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# FACULTY OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

## BFF2821 MECHANICS LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT NO:
EXPERIMENT NAME:
SUBMISSION DATE:
SESSION NUMBER:
GROUP NUMBER:

1
CENTRE OF GRAVITY
28 NOVEMBER 2016
01 P
4
GROUP MEMBERS

NAME
NUR SYAMIZA BINTI ZAMRI
SAMSIAH BINTI SUAILY
NIK NURHARYANTIE BINTI NIK MOHD KAMIL

LAB INSTRUCTOR
MR AIDIL SHAFIZA

ID
FA 14030
FA 14031
FA 14115

No.

Contents

Page

Aim

Objectives

Introduction

Apparatus

Procedure

5-6

## Result and Calculation

Discussion

Conclusion

References

10

Rubrics

10

3-4

1.0

2.0

3.0

AIM
To determine the center of gravity for the regular and irregular objects using
plumb line method.
OBJECTIVE
To determine the position of the center of gravity of various shaped plates.
To identify the center of gravity for different shape of plates.
INTRODUCTION
The force of gravity acts on all bodies on earth. Every bit of mass in a body has

weight seems to be concentrated at a point inside or outside the body. This point is the center
of gravity of gravity of the body or objects acts through its center of gravity. The center of
gravity can be defined as the point through which the total weight of the body can be
considered to act.
The point where the total mass of the body seems to act is the center of gravity. The
center of gravity of all bodies can be determined by balancing the body on a knife edge or by
suspension with a plumb line from several points. In most cases, the center of gravity of a
body lies in the body itself, but in few cases such as the horse shoe magnet, the retort stand,
Bunsen burner, wine glass and conical flask, the center of gravity lies outside.
As we know the center of mass is always at the same position as the center of gravity.
An experimental method for locating the center of mass is to suspend the object from two
locations and to drop plumb lines from the suspension points. The intersection of the two
lines is the center of mass.[1] The shape of an object might already be mathematically
determined, but it may be too complex to use a known formula. In this case, one can
subdivide the complex shape into simpler, more elementary shapes, whose centers of mass
are easy to find. If the total mass and center of mass can be determined for each area, then the
center of mass of the whole is the weighted average of the centers.[2] This method can even
work for objects with holes, which can be accounted for as negative masses.[3]
The centroid of the plane figures (like triangle, quadrilateral, circle, trapezoid, etc)
have only areas but no mass. The center of area of such figure is known as centroid. It is also
called the geometrical center or the center of gravity.

Figure 3.1 : Diagrams showing (a) irregular lamina with centre of gravity in the body (b) an
irregular lamina with the centre of gravity within the body.
The importance of centre of gravity are :i.

Manufacturers often try to make their goods with the center of gravity as low as
possible in order to make them very stable. This is more common when it is the
narrow part of the body that is intended for use, for example the retort stand, Bunsen
burner, wine glass, conical flask, and so on. They do this by making the goods heavy

ii.

## at the bottom and giving them a broad base.

A tight rope walker often carries a weighted pole or an umbrella to help keep his

iii.

## center of gravity very low and vertically above the rope

It helps in the designing of vehicles such as cars and buses by keeping their center of

iv.

gravity very low. This is done by placing the engine very low in the car.
Knowledge of the importance of keeping a low center of gravity helps passengers in
small boats realize that standing up in order to change seats can be dangerous as this
raises the center of gravity and can make the boat less stable

4.0

APPARATUS

Apparatus
Mounting panel

Quality/Specifications
1

Rectangle plate

Circular plate

Triangle plate

T plate

Rhomboid plate

Irregular plate

5.0

PROCEDURE
5.1 Preparation

## 1. The mounting panel in the vertical position is secured.

2. Insert the support pin through one of the holes in the upper half of the mounting panel. The
pin is secured with nut.
3. Make sure that the plate surface is clean.

5.2 Test 1
1. The plate with the support pin in one of the holes at the outer side of the plate is suspended.
2. The plumb-line on the support pin in front of the plate is hooked. The position of the
plumb-line on the face of the plate with pencil dots (when the plate and plum-line is at rest
position) is marked.
3. The plate is removed and draw a line through the pencil dots.
4. Repeat with the plate suspended from the two outer holes.
5. The lines drawn intersect at one of the inner hole. Mark this hole with the letter G.
6. The test for all plates available is repeated.
5.3 Test 2
1. The plate with the support pin through each of the inner holes is suspended.
2. Rotate the plate and how it comes to rest is observed.

## 6.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION

6

7.0

DISCUSSION

a)

From the result and calculation , it shown that the location for center of gravity is

same . From the general formula have been used to prove the center gravity for all regular
shape . So , the center gravity of regular shape are :
1) T-Plate : The center of gravity is located at Xc = 6mm and Yc = 10mm
2) Triangle Plate : The center of gravity is located at Xc = 8.5mm and Yc = 2.833mm
3) Rhomboid Plate : The center of gravity is located at Xc = 6mm and Yc = 8.5mm
4) Circular Plate ( with radius 7.5mm ) : The center of gravity is located at Xc =
7.5mm and Yc = 7.5mm
7

## 5) Rectangular Plate : The center of gravity is located at Xc = 6mm and Yc = 4mm

b)

It is difficult to calculate the center gravity for the irregular plate . As we know the

center of mass is always at the same position as the center of gravity. So , by run this
experiment we can get the center of gravity for the irregular . This method is useful when one
wishes to find the centroid of a complex planar shape with unknown dimensions.
6) Irregular Plate : The position of the irregular center of gravity is shown in the
result .

8.0

CONCLUSION

From this experiment , we can conclude that we can determine the position center of gravity
of various plate either it was regular or irregular shape . If it was regular shape , we can use
this experiment and the formula . While if it was irregular shape , we can use this experiment
to get the center of gravity .

9.0

REFERENCES

## 1) Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973), An Introduction to Mechanics (2nd ed.),

McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-035048-5
2) Feynman, Richard; Leighton, Robert; Sands, Matthew (1963), The Feynman Lectures on
3) Hamill, Patrick (2009), Intermediate Dynamics, Jones & Bartlett Learning, ISBN 978-07637-5728-1

10.

RUBRICS

Report
Elements
Openended lab
elements
practice

MARKS
GIVEN

RATINGS (MARK)
3

Design own
method of
experiments to
achieve the
objectives
(independent of
lab sheet)

Show one or
more elements
of open-ended
method but still
dependent on
lab sheet

Totally
dependent on
lab sheet
methods

Result
and
findings

Discussio
n

Conclusio
n&
Reference

Report
Presentat
ion

Results are
correct and
presented in
appropriate
tools with
elements of lab
sheet
independence

Results are
correct and
presented
totally as
guided by lab
sheet

Results are
partially
correct

Discussion
points only
focusing on
question in lab
sheet

An incomplete
discussion and
poor analysis

Conclude with
the relation of
experiment to
the objectives
and clearly
state the
reference

Conclusion not
accurately
relate with the
objective.
Reference
stated

Conclusion not
accurately
relate with the
objective. No
Reference
stated

Beyond ordinary
presentation
material from
multiple sources
of reference,
consistent
formatting, and
well structured.

Ordinary
presentation
report with
most of
materials
depends on lab
sheet.

Poor
presentation
format and
structure. Very
less effort in
preparing the
report

Comprehensive
analysis on the
results and
theory by