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th

17

Edition

Training Manual
Up to date to
Amendment 3
Fully illustrated
Prepare for
2382-15

* not endorsed by City & Guilds

17th Edition Training Manual


Copyright 2015 Electacourse, a Clayton Partners Service
All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form by any electronic, mechanical,
or other means now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. The single exception to this is the right for the purchaser of
this ebook to print pages for their personal study. The reproduction of copies of the material from this ebook in a classroom or
training environment is expressly prohibited. Any contravention of these rights is liable to criminal prosecution for piracy under
the terms of the Digital Economy Act 2010.
ebook published by Electacourse in the United Kingdom
The White House, Hunston, Chichester, PO19 1UP
www.electacourse.com
First publication January 2015
Electacourse catalogue reference: elc100-3
ISBN 13: 978-1-910404-05-8 (ebook-PDF)
Also available : 17th Edition 2382-15 Exam Simulator for PC and MAC computers
The publisher and author disclaim any liability, in whole or in part, arising from information contained in this publication. The
reader is urged to consult with an appropriate licensed professional prior to taking any action or making any interpretation that
is within the realm of a licensed professional practice.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification
and explanation without intent to infringe.
Site licenses and multiple copy purchases for FE colleges and training providers: contact@electacourse.com

17th Edition Training Manual

CONTENTS
CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
MODULE 1: BS7671 REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS ....................................................................................................... 8
Why is the 17th Edition important to electricians? ...................................................................................................................................... 8
About this eBook course .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8
What you will learn in this course .................................................................................................................................................................. 9
How this course is organised ........................................................................................................................................................................ 10
ABOUT THE 17TH EDITION ................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Introduction to the 17th Edition ..................................................................................................................................................................... 11
17th Edition History ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
LAYOUT OF THE REGULATIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................ 18
17th Edition Wiring Regulations - Structure ............................................................................................................................................... 18
ABOUT THE 2382-15 EXAM................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
How is the Exam Structured ......................................................................................................................................................................... 22
NUMBERING OF THE 17TH EDITION WIRING REGULATIONS ............................................................................................................................. 25
Numbering ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
MODULE 2: PART 1 - SCOPE, OBJECTIVE & FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ....................................................................................................... 28
Ch 11 - Scope of the Regulations ................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Ch12 - Objects and effects .............................................................................................................................................................................. 31
Ch13 - Fundamental Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31
REVIEW QUESTIONS Scope, Object and Fundamental Principles ..................................................................................................... 34
ANSWERS Scope, Object and Fundamental Principles ......................................................................................................................... 36

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17th Edition Training Manual


MODULE 3:PART 2 - DEFINITIONS NEW AND CHANGED .............................................................................................................................. 37
New definitions and changed definitions ................................................................................................................................................... 37
Definitions ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 38
Significant regulations new to 17th Edition.................................................................................................................................................. 43
Section summary ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 44
PART 2 - DEFINITIONS - TYPES OF SYSTEM & EARTHING ARRANGEMENTS AND VOLTAGE TERMS ................................................................ 45
Section Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 45
Earthing Systems ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 45
Definitions Relating to Voltage Terms ......................................................................................................................................................... 47
Voltage bands relating to nominal voltage categories ............................................................................................................................... 47
PART 2 - DEFINITIONS - EXTERNAL INFLUENCE AND INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION CODE (IP CODE) ........................................................ 48
Section Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 48
External Influence ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 48
International Protection Code ....................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Definitions Summary ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 54
REVIEW QUESTIONS Definitions ............................................................................................................................................................ 55
ANSWERS Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................................ 57
MODULE 4 - PART 3 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................................... 58
Section Overview ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 58
Ch31 -Purpose, Supplies & Structure ........................................................................................................................................................... 59
Ch32 - Classification of External Influences ................................................................................................................................................ 60
Ch33 - Compatibility of Characteristics ....................................................................................................................................................... 61
Ch 35 - Safety Services .................................................................................................................................................................................... 61
Ch 36 - Continuity of Service ......................................................................................................................................................................... 62
REVIEW QUESTIONS Assessment of General Characteristics ............................................................................................................ 63

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17th Edition Training Manual


