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Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Department of Public Works and Highways


Project Management Office Flood Control and Sabo Engineering Center

River Improvement Planning


Planning and Design
REVETMENT STRUCTURES

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Introduction
What is a revetment?
When do we plan revetment structures?
What are the components of the
revetment structures?

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Planning Stage
Design Discharge
Trial Design Flood Level
Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest
Riverbed
Height of Revetment
Slope and Berm
Alignment
Cross-section Profiles
Establishing Design Flood Level
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Design Stage
Calculation of Design Velocity for
Revetment
Selection of Type of Slope Covering
Foundation
Accessories
Foot Protection

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Important Reminder
Verify the structural stability of the design
using reference materials and books (i.e.
structural analysis and soil mechanics).
Structural change point should be checked
in order to come up with a smooth
transition.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Important Reminder

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

End of the Presentation


Thank you very much

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

End of the Presentation


Thank you very much

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

End of the Presentation


Thank you very much

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

End of the Presentation


Thank you very much

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

End of the Presentation


Thank you very much

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

End of the Presentation


Thank you very much

Grecile Christopher R.

HYPERLINK
introduction

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Revetment
A flood control structure built to protect the riverbank
from collapse due to erosion, scouring and riverbed
degradation

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

We plan revetment
Urgent or immediate countermeasures for
bank erosion
There is a clear degradation phenomena
acting on the river
Scouring problem along the banks
Provided the degree of importance is high

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Components of Revetment
Transition Works
(Gabion Mattress)

Flow
Direction

Partition

Slope Covering

End
Protection

Foot Protection
(Apron)
Foundation Work
(Cut-off Walls)

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Components of Revetment
Shoulder Beam
(Head Wall)
Slope Covering
Filter Cloth

Foot Protection

Lean Concrete
Backfill Materials
Foundation

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Components of Revetment
Crest Protection

Crest

Key

Grecile Christopher R.

HYPERLINK
Components of Revetment

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Transition Work = Installed between the
natural bank and the end protection for a
smooth transition. It can be constructed at the
upstream or downstream.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Partition = Installed between regular
construction sections, to prevent the
damage of the revetment from spreading.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Slope Covering = Directly covers and
protect the bank slope from erosion, direct
attack from boulders and floating debris.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions

End protection = installed at the upstream


and downstream end of the slope covering
to prevent undermining of materials behind
the structure.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Foundation = Constructed at the toe of the
slope that supports the slope covering.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions

Foot Protection = Constructed to prevent


scouring in front of the foundation work and
escape of material from the bank of the
slope covering work.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Shoulder beam = A headwall that is
installed at the shoulder of the revetment
to prevent damage.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Backfill Materials = Composed of suitable
materials which are backfilled to the slope.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Filter Material/Cloth = Installed behind the
slope covering for prevention of underneath
materials from seepage due to residual
hydraulic pressure.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Crest work = For revetment that frequently
overtopped during flood, it protects the
crest or top of the slope covering works.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Key = Installed at the end portion of the
crest work to protect it against erosion at
the back of the revetment.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Definitions
Crest protection = Installed at the end portion of the
key to join the crest and the original ground for
protection against erosion at the back of the
revetment.

Grecile Christopher R.

HYPERLINK
PLANNING STAGE

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Design Discharge
The design discharge of the proposed site
shall be determined considering the following
recommendations
Maximum experienced flood (in order to avoid
similar disaster)
In case the elevation of the beneficiary is
higher, higher capacity shall be considered.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Trial Design Flood Level


Trial design flood level is the projected
maximum experienced flood levels , with a
gradient corresponding to the riverbed
gradient.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest


Riverbed
Bank erosion is primarily due to scouring of toe
and sides of the banks during the periods of
floods.
Forecasting the deepest riverbed in the future is
an important factor in determining the foundation
depth of the revetment.
The deepest riverbed can be calculated using
scouring depth analysis which will be based on
the average riverbed level. Factors Contributing
to Scouring:
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest


