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STRUCTURAL:Chapter6:SpectrumAnalysis(UP19980818)

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6.1DefinitionofSpectrumAnalysis
Aspectrumanalysisisoneinwhichtheresultsofamodalanalysisareusedwithaknownspectrumtocalculate
displacementsandstressesinthemodel.Itismainlyusedinplaceofatimehistoryanalysistodeterminethe
responseofstructurestorandomortimedependentloadingconditionssuchasearthquakes,windloads,ocean
waveloads,jetenginethrust,rocketmotorvibrations,andsoon.

6.2WhatisaSpectrum?
Thespectrumisagraphofspectralvalueversusfrequencythatcapturestheintensityandfrequencycontentof
timehistoryloads.Threetypesofspectraareavailableforaspectrumanalysis:
ResponseSpectrum
SinglepointResponseSpectrum(SPRS)
MultipointResponseSpectrum(MPRS)
DynamicDesignAnalysisMethod(DDAM)
PowerSpectralDensity(PSD)
TheonlymethodavailableintheANSYS/LinearPlusprogramisthesinglepointresponsespectrum.

6.2.1ResponseSpectrum
AresponsespectrumrepresentstheresponseofsingleDOFsystemstoatimehistoryloadingfunction.Itisa
graphofresponseversusfrequency,wheretheresponsemightbedisplacement,velocity,acceleration,orforce.
Twotypesofresponsespectrumanalysisarepossible:singlepointresponsespectrumandmultipointresponse
spectrum.

6.2.1.1SinglepointResponseSpectrum(SPRS)
Inasinglepointresponsespectrum(SPRS)analysis,youspecifyoneresponsespectrumcurve(orafamilyof
curves)atasetofpointsinthemodel,suchasatallsupports,asshowninFigure61(a).

6.2.1.2MultiPointResponseSpectrum(MPRS)
Inamultipointresponsespectrum(MPRS)analysis,youspecifydifferentspectrumcurvesatdifferentsetsof
points,asshowninFigure61(b).
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Figure61Singlepointandmultipointresponsespectra

6.2.2DynamicDesignAnalysisMethod(DDAM)
TheDynamicDesignAnalysisMethod(DDAM)isatechniqueusedtoevaluatetheshockresistanceof
shipboardequipment.Thetechniqueisessentiallyaresponsespectrumanalysisinwhichthespectrumis
obtainedfromaseriesofempiricalequationsandshockdesigntablesprovidedintheU.S.NavalResearch
LaboratoryReportNRL1396.

6.2.3PowerSpectralDensity
Powerspectraldensity(PSD)isastatisticalmeasuredefinedasthelimitingmeansquarevalueofarandom
variable.Itisusedinrandomvibrationanalysesinwhichtheinstantaneousmagnitudesoftheresponsecanbe
specifiedonlybyprobabilitydistributionfunctionsthatshowtheprobabilityofthemagnitudetakingaparticular
value.
APSDspectrumisastatisticalmeasureoftheresponseofastructuretorandomdynamicloadingconditions.It
isagraphofthePSDvalueversusfrequency,wherethePSDmaybeadisplacementPSD,velocityPSD,
accelerationPSD,orforcePSD.Mathematically,theareaunderaPSDversusfrequencycurveisequaltothe
variance(squareofthestandarddeviationoftheresponse).
Similartoresponsespectrumanalysis,arandomvibrationanalysismaybesinglepointormultipoint.Ina
singlepointrandomvibrationanalysis,youspecifyonePSDspectrumatasetofpointsinthemodel.Inamulti
pointrandomvibrationanalysis,youspecifydifferentPSDspectraatdifferentpointsinthemodel.
NoteThesparsedirectsolverisnotapplicabletoPSDspectrumanalysis.

6.2.4Deterministicvs.ProbabilisticAnalyses
ResponsespectrumandDDAManalysesaredeterministicanalysesbecauseboththeinputtotheanalysesand
outputfromtheanalysesareactualmaximumvalues.Randomvibrationanalysis,ontheotherhand,is
probabilisticinnature,becausebothinputandoutputquantitiesrepresentonlytheprobabilitythattheytakeon
certainvalues.

6.3CommandsUsedinaSpectrumAnalysis
Youusethesamesetofcommandstobuildamodelandperformaspectrumanalysisthatyouusetodoany
othertypeoffiniteelementanalysis.Likewise,youchoosesimilaroptionsfromthegraphicaluserinterface
(GUI)tobuildandsolvemodelsnomatterwhattypeofanalysisyouaredoing.
Section6.6,"SampleSpectrumAnalysis(CommandorBatchMethod),"showsyouthesequenceofcommands
youissue(eithermanuallyorwhilerunningANSYSasabatchjob)toperformanexamplespectrumanalysis.
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Section6.5,"SampleSpectrumAnalysis(GUIMethod),"showsyouhowtoexecutethesamesampleanalysis
usingmenuchoicesfromtheANSYSGUI.(TolearnhowtousethecommandsandGUIselectionsforbuilding
models,readtheANSYSModelingandMeshingGuide.)
Fordetailed,alphabetizeddescriptionsoftheANSYScommands,seetheANSYSCommandsReference.
Wewillnowdescribehowtodothetwomostcommonlyusedspectrumanalysessinglepointresponse
spectrum(SPRS)andrandomvibrations(PSD).FortheDDAMandmultipointresponsespectrum(MPRS)
analyses,wewillsimplylistthestepsthataredifferent.

6.4StepsinaSinglepointResponseSpectrum
(SPRS)Analysis
Theprocedureforasinglepointresponsespectrumanalysisconsistsofsixmainsteps:
1.Buildthemodel.
2.Obtainthemodalsolution.
3.Obtainthespectrumsolution.
4.Expandthemodes.
5.Combinethemodes.
6.Reviewtheresults.
Themodalsolutionisrequiredbecausethestructure'smodeshapesandfrequenciesmustbeavailableto
calculatethespectrumsolution.Also,byperformingthespectrumsolutionaheadofmodeexpansion,youcan
expandonlythesignificantmodesthatcontributetothefinalsolution.

6.4.1BuildtheModel
Inthisstep,youspecifythejobnameandanalysistitle,andthenusePREP7todefinetheelementtypes,element
realconstants,materialproperties,andthemodelgeometry.Thesetasksarecommontomostanalyses.The
ANSYSModelingandMeshingGuideexplainsthemindetail.

6.4.1.1PointstoRemember
Onlylinearbehaviorisvalidinaspectrumanalysis.Nonlinearelements,ifany,aretreatedaslinear.If
youincludecontactelements,forexample,theirstiffnessesarecalculatedbasedontheirinitialstatusand
areneverchanged.
BothYoung'smodulus(EX)(orstiffnessinsomeform)anddensity(DENS)(ormassinsomeform)must
bedefined.Materialpropertiescanbelinear,isotropicororthotropic,andconstantortemperature
dependent.Nonlinearproperties,ifany,areignored.

6.4.2ObtaintheModalSolution
Themodalsolutionnaturalfrequenciesandmodeshapesisneededtocalculatethespectrumsolution.The
proceduretoobtainthemodalsolutionisdescribedinChapter3under"ApplyLoadsandObtaintheSolution,"
butyoushouldkeepinmindthefollowingadditionalpoints:
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Usethesubspace,BlockLanczos,orreducedmethodtoextractthemodes.Theothermethods
unsymmetric,damped,andPowerDynamicsarenotvalidforsubsequentspectrumanalysis.
Thenumberofmodesextractedshouldbeenoughtocharacterizethestructure'sresponseinthefrequency
rangeofinterest.
IfyouareusingGUImethod,chooseNOformodeexpansiononthedialogboxforthemodalanalysis
options[MODOPT],sothatmodesarenotexpandedatthistime,butcanbeexpandedselectivelyina
separatesolutionpass.(SeetheuseoftheSIGNIFfieldontheMXPANDcommand).Otherwise,choose
YEStoexpandallthemodesatthisphase.
Ifmaterialdependentdampingistobeincludedinthespectrumanalysis,itmustbespecifiedinthemodal
analysis.
BesuretoconstrainthoseDOFwhereyouwanttoapplyabaseexcitationspectrum.
Attheendofthesolution,leavetheSOLUTIONprocessor.