ANSWERS Assessment of General Characteristics................................................................................................................................. 65
MODULE 5 - PART 4 PROTECTION FOR SAFETY............................................................................................................................................ 66
Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 66
Ch41 - Protection Against Electric Shock .................................................................................................................................................... 66
Chapter 41 - Protection against electric shock ............................................................................................................................................ 74
BS 7671 Appendix 2 section 14 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 75
Ch42 - Protection Against Thermal Effects ................................................................................................................................................. 81
Protection against overheating...................................................................................................................................................................... 85
Ch43 - Protection Against Overcurrent ....................................................................................................................................................... 86
Ch44 - Protection Against Voltage Disturbances & Electromagnetic Disturbances .............................................................................. 93
REVIEW QUESTIONS Part 4 Protection for Safety ................................................................................................................................ 97
ANSWERS Protection for safety ................................................................................................................................................................ 99
PART 5 SELECTION & ERECTION OF EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................................................................... 100
Ch 51 - Common Rules ................................................................................................................................................................................. 101
Ch52 - Selection & Erection of Wiring Systems ........................................................................................................................................ 104
Ch53 - Protection, Isolation, Switching Control and Monitoring .......................................................................................................... 115
Table 53.4 Guidance on the selection of protective, isolation and switching devices ...................................................................... 117
Ch54 - Earthing Arrangements & Protective Conductors ....................................................................................................................... 122
Earthing arrangements explained .............................................................................................................................................................. 123
Ch55 - Other Equipment .............................................................................................................................................................................. 142
New Section 557 - Auxiliary Circuits ......................................................................................................................................................... 146
Ch56 - Safety services ................................................................................................................................................................................... 152
REVIEW QUESTIONS Selection and erection of equipment .............................................................................................................. 156
ANSWERS Selection and erection of equipment .................................................................................................................................. 158
PART 6 INSPECTION & TESTING .................................................................................................................................................................... 159

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Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 159
Ch 61 - Initial Verification ............................................................................................................................................................................ 160
Ch62 - Periodic Inspection & Testing ......................................................................................................................................................... 164
Ch 63 - Certification & Reporting ............................................................................................................................................................... 165
REVIEW QUESTIONS Inspection and Testing ..................................................................................................................................... 168
ANSWERS Inspection and Testing.......................................................................................................................................................... 170
MODULE 5 - PART 7 SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS OR LOCATIONS ................................................................................................................ 171
Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 171
Section 701 - Locations containing a bath or shower ............................................................................................................................... 172
Section 702 - Swimming Pools & Other Basins ......................................................................................................................................... 178
Section 703 - Rooms & Cabins Containing Sauna Heaters ...................................................................................................................... 182
Section 704 - Construction and Demolition Sites...................................................................................................................................... 184
Section 705 - Agricultural & Horticultural Premises ............................................................................................................................... 187
Section 706 - Conducting Locations with Restricted Movement............................................................................................................ 191
Section 708 - Electrical Installations in Caravan/Camping Parks and Similar Locations ................................................................... 192
Section 709 - Marinas and Similar Locations ............................................................................................................................................ 194
Section 710 - Medical Locations .................................................................................................................................................................. 198
Section 711 - Exhibitions, Shows and Stands ............................................................................................................................................ 203
Section 712 - Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Power Supply Systems ................................................................................................................ 205
Section 714 Outdoor lighting installations ............................................................................................................................................. 207
Section 715 Extra-low voltage lighting installations ................................................................................................................................ 208
Section 717 - Mobile or Transportable Units ............................................................................................................................................. 210
Section 721 - Electrical Installations in Caravans and Motor Caravans ................................................................................................ 212
Section 722 Electric Vehicle Charging ..................................................................................................................................................... 216
Section 729 - Operating and Maintenance Gangways ............................................................................................................................. 217

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17th Edition Training Manual