Riverbed
Estimation Method for Maximum Scouring
Depth
The scouring depth is measured from the
average riverbed level.
Maximum scouring depth (Z) at the proposed
structure site is estimated as the larger value
between the computed maximum scouring
depth (Zc) and the surveyed maximum
scouring depth (Zs).
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest


Riverbed
Calculated maximum scouring depth (Zc)
is an empirical value that considers the
relationship among the width of a
waterway, depth, the riverbed material, and
the radius of the curve, etc.
Surveyed maximum scouring depth (Zs)
is the deepest riverbed determined from
actual field survey (cross-sectional survey)
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest


Riverbed
Scouring phenomena occur along the entire river
stretch with different effects for straight line and
bend or curve waterway. The primary factors that
contribute to scouring based on the alignment of
river are:
Straight-line waterway : sand bar height
Curve waterway
: bend of river alignment

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Legends
b
Hd
Hs
dr
b/Hd

=
=
=
=
=

River Width (meters)


Average Water Depth (meters)
Height of Sandbar
Representative Riverbed Material
Ratio of River Width and Average Water Depth

Cross-section Survey for Straight River b


DFL
Hd
Average Riverbed
Zs = Z

Surveyed maximum
scouring depth (Zs)

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest


Riverbed
Cross-section Survey

DFL

Average
Riverbed

Hd

Surveyed
maximum
scouring depth
(Zs)

Height of Sand bar (Hs)

Computed maximum
scouring depth (Zc)
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b
10Strengthening
Hd

the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest


Riverbed

Maximum scouring depth for straight


waterway:
Case 1: b/Hd 10 or dr 0.2 mm
Case 2: b/Hd > 10 or dr > 2 cm
Case 3: b/Hd > 10 or 0.2 mm < dr < 2 cm

Maximum scouring depth of the


curved waterway:

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

b
10Strengthening
Hd

the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest


Riverbed
H d /d R - 5~20
move to sand bar of plural rows
H d /d R = 25

H S/H d

H d /d R = 50

3.0

H d /d R < 100
sand bar of plural rows

8.7

2.0

8
7
6

5.7

H d /d R > 500

1.0

10

H d/d R = 200
H d/d R = 100
H d /d R = 300
20 30 40 50 60 70 80

90

100

b/H d

Relationship of H s/H d ~ b/h d

Grecile Christopher R.

the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Maximum Scouring Depth/Deepest


Riverbed
5

(H max / H d)

Revetment

b
10Strengthening
Hd

4
3

0
0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

r = R - b/2

( b/r )

Relationship of H max / H d ~ b/r


Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Height of Revetment
The height of revetment is based on the
longitudinal profile and cross sectional profiles,
and shall be determine as follows:

Crest Elevation of Revetment


Depth of Top of Foundation

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Height of Revetment
Crest Elevation of Revetment
The crest elevation shall be principally same as the
elevation of bank shoulder (the ground elevation of
bank) or the crest elevation of dike and shall have a
longitudinal gradient corresponding to the riverbed
gradient.
Draw average line of the ground elevations of the bank,
with the gradient corresponding to the riverbed gradient.
In case of revetment on a dike, draw the average line of
the shoulder elevations of the dike, with the longitudinal
gradient corresponding to the gradient of the dike crest.
But in case the improvement stretch is less than 100 m, crest
of revetment may be level.
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Height of Revetment
The depth of the foundation shall be placed deeper
than 1.0 meter from the maximum scouring depth,
principally. In case of difficulty in calculation, it shall
be placed 1.0 meter below the deepest riverbed. The
top of foundation is established as follows:
Plot the elevations of 1 meter deeper than the maximum
scouring level/deepest riverbed level at the respective
cross-sections in the longitudinal profile.
Draw the circumscribed line of the lowest elevation of the
above, with the same longitudinal gradient of the top of
slope covering.
Grecile Christopher R.