6.4.3ObtaintheSpectrumSolution
Theproceduretoobtainthespectrumsolutionisexplainedbelow.Themodeshapefile(Jobname.MODE)from
themodalanalysismustbeavailable,andthedatabasemustcontainthemodeldata.
1.EnterSOLUTION.
Command(s):
/SOLU
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution
2.Definetheanalysistypeandanalysisoptions.ANSYSoffersthefollowinganalysisoptionsforaspectrum
analysis.(NoteBeawarethatnotallmodalanalysisoptionsandnotalleigenvalueextractiontechniqueswork
withallspectrumanalysisoptions.)
Table61Analysistypesandanalysisoptions
Option

Command GUIPath

NewAnalysis

ANTYPE MainMenu>Solution>AnalysisTypeNewAnalysis

AnalysisType:Spectrum

ANTYPE

MainMenu>Solution>AnalysisTypeNew
Analysis>Spectrum

SpectrumType:SPRS

SPOPT

MainMenu>Solution>AnalysisOptions

No.ofModestoUsefor
Solution

SPOPT

MainMenu>Solution>AnalysisOptions

6.4.3.1Option:NewAnalysis[ANTYPE]
ChooseNewAnalysis.

6.4.3.2Option:AnalysisType:Spectrum[ANTYPE]
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Chooseanalysistypespectrum.

6.4.3.3Option:SpectrumType:SinglepointResponseSpectrum[SPOPT]
ChooseSinglepointResponseSpectrum(SPRS).

6.4.3.4Option:NumberofModestoUseforSolution[SPOPT]
Chooseenoughmodestocoverthefrequencyrangespannedbythespectrumandtocharacterizethestructure's
response.Theaccuracyofthesolutiondependsonthenumberofmodesused:thelargerthenumber,thehigher
theaccuracy.MakesuretochooseYESontheSPOPTcommandifyouwanttocalculateelementstresses.
3.Specifyloadstepoptions.Thefollowingoptionsareavailableforsinglepointresponsespectrumanalysis:
Table62Loadstepoptions
Option

Command GUIPath

SpectrumOptions
TypeofResponse
Spectrum

SVTYP

MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>Singlepoint
Settings

ExcitationDirection

SED

MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>Singlepoint
Settings

Spectralvaluevs
frequencyCurve

FREQ,SV

MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>Singlepoint
FreqTable/SpectrValues

Damping(DynamicsOptions)
Beta(Stiffness)Damping

BETAD

MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsTime/Frequenc>
Damping

ConstantDampingRatio

DMPRAT

MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsTime/Frequenc>
Damping

ModalDamping

MDAMP

MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsTime/Frequenc>
Damping

6.4.3.5SpectrumOptions
Thesedataincludethefollowing:
TypeofResponseSpectrum[SVTYP]
Thespectrumtypecanbedisplacement,velocity,acceleration,force,orPSD.Allexcepttheforce
spectrumrepresentseismicspectrathatis,theyareassumedtobespecifiedatthebase.Theforce
spectrumisspecifiedatnonbasenodeswiththeForFKcommand,andthedirectionisimpliedbylabels
FX,FY,FZ.ThePSDspectrum[SVTYP,4]isinternallyconvertedtoadisplacementresponsespectrum
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andislimitedtoflat,narrowbandspectraamorerobustrandomvibrationanalysisprocedureisdescribed
inthesection"HowtoDoaRandomVibrationAnalysis."
ExcitationDirection[SED]
SpectralValueVersusFrequencyCurve[FREQ,SV]
SVandFREQcommandsareusedtodefinethespectralcurve.Youcandefineafamilyofspectral
curves,eachcurveforadifferentdampingratio.UsetheSTATcommandtolistcurrentspectrumcurve
values.Anothercommand,ROCK,allowsyoutospecifyarockingspectrum.

6.4.4Damping(DynamicsOptions)
Ifyouspecifymorethanoneformofdamping,theANSYSprogramcalculatesaneffectivedampingratioat
eachfrequency.Thespectralvalueatthiseffectivedampingratioisthencalculatedbylogloginterpolationof
thespectralcurves.Ifnodampingisspecified,thespectralcurvewiththelowestdampingisused.Forfurther
detailsaboutthedifferentformsofdamping,see"Damping"inChapter5.
Thefollowingformsofdampingareavailable:
Beta(stiffness)Damping[BETAD]
Thisoptionresultsinafrequencydependentdampingratio.
ConstantDampingRatio[DMPRAT]
Thisoptionspecifiesaconstantdampingratiotobeusedatallfrequencies.
ModalDamping[MDAMP]
NoteMaterialdependentdampingratio[MP,DAMP]isalsoavailablebutonlyifspecifiedinthemodal
analysis.MP,DAMPalsospecifiesamaterialdependentconstantdampingratio(andnotmaterialdependent
betadamping,asusedinotheranalyses).
4.Startsolutioncalculations.
Command(s):
SOLVE
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>SolveCurrentLS
Theoutputfromthesolutionincludestheparticipationfactortable.Theparticipationfactortable,whichis
partoftheprintedoutput,liststheparticipationfactors,modecoefficients(basedonlowestdamping
ratio),andthemassdistributionforeachmode.Toobtainthemaximumresponseofeachmode(modal
response),multiplythemodeshapebythemodecoefficient.Youdothisbyretrievingthemode
coefficientwiththe*GETcommandandusingitasascalefactorintheSETcommand.
5.Repeatsteps3and4foradditionalresponsespectra,ifany.Notethatsolutionsarenotwrittentothefile.rstat
thistime.
6.LeavetheSOLUTIONprocessor.
Command(s):
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FINISH
GUI:
ClosetheSolutionmenu.

6.4.5ExpandtheModes
1.ClickontheexpansionpassoptionbuttonontheExpansionPassdialogboxtosignifyYESforanexpansion
pass.
Command(s):
MXPAND
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>NewAnalysisModalExpansionPassOn>L.S.OptExpansionPass>Single
ExpandModalExpandModes
2.Youmustexpandmodesregardlessofwhetheryouusedthesubspace,BlockLanczos,orreducedextraction
method.DetailsofhowtoexpandthemodesareexplainedinChapter3under"ExpandtheModes"asaseparate
solutionpass,butyoushouldkeepinmindthefollowingpoints:
Onlysignificantmodescanbeselectivelyexpanded.(SeetheuseoftheSIGNIFfieldontheMXPAND
command.)IfyouareusingtheGUImethodandwanttoselectivelyexpandmodes,chooseNOformode
expansiononthedialogboxforthemodalanalysisoptions[MODOPT]inthemodalanalysisphase.You
thenperformmodeexpansionasaseparatesolutionpassafterperformingthespectrumsolution.
Onlyexpandedmodesareusedforthemodecombinationoperationinthesubsequentmodecombination
pass.
Ifyouareinterestedinstressescausedbythespectrum,besuretorequeststresscalculationshere.By
default,nostressesarecalculatedintheexpansionpass,whichmeansnostressesareavailableforthe
spectrumanalysis.
Ifyouwanttoexpandallthemodes,youcanincludethemodeexpansionstepsinthemodalsolutionpass
byissuingtheMXPANDcommand.IfyouareusingtheGUImethodandwanttoexpandallthemodes,
chooseYESformodeexpansiononthedialogboxforthemodalanalysisoptions[MODOPT]inthe
modalsolutionstep.Butifyouwanttoexpandonlythesignificantmodes,youmustperformmode
expansionasaseparatesolutionpassafterperformingthespectrumsolution.
Notethatmodalanalysissolutionsarewrittentotheresultsfile(Jobname.RST)onlyifthemodeexpansionis
performed.