Section 740 - Temporary Electrical Installations for Structures, Amusement Devices and Booths at Fairgrounds, Amusement
Parks and Circuses ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 219
Section 753 - Floor and Ceiling Heating Systems ..................................................................................................................................... 222
REVIEW QUESTIONS Special Installations or Locations .................................................................................................................... 224
ANSWERS Special Installations or Locations ........................................................................................................................................ 226
PART 8 APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 227
AppendicesOverview ................................................................................................................................................................................... 227
Appendix 1:British Standards Referenced by the Regulations............................................................................................................... 228
Appendix 2: Statutory Regulations and Associated Memoranda .......................................................................................................... 228
Appendix 3:Time / Current Characteristics of Overcurrent Protective Devices and Residual Current Devices ............................ 228
Appendix 4: Current-Carrying Capacity and Voltage Drop for Cables and Flexible Cords ............................................................. 228
Appendix 5: Classification of External Influences.................................................................................................................................... 228
Appendix 6:Model Forms for Certification and Reporting..................................................................................................................... 229
Appendix 7:Harmonized Cable Core Colours .......................................................................................................................................... 229
Appendix 8: Current-Carrying Capacity and Voltage-Drop for Busbar Trunking and Powertrack Systems................................. 229
Appendix 9:Definitions Multiple Source, D.C. and Other Systems.................................................................................................. 230
Appendix 10: Protection of Conductors in Parallel Against Overcurrent ............................................................................................ 230
Appendix 11:Effect of Harmonic Currents on Balanced Three-Phase Systems ................................................................................... 230
Appendix 12: Volts Drop in Consumers Installations ............................................................................................................................. 230
Appendix 13:Methods for Measuring the Insulation Resistance/Impedance of Floors & Walls to Earth or to the Protective
Conductor System ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 230
Appendix 14:Measurement of Earth Fault Loop Impedance: Consideration of the Increase of the Resistance of Conductors with
Increase of Temperature .............................................................................................................................................................................. 231
Appendix 16: Devices for protection against overvoltage ...................................................................................................................... 231
REVIEW QUESTIONS Appendices......................................................................................................................................................... 232

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17th Edition Training Manual


ANSWERS Appendices ............................................................................................................................................................................. 234
CITY & GUILDS 2382-15 SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................................... 235
REVIEW QUESTIONS City & Guilds 2382-15 ....................................................................................................................................... 236
ANSWERS City & Guilds 2382-15 ........................................................................................................................................................... 248
2382-15 EXAM SIMULATOR ................................................................................................................................................................................ 250
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 255
LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 258
WHAT NEXT? ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 259

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17th Edition Training Manual

MODULE 1: BS7671 REQUIREMENTS FOR


ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

Known as 17th Edition, the IET Wiring Regulations are the British Standards relating to requirements for electrical installations in the UK.

Why is the 17th Edition important to


electricians?
The 17th Edition is of critical importance to electricians and
to all who work in the electrical industry. All new electrical
installations need to conform to the requirements of the
British Standard 7671:2008 as detailed in the 17th Edition
including Amendments 1, 2 and 3, of the requirements. The
17th Edition is the essential source of reference for low
voltage electrical installations in the UK. It is the foundation
of knowledge for electrical contractors and installers.

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About this eBook course


The aim of this course is to prepare candidates for the City &
Guilds 2382-15 examination. An electrician passing the 238215 is known as 17th Edition Qualified and is able to
demonstrate a good understanding of the British Standards
relating to wiring and electrical installations.
All electricians practising in the UK need to know and need
to be able to reference the wiring regulations in order to
undertake their work to a professional standard.

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17th Edition Training Manual


The 17th Edition Wiring Regulations is not a statutory
document. However in the event of a dispute, individuals
responsible for faulty installations who are unable to
demonstrate understanding of the Regulations, are at risk of
assuming legal liability.

2382-15 Examination

City & Guilds

An open book examination is an assessment which allows


candidates to have reference material with them in the exam
itself. The exam questions are written on the assumption the
candidate has the book alongside them as they answer the
questions. For the 2382-15, the reference material is a copy of
the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations. You are also allowed to
take in a calculator.

City & Guilds are the accrediting institution for assessing


individuals understanding of the 17th Edition Wiring
Regulations.

The 2382-15 examination is a so-called open book


examination; it takes take place at accredited City & Guilds
examination centres. There is no requirement for any
practical work.

You are not allowed to mark up the 17th Edition Wiring


Regulations with notes.

What you will learn in this course


After you have studied this course you will
1. be familiar with all aspects of the 17th Wiring
Regulations
2. know how and where to quickly locate critical
information in the 17th Wiring Regulations
3. understand the structure of the 2382-15 exam
4. have had the opportunity to practice exam
questions
Achievement of the 2382-15 qualification ensures individuals
are up-to-date with the latest industry regulations on wiring
and the safe use and operation of electrical equipment and
systems.

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You may already have purchased the Electacourse 2382-15


Exam Simulator alongside this course, however if you chose
to buy this course alone, you can still buy the simulator
separately from electacourse.com.