Height of Revetment

Average River bed

Scouring depth

Height of Revetment

DFL

d>1.0 m

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Height of Revetment
In case there is difficulty in identifying the top
of foundation due to extreme scouring or
riverbed degradation, use steel sheet pile as
foundation or toe protection works. The
following can be considered for the
identification and setting of elevation of the
foundation.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Height of Revetment
The elevation of the foundation work shall be set at
the maximum scouring depth, and the minimum foot
protection work shall be installed.

Existing Riverbed
Top of Foundation
Bed elevation at
maximum scouring

Foot Protection
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Height of Revetment
The elevation of the foundation shall be set above the
maximum scouring depth with foot protection to cope
with the scouring.

Existing Riverbed
Top of Foundation

Bed elevation at maximum scouring

0.5 1.5 m

Foot Protection

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Height of Revetment
The elevation of the foundation shall be set above the
maximum scouring depth provided the foundation will
by sheet pile with foot protection works in order to
cope with scouring.
Existing Riverbed
Top of Foundation 0.5 1.5 m
Foot Protection

Sheet Pile

Bed elevation at maximum


scouring
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Height of Revetment
In cases where it is difficult to secure the adequate
depth of embedment for the foundation work such
as high ordinary water level, tidal river, etc,
cantilever sheet piles shall be installed as
foundation works.

Overflow Water Level Tide Level

Top of Foundation

Sheet Pile
Bed elevation at maximum scouring

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Slope and Berm


Slope
The slope of the protection work shall be gentle
as much as possible for stability purposes and
shall be based on the natural slope of the
adjacent bank.
The slope shall be 2:1 (H:V) or milder.
In case of rapid flow stretches wherein
floodwater includes a large quantity of boulders
or gravels, the slope shall not necessarily gentle
and shall be determined considering safety
against the flood frequency.
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Slope and Berm


Slope
In case of joint portion with rock-strewn slope,
the slope of revetment shall be gradually and
smoothly changed to connect with the latter.
For the retaining wall type revetment, a
maximum slope of 0.3:1 shall be observed in
consideration to stability and the resulting
residual hydraulic pressure.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Slope and Berm


Berm Arrangement
If the height of revetment is more than 5.0
meters, berm (banquette) must be provided
and designed in order to separate the
revetment into segments, with consideration
of site condition (geography and geology).
Berm shall be at least 1.0 meter in width for
maintenance, stability and patrol of the river
purposes.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Slope and Berm


Berm Arrangement
For a single berm revetment, the berm
location shall be just above the ordinary
water level whenever possible.
Berm
(banquette)
H

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Alignment
The alignment of the revetment should be as
smooth as possible considering the direction of
flow, natural bank alignment nearby, condition of
bend, scouring portion, etc.
In case of the joint portion with the rock-strewn
slope, however, the alignment shall not be
unnaturally smooth.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Alignment

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Cross-sectional Profiles
In accordance with the above dimensions,
the cross-section profiles at the sites shall
be prepared and evaluated considering the
river conditions.
If there are any difficulties in the profiles,
the slope, the berm arrangement and the
alignment of the revetment shall be revised
to cope with the difficulties.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Establishing Design Flood Levels

Condition of Stretch
Straight and almost uniform
Non-uniform
meandering

stretch

Representative Cross-section
One (1) section with the smallest
capacity

including At least three (3) sections with the


smallest discharge capacities.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Establishing Design Flood Levels


For water level calculation at the design flood for
each representative cross section using uniform
flow calculation.
Plotting the above results to the longitudinal
profile.
Drawing the circumscribed line of calculated water
level with a gradient corresponding to the riverbed
gradient.
Adjustment of uneven design flood levels of the
respective cross sections from the circumscribed
line
Grecile Christopher R.

