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Annotated Bibliography
Campbell, M., Spears, B., Slee, P., Butler, D., & Kift, S. (2012). Victims perceptions of
traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimization.
Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3/4), 389-401.
These researchers sought to compare the perceptions of victims of bullying, both
traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Victims perceptions included the harshness of
bullying and its psychological impact. Data was collected from a self-report, schoolbased survey of students bullying experiences. This self-report measure included
demographic information, information about cyberbullying experiences, information
about traditional bullying experiences, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and
the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Participants included 3,112 students
from grades 6-12 from 29 different schools. Regarding the harshness of bullying, an
increased number of students reported traditional bullying as being harsher compared to
cyberbullying. While traditional bullying was reported as crueler, victims of
cyberbullying reported poorer levels of mental health. Cyber-victims reported additional
social difficulties as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression than victims of
traditional bullying.
Cole, D., Zelkowitz, R., Nick, E., Martin, N., Roeder, K., Sinclair-McBride, K., & Roeder, K. M.
(2016). Longitudinal and incremental relation of cybervictimization to negative selfcognitions and depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Journal Of Abnormal Child
Psychology, 44(7), 1321-1332.
A 12-month longitudinal study following 827 children and young adolescents was
conducted to measure cybervictimization (CV). Researchers gathered this large sample of

children and adolescents to examine the relationship between CV to the development of


negative self-cognitions and depressive symptoms. Multiple assessment tools were used
to examine if this relationship indeed exists including the Peer Victimization Self-Report,
the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, and the Childrens Automatic Thoughts
Scale. Researchers found that CV in children was significantly related to the development
of negative self-cognitions and depressive symptoms. The findings of this study support
the notion that being a victim of cyberbullying puts children at an increased risk of
depression, symptoms of depression, and negative self-thoughts. Results also showed that
CV was less stable than other forms of victimization, emphasizing its unique effects. This
study used two elementary schools and four middle schools located in Tennessee. This
study was both racially and ethnically diverse, therefore this study can be generalized
with caution to other children of the same ages, races, and ethnicities.
Holt, M. K., Finkelhor, D., & Kantor, G. K. (2007). Multiple victimization experiences of urban
elementary school students: Associations with psychosocial functioning and academic
performance. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(5), 503-515.
This study was conducted to explore victimization experiences among urban elementary
school students to examine if similar victimization profiles emerged. The participants
were 689 fifth grade students from an ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast.
Self-report measures were given to participants including the University of Illinois Bully
Scale, the University of Illinois Victimization Scale, the Juvenile Victimization
Questionnaire, and a scale measuring psychological functioning. Results showed three
distinct profiles that included children experiencing little to no victimization, children
experiencing victimization primarily from their peers, and children experiencing multiple

types of victimization (i.e. traditional bullying and cyberbullying). Researchers


hypothesized that children who experienced multiple victimizations would in turn have
increased psychological distress and achieve lower grades than peers. The results
significantly supported this hypothesis, with youth who reported multiple victimizations
indeed experiencing further negative effects.
Demers, J. A., & Sullivan, A. L. (2016). Confronting the ubiquity of electronic communication
and social media: ethical and legal considerations for psychoeducational
practice. Psychology In The Schools, 53(5), 517-532.
In this journal article, Demers and Sullivan (2016) discuss the impact of cyberbullying as
well as school psychologists responsibility to detect it and prevent it from occurring.
Unlike many other articles, these authors mention common law (also known as case law)
and discuss how school psychologists are responsible for addressing known or suspected
cyberbullying that is in turn affecting a students education. The tricky thing they point
out is the difficulty with school psychologists being able to detect cyberbullying. These
authors also talk about the development of anti-bullying policies that school
psychologists can attempt to enact at their schools. These policies would be sent to every
child and family who attends the school; they would include a list of prohibited behaviors
regarding online communication and disciplinary actions to be taken if rules are broken.
This extensive literature review provides information about social media usage among
students, school psychologists role in the matter, and the development of policies to
prevent cyberbullying.