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17th Edition Training Manual


Many thousands of candidates have used this and the
previous versions of the Electacourse 17th Edition course to
prepare themselves for the City & Guilds 2382-15 exam.
Feedback indicates that Electacourse candidates tend to pass
the 2382-15 exam with higher marks than those who have
studied at training centres.

How this course is organised


Like many courses and eBooks, the 17th Edition Wiring
Regulations course is organised both as a linear course and
as a reference where you can dip in and out of modules,
chapters or sections. It is not a requirement that you have to
complete one module before moving on to the next. If you
feel confident about one chapter, then you have the choice to
skip it and move on to another. We recommend however,
that you do review all chapters.
The course is organised into 5 Modules, each module
contains a number of chapters or parts. The first module
introduces the background to the 17th Edition, the nature of
the exam and how the Regulations are organised. The other
four modules align closely to the parts which make up the
general structure of the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations.
Within each part, there are chapters, some of which are split
into sections. Each chapter covers a discrete, bite size set of
the Regulations. We recommend you study one chapter at a
time and once you have completed a chapter, take a break. If
you wish you can study more than one chapter a day.
Some of the chapters, particularly in Module 1 are quite
short. But if you do take more than one chapter at a time,

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avoid extending yourself. Too much time spent studying can


lead to lack of a concentration and prevents good learning of
the information contained in each chapter.
Most modules conclude with a small quiz to test your
understanding of the material which was covered in the
section.
At the end of the course is a longer quiz which tests your
understanding of the complete 17th Edition Regulations

The Modules are

Module 1 Introduction
Introduces the aims of the course and what you may expect
to achieve from studying the course
Module 2 Part 1 Scope, Objective and Fundamental
Principles
This short module introduces the scope and aims of the
Regulations.
Module 3 Definitions
The Regulations contain hundreds of definitions. Knowledge
of the definitions assists understanding of the Regulations
Module 4 Parts 3, 4, 5 and 6
These Parts contain the body of the Regulations. It is
essential to be able to go quickly to any chapter or section
within these Parts.
Module 5 Part 7 and Appendices
Part 7 covers special installations or locations

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17th Edition Training Manual

ABOUT THE 17TH EDITION

Introduction to the 17th Edition


The 17th Edition Wiring Regulations is a big book: it is over
450 pages long and covers thousands of regulations. Some
courses try to teach this material using videos, animations
and other multi-media methods. Although such media can
help students understand the principles of the wiring
regulations, on their own they are not sufficient to get under
the skin of the Regulations. There is more information to be
understood and learnt than can be taught in a series of slide
presentations or video clips. Also, as the exam is open book
and is designed to test your understanding of how to find
out information about the regulations which cover your day

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to day work, no amount of entertaining voice-overs or


animations is going to help you get to know your way round
the densely packed 17th Edition Wiring Regulations.
This course is designed to draw your attention to the critical
areas of the Regulations, to indicate what has changed in the
17th Edition and to prepare you for the exam. You will
complete the course secure in the knowledge you know how
to locate and apply relevant regulations in your daily work.
This secure knowledge will give you the best chance of
achieving a good pass at the 2382-15 examination.
Unlike courses which are undertaken over a few intense
days at a training centre, this course gives you the

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17th Edition Training Manual


opportunity to study at your own pace and in your time to
give you the best opportunity of understanding the
Regulations and to passing the 2382-15 exam.
If you do not already have a copy of the 17th Edition Wiring
Regulations Yellow Book, then you need to buy one now.
Click here or on the Yellow Book to go to Amazon.co.uk.

Fig. 1 The IET, publisher of the Wiring Regulations

Fig. 2 17th Edition Wiring Regulations, you can purchase the book new or
second hand from Amazon. If you buy it second hand, make sure it does
not have any pencil or pen markings inside.

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17th Edition Training Manual


17th Edition History

Fig. 3 The first electric street lamps in the UK

In 1881 the first public electricity supply in the world was turned on in Godalming in Surrey, where gas street lights were
replaced by electrical street lamps based on a system supplied by the German company Siemens. No sooner had the system been
activated than the technical press reported issues associated with wiring. The lighting in side streets was dim and of poor quality
due to the inadequacy of the cabling. There were also reports of children (and drunks) harming themselves on the exposed wires.