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Design of Revetment

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Calculation of Design Velocity


The velocity of flow is an indispensable factor
in the selection of the type of slope covering.
The mean velocity derived in the uniform flow
calculations is not equal to the velocity of flow
in front of the revetment.
The velocity is actually influenced by the
effects of sand wave, bend and foot protection
work.
In designing, it is recommended to correct the
mean velocity to the design velocity of the
revetment.
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Calculation of Design Velocity


It is necessary to apply the correction to the
mean velocity calculated from the uniform flow
calculation.
In case there will be no correction, use the
maximum value of the mean velocities derived
from the representative cross-sections (design
flood) as the design velocity of the revetment

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Calculation of Design Velocity


Design Flood Level

Hd

Hl

Average Riverbed

Foot Protection

bw

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Selection of Slope Covering


There are many types of slope covering
works which can be used with consideration
to the design velocity, slope, availability of
construction materials near the site, ease of
construction, most economical, etc.
In case where measures are required for the
boulder stones during flood and the slope of
the bank is constrained, combination of the
slope covering works shall be considered.
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Selection of Slope Covering


Type of
Revetment

Allowable
Design
Velocity
(m/s)

Slope
(H:V)

Remarks

Sodded
Riverbank
with Pile
Fence

4.0

Milder
than
2:1

Not applicable for places near roads and houses.


Diameter and length of wooden pile shall be determined
considering the past construction records.
For Type II, diameter of fill boulder shall be determined using
the table for the Minimum Diameter of Boulder (Riprap Type)
for foot protection.

Grouted
Riprap

5.0

Milder
than

Use Class A boulders for grouted riprap and loose boulder


apron.

(Spread
Type)

2:1

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Selection of Slope Covering


Type of
Revetment

Dry
Boulder
Riprap

Allowable
Design
Velocity
(m/s)

3.0

Slope
(H:V)

Remarks

Milder
than
2:1

Diameter of boulder shall be determined using the table for


Diameter for Dry Boulder Riprap.
Height shall not exceed 3.0 meters.
Crest protection works shall be provided in case overflow is
frequent.
Boulders and reinforcing materials shall be interlocked with
each other. Maintenance activity shall be carried out after the
flood.
In case the revetment is submerged during the flood , the
crest of the revetment shall be protected.
Filter cloth or any equivalent materials shall be included in
the design to prevent backfill materials from sucking out.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Selection of Slope Covering


Type of
Revetment

Allowable
Design
Velocity
(m/s)

Grouted
Riprap
(Wall
Type)

Gabion
(Piled-up
Type)

Slope
(H:V)

1.5:1
to

Remarks

Use Class A boulders for grouted riprap.

0.5:1

6.5

1.5:1
to
0.5:1

Not advisable in rivers affected by saline water intrusion


Not applicable in rivers where diameter of boulders present is
greater than 20 cm.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Selection of Slope Covering


Type of
Revetment

Gabion
(Spread
Type)

Allowable
Design
Velocity
(m/s)

5.0

Slope
(H:V)

Remarks

Milder
Than
1.5:1

Not advisable in rivers affected by saline water intrusion


Not applicable in rivers where diameter of boulders present is
greater than 20 cm.

Rubble
Concrete

Milder
than

(spread

1.5:1

Type)

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Selection of Slope Covering


Type of
Revetment

Rubble
Concrete
(Wall
Type)

Reinforced
Concrete

Allowable
Design
Velocity
(m/s)

Slope
(H:V)

Remarks

Milder
than
1:1

A minimum thickness of 20 cm

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Selection of Slope Covering


Type of
Revetment

Sheet Pile

Allowable
Design
Velocity
(m/s)

Slope
(H:V)

N.A.

Remarks

In cases where ordinary water level is very high.


Design procedure and sample design computation for
steel sheet pile is provided in Annex A of the Manual on
Design of Flood control Structures January 2005
Publication (Light Green Book)

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Foundation
The foundation of the revetment has to
support the slope covering properly with
consideration and analysis of scouring
during flood.
The type of foundation works shall be
selected in accordance with the conditions
of the foundation and the type of slope
protection.
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Foundation
The following conditions for foundation are
applied:
Ordinary Foundation
Weak Foundation

Direct type
Pile or sheet pile type

Sheet Pile Foundation can be applied in case of


severe scouring of river bed and dewatering
during construction is difficult

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Accessories
The appurtenance works for revetment are
considered in order to protect the crest, the
upstream and downstream end of the slope
covering from erosion and to prevent the
seepage of materials or soils of the banks.