Diamanduros, T., Downs, E., & Jenkins, S. J. (2008). The role of school psychologists in the
assessment, prevention, and intervention of cyberbullying. Psychology In The
Schools, 45(8), 693-704.
Diamanduros, Downs, and Jenkins (2008) provide an extensive literature review focusing
on the role of school psychologists with regards to cyberbullying. These authors discuss
the mix of bullying and technology, which leads to more bullying through the Internet.
This creates an unsafe environment for children wherever they are since technology has
now given children access to bully others online or be the victims of bullying without
regards to schoolyard parameters. Although not all cyberbullying occurs on school
grounds, the authors place great importance on school psychologists to find ways to
prevent and end cyberbullying. This literature review focuses on school psychologists as
change agents in addressing cyberbullying in schools, building awareness of this issue,
and creating prevention and intervention tactics as well as system-wide policies. All of
these topics are discussed in great detail. This comprehensive review was written using a
multitude of reliable and valid evidence-based sources.
Festl, R., & Quandt, T. (2016). The Role of online communication in long-term cyberbullying
involvement among girls and boys. Journal Of Youth & Adolescence, 45(9), 1931-1945.
Festl and Quandt take on a gender-specific perspective to study possible differences
among boys and girls, both in their use of online communication as well as their
involvement in cyberbullying. Their population of interest was adolescents, ages 13 to 17
years of age. A sample of 1,817 adolescents were obtained and given questionnaires to
answer regarding their online behaviors and activities as well as cyberbullying
involvement. Participants were also asked about the frequency of these behaviors. These

researchers found specific differences in gender regarding cyberbullying involvement and


online communication usage. Their finds show that certain patterns of online
communication can lead to increases in cyberbullying over time. Results showed that
girls cyberbullying (as perpetrator and/or victim) was traced back to increased use of
online social activities; girls also had a higher amount of online contact with strangers.
On the other hand, boys with higher exposure to antisocial media content predicted
higher levels of victimization. This journal article provides new research on
cyberbullying with specific focus on gender differences.
Kowalski, R. M., Morgan, C. A., Drake-Lavelle, K., & Allison, B. (2016). Cyberbullying among
college students with disabilities. Computers In Human Behavior, 57416-427.
This journal articles focuses on cyberbullying and traditional bullying, with a specific
focus on the college-student population. These researchers studied 205 college students
from a Southeastern university, both those with and without disabilities, for a comparison
of which population is subject to increased bullying. Out of the participants, 82 reported
having a disability and 123 report having no disability. Interestingly, Kowalski et al.
found that students without disabilities reported experiencing traditional bullying more
than students with disabilities. The opposite occurred with cyberbullying: students
without disabilities reported experiencing little to no cyberbullying while students with
disabilities reported experiencing more cyberbullying. This article provides research on
an at-risk population that has received little attention. This study is one of the first to
provide information on cyberbullying and college students (with and without disabilities),
providing useful information regarding prevalence rates and consequences. Further
research should be conducted on this age-group to further support or refute this data.

Kyriacou, C. (2016). A psychological typology of cyberbullies in schools. Psychology Of