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17th Edition Training Manual


In the next year, the first edition of the British Wiring
regulations was published. It was published by the Society
of Telegraph Engineers and of Electricians and contained
just four pages under the title Rules and Regulations for the
Prevention of Fire Risks Arising from Electric Lighting.
The purpose of the Regulations were to ensure that
workmanship was of the highest order and that the
materials used are of suitable quality to do the work
required and that the installations were safe.
We think the first regulations are so interesting, we have
reproduced them in full at the end of this module. Courtesy
of the IET.
The wiring regulations remained the responsibility of what
became the Institute of Electrical Engineers (and later

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became IET) and in 1981 became aligned to IEC


(International Electrotechnical Commission) standards.
Eleven years later, the regulations became a British
Standards document and the harmonisation of wiring
regulations became formalised. Further international
harmonisation of standards aligns wiring regulations to
CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical
Standardization)
The most recent edition of the wiring regulations is the 17th
Edition which was published in June 2008 as BS7671:2008. In
July 2011, Amendment 1 to the regulations was published
under a green cover and came into force in January 2012. In
2013 a Corrigendum and Amendment 2 covering electric
vehicles were published.

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17th Edition Training Manual


A major amendment, Amendment 3 was published in
January 2105. This amendment included many changes

which are applicable from 1st July 2105. This course is up to


date to Amendment 3.

Time line of the publication of the


17th Edition of the Wiring Regulations

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17th Edition Training Manual

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17th Edition Training Manual

LAYOUT OF THE REGULATIONS

The 17th Edition Wiring Regulations are organised in to a structure containing 7 Parts and the Appendices

17th Edition Wiring Regulations - Structure

Key fact

Each part contains a chapter, each chapter contains sections,


each section contains regulations. The Regulations themselves
may contain multiple clauses. The Regulations is a well
organised but complex document.
The 17th Edition Wiring Regulations contains seven parts

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and sixteen appendices. Within this structure there are many


thousands of regulations which although you are not
expected to know by heart, you are expected to know where
to find relevant regulations.
The core of the regulations is Part 3 to Part 7. Around these
core specialist parts is the introductory Part 1, the
Definitions which apply to all parts, Part 2, and the 16
Appendices which contain detailed regulatory information,
tables and measurements.
The Regulations themselves are contained with Sections and
Chapters of the Parts of the 17th Edition

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17th Edition Training Manual


The 16 Appendices Of The 17th Edition Wiring
Regulations

Fig. 4 Basic structure of the Regulations

The 7 Parts Of The 17th Edition Wiring Regulations


Part 1

Scope, object and fundamental principles

Part 2

Definitions

Part 3

Assessment of general characteristics

Part 4

Protection for safety

Part 5

Selection and erection of equipment

Part 6

Inspection and testing

Part 7

Special installations or locations

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British Standards to which reference is made in the


Regulations
Statutory regulations and associated memoranda
Time/current characteristics of overcurrent
protective devices and RCDs"
Current-carrying capacity and voltage drop for
cables
Classification of external influences
Model forms for certification and reporting
Harmonized cable core colours
Current-carrying capacity and voltage drop for
busbar trunking and powertrack systems
Definitions multiple source, d.c. and other
systems
Protection of conductors in parallel against
overcurrent
Effect of harmonic currents on ... Moved to
Appendix 4 sec 5.5 and 5.6
Voltage drop in consumers installationsMoved
Appendix 4 sec 6.4
Methods for measuring the insulation
resistance/impedance of floors and walls to Earth
or to the protective conductor system
Measurement of earth fault loop impedance:
consideration of the increase of the resistance of
conductors with increase of temperature
Ring and radial final circuit arrangements,
Regulation 433.1
Devices for protection against overvoltage

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17th Edition Training Manual


*Note that following the update BS7671:2008 Amendment 1 in 2011, two of the appendices, 11 and 12, have been moved to
Appendix 4. In effect this means there are in fact only fourteen appendices which contain information. Appendices 11 and 12
remain in the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations for information purposes.