Backfill Materials
Seepage Countermeasures
Crest Protection works
End Protection Works
Partition
Transition
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Foot Protection
The foot protection work is a structure used
to secure the safety of the foundation work
from the effect of scouring.
The basic requirements for the foot
protection work are as follows:
Sufficient weight against the flow forces.
Sufficient width to prevent scouring in front of
the revetment.
Durability
Flexibility
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Foot Protection
Types of Foot Protection Works
Elevation of Foot Protection
Width of Foot Protection

Grecile Christopher R.

HYPERLINK
OTHERS

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Factors Contributing to Scouring


Changes in average riverbed elevation
Channel excavation/dredging lowers the
average be elevation, and the bed elevation
in scoured areas becomes lower
accordingly.
There are also cases where the reduction in
sediment transport from the upstream
destroys the sediment balance, resulting in
a lower bed elevation

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Factors Contributing to Scouring


Variation of Rivers Cross-section
There are two (2) reasons why the river
cross-section directly influences scouring.
One is that the change in river width from
wide to narrow causes the increase in
water depth.
The other is that a curved or meandering
river causes the flow to move toward one
side of the channel, resulting in bank
scouring.
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Factors Contributing to Scouring

Structures
A structure located in the path of flowing
water increases the velocity of flow around
the structure and cause local scouring.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Factors Contributing to Scouring


Sand bar induced scouring

Sand bars are alluvial deposits in the


river, which cause an obstruction to
flow. Since the height of sand bars is
roughly equal to water depth, the
amount of bar-induced scouring
becomes large if the influence of bars
is similar to curving or meandering.

We will focus on the scouring depth due to


bend of river and sand bar
Grecile Christopher R.

HYPERLINK
Tables

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Diameter of Boulder for Dry Boulder Riprap


Water
Depth (m)

Design Velocity (m/s)


1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

1.0

20

20

20

60

2.0

20

20

20

30

70

3.0

20

20

20

30

50

4.0

20

20

20

20

40

5.0

20

20

20

20

40

In case of slope 2:1 all units in cm


Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Sodded Riverbank with Pile Fence

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Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Dry Boulder Riprap

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Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Gabion Mattress
Gabion Mattress

Pile (Optional)

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Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grouted Riprap Spread Type

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Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Gabion Piled Up Type

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Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grouted Riprap Wall Type

Grecile Christopher R.

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Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Rubble Concrete

Base Concrete
Grecile Christopher R.

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Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced Concrete
Ordinary Water Level

Sheet Pile

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Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Reinforced Concrete with SSP

Ordinary water
level

50 cm.
(min.)
Reinforced Concrete

Pile cap
Sheet pile

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Hyperlink
ACCESSORIES

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Backfill Materials
For the rigid type revetment, backfill
materials shall be installed in order to
reduce the force of the residual hydraulic
pressure to the covering works and to
make the structure stable.
For the permeable type revetment such as
wooden fence type and gabion mattress
type, the backfill materials is not necessary
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Backfill Materials
The backfilling materials shall be with high
permeability, such as crushed gravel, etc.
Thickness of the backfill materials shall be
30 40 cm for wall type and 15 20 cm for
pitching or lining type.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Backfill Materials
For the residual water pressure, weep holes
are provided to let water from the land side
pass through the structure, however these
weepholes should have filter cloth or
equivalent materials to prevent backfill
materials from escaping.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Seepage Countermeasures
For permeable type revetment, filter cloth
or its equivalent shall be installed.
For impermeable type of revetment no
need to include filter cloth. However, weep
holes are essential to let water from the
inland to pass to prevent the residual
hydraulic pressure.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Seepage Countermeasures

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Seepage Countermeasures

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Crest Protection
If the overflow frequency is very high due to
inadequate flow capacity, the crest of the
revetment shall be protected.
The width of the crest shall be more than 1.0
meter

Grecile Christopher R.