Education Review, 40(2), 24-27.
This scholarly review of the literature on cyberbullying focuses on specific types of
cyberbullies. This review also includes discussion relating to differences in traditional
bullying versus cyberbullying. The author discusses findings from a study on
cyberbullying with adolescents that used questionnaires, interviews, and discussion
groups to obtain information. Five main types of cyberbullies emerged: the sociable,
lonely, narcissistic, sadistic, and morally-driven. It is common for adolescents who
engage in cyberbullying to be in two or more of these types. Recognizing that there are
different types of cyberbullies has significant implications for future research, specifically
how to work with each type of cyberbully to stop these behaviors. These interventions
could vary greatly depending on which type of cyberbully professionals are working
with. For example, the sociable cyberbully and the lonely cyberbully are extremely
different in both their approach to online bullying, their external behaviors, and the way
they view themselves.
Monks, C. P., Mahdavi, J., & Rix, K. (2016). The emergence of cyberbullying in childhood:
Parent and teacher perspectives. Psicologia Educativa, 22(1), 39-48.
In this journal article, researchers gather data regarding cyberbullying among elementary
aged students, specifically parents/guardians and teachers input. Unlike adolescents
where much research has been conducted, little is known about younger children and
their engagement in cyberbullying. This is an important area of research due to advances
in technology and how increasing numbers of young children have access to this
technology. A total of 41 parents/guardians and teachers discussed their awareness of

cyberbullying in focus groups. The majority of parents/guardians realized the importance


of controlling Internet usage at home. Both parents and teachers believe that interventions
geared toward adolescence will not work for school-age children, specifically because
different types of cyberbullying occur at these differing ages. This calls for school
professionals to gear interventions toward students of a certain age group. These
interventions and prevention techniques are then more likely to resonate with students.
Qing, L. (2006). Cyberbullying in Schools A Research of Gender Differences. School
Psychology International, 27(2), 157-170.
This study focuses specifically on gender differences in regards to the nature and extent
of cyberbullying among adolescents. Participants included 264 adolescents, grades 7-9,
from three middle schools in Canada. Students completed self-report surveys that
included experiences with cyberbullying, the frequency of cyberbullying, and students
perceptions regarding adults prevention tactics. Results show that almost half of the
students were victims of bullying with one in four children having been cyberbullied.
Over half of the participants also reported knowing someone who has been or currently is
being cyberbullied. Regarding gender differences, males were more likely to be bullies,
both face-to-face bullies and cyberbullies. Another significant difference with gender was
telling an adult about the cyberbullying; females were more likely than males to inform
an adult if bullying was occurring. These significant differences in gender give important
information regarding who is likely to tell adults about the occurrence of cyberbullying
and possible implications for doing so.

Reed, K. P., Cooper, R. L., Nugent, W. R., & Russell, K. (2016). Cyberbullying: A literature
review of its relationship to adolescent depression and current intervention
strategies. Journal Of Human Behavior In The Social Environment, 26(1), 37-45.
Reed et al. (2016) provide an up-to-date literature review about cyberbullying and
adolescents ages 12-18 years. Their findings were obtained from scholarly, peer-reviewed
journal articles. Unlike many other authors, Reed et al. (2016) mention Erik Eriksons
lifespan theory and Tajfel and Turners social identity theory in relation to why
adolescents engage in cyberbullying or gravitate toward peers who are cyberbullies. This
is a new outlook that has not received much attention. In this review, the authors discuss
traditional bullying compared to cyberbullying, various modes of cyberbullying, and
focus on the correlation between depressive symptoms and being a victim of
cyberbullying. Lastly, authors review interventions that have been used to end
cyberbullying and discuss how many of these interventions do not work well for
individuals with depressive symptoms. This literature review comprises a great deal of
information on cyberbullying from a number of applicable peer-reviewed journal articles.