Fig. 5 Structure of the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations

Understanding the Structure of the Regulations

Although there are 7 parts and 16 Appendices, the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations can best be understood by considering it as
organised into four chunks of information:
1. Part 1- Scope, object and fundamental principles
This section outlines general requirements for installations
2. Part 2 Definitions
This section details the 290 definitions which are used in the Regulations
3. Part 3 to Part 7
This is the body of the regulations, each part deals with a critical area of wiring regulations. Parts 3 to 6 describe general
regulations in details and the longest part, Part 7 deals with special installations and locations.
4. Appendices
The extensive appendices provide detail information related to the Wiring Regulations

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17th Edition Training Manual

ABOUT THE 2382-15 EXAM

Fig. 6The 2382-15 exam is set and administered by City & Guilds.

The 2382-15 is available at exam centres around the UK. City


& Guilds assess a requirement that candidates undertake at
least 35 study hours prior to
sitting the exam.
The 2382-15 exam is an open
book exam. That means
candidates can take into the
exam room a copy of the 17th
Edition Wiring Regulations (the
Yellow Book). You can also take
in a calculator. You are not
allowed to mark up the Green
Book with written notes; it needs
to be a clean copy.

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At the examination centre candidates sit the exam at a


computer which is connected online with the City & Guilds.
In most cases the exam centre will be able to give candidates
information about how well they have performed in the
exam within 30 minutes of completing the exam. All the
exam questions are of the multiple choice type; that is, one

Top tip

Become familiar with the index of the Regulations. In your exam


the quickest way to find your way around the Yellow Book is to
start with the index. The index is your friend.

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17th Edition Training Manual


question statement with four possible answers of which one
is correct.
When studying this course and preparing for the 2382 exam
it is important that candidates understand that the exam is
not only testing your understanding of the 17th Edition
Wiring Regulations, it is testing your knowledge of the

Green Book and your ability to locate in the book answers to


the exam questions. So, do not try to remember everything
in this course, but do remember how to use this information
to find the relevant sections from the 17th Edition Wiring
Regulations.

How is the Exam Structured


The following gives detailed weighting information for the 17th Edition 2382-15 exam at the time of publication. You do not need
to learn the weighting, but it serves as a very good indication as to what information you will need to retrieve from the 17th
Edition Wiring Regulations in order to pass your exam.

Fig. 7 The number and percentage of questions for each section of the 2382-15 exam

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17th Edition Training Manual


Part 1 - Understanding Scope, Object and
Fundamental Principles
Weighting - 6% Number of questions 4

For this part of the exam you need to refer to all Parts of the
Regulations, but of particular importance are:
1) Identify examples of installations in the Scope of BS
7671:2008 and particular requirement for specific
installations and locations.
2) Identify the object of BS 7671: 2008.
3) Identify the fundamental principles of BS7671

Part 2 Definitions

Weighting - 4% Number of questions 2


Refer to Part 2 of the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations
1) Interpret the definitions used within BS7671
2) Relate the definitions to the regulations and appendices
of BS7671
Although this Part has a small weighting towards the 238215 exam and only two questions, a clear understanding of
the Definitions Part of the Regulations will help
considerably when working through questions relating to
the other Parts of the regulations.
You will find that becoming familiar with the System
definition will specifically help you when sitting the 2382-15
exam.

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Part 3 Understand how to assess the general


characteristics of electrical installations
Weighting - 10% Number of questions 6

Please refer to the relevant parts of the regulations and:

1) Interpret the requirements of assessing the general


characteristics of electrical installations within the scope
of BS7671
2) You should be able to state the need to consider
compatibility and maintainability in the selection of
equipment and the need to divide an installation into
suitable circuit arrangements.
3) Determine the number and types of Live conductors for
installation circuits and state the source (e.g. standby,
external) and characteristics necessary for a supply.

Part 4 Understand the requirements for protection


for safety for electrical installations
Weighting - 25% Number of questions 15

Please refer to the relevant parts of the regulations and:

1) Identify the requirements of protection for safety within


the scope of BS7671
2) Identify how this applies to the electrical installations
within the scope of BS7671, including:
3) Protection against electric shock
4) Protection against thermal effects
5) Protection against overcurrent
6) Protection against electromagnetic and voltage
disturbances
7) Describe how the requirements for shock protection are

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17th Edition Training Manual


affected by:
a) Value of external earth loop Impedance (Ze)
b) Compliance with Zs=R1 + R2 + Ze
c) Compliance with tables 41.2-6
8) Describe means of protection against fire, burns and
harmful thermal effects.
9) Identify the difference between overcurrent and fault
current
10) Describe methods of overcurrent and fault current
protection and the need for coordination with
conductors and equipment.
11) State the requirements for protection against
a) Overvoltage
b) Undervoltage
12) Identify precautions where particular risk of danger of
fire exists.