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH


Revetment

Crest Protection
1,500 2,000 mm

1,000 mm (min)

Crest Armoring

Crest

Shoulder Beam

Key

Crest Armoring
1,500 2,000 mm

Crest
1,000 mm (min)

500
(min)

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

End Protection
The end protection work is indispensable to
the rigid structure type revetments
The end protection shall cover the extent of
the covering work and crest work.
The thickness of the end protection work
shall be from the surface of revetment up
to backfill material. The thickness of the
end protection shall be more than 50 cm.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

End Protection

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Partition
In case the length of the rigid type
revetment is more than 50 m, a partition
shall be installed in order to prevent the
damage of the revetment from spreading.
The structure of the partition works shall be
the same as the end protection works.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Partition

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Transition
A transition work to the natural bank is
installed in order to connect the revetment
and the natural bank smoothly and to
prevent erosion at the upstream and
downstream sides of the revetment from
spreading behind the revetment.
A transition work shall be flexible type like
gabion mattress and the like.
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Transition
The fitting angle to the natural bank shall be
30 degrees or less at the upstream side
and 45 degrees or less at the downstream
side. However the fitting angle shall be
determined based on the present condition
of the bank.

Grecile Christopher R.

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH


Revetment

Transition

45o

30o

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Transition

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Transition

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

HYPERLINK
FOOT PROTECTIONS

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Types of Foot Protections


The type of foot protection shall be
determined based on river conditions,
ease of construction, economy etc.
Riprap Type
Gabion Type
Wooden Stockage Type
Concrete Blocks (Piled Up)
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Elevation of Foot Protection


The top elevation of foot protection shall
be set at the same elevation of that
foundation work of the revetment.
In order to prevent scouring, the top
elevation of foot protection work is also set
above the top of foundation of the
revetment.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Elevation of Foot Protection


The bottom elevation of foot protection shall
be set at the same elevation as the top of
foundation work.
If the thickness of the foot protection work is
more than 1.0 meter, the bottom elevation
of the foot protection shall be set at the
same elevation with the bottom of the
foundation.
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Width of Foot Protection


The foot protection work requires a
sufficient width that will prevent scouring of
riverbed in front of the foundation of the
revetment.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Types of FP

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Riprap Type/Boulder Type


The large boulders shall be used at the
toe of slope and slope surface.
Seepage or outflow of materials from the
foundation
is
unavoidable,
proper
maintenance shall be carried out

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Riprap Type/Boulder Type


The minimum diameter shall be based on the
table below.
Design Velocity (m/s)
Diameter (cm)
2

30

50

80

120
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Riprap Type/Boulder Type

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Gabion Type
This type shall not be used for rivers with
saline intrusion and for riverbeds and
banks consisting of boulders.
The gabions shall be connected to each
other.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Gabion Type
The diameter of the filling boulders shall be based
on the table below
Water
Design Velocity (m/s)
Depth 1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0

515
515
515
515
515
515

515
515
515
515
515
515

515 1020
515 515 15-20
515 515 15-20 15-20
515 515 515 15-20
515 515 515 15-20
515 515 515 15-20

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Gabion Type

Gabion Box

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Wooden Stockage Type


For rivers with few boulders.
The space between the wooden piles shall
be determined based on the diameter of
the filling materials.
Instead of concrete piles, wooden piles
are used.

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Wooden Stockage Type


The minimum diameter of filling boulders
are the following:
Water
Depth

1.0

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0

5
5
5
5
5
5

Design Velocity (m/s)


2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
5
5
5
5
5
5

10
10
10
5
5
5

6.0

30
15
35
65
15
25
45
15
25
40
10
20
35
10
20
30
Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Wooden Stockage Type

Grecile Christopher R.

Concrete Blocks
This type is divided into two (2) types: orderly piled
up and the disorderly piled up
The weight of the block shall be determine using
the graph below:
100.0

W(t) Weight of concrete block

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Single unit
Disorder pile up

10.0

Order pile up
1.0

0.1

10

100

V d (m/s) Velocity of flow

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Concrete Blocks

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Concrete Blocks

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grecile Christopher R.

Revetment

Strengthening the Flood Management Function of DPWH

Grecile Christopher R.