6.4.6CombinetheModes
Combinethemodesinaseparatesolutionphase.Theprocedureisasfollows:
1.EnterSOLUTION.
Command(s):
/SOLU
GUI:
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MainMenu>Solution
2.Defineanalysistype.
Command(s):
ANTYPE
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>NewAnalysis

6.4.6.1Option:NewAnalysis[ANTYPE]
ChooseNewAnalysis.

6.4.6.2Option:AnalysisType:Spectrum[ANTYPE]
Chooseanalysistypespectrum.
3.Chooseoneofthemodecombinationmethods.
ANSYSoffersfivedifferentmodecombinationmethodsforthesinglepointresponsespectrumanalysis:
SquareRootofSumofSquares(SRSS)
CompleteQuadraticCombination(CQC)
DoubleSum(DSUM)
Grouping(GRP)
NavalResearchLaboratorySum(NRLSUM)
TheNRLSUMmethodistypicallyusedinthecontextoftheDynamicDesignandAnalysisMethod
(DDAM)spectrumanalysis.
Thefollowingcommandsareusedtoinvokedifferentmethodsofmodecombinations:
Command(s):
SRSS
CQC
DSUM
GRP
NRLSUM
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>NewAnalysis>Spectrum>AnalysisOptsSPRS>LoadStepOpts
Spectrum>SpectrumSinglePointModeCombin
Thesecommandsallowcomputationofthreedifferenttypesofresponses:
Displacement(label=DISP)
Displacementresponsereferstodisplacements,stresses,forces,etc.
Velocity(label=VELO)
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Velocityresponsereferstovelocities,"stressvelocities,""forcevelocities,"etc.
Acceleration(label=ACEL)
Accelerationresponsereferstoaccelerations,"stressaccelerations,""forceaccelerations,"etc.
TheDSUMmethodalsoallowstheinputoftimedurationforearthquakeorshockspectrum.
NoteYoumustspecifydampingifyouusetheCompleteQuadraticCombinationmethodofmode
combination(CQC).Inaddition,ifyouusematerialdependentdamping[MP,DAMP,...],youmust
requestthatelementresultsbecalculatedinthemodalexpansion.(Elcalc=YESontheMXPAND
command.)
4.Startsolution.
Command(s):
SOLVE
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>SolveCurrentLS
ThemodecombinationphasewritesafileofPOST1commands(Jobname.MCOM).Readinthisfilein
POST1todothemodecombinations,usingtheresultsfile(Jobname.RST)fromthemodalexpansion
pass.
ThefileJobname.MCOMcontainsPOST1commandsthatcombinethemaximummodalresponsesby
usingthespecifiedmodecombinationmethodtocalculatetheoverallresponseofthestructure.
Themodecombinationmethoddetermineshowthestructure'smodalresponsesaretobecombined:
Ifyouselecteddisplacementastheresponsetype(label=DISP),displacementsandstressesarecombined
foreachmodeonthemodecombinationcommand.
Ifyouselectedvelocityastheresponsetype(label=VELO),velocitiesandstressvelocitiesarecombined
foreachmodeonthemodecombinationcommand.
Ifyouselectedaccelerationastheresponsetype(label=ACEL),accelerationsandstressaccelerationsare
combinedforeachmodeonthemodecombinationcommand.
5.LeavetheSOLUTIONprocessor.
Command(s):
FINISH
GUI:
ClosetheSolutionmenu.
NoteIfyouwanttocomputevelocityoraccelerationinadditiontodisplacement,repeatthemode
combinationstepafterpostprocessingthedisplacementsolutionbyusingtheVELOorACELlabelonthe
modecombinationcommands(SRSS,CQC,GRP,DSUM,NRLSUM).Rememberthattheexisting
Jobname.MCOMfileisoverwrittenbytheadditionalmodecombinationstep(s).

6.4.7ReviewtheResults
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Resultsfromasinglepointresponsespectrumanalysisarewrittentothemodecombinationfile,
Jobname.MCOM,intheformofPOST1commands.Thesecommandscalculatetheoverallresponseofthe
structurebycombiningthemaximummodalresponsesinsomefashion(specifiedbyoneofthemode
combinationmethods).Theoverallresponseconsistsoftheoveralldisplacements(orvelocitiesoraccelerations)
and,ifplacedontheresultsfileduringtheexpansionpass,theoverallstresses(orstressvelocitiesorstress
accelerations),strains(orstrainvelocitiesorstrainaccelerations),andreactionforces(orreactionforce
velocitiesorreactionforceaccelerations).
YoucanusePOST1,thegeneralpostprocessor,toreviewtheresults.
NoteIfyouwantadirectcombinationofthederivedstresses(S1,S2,S3,SEQV,SI)fromtheresultsfile,issue
theSUMTYPE,PRINcommandbeforereadingintheJobname.MCOMfile.WiththePRINoption,component
stressesarenotavailable.
Notethatthecommanddefault(SUMTYPE,COMP)istodirectlyoperateonlyontheunaveragedelement
componentstressesandcomputethederivedquantitiesfromthese.RefertoSection5.4.3,"Creatingand
CombiningLoadCases,"intheANSYSBasicAnalysisProceduresGuide.Also,seetheANSYSCommands
ReferenceforadescriptionoftheSUMTYPEcommand.
1.ReadthecommandsonJobname.MCOM.
Command(s):
/INPUT
GUI:
UtilityMenu>File>ReadInputFrom
Forexample,issue/INPUTwiththefollowingarguments:
/INPUT,FILE,MCOM

!AssumesthedefaultjobnameFILE

2.Displayresults.

6.4.7.1Option:DisplayDeformedShape
Command(s):
PLDISP
GUI:
MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>PlotResults>DeformedShape

6.4.7.2Option:ContourDisplays
Command(s):
PLNSOLorPLESOL
GUI:
MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>PlotResults>ContourPlotNodalSoluorElementSolu

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UsePLNSOLorPLESOLtocontouralmostanyresultitem,suchasstresses(SX,SY,SZ...),strains
(EPELX,EPELY,EPELZ...),anddisplacements(UX,UY,UZ...).Ifyoupreviouslyissuedthe
SUMTYPEcommand,theresultsofthePLNSOLorPLESOLcommandareaffectedbytheparticular
SUMTYPEcommandoption(SUMTYPE,COMPorSUMTYPE,PRIN)thatyouselected.
UsethePLETABcommandtocontourelementtabledataandPLLStocontourlineelementdata.
Caution:Deriveddata,suchasstressesandstrains,areaveragedatthenodesbythePLNSOLcommand.
Thisaveragingresultsin"smeared"valuesatnodeswhereelementsofdifferentmaterials,differentshell
thicknesses,orotherdiscontinuitiesmeet.Toavoidthesmearingeffect,useselecting(describedin
Chapter7oftheANSYSBasicAnalysisProceduresGuide)toselectelementsofthesamematerial,same
shellthickness,etc.beforeissuingPLNSOL.