Part 5 Understand the requirements for selection


and erection of equipment for electrical installations
Weighting 23% Number of questions 14

Please refer to the relevant parts of the regulations and:

1) Identify the requirements for selecting and erecting


equipment within the scope of BS7671
2) Interpret how this applies to electrical installations,
including:
3) Common rules
4) Selection and erection of wiring systems
5) Protection, isolation, switching, control and

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6)
7)
8)
9)

Monitoring
Earthing arrangements and protective conductors
Other equipment including Auxiliary circuits
Safety services

Part 6 Understand the requirements for inspection


and testing of electrical installations
Weighting 7% Number of questions 4

Please refer to the relevant parts of the regulations and:

1) Identify the requirements for inspection and testing of


electrical installations.
2) Interpret how this applies to electrical installations.

Part 7 Understand the requirements of special


installations or locations as identified in BS7671
Weighting 17% Number of questions 10

Please refer to the relevant parts of the regulations and:


1) Identify the requirements for special installations and
locations.
2) Interpret how these affect the general requirements of
the regulations.

Appendix Understand the information contained


within the appendices of BS7671
Weighting 8% Number of questions 5

1) Identify the information in the appendices of BS7671.


2) Specify how the information contained in the appendices
is used to support electrical installation activities.

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17th Edition Training Manual

NUMBERING OF THE 17TH EDITION WIRING


REGULATIONS

The aim of this section is to give you an understanding of the numbering system which is used in the 17th Edition Wiring
Regulations. Understanding of the numbering system enables you to quickly locate the relevant regulations and gives guidance
on how to work your way through the exam and the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations

Numbering
The numbering of the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations follows the pattern of the technical intent of Standards developed at the
European CENELEC level. The system is based on the harmonisation documents HD60364 series of standards. Or, in language
the rest of us understand, the numbering system has designed to be consistent, easy to follow and easy to update.
For the old timers amongst us who wired our first socket under the 16th Edition Regulations, the most obvious change is that the
17th Edition Wiring Regulations has dropped the dashes and now uses a point/dot numbering system, based on the IEC
numbering system.

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17th Edition Training Manual


The structure of the numbering is straightforward:

Regulation 524.1 Refers to:

1st digit still signifies a Part (Part 5 of BS 7671 in the

PART 5 - SELECTION AND ERECTION OF EQUIPMENT

example below),

CHAPTER 2 - SELECTION AND ERECTION OF WIRING


SYSTEMS

2nd digit is a Chapter (the second chapter of Part 5),


3rd digit is a Section (the fourth section of 52)
The subsequent number/s are the Regulation (or group of
Regulation) number/s (1 of 524)

SECTION 4 - CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAS OF


CONDUCTORS
REGULATION 1

Using the example of Regulation 524.1

The cross-sectional area of each conductor in a circuit shall


be not less than the values given in Table 52.3, except as
provided for extra-low voltage lighting installations
according to Regulation 559.11.5.2.

Some regulations are organized into Regulation Groups, by


example:Regulation 521.9.3 refers to:

REGULATION- GROUP 9Use of flexible cables

PART 5 - SELECTION AND ERECTION OF EQUIPMENT

Stationary equipment which is moved temporarily for the


purposes of connecting, cleaning etc., e.g. cookers or flush
mounting units for installations in false floors, shall be
connected with flexible cable. If the equipment is not subject
to vibration then non-flexible cables may be used.

CHAPTER 2 - SELECTION AND ERECTION OF WIRING


SYSTEMS
SECTION 1 - TYPES OF WIRING SYSTEM

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REGULATION 3

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17th Edition Training Manual


UK Only Numbering

The 17th edition introduced a new IEC decimal point


numbering system to make it easier to embody future
changes and additions resulting from ongoing international
standards work within IEC and CENELEC. In order to
accommodate future IEC changes it was decided to have a
100 numbering system for UK only regulations.
For the third amendment, the 100 numbers now represent
CENELEC Harmonization Document reference numbers
and 200 numbers represent UK-only regulations. Existing
regulations have not been "updated" to indicate 100 and 200
numbers; that will only be done when those regulations
require a significant rewrite.