Summary
Cyberbullying is a form a bullying which uses online communication, typically by
sending negative or threatening messages to harm, hurt, or embarrass someone. This type of
cyberbullying is an ever-growing concern in todays society due to increases in technology use
among youth. Much of the research on cyberbullying has centered its focus on the adolescent
population (Campbell, 2012; Cole, 2016; Festl & Quandt, 2016; Kyriacou, 2016, Qing, 2006).
Many researchers choose this population since it is a time of many transitions (i.e. puberty,
identity-development, etc.), technology is a common use for this age range, and traditional
bullying statistics are high for this group (Diamanduros, Downs, and Jenkins, 2008). Therefore,
if face-to-face-bullying is a common occurrence for adolescents, it is likely that cyberbullying is
as well. Although adolescents are the most studied population in regards to cyberbullying,
research on other populations has also been conducted.
Monks, Mahdavi, and Rix, (2016) focused their research on elementary-aged students,
specifically obtaining the parents and teachers input. School-aged children are a population that
is fairly overlooked when it comes to bullying, however its presence is there. Holt, Finkelhor,
and Kantor, (2007) also focused their research on elementary students and the relationship
between cyberbullying, academic performance, and psychosocial functioning. As technology use
is increasing in todays society, so is the amount of younger children using technology. Kowalski
et al. (2016) focused their research on the college-student population, another group that is often
overlooked in terms of looking at traditional bullying and cyberbullying. In their sample, they
used both students who reported having a disability and students with no disability. Looking at
students with disabilities in relation to cyberbullying is extremely important and often ignored.
Also, many researchers may be reluctant to study college students and cyberbullying since many

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believe young adults are more mature than children, however cyberbullying occurs among all
ages.
Research on certain types of cyberbullies has also been conducted along with differences
in gender. Kyriacou (2016) discusses findings from a study on cyberbullying among adolescents.
Five main cyberbully typologies emerged: sociable, lonely, narcissistic, sadistic, and morallydriven. Each cyberbully has different behaviors, characteristics, and reasons for engaging in the
act of cyberbullying (Kyriacou, 2016). It is vital for school psychologists to recognize different
types of cyberbullies in order to develop various ways of working with each type. Gender
differences have also been studied in regards to cyberbullying, specifically how each gender
internalizes cyberbullying, which gender is more likely to be the bully or victim, and which
gender is more likely to seek help when bullied (Festl & Quandt, 2016; Qing, 2006). Research
has been mixed in regards to gender differences. Festl and Quandt (2016) found that girls who
increasingly engage in online activities are more likely to be either the perpetrator or the victim
of cyberbullying. Boys who engage in antisocial media are more likely to be victimized.
Therefore the frequency and content of online usage matter. Qing (2006) found that boys are
more likely to be the bully and/or victim of cyberbullying while girls are more likely to tell
adults if cyberbullying is occurring
Regardless of gender, victims of cyberbullying tend to experience negative outcomes.
Poor academic performance, antisocial behaviors, negative self-cognitions, and depressive
symptoms are just some of the many outcomes caused by cyberbullying (Cole, 2016; Holt,
Finkelhor, and Kantor, 2007). Children who are victims of cyberbullying may internalize what
bullies say about them as the truth, thus affecting how they view themselves. Bullies also tend to
continue bullying others if peers are supporting them. Reed et al. (2016) mention an interesting

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point regarding social identity theory. Many adolescents may gravitate toward bullies, especially
if they are the sociable bully (Kyriacou, 2016). A group of students may attack one student
simply because of the status of the bully and how they are viewed among peers. This type of
victimization can lead to increases in negative outcomes for students (Reed, 2016). Children who
are victimized however, internalize these experiences differently, thus the psychological impact
may be less distressing for some children than for others (Campbell, 2012).
Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to advances in technology and its use among
elementary, middle, and high school students as well as college students. Cyberbullying creates
an unsafe environment for youth wherever they go since technology is accessible 24/7
(Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008). Since cyberbullying can occur off of schoolyard
parameters, it is a difficult task for schools to recognize the occurrence of cyberbullying. One
main duty of all school psychologists is to protect students. School psychologists much recognize
that cyberbullying does indeed exist and find ways to lessen the rate of it. Demers and Sullivan
(2016) suggest creating school-wide policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying and sending
these policies to every student and family. These policies would include a list of prohibited
behaviors regarding online communication and what disciplinary action is to occur if these
behaviors are seen. School psychologists might also consider conducting a school-wide survey
on cyberbullying to find out details regarding its frequency in schools. While cyberbullying is a
tricky matter to tackle, school psychologists are the change agents who can help to create safer
schools through policies and intervention development.