6.4.7.3Option:VectorDisplays
Command(s):
PLVECT
GUI:
MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>PlotResults>VectorPlotPredefined

6.4.7.4Option:TabularListings
Command(s):
PRNSOL(nodalresults)
PRESOL(elementbyelementresults)
PRRSOL(reactiondata)
GUI:
MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>ListResults>NodalSolution
MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>ListResults>ElementSolution
MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>ListResults>ReactionSolution

6.4.7.5OtherCapabilities
Manyotherpostprocessingfunctions,suchasmappingresultsontoapath,transformingresultstodifferent
coordinatesystems,andloadcasecombinations,areavailableinPOST1.SeeChapter5oftheANSYSBasic
AnalysisProceduresGuidefordetails.
TheabovesixstepsdescribesystematicallytheprocedureforperformingSinglepointResponseSpectrum
analysis.
Ifyouareusingbatchmode,notethefollowing:
Steps2and3(i.e.,themodalsolutionandspectrumsolutionpasses)canbecombinedintoasinglemodal
analysis[ANTYPE,MODAL]solutionpass,withspectrumloads[SV,SVTYP,SED,FREQ].
Steps4and5(i.e.,themodeexpansionandmodecombinationsolutionpasses)canbecombinedintoa
singlemodalanalysis[ANTYPE,MODALandEXPASS,ON]solutionpasswithamodecombination
command.
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6.5SampleSpectrumAnalysis(GUIMethod)
Inthissampleproblem,youdeterminetheseismicresponseofabeamstructure.

6.5.1ProblemDescription
Asimplysupportedbeamoflength$B(B,massperunitlengthm,andsectionpropertiesshowninProblem
Specifications,issubjectedtoaverticalmotionofbothsupports.Themotionisdefinedintermsofaseismic
displacementresponsespectrum.Determinethenodaldisplacements,reactionsforces,andtheelement
solutions.

6.5.2ProblemSpecifications
Thefollowingmaterialpropertiesareusedforthisproblem:
E=30x106psi
m=0.2lbsec2/in2
Thefollowinggeometricpropertiesareusedforthisproblem:
I=(1000/3)in4

A=273.9726in2
$B(B=240in
h=14in

6.5.3ProblemSketch
Figure62DiagramofaSimplySupportedBeamwithVerticalMotionofBothSupports

6.5.4Procedure
6.5.4.1SettheAnalysisTitle
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1.ChoosemenupathUtilityMenu>File>ChangeTitle.
2.Typethetext"SeismicResponseofaBeamStructure"andclickonOK.

6.5.4.2DefinetheElementType
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Preprocessor>ElementType>Add/Edit/Delete.TheElementTypesdialog
boxappears.
2.ClickonAdd.TheLibraryofElementTypesdialogboxappears.
3.Scrolldownthelistontheleftto"StructuralBeam"andselectit.
4.Clickon"2Delastic3"inthelistontheright.
5.ClickonOK.TheLibraryofElementTypesdialogboxcloses.
6.ClickonCloseintheElementTypesdialogbox.

6.5.4.3DefinetheRealConstants
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Preprocessor>RealConstants.TheRealConstantsdialogboxappears.
2.ClickonAdd.TheElementTypeforRealConstantsdialogboxappears.
3.ClickonOK.TheRealConstantsforBEAM3dialogboxappears.
4.Enter273.9726forcrosssectionalarea.
5.Enter(1000/3)forareamomentofinertia.
6.Enter14fortotalbeamheightandclickonOK.
7.ClickonClosetoclosetheRealConstantsdialogbox.

6.5.4.4DefineMaterialProperties
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Preprocessor>MaterialProps>ConstantIsotropic.TheIsotropic
MaterialPropertiesdialogboxappears.
2.ClickonOKtoacceptthedefaultofmaterialnumber1.AnotherIsotropicMaterialPropertiesdialogbox
appears.
3.Enter30e6forYoung'smodulus.
4.Enter73E5fordensityandclickonOK.

6.5.4.5DefineKeypointsandLine
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Preprocessor>ModelingCreate>Keypoints>InActiveCS.TheCreate
KeypointsinActiveCoordinateSystemdialogboxappears.
2.Enter1forkeypointnumber.
3.ClickonApplytoacceptthedefaultX,Y,Zcoordinatesof0,0,0.
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4.Enter2forkeypointnumber.
5.Enter240,0,0forX,Y,andZcoordinates,respectively.
6.ClickonOK.
7.ChoosemenupathUtilityMenu>PlotCtrls>Numbering.ThePlotNumberingControlsdialogboxappears.
8.Clickon"keypointnumbers"toturnkeypointnumberingon.
9.ClickonOK.
10.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Preprocessor>ModelingCreate>LinesLines>StraightLine.A
pickingmenuappears.
11.Clickonkeypoint1,andthenonkeypoint2.Astraightlineappearsbetweenthetwokeypoints.
12.ClickonOK.Thepickingmenucloses.

6.5.4.6SetGlobalElementDensityandMeshLine
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Preprocessor>MeshingSizeCntrls>GlobalSize.TheGlobalElement
Sizesdialogboxappears.
2.Enter40forthenumberofelementdivisionsandclickonOK.TheGlobalElementSizesdialogboxcloses.
3.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Preprocessor>MeshingMesh>Lines.Apickingmenuappears.
4.ClickonPickAll.Thepickingmenucloses.

6.5.4.7SetBoundaryConditions
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>LoadsApply>StructuralDisplacement>OnNodes.A
pickingmenuappears.
2.Inthegraphicswindow,clickonceonthenodeattheleftendofthebeam.
3.ClickonOK.TheApplyU,ROTonNodesdialogboxappears.
4.InthescrollboxofDOFstobeconstrained,clickonceon"UY"tohighlightit.
5.ClickonOK.
6.Repeatsteps13andselectthenodeattherightendofthebeam.
7.InthescrollboxofDOFstobeconstrained,clickonceon"UX."Both"UX"and"UY"shouldbehighlighted.
8.ClickonOK.TheApplyU,ROTonNodesdialogboxcloses.

6.5.4.8SpecifyAnalysisTypeandOptions
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>AnalysisTypeNewAnalysis.TheNewAnalysisdialogbox
appears.
2.Clickon"Modal"toselectitandclickonOK.TheNewAnalysisdialogboxcloses.
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3.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>AnalysisOptions.TheModalAnalysisdialogboxappears.
4.Acceptthedefault"Subspace"asthemodeextractionmethod[MODOPT].
5.Enter10fornumberofmodestoextractandclickonOK.
6.Clickontheexpandmodeshapesdialogbutton[MXPAND]tospecifyNOformodeexpansion.
7.ClickonOK.TheExpandModesdialogboxcloses,andtheSubspaceModalAnalysisdialogboxappears.
8.ClickonOK.TheSubspaceModalAnalysisdialogboxcloses.

6.5.4.9SolvetheModalAnalysis
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>SolveCurrentLS.TheSolveCurrentLoadStepdialogbox
appears,alongwithastatuswindow.
2.Carefullyreviewtheinformationinthestatuswindow,andthenclickonClose.
3.ClickonOKontheSolveCurrentLoadStepdialogboxtostartthesolution.
4.Whenthesolutionisfinished,adialogboxstating"Solutionisdone!"appears.ClickonClose.

6.5.4.10SetUptheSpectrumAnalysis
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>AnalysisTypeNewAnalysis.TheNewAnalysisdialogbox
appears,alongwithawarningmessagethatstates:"Changingtheanalysistypeisonlyvalidwithinthefirstload
step.PressingOKwillcauseyoutoexitandreenterSOLUTION.Thiswillresetloadstepcountto1."Clickon
CLOSEtoclosethewarningmessagebox.
2.Clickon"Spectrum"toselectit,andclickonOK.TheNewAnalysisdialogboxcloses.
3.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>AnalysisOptions.TheSpectrumAnalysisdialogboxappears.
4.Acceptthedefaultspectrumtypesinglepointresponse,andenter10forthenumberofmodesforsolution.
5.ClickonthedialogbuttontospecifyYESforthecalculationofelementstresses.ClickonOK.TheSpectrum
Analysisdialogboxcloses.
6.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>SinglePointSettings.The
SettingsforSinglepointResponseSpectrumdialogboxappears.
7.Select"Seismicdisplac"inthescrollboxasthetypeofresponsespectrum.
8.Enter0,1,0forexcitationdirectionintotheexcitationdirectioninputwindowsandclickonOK.

6.5.4.11DefineSpectrumValuevs.FrequencyTable
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>SinglePointFreqTable.The
FrequencyTabledialogboxappears.
2.Enter0.1forFREQ1,enter800forFREQ2,andclickonOK.
3.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>SinglePointSpectrValues.The
SpectrumValuesDampingRatiodialogboxappears.
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4.ClickonOKtoacceptthedefaultofnodamping.TheSpectrumValuesdialogboxappears.
5.Enter0.44and0.44forFREQ1andFREQ2,respectively.
6.ClickonOK.TheSpectrumValuesdialogboxcloses.

6.5.4.12SolveSpectrumAnalysis
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>SolveCurrentLS.TheSolveCurrentLoadStepdialogbox
appears,alongwithastatuswindow.
2.Carefullyreviewtheinformationinthestatuswindow,andthenclickonClose.
3.ClickonOKontheSolveCurrentLoadStepdialogboxtostartthesolution.
4.Whenthesolutionisfinished,adialogboxstating"Solutionisdone!"appears.ClickonClose.

6.5.4.13SetuptheExpansionPass
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>AnalysisTypeNewAnalysis.TheNewAnalysisdialogbox
appears,alongwithawarningmessagethatstates:"Changingtheanalysistypeisonlyvalidwithinthefirstload
step.PressingOKwillcauseyoutoexitandreenterSOLUTION.Thiswillresetloadstepcountto1."Clickon
CLOSEtoclosethewarningmessagebox.
2.Clickon"Modal"toselectit,andclickonOK.TheNewAnalysisdialogboxcloses.
3.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>ExpansionPass.TheExpansionPassdialogboxappears.
4.ClickontheexpansionpassdialogbuttontoturnitONandclickonOK.TheExpansionPassdialogbox
closes.

6.5.4.14ExpandtheModes
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsExpansionPass>SingleExpandExpand
Modes.TheExpandModesdialogboxappears.
2.Enter10forthenumberofmodestoexpandandenter0.005forthesignificantthreshold.
3.ClickonthecalculateelementresultsdialogbuttontospecifyYESforelementresultscalculation.
4.ClickonOK.TheExpandModesdialogboxcloses.

6.5.4.15StartExpansionPassCalculation
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>SolveCurrentLS.TheSolveCurrentLoadStepdialogbox
appears,alongwithastatuswindow.
2.Carefullyreviewtheinformationinthestatuswindow,andthenclickonClose.
3.ClickonOKontheSolveCurrentLoadStepdialogboxtostartthesolution.
4.Whenthesolutionisfinished,adialogboxstating"Solutionisdone!"appears.ClickonClose.

6.5.4.16SetUpModeCombinationforSpectrumAnalysis
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1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>AnalysisTypeNewAnalysis.TheNewAnalysisdialogbox
appears,alongwithawarningmessagethatstates:"Changingtheanalysistypeisonlyvalidwithinthefirstload
step.PressingOKwillcauseyoutoexitandreenterSOLUTION.Thiswillresetloadstepcountto1."Clickon
CLOSEtoclosethewarningmessagebox.
2.Clickon"Spectrum"toselectit,andclickonOK.TheNewAnalysisdialogboxcloses.
3.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>AnalysisOptions.TheSpectrumAnalysisdialogboxappears.
4.Acceptthedefaultspectrumtypesinglepointresponse.ClickonOK.TheSpectrumAnalysisdialogbox
closes.

6.5.4.17SelectModeCombinationMethod
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>SinglePointModeCombine.The
ModeCombinationMethodsdialogboxappears.
2.SelectSRSSasthemodecombinationmethod.
3.Enter0.15forthesignificantthreshold.
4.Selectdisplacementforthetypeofoutput.ClickOK.TheModeCombinationMethodsdialogboxcloses.

6.5.4.18CombinetheModes
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>Solution>SolveCurrentLS.TheSolveCurrentLoadStepdialogbox
appears,alongwithastatuswindow.
2.Carefullyreviewtheinformationinthestatuswindow,andthenclickonClose.
3.ClickonOKontheSolveCurrentLoadStepdialogboxtostartthesolution.
4.Whenthesolutionisfinished,adialogboxstating"Solutionisdone!"appears.ClickonClose.

6.5.4.19Postprocessing:PrintOutNodal,Element,andReactionSolutions
1.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>GeneralPostproc>ListResults>ResultsSummary.TheSETCommand
listingwindowappears.
2.Reviewtheinformationinthelistingwindow,andclickonClose.TheSETCommandlistingwindowcloses.
3.ChoosemenupathUtilityMenu>File>ReadInputFrom.TheReadFiledialogboxappears.
4.FromtheleftsideoftheReadFiledialogbox,selectthedirectorycontainingyourresultsfromthescrollbox.
5.FromtherightsideoftheReadFiledialogbox,selectthejobname.mcomfilefromthescrollbox.
6.ClickonOK.TheReadFiledialogboxcloses.
7.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>GeneralPostproc>ListResults>NodalSolution.TheListNodalSolution
dialogboxappears.
8.ClickonOKtoacceptthedefaultsettingsof"DOFsolution"inthescrollboxontheleftand"AllDOFs
DOF"inthescrollboxontheright.TheListNodalSolutiondialogboxcloses.
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9.ThePRNSOLCommandlistingwindowappears.ReviewtheresultsandclickonClosetoclosethePRNSOL
Commandlistingwindow.
10.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>GeneralPostproc>ListResults>ElementSolution.TheListElement
Solutiondialogboxappears.
11.Scrolldownthelistonthelefttoselect"LineElemresults"andselect"StructuralELEM"onthescrollbox
ontheright.ClickonOK.TheListElementSolutiondialogboxcloses.
12.ThePRESOLCommandlistingwindowappears.ReviewtheresultsandclickonClosetoclosethe
PRESOLCommandlistingwindow.
13.ChoosemenupathMainMenu>GeneralPostproc>ListResults>ReactionSolu.TheListReaction
Solutiondialogboxappears.
14.Scrolldownthelistto"AllstrucforcF"toselectitandclickonOK.TheListReactionSolutiondialogbox
closes.
15.ThePRRSOLCommandlistingwindowappears.Reviewtheresultsinthelistingwindowandclickon
ClosetoclosethePRRSOLCommandlistingwindow.

6.5.4.20ExitANSYS
1.IntheANSYSToolbar,clickonQuit.
2.ChoosethesaveoptionyouwantandclickonOK.
Youarenowfinishedwiththissampleproblem.

6.6SampleSpectrumAnalysis(CommandorBatch
Method)
YoucanperformtheexamplespectrumanalysisusingtheANSYScommandsshownbelowinsteadofGUI
choices.Itemsprefacedbyanexclamationpoint(!)arecomments.
/PREP7
/TITLESeismicResponseofaBeamStructure
ET,1,BEAM3
R,1,273.9726,(1000/3),14
!A=273.9726,I=(1000/3),H=14
MP,EX,1,30E6
MP,DENS,1,73E5
K,1
K,2,240
L,1,2
ESIZE,,40
LMESH,1
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0
D,ALL,UY
NSEL,S,LOC,X,240
D,ALL,UX,,,,,UY
NSEL,ALL
FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,MODAL

MODOPT,SUBS,10

!Modefrequencyanalysis
!Subspaceiteration,Extract10modeshapes

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SOLVE
FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,SPECTR
!Spectrumanalysis
SPOPT,SPRS,10,YES

!Singlepointspectrum
SED,,1
!GlobalYaxisasspectrumdirection
SVTYPE,3

!Seismicdisplacementspectrum
FREQ,.1,800

!FrequencypointsforSVvs.freq.table
SV,,.44,.44

!Spectrumvaluesassociatedwithfrequencypoints
SOLVE
FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,MODAL

EXPASS,ON
MXPAND,10,,,YES,0.005

SOLVE
FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,SPECTR
SRSS,0.15,DISP

SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1
SET,LIST
/INP,,mcom
PRNSOL,DOF
PRESOL,ELEM
PRRSOL,F
FINISH

!Modefrequencyanalysis
!Expand10modeshapes,calculateelementstresses
!setsignif=0.005

!SquareRootofSumofSquaresModecombination
!withsignif=0.15anddisplacementsolutionrequested

!Printnodalsolution
!Printelementsolutioninelementformat
!Printreactionsolution

6.7WheretoFindOtherExamples
SeveralANSYSpublications,particularlytheANSYSVerificationManual,describeadditionalspectrum
analyses.
TheANSYSVerificationManualconsistsoftestcaseanalysesdemonstratingtheanalysiscapabilitiesofthe
ANSYSprogram.Whilethesetestcasesdemonstratesolutionstorealisticanalysisproblems,theANSYS
VerificationManualdoesnotpresentthemasstepbystepexampleswithlengthydatainputinstructionsand
printouts.However,mostANSYSuserswhohaveatleastlimitedfiniteelementexperienceshouldbeabletofill
inthemissingdetailsbyreviewingeachtestcase'sfiniteelementmodelandinputdatawithaccompanying
comments.
ThefollowinglistshowsyouthevarietyofspectrumanalysistestcasesthattheANSYSVerificationManual
includes:
VM19RandomVibrationAnalysisofaDeepSimplySupportedBeam
VM68PSDResponseofaTwoDOFSpringMassSystem
VM69SeismicResponse
VM70SeismicResponseofaBeamStructure
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VM203DynamicLoadEffectonSimplySupportedThickSquarePlate
SeetheANSYSCommandsReferenceforadiscussionoftheANTYPE,MODOPT,D,EXPASS,MXPAND,
SPOPT,SVTYP,SED,FREQ,SV,SRRS,CQC,DSUM,GRP,NRLSUM,andDMPRATcommands.

6.8HowtoDoaRandomVibration(PSD)Analysis
TheprocedureforaPSDanalysisconsistsofsixmainsteps:
1.Buildthemodel.
2.Obtainthemodalsolution.
3.Expandthemodes.
4.Obtainthespectrumsolution.
5.Combinethemodes.
6.Reviewtheresults.
Ofthese,thefirsttwostepsarethesameasdescribedforasinglepointresponsespectrumanalysis.The
procedurefortheremainingfourstepsisexplainedbelow.Randomvibrationanalysisisnotavailableinthe
ANSYS/LinearPlusprogram.
IntheGUImethod,thedialogboxforthemodalanalysisoptions[MODOPT]containsanoptionformode
expansion[MXPAND].ChooseYESformodeexpansion.YouthenfollowtheinstructionsinSection6.8.1.The
proceduresforobtainingthemodealsolutionandexpandingthenodesarecombinedintoasinglestep.

6.8.1ExpandtheModes
Youmustexpandmodesregardlessofwhetheryouusedthesubspace,BlockLanczos,orreducedextraction
method.DetailsaboutexpandingthemodesareexplainedinSection3.4.3,butkeepinmindthefollowing
additionalpoints:
Onlyexpandedmodesareusedforthemodecombinationstep.
Ifyouareinterestedinstressescausedbythespectrum,besuretorequeststresscalculationshere.By
default,nostressesarecalculatedintheexpansionpass,whichmeansnostressesareavailableattheend
ofthespectrumsolution.
Themodeexpansioncanbeperformedasaseparatestep,orcanbeincludedinthemodalanalysisphase.
Attheendoftheexpansionpass,leaveSOLUTIONwiththeFINISHcommand.
AsexplainedinChapter3,youcancombinethemodalsolutionandmodeexpansionstepsbyincludingthe
MXPANDcommandinthemodalanalysisstep(GUIandbatchmodes).

6.8.2ObtaintheSpectrumSolution
ToobtainthePSDspectrumsolution,thedatabasemustcontainthemodeldata,andthefollowingfilesfromthe
modalsolutionmustbeavailable:Jobname.MODE,.ESAV,.EMAT,.FULL(onlyforsubspaceandBlock
Lanczosmethods),.RST,and.DB.
1.EnterSOLUTION.
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Command(s):
/SOLU
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution
2.Definetheanalysistypeandanalysisoptions:
Forspectrumtype[SPOPT],choosePowerSpectralDensity(PSD).
SpecifystresscalculationsON[SPOPT]ifyouareinterestedinstressresults.Stressescausedbythe
spectrumarecalculatedonlyiftheywerealsorequestedduringthemodalexpansionpass.
3.Specifyloadstepoptions.Thefollowingoptionsareavailableforarandomvibrationanalysis:
SpectrumData
TypeofPSD
ThePSDtypecanbedisplacement,velocity,force,pressure,oracceleration.Whetheritisabase
excitationoranodalexcitationisspecifiedinSteps4and5.IfapressurePSDistobeapplied,the
pressuresshouldbeappliedinthemodalanalysisitself.
Command(s):
PSDUNIT
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>Spectrum>PSDSettings
PSDversusfrequencytable
Command(s):
PSDFRQ,PSDVAL
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>Spectrum>PSDPSDvsFreq
PSDFRQandPSDVALareusedtodefinethePSDversusfrequencytable.Step6describeshowtoapply
additionalPSDexcitations(ifany).
YoucanissueSTATtolistPSDtables.
Damping(DynamicsOptions)
Thefollowingformsofdampingareavailable:ALPHAD,BETAD,andMDAMPresultinafrequency
dependentdampingratio,whereasDMPRATspecifiesaconstantdampingratiotobeusedatall
frequencies.Ifyouspecifymorethanoneformofdamping,ANSYScalculatesaneffectivedampingratio
ateachfrequency.
NoteIfnodampingisspecifiedinaPSDanalysis,adefaultDMPRATof1percentisused.
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Alpha(Mass)Damping
Command(s):
ALPHAD
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsTime/Frequenc>Damping
Beta(Stiffness)Damping
Command(s):
BETAD
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsTime/Frequenc>Damping
ConstantDampingRatio
Command(s):
DMPRAT
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsTime/Frequenc>Damping
FrequencyDependentDampingRatio
Command(s):
MDAMP
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsTime/Frequenc>Damping
Theremainingstepsarespecifictoarandomvibrationanalysis:
4.ApplythePSDexcitationatthedesirednodes.
Useavalueof1.0toindicatepointswherethePSDexcitationapplies.Avalueof0.0(orblank)canbe
usedtoremoveaspecification.TheexcitationdirectionisimpliedbytheUX,UY,UZlabelsontheD
command(forbaseexcitation),andbyFX,FY,FZontheFcommand(fornodalexcitation).Fornodal
excitation,valuesotherthan1.0canbeusedtoscaletheparticipationfactors.ForpressurePSD,bringin
theloadvectorfromthemodalanalysis(LVSCALE).Youcanusethescalefactor.
NoteYoucanapplybaseexcitationsonlyatnodesthatwereconstrainedinthemodalanalysis.
Command(s):
D(orDK,DL,orDA)forbaseexcitation
F(orFK)fornodalexcitation
LVSCALEforpressurePSD
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GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadsApply>Spectrum>BasePSDExcitOnNodes
5.BeginparticipationfactorcalculationsfortheabovePSDexcitation.
UsetheTBLNOfieldtoindicatewhichPSDtabletouse,andExcittospecifywhetherthecalculationsare
forabaseornodalexcitation.
Command(s):
PFACT
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>PSDCalculatePF
6.IfyouneedtoapplymultiplePSDexcitationsonthesamemodel,repeatsteps3,4,and5foreachadditional
PSDtable.Thendefine,asnecessary,thedegreeofcorrelationbetweentheexcitations,usinganyofthe
followingcommands:
Command(s):
COVALforcospectralvalues
QDVALforquadspectralvalues
PSDSPLforaspatialrelationship
PSDWAVforawavepropagationrelationship
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>PSDCorrelation
WhenyouusethePSDSPLorPSDWAVcommand,youmustuseSPATIALorWAVE,respectively,for
ParcoronthePFACTcommand.PSDSPLandPSDWAVrelationshipsmightbequiteCPUintensivefor
multipointbaseexcitations.
7.Specifytheoutputcontrols.
TheonlyvalidoutputcontrolcommandforthisanalysisisPSDRES,whichspecifiestheamountand
formofoutputwrittentotheresultsfile.Uptothreesetsofsolutionquantitiescanbecalculated:
displacementsolution,velocitysolution,oraccelerationsolution.Eachofthesecanberelativetothebase
orabsolute.
Command(s):
PSDRES
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>PSDCalcControls
OutputControlsTheonlyvalidoutputcontrolcommandforthisanalysisisPSDRES,whichspecifiesthe
amountandformofoutputwrittentotheresultsfile.Uptothreesetsofsolutionquantitiescanbe
calculated:displacementsolution,velocitysolution,oraccelerationsolution.Eachofthesecanberelative
tothebaseorabsolute.
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Command(s):
PSDRES
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpectrum>PSDCalcControls
Table63showsasummaryofthepossiblesolutionsets.Tolimittheamountofdatawrittentotheresults
file,useOUTRESatthemodeexpansionstep.UsingOUTPR,NSOL,ALLprovidesasummarytableof
thesignificantmodalcovarianceterms.
Table63SummaryofsolutionitemsavailableinaPSDanalysis
Solution

Items

Form

DisplacementSolution
Displacements,stresses,strains,forces
(labelDISPonPSDRES)

Relative,absolute,orneither

VelocitySolution
Velocities,stressvelocities,
(labelVELOonPSDRES) forcevelocities,etc.

Relative,absolute,orneither

AccelerationSolution
Accelerations,stressaccl's,forceaccl's,etc. Relative,absolute,orneither
(labelACELonPSDRES)
8.Startsolutioncalculations.
Command(s):
SOLVE
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>CurrentLS
9.LeavetheSOLUTIONprocessor.
Command(s):
FINISH
GUI:
ClosetheSolutionmenu.

6.8.3CombinetheModes
Themodescanbecombinedinaseparatesolutionphase.Theprocedureisasfollows:
1.EnterSolution.
Command(s):
/SOLU
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GUI:
MainMenu>Solution
2.Defineanalysistype.

6.8.3.1Option:NewAnalysis[ANTYPE]
ChooseNewAnalysis.

6.8.3.2Option:AnalysisType:Spectrum[ANTYPE]
Chooseanalysistypespectrum.
3.OnlythePSDmodecombinationmethodisvalidinarandomvibrationanalysis.Thismethodtriggers
calculationoftheonesigmadisplacements,stresses,etc.,inthestructure.IfyoudonotissuethePSDCOM
command,theprogramdoesnotcalculatetheonesigmaresponseofthestructure.
Command(s):
PSDCOM
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>LoadStepOptsSpecturm>PSDModeCombin
TheSIGNIFandCOMODEfieldsonthePSDmodecombinationmethod[PSDCOM]offeroptionsto
reducethenumberofmodestobecombined(seethedescriptionofPSDCOMcommand).Ifyouwantto
exercisetheseoptions,itisprudenttoprintthemodalcovariancematricesinSection6.8.2"Obtainthe
SpectrumSolution,"tofirstinvestigatetherelativecontributionsofthemodestowardthefinalsolution.
4.Startthesolution.
Command(s):
SOLVE
GUI:
MainMenu>Solution>SolveCurrentLS
5.LeavetheSOLUTIONprocessor.
Command(s):
FINISH
GUI:
ClosetheSolutionmenu.

6.8.4ReviewtheResults
Resultsfromarandomvibrationanalysisarewrittentothestructuralresultsfile,Jobname.RST.Theyconsistof
thefollowingquantities:
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1.Expandedmodeshapesfromthemodalanalysis
2.Staticsolutionforbaseexcitation[PFACT,,BASE]
3.Thefollowingoutput,ifmodecombinationsarerequested[PSDCOM]andbasedonthePSDRESsetting:
1 displacementsolution(displacements,stresses,strains,andforces)
1 velocitysolution(velocities,stressvelocities,strainvelocities,andforcevelocities)
1 accelerationsolution(accelerations,stressaccelerations,strainaccelerations,andforceaccelerations)
YoucanreviewtheseresultsinPOST1,thegeneralpostprocessor,andthencalculateresponsePSDsinPOST26,
thetimehistorypostprocessor.

6.8.4.1ReviewingtheResultsinPOST1
ToreviewresultsinPOST1,youfirstneedtounderstandhowtheresultsdataareorganizedontheresultsfile.
Table64showstheorganization.
NoteLoadstep2isleftblankifyouspecifyonlynodalPSDexcitation.Also,ifyousuppressthedisplacement,
velocity,oraccelerationsolutionusingthePSDREScommand,thecorrespondingloadstepisleftblank.Also,
thesuperelementdisplacementfile(.DSUB)isnotwrittenforloadsteps3,4,or5inaPSDanalysis.
Table64OrganizationofresultsdatafromaPSDanalysis
LoadStep

Substep Contents
1

Expandedmodalsolutionfor1stmode

Expandedmodalsolutionfor2ndmode

3
Etc.

Expandedmodalsolutionfor3rdmode
Etc.

2
1
(Baseexcit.only)
2

UnitstaticsolutionforPSDtable1
UnitstaticsolutionforPSDtable2

Etc.

Etc.

1sigmadisplacementsolution

1sigmavelocitysolution(ifrequested)

1sigmaaccelerationsolution(ifrequested)

1.Readthedesiredsetofresultsintothedatabase.Forexample,toreadinthe1 displacementsolution,issue
thecommand:
SET,3,1

Command(s):
SET
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GUI:
MainMenu>GeneralPostproc>ReadResultsFirstSet
2.Displaytheresults.UsethesameoptionsavailablefortheSPRSanalysis.
NoteNodalstressaveragingperformedbythePLNSOLcommandmaynotbeappropriateinarandom
vibrationanalysisbecausethe"stresses"arenotactualstressesbutstressstatistics.

6.8.4.2CalculatingResponsePSDsinPOST26
YoucancalculateanddisplayresponsePSDsforanyresultsquantityavailableontheresultsfile(displacements,
velocities,and/oraccelerations)iftheJobname.RSTandJobname.PSDfilesareavailable.
TheproceduretocalculatetheresponsePSDisasfollows:
1.EnterPOST26,thetimehistorypostprocessor.
Command(s):
/POST26
GUI:
MainMenu>TimeHistPostPro
2.Storethefrequencyvector.NPTSisthenumberoffrequencypointstobeaddedoneithersideofnatural
frequenciesinorderto"smooth"thefrequencyvector(defaultsto5).Thefrequencyvectorisstoredasvariable
1.
Command(s):
STORE,PSD,NPTS
GUI:
MainMenu>TimeHistPostpro>StoreData
3.Definethevariablesinwhichtheresultitemsofinterest(displacements,stresses,reactionforces,etc.)areto
bestored.
Command(s):
NSOL,ESOL,and/orRFORCE
GUI:
MainMenu>TimeHistPostpro>DefineVariables
4.CalculatetheresponsePSDandstoreitinthedesiredvariable.ThePLVARcommandcanthenbeusedto
plottheresponsePSD.
Command(s):
RPSD
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GUI:
MainMenu>TimeHistPostpro>CalcRespPSD

6.8.4.3CalculatingCovarianceinPOST26
Youcancomputethecovariancebetweentwoquantitiesavailableontheresultsfile(displacements,velocities,
and/oraccelerations),iftheJobname.RSTandJobname.PSDfilesareavailable.
Theproceduretocalculatethecovariancebetweentwoquantitiesisasfollows:
1.EnterPOST26,thetimehistorypostprocessor.
Command(s):
/POST26
GUI:
MainMenu>TimeHistPostPro
2.Definethevariablesinwhichtheresultitemsofinterest(displacements,stresses,reactionforces,etc.)areto
bestored.
Command(s):
NSOL,ESOL,and/orRFORCE
GUI:
MainMenu>TimeHistPostpro>DefineVariables
3.Calculatethecontributionsofeachresponsecomponent(relativeorabsoluteresponse)andstoretheminthe
desiredvariable.ThePLVARcommandcanthenbeusedtoplotthemodalcontributions(relativeresponse)
followedbythecontributionsofpseudostaticandmixedpartresponsestothetotalcovariance.
Command(s):
CVAR
GUI:
MainMenu>TimeHistPostpro>CalcCovariance
4.Obtainthecovariance.
Command(s):
*GET,NameVARI,n,EXTREM,CVAR
GUI:
UtilityMenu>Parameters>GetScalarData

6.8.5SampleInput
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Asampleinputlistingforarandomvibration(PSD)analysisisshownbelow:
!BuildtheModel
/FILNAM,
!Jobname
/TITLE,
!Title
/PREP7
!EnterPREP7
...
...
!Generatemodel
...
FINISH
!
!ObtaintheModalSolution
/SOLU !EnterSOLUTION
ANTYPE,MODAL
!Modalanalysis
MODOPT,REDU
!Reducedmethod
M,...
!MasterDOF
TOTAL,...
D,...
!Constraints
SAVE
SOLVE
!Initiatessolution
FINISH
!ExpandtheModes
/SOLU
!ReenterSOLUTION
EXPASS,ON
!Expansionpass
MXPAND,...
!Numberofmodestoexpand
SOLVE
FINISH
!
!ObtaintheSpectrumSolution
/SOLU !ReenterSOLUTION
ANTYPE,SPECTR !Spectrumanalysis
SPOPT,PSD,... !PowerSpectralDensity;No.ofmodes;Stresscalcs.on/off
PSDUNIT,...
!Typeofspectrum
PSDFRQ,...
!Frequencypts.(forspectrumvaluesvs.frequencytables)
PSDVAL,...
!Spectrumvalues
DMPRAT,...
!Dampingratio
D,0
!Baseexcitation
PFACT,...
!Calculateparticipationfactors
PSDRES,...
!Outputcontrols
SAVE
SOLVE
FINISH
!
!CombinemodesusingPSDmethod
/SOLU !ReenterSOLUTION
ANTYPE,SPECTR
!Spectrumanalysis
PSDCOM,SIGNIF,COMODE
!PSDmodecombinationswithsignificancefactorand

!optionforselectingasubsetofmodesfor

!combination
SOLVE
FINISH
!
!ReviewtheResults
/POST1
!EnterPOST1
SET,...!Readresultsfromappropriateloadstep,substep
...

!Postprocessasdesired
...

!(PLDISP;PLNSOL;NSORT;PRNSOL;etc.)
...
FINISH
!
!CalculateResponsePSD
/POST26!EnterPOST26
STORE,PSD
!Storefrequencyvector(variable1)
NSOL,2,...
!Definevariable2(nodaldata)
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RPSD,3,2,,... !CalculateresponsePSD(variable3)
PLVAR,3!PlottheresponsePSD
...
!CalculateCovariance
RESET !ResetallPOST26specificationstoinitialdefaults.
NSOL,2 !Definevariable2(nodaldata).
NSOL,3 !Definevariable3(nodaldata).
CVAR,4,2,3,1,1 !Calculatecovariancebetweendisplacementatnodes2and
3.
*GET,CVAR23U,VARI,4,EXREME,CVAR!Obtaincovariance.
FINISH

SeetheANSYSCommandsReferenceforadiscussionoftheANTYPE,MODOPT,M,TOTAL,D,EXPASS,
MXPAND,SPOPT,PSDUNIT,PSDFRQ,PSDVAL,DMPRAT,PFACT,PSDCOM,SUMTYPE,and
PSDREScommands.

6.9HowtoDoDDAMSpectrumAnalysis
TheprocedureforaDDAMspectrumanalysisisthesameasthatforasinglepointresponsespectrum(SPRS)
analysis(includingfilerequirements),withthefollowingexceptions:
UsetheBritishsystemofunits[inches(notfeet),pounds,etc.]forallinputdatamodelgeometry,material
properties,elementrealconstants,etc.
ChooseDDAMinsteadofSPRSasthespectrumtype[SPOPTcommand].
UsetheADDAMandVDDAMcommandsinsteadofSVTYP,SV,andFREQtospecifythespectrum
valuesandtypes.SpecifytheglobaldirectionofexcitationusingtheSEDcommand.Basedonthe
coefficientsspecifiedintheADDAMandVDDAMcommands,theprogramcomputesthemode
coefficientsaccordingtotheempiricalequationsgiveninSection17.7.4oftheANSYSTheoryReference.
ThemostapplicablemodecombinationmethodistheNRLsummethod[NRLSUM].Modecombinations
aredoneinthesamemannerasforasinglepointresponsespectrum.Modecombinationsrequire
damping.
NodampingneedstobespecifiedforsolutionbecauseitisimpliedbytheADDAMandVDDAM
commands.Ifdampingisspecified,itisusedformodecombinationsbutignoredforsolution.
NoteAsintheSinglepointResponseSpectrumanalysis,DDAMspectrumanalysisrequiressixstepsto
systematicallyperformtheanalysis.Ifyouareusingbatchmode,notethefollowing:
Steps2and3(i.e.,themodalsolutionandDDAMspectrumsolutionpasses)canbecombinedintoa
singlemodalanalysis[ANTYPE,MODAL]solutionpasswithDDAMspectrumloads[ADDAM,
VDDAM,SED].
Steps4and5(i.e.,themodeexpansionandmodecombinationsolutionpasses)canbecombinedintoa
singlemodalanalysis[ANTYPE,MODALandEXPASS,ON]solutionpasswithamodecombination
command.
DDAMspectrumanalysisisnotavailableintheANSYS/LinearPlusprogram.

6.10HowtoDoMultipointResponseSpectrum
(MPRS)Analysis
Theprocedureforamultipointresponsespectrumanalysisisthesameasthatforrandomvibration(PSD)
analysis(includingfilerequirements),withthefollowingexceptions:
ChooseMPRSinsteadofPSDasthetypeofspectrum[SPOPTcommand].
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The"PSDversusfrequency"tablesnowrepresentspectralvaluesversusfrequency.
Youcannotspecifyanydegreeofcorrelationbetweenthespectra(i.e.,theyareassumedtobe
uncorrelated).
Onlyrelativeresults(relativetothebaseexcitation)notabsolutevalues,arecalculated.
AllmodecombinationmethodsareavailableexceptPSDCOM.
Resultsfromamultipointresponsespectrumanalysisarewrittentothemodecombinationfile,
Jobname.MCOM,intheformofPOST1commands.Thecommandscalculatetheoverallresponseofthe
structurebycombiningthemaximummodalresponsesinsomefashion(specifiedbythemode
combinationcommandinSOLUTION).Theoverallresponseconsistsoftheoveralldisplacementsand,if
placedontheresultsfileduringthemodalexpansionpass,theoverallstresses,strains,andreactionforces.
IfLabel=VELOorACELonthemodecombinationcommand(SRSS,CQC,GRP,DSUM,or
NRLSUM)duringSOLUTION,thecorrespondingvelocityoraccelerationresponsesarewrittentothe
modecombinationfile.
MultipointresponsespectrumanalysisisnotavailableintheANSYS/LinearPlusprogram.
Gotothebeginningofthischapter

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