Fig. 8 Page of the Regulations showing dot numbering

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17th Edition Training Manual

MODULE 2: PART 1 - SCOPE, OBJECTIVE &


FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

The aim of this chapter is to give an understanding of Part 1


of the Regulations, you will learn which are the critical
elements of Part 1
Part 1 serves as an introduction to the regulations and
outlines very general guidelines for the requirements for
installations. This first Part is not as exacting as the rest of
the regulations, but it lays a very good foundation for the
way that all installers and designers should think.

The chapters included in Part 1 are


Ch 11

Scope - Range and exclusions of installation

Ch 12

Objects and effects - Materials, precautions

and effects standards


Ch 13

Fundamental principles - Workmanship,

overcurrent, earth leakage, isolation and switching,


inspection and testing

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Ch 11 - Scope of the Regulations
Within the scope of the Regulations
The Scope of the regulations apply to the design, erection
and verification of electrical installations, such as those of:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Residential premises
Commercial premises
Public premises
Industrial premises
Agricultural and horticultural premises
Prefabricated buildings
Caravans, caravan parks, and similar sites
Construction sites, exhibitions, shows, fairgrounds
and other Installations for temporary purposes
Marinas
External lighting and similar installations
Mobile or transportable units
Photovoltaic systems
Low Voltage generating sets
Highway equipment and street furniture
Medical locations
Operating and maintenance gangways

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110.1.2 Additional requirements are included in the


regulations for:
1. Circuits supplied at nominal voltages up to and
including
1000 VAC or 1500 VDC; for AC, the preferred
frequencies, which are taken into account in this
Standard are 50 Hz, 60 Hz and 400 Hz.
The use of other frequencies for special purposes is
not excluded:
2. Circuits, other than the internal wiring of apparatus,
operating at voltages exceeding 1000V and derived
from an installation having a voltage not exceeding
1000 VAC. e.g. Discharge lighting.
3. Wiring systems and cables not specifically covered
by the standards for appliances
4. All consumer installations external to buildings
5. Fixed wiring for information and communication
technology, signalling, control and the like
6. Additions and alterations to installations and parts of
the existing installation affected by an addition or
alteration.

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Outside the scope of the Regulations

Installations that are excluded from BS 7671: 2008:


1. Distributor s equipment as defined in the Electricity
Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations 2002
2. Railway traction equipment, rolling stock and
signalling equipment
3. Equipment of motor vehicles, except those to which
the requirements of the Regulations concerning
caravans or mobile units are applicable
4. Equipment on board ships
5. Equipment of mobile and fixed offshore installations
6. Equipment of aircraft
7. Those aspects of mines and quarries specifically
covered by Statutory Regulations
8. Radio interference suppression equipment, except so
far as it affects safety of the electrical installation
9. Lightning protection of buildings covered by BS 6651
10. Those aspects of lift installations covered by BS 5655
and BS EN 81-1
11. Electrical equipment of machines
12. Electric fences

Fig. 9 Outside scope of Regulations

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17th Edition Training Manual


Statutory Control & Installation Requirements

electrician to know and every part, while not specific, should


be fully understood; it is the foundation for all other
requirements. However, when sitting the 2382-15, do not
rely on referencing Chapter 13, in nearly all cases, the
questions you will be asked will require you to refer to the
regulations in the detailed Parts and Chapters.

Part 1, Chapter 11, Section 115 states that for installations in


premises over which a licensing or other authority exercises
a statutory control, the requirements of that authority shall
be ascertained and complied with in the design and
execution of the installation.

Chapter 13 and BS7671 in general, exists to provide for the


safety of persons, livestock and property against dangers
and damage which may arise in the reasonable use of
electrical installations.

Ch12 - Objects and effects

Risk of injury can arise from:

In general, the Regulations are non-statutory; however, they


can be used as evidence to claim compliance with a statutory
requirement. The statutory requirements that the BS 7671
support are listed in Appendix 2 of the Regulations,
according to their application.

This is a short chapter which is unlikely to prompt any


questions in 2382-15. This chapter introduces the structure of
the rest of the Regulations. It does contain the important
note that if the designer deviates from any part of the
Regulations, the resulting degree of safety is not less than
that obtained by compliance with the Regulations.

Ch13 - Fundamental Principles


Although the regulations relating to Protection for Safety are
detailed in Part 4, this chapter, Chapter 13 states the
fundamental principles relