transistors
b. The product of individual gms of the
transistors
c.
Nearly equal to the gm of M1
d. Nearly equal to gm1/gm2 of M2
Solution
D3Vtjg

description of the region of operation of each

MOSFET?
a.
Both are in saturation region
b. Both are in triode region
c.
NMOS is in triode region
and PMOS is in saturation region
d. NMOS is in saturation region
and PMOS is in triode region
ii.
Estimate the output voltage,
Vo for VG = 1.5 volts. (Hint: use the appropriate
current voltage equation for each MOSFET,
based on the answer to above question)

2009
1.

The full forms of the abbreviations TTL and

CMOS in reference to logic families are
a. Triple Transistor Logic and Chip Metal
Oxide semiconductor
b. Tristate Transistor Logic and Chip Metal
Oxide semiconductor
c. Transistor Transistor Logic and
Complementary Metal Oxide semiconductor
d. Tristate Transistor Logic and
Complementary Metal Oxide semiconductor
Solution

2.

Consider the following two statements about

the internal conditions in an N channel
MOSFET operating in the active region.
S1: the inversion charge decreases from source
to drain
S2: the channel potential increases from
source to drain
Which of the following is correct?
a.
Both are TRUE
b. Both are FALSE
c.
Both are TRUE, but S2 is not a reason
for S1
d. Both are TRUE, and S2 is a reason for
S1.
Solution
NCe_Q

3.

Consider the CMOS circuit shown, where the
gate voltage VG of the N channel MOSFET is
increased from zero, while the gate voltage of
the P channel MOSFET is kept constant at 3
volts. Assume that, for both transistors, the
magnitude of the threshold voltage is 1 volts
and the product of the transconductance
parameter and the (W/L) ratio i.e. the quantity
cox(W/L) is 1 mA/V2.

Solution
B8FoBA

2010
1.

At room temperature, a possible value for the

mobility of electrons in the inversion layer of a
silicon N channel MOSFET is (in cm2/volt-sec)
a.
450
b. 1350
c.
1800
d. 3600
=bXxmszDCh1U

2.

The gate oxide in a CMOS process is

preferably grown using
a.
Wet oxidation
b. Dry oxidation
c.
Epitaxial deposition
d. Ion implantation
Solution
WZYEc

2011
1.
i. For small increase in VG beyond 1 volt,
which of the following gives the correct

In the circuit shown below, for the MOS

transistors, ncox = 100 A/V2 and the
threshold voltage VT = 1 volt. The voltage VX at
the source of the upper transistor is

Solution
iqWIoU
a.
1 volt
b. 2 volts
c.
3 volts
d. 0.367 volts
Solution
wlU6U

3.

In the three dimensional view of a silicon N

channel MOS transistor shown below, = 20
nm. The transistor is of width 1 m. The
depletion width formed at every PN junction is
10 nm. The relative permittivitys of Si and
SiO2 are 11.7 and 3.9 respectively and 0 = 8.9
X 10-12 F/m.

2012
1.

expression Y is

Solution
OFX7WA

2.

In the CMOS circuit shown, electron and

hole motilities are equal, and M1 and
M2transistors are equally sized. The device
M1 is in the linear region if

i.
The gate source overlap
capacitance is approximately
a.
0.7 fF
b. 0.7 pF
c.
0.35 fF
d. 0.24 fF
ii. The source body capacitance
approximately
a.
2 fF
b. 7 fF
c.
2 pF
d. 7 pF
Solution
BxUfd8

Solution
BbZUXM

2013
1.

2.

In IC technology, Dry oxidation(using dry

oxygen) as compared to Wet oxidation (using
stream or water vapor) produces..
a.
Superior quality oxide with a higher
growth rate
b. Inferior quality oxide with a higher
growth rate
c.
Inferior quality oxide with a lower
growth rate
d. Superior quality oxide with a lower
growth rate
Solution
Hius8
In MOSFET operating in saturation region,
the channel length modulation effect causes
a.
An increase in gate source
capacitance
b. A decrease in Transconductance
c.
A decrease in unity gain bandwidth
product
d. A decrease in output resistance
Solution
h8OjSY

(Afternoon))
1.

In CMOS technology, shallow P well or N

well regions can be formed using
a.
low pressure chemical vapor
deposition
b. low energy sputtering
c.
low temperature dry oxidation
d. low energy ion implantation
Solution

2.

For the N channel MOS transistor shown in

the figure, the threshold voltage VTH is 0.8
volts. Neglect channel length modulation
effects. When the drain voltage VD = 1.6 volts,
the drain current ID was found to be 0.5 mA. If
VD is adjusted to be 2 volts by changing the
values of R and VDD, the new value of ID (in
mA) is

2014
Set 1 (15th February 2014 (Forenoon))
1.

2.

If the fixed positive charges are present in the

gate oxide of an N channel enhancement type
a.
a decrease in the threshold voltage
b. channel length modulation
c.
an increase in substrate leakage
current
d. an increase in accumulation
capacitance
Solution
bA7po4

A depletion type N channel MOSFET is

biased in its linear region for use as a voltage
controlled resistor. Assume threshold voltage
VTH = -0.5 volts, VGS = 2.0 volts, VDS= 5 volts,
W/L = 100, Cox = 10-8 F/cm2 and n = 800
cm2/volt-sec. The value of the voltage
controlled resistor (in ) is ..

a.
0.625
b. 0.75
c.
1.125
d. 1.5
Solution
UUqYVY

3.

For the MOSFETs shown in the figure, the

threshold voltage |Vt| = 2 volts and K =
0.5cox(W/L) = 0.1 mA/V2. The value of ID (in
mA) is

permittivitys of silicon and silicon dioxide are

12 and 4 respectively. The peak electric field
(in V/m) in the oxide region is ..
Solution
JxegSI

4.

For the MOSFET M1 shown in the figure,

assume W/L = 2, VDD = 2.0 volts, ncox =
100 A/V2 and VTH = 0.5 volts. The transistor
M1 switches from saturation region to linear
region when Vin (in volts) is ..

Solution
XV0jks

SET 3 (16th February 2014

(Forenoon))
In MOSFET fabrication, the channel length is
defined during the process of
a.
Isolation oxide growth
b. Channel stop implantation
c.
Poly-silicon gate patterning
d. Lithography step leading to the
Solution
OdbGjE
2.
The slope of the ID vs. VGS curve of an N
channel MOSFET in linear region is 10-3 -1at
VDS = 0.1 volts. For the same device, neglecting
channel length modulation, the slope of
the ID vs. VGS curve (in A/V) under
saturation regime is approximately.
Solution
kSUtk

Solution
mWJenw4

1.

3.

An ideal MOS capacitor has boron doping

concentration of 1015 cm-3 in the substrate.
When a gate voltage is applied, a depletion
region of width 0.5 m is formed with a
surface (channel) potential of 0.2 volts. Given
that o = 8.854 x 10-14 F/cm and the relative

2015

1.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Which one of the following processes is

preferred to form the gate dielectric (SiO2)
of MOSFET?
Sputtering
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Wet Oxidation
Dry Oxidation
Solution
:
=aT-PUfpeyOY

2.

In the circuit shown, the both the

enhancement mode NMOS transistors

have the following characteristics: Kn =

n.Cox(W/L) = 1 mA/V2, VTN = 1 volt.
4. For the NMOSFET in the circuit
shown, the threshold voltage is Vth greater
than zero. The source voltage VSS is varied
from 0 to VDD. Neglecting the channel
length modulation, the drain current ID as a
function of VSS is represented by

Assume that the channel length modulation

parameter is zero and body is shorted to
source. The minimum supply voltage
VDD (in volts) needed to ensure that
transistor M1 operates in saturation mode
of operation is ___________________
Solution
:
nAvaaApnnao

3.

The current in an enhancement mode

NMOS transistor biased in saturation
mode was measured to be 1 mA at a drain
to source voltage of 5 volts. When the
drain source voltage was increased to 6
volts, while keeping gate-source voltage
same, the drain current increased to 1.02
mA. Assume that drain to source
saturation voltages is much smaller than
the applied drain source voltage. The
channel length modulation parameter (in
V-1) is __________
Solution
AebD_Jv5C8

Solution
pvNgPQNDM

5. A MOSFET in saturation has a drain

current of 1 mA for VDS = 0.5 volts. If the
channel length modulation coefficient is 0.05
V-1, the output resistance (in k) of the
MOSFET is ________
Solution
H59NNz6s

6. In MOS capacitor with an oxide layer

thickness of 10 nm. The maximum depletion
layer thickness is 100 nm. The permittivitys of
the semiconductor and the oxide layer are
s and ox respectively. Assuming s/ox = 3,
the ratio of the maximum capacitance to the
minimum capacitance of this MOS capacitor

is ____________