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Annotated Bibliography

Why Havent African-Americans Received Reparations for Slavery Yet?

Chantel Lynn
Professor Malcolm Campbell
English 1103
October 25, 2016

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Annotated Bibliography
Gifford, Anthony. "The Legal Basis of the Claim for Slavery Reparations." Human Rights 27
(2000): 16-18. JSTOR. Web. 15 Oct. 2016.
This academic journal highlights the legal justifications of the claim for slavery
reparations. The author frequently references the Declaration of Human Rights document
and is supported by the American Bar Association (ABA), which significantly boosts his
credibility. The author removed all bias from this journal by strictly using historical
events as examples and credible sources such as the Shorter Oxford Dictionary,
International Law or the Declaration of Human Rights. The questions address: Who
should claim reparations or pay for the reparations and for what amount and determined
by what court? With reference to reparations paid to other societies such as those of
Jewish and Japanese descent, the author argues that according to the Charter of
Nuremberg Tribunal, slavery is classified as a crime against humanity which, under
international law means that reparations must be paid. Furthermore, there is nothing
legally preventing successful claims for reparations. The plaintiffs making the claims
would be all Africans in Africa and the diaspora. The author addresses the fact that a
minority of African tribes did provide services for the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade but
rebuts that this simple contingency does not negate the ferocity of the matter at hand. The
defendants of the claim would be nations that promoted and benefited from the slave
trade, instead of companies and families because the author clearly defined reparations as
collective responsibility, not hereditary guilt. I will be using this source because it
provides an unbiased perspective on the issue and the legal tone provides a great
background for understanding definitions, and precedent. This is one of the best reliable

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websites that I can use simply because its information is based on the legality of the claim
for slavery reparations; the American Bar Association is the most qualified source.
Holland/Associated Press, Jessie J. "Millennials May Eventually Shift Public Opinion on Slavery
Reparations." PBS NEWSHOUR: Race Matters. PBS, 12 May 2016. Web. 16 Oct. 2016.
This developed PBS article uses data from polls and surveys to provide accurate,
nonbiased information. The author is arguing that millennials may be the generation to
initiate more conversations about reparations for slavery because they are the most
culturally diverse generation. The polls suggest that more than half of white Americans
are against reparations for slavery, the majority of African Americans believe they should
have reparations for slavery, and Hispanics are split on the issue. This broad spectrum of
views is liable to shift over time because over half of the millennials polled are willing to
consider the possibility of paying reparations to descendants of African slaves. The
Exclusive Point Taken-Marist Poll [and PBS debate series Point Taken] is the poll the
author refers to. The poll suggests that the results are not only affected by ethnicity, but
by age group or generation and they get more liberal as the generations go from age
sixty-nine and over to Baby Boomers to Generation Xers and finally, to Millennials. In
January of this year, the U.N. Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent
recommended that the discussion for reparations for slavery is open and taken under full
consideration. Two thousand twenty-one people over the age of eighteen participated in
the telephone poll over the course of five days with a sampling error of plus or minus 2.8
points. The U.N. also elaborated on the idea that racial inequality is still prevalent in the
nation and there has been no act of reconciliation for slavery. I will be using this source
because it provides reliable data and PBS is a highly credited news source. Also, the

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author is very objective and quoted reliable sources such as the U.N. and the Census
Bureau. The author stated a clear argument and provided various forms of reliable
evidence which is why I feel comfortable using this source.
Campo Shelly, Teresa Mastin and M. Somjen Frazer (2004) Predicting and Explaining Public
Opinion Regarding U.S. Slavery Reparations. Howard Journal of Communications,
15:2, 115-130, DOI: 10.1080/10646170490447593. Accessed on 15 Oct. 2016.
This peer-reviewed article is by far my favorite source because it provides a lot of in
depth research about the logistics and debate over reparations for slavery. The authors
clearly defined their purpose as developing an understanding of how Americans truly feel
about slavery reparations and their studies suggest that the opinion about reparations for
slavery is highly associated with race. The spectrum of opinions is not as polarized as the
media portrays it to be. Most people are against reparations given to individuals, but
many are in favor of reparations in alternate forms such as a slavery museum or
community development programs. Prior to conducting their polls, the authors researched
common arguments of the proponents of slavery reparations. The authors highlighted the
key events responsible for the major increase of attention and discussion about the topic
of reparations for slavery. I trust this information because it aligns with the research that
Ive come across from other sources and the information that is new to me is very in
depth which shows that the authors conducted thorough research on this topic. These
students from Columbia University are also credible because they cite their polling
informationconducted during Fall of 2001 in a mid-sized southern university of six
hundred fourteen state residentsand used research from reliable sources such as the
Institute for Research in African American Studies at Columbia University. I will be

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using this peer-reviewed article because the authors started with the same questions that I
have and even more. Their research question of what factors predict attitudes toward
slavery reparations and forms of compensation intrigued me and opened up more
questions for me to consider.
Sunga, Ricardo. "Making Amends: Debate Continues Over Reparations for U.S. Slavery."
Interview by Margot Adler. Justice Talking. NPR. Pennsylvania, 14 Sept. 2016. Web.
This developed NPR article brings attention to the fact that other nationsthough much
smallerbelieve that the United States needs to take significant steps to repair the
damage forced upon African Americans by slavery. Ricardo Sunga of Geneva and
chairperson of the UNs Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent
believes that reparations for slavery needs to be an ongoing conversation. Sunga makes it
clear that racial injustice does not just happen in the United States but after visiting the
nation for ten days, he realized the impending need for public acknowledgement of past
injustices inflicted upon African Americans and the significance of reparatory justice.
Sunga states that reparatory justice in the United States is not limited to compensation but
also a formal apology and restitution amending what is wrong. In order to understand the
root of racial tensions or for those who do not understand, we must look back at and
evaluate slavery. Unfortunately, many textbooks do not teach about slavery so it is not
widely considered as something that is relevant for discussion. Examples of different
forms of restitution would be forgiving debts since African Americans are
disproportionally arrested and jailed because they cannot pay the required attorney fees.
The speakers in the interview also mention how there is not yet a global conversation
regarding reparations for slavery. I will be using this source to document the fact that

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when outsiders visit our nation, they do not see the land of the free or equal
opportunity nation that we so proudly promote. Instead, they see a group of people
crying out for help beneath the faade of in liberty and justice for all.