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Homemade Turbidity Meter

Joseph Duron
January 30, 2012
7th Grade

Table of Content

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

Abstract
Question
Hypothesis
Research
Material
Procedure
Data
Conclusion
Acknowledgement(s)
Works Cited

A. Abstract

B. Question
How does particle size affect light scattering?

C. Hypothesis
The more the particle the more the light scatter.

D. Research
A river gives life to animals and plants. The turbidity determines what plants and animals
can live in the water. Turbidity is defined as the cloudiness as well as the haziness of any
fluid like water which is the result of suspension of solid particles in the liquid. A turbidity
meter is use to measure the turbidity in water.

To measure turbidity there are two methods, either a tube or an eletricmeter. A turbidity
meter measure the intensity of a light beam when it has been scattered by particles in the
water. They are effective over a wide range-from 0 to 1000 NTU. If the meter reads a high
amount of suspended particles the particles will absorb heat. Then since warm water holds
less dissolved oxygen than cold water, the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreases.
The units of measurement for sediment levels are nephelometric turbidity units or Jackson
turbidity units (NTU and JTLJ respectively).
In the 1900s a man by the name Carl Pulfrich invented a variety of photometer. He
studied the refraction of light in crystals, glass and fluids. In 1925 Pulfrich devised a step
photometer adapted to the range of sensitivity of the human eye. This photometer also finds
application as a colorimeter and turbid meter.
In the past turbidity was measured by the technique called The Jackson candle turbid
meter. This is a visual method, where the sample is poured into a calibrated tube and the
turbidity is read when the flame of a candle under the bottom of the tube disappears from
view. This method is no longer than 25 units cannot be measured directly using this
instrument.
Light scattering photometers are used in a variety of ways for a variety of purposes. They
also assist in collocating data. Back scatter systems typically offer an attractively broad
application range, but require disproportional complexity of the evaluating processor unit
because these systems use the low intensity part of scattered light. Slide used to assess
finished product clarity and can be very effective in doing so, provided proper filtration has
been achieved, stray light is suppressed, and no abnormal particulate is present. A majority of

turbidity units of measure used today are based on 90, side scatter measurement
techniques. This method is widely used in many different industries.
Forward scatter angle systems are the preferred methods for actual process control as they
provide the most particle size sensitivity, which is required to effectively monitor any
separation or filtration process, or to detect abnormal turbidity conditions. Forward scatter
measurement results also correlate very well to the actual concentration of the particulate,
making quantifications of the turbidity causing material simple and straight forward.

E. Material
The materials I am using involve electricity. I need things such as: a breadboard,
solderless breadboard wire kit, 9-V Battery, 9-V snap connectors, 24-inch Insulated test,
potentiometer, multimeter, photoresistor, jar lid, black electrical tape, a stiff knife, laser
pointer, clear glass jars, permanent, maker, stop watch, and graphing paper

F. Procedure
In this step, you will set up samples with decreasing amounts of light - scattering
particles.
First label six clear glass jars or clear plastic cups 1to6 with the masking tape and
permanent maker. Next I will make a series of 1:10 dilutions. Use 25 mL in 250 mL. Then
the jars should have the following content (there are far 1:10 dilutions), further described in
step 4-9:
4. Put 250 mL of water in jar #1
5. Put 250 mL of milk in jar #2
6. Put 250 mL of water into jar #3. Add 25 mL of milk. Stir with a clean spoon.
7.Put 250 mL of water into jar #4. Add 25 mL from jar #3. Stir with a clean spoon.
8. Put 250 mL of water into jar #5. Add 25 mL from jar #4. Stir with a clean spoon.
9. Put 250 mL of water into jar #6. Add 25 mL from jar #5. Stir with a clean spoon
G. Data

H. Conclusion

10

I. Acknowledgment

11

Works Cited

Fischer, Paul. "Scattering Photometers." Turbidity Meters, Photometers, Turbidimeters,


Colorimeters, UV-VIS-NIR, Process Photometry. Optek. Web. 27 Jan. 2012.
<http://www.optek.com/Turbidity_Meters.asp>.
"Gale Virtual Reference Library Re:sources." Gale Blogs. 2012. Web. 27 Jan. 2012.
<http://blog.gale.com/resources/tag/gale-virtual-reference-library/>.

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Newton, David E. Encyclopedia of Water. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 2003. Print.


"Turbidity Definition." Turbidity Definition. 2011. Web. 27 Jan. 2012.
<http://turbiditydefinition.com/>.
"The Turbidity Meter; The Most Useful of Scientific Gadgets." Articlesbase.com.
Articlesbase, 14 June 2008. Web. 27 Jan. 2012.
"Waterwatch Australia National Technical Manual: Module 4 - Physical and Chemical
Parameters: Turbidity." Waterwatch Australia Home Page. Waterwatch Australia, 22 Dec.
2005. Web. 27 Jan. 2012.
<http://www.waterwatch.org.au/publications/module4/turbidity.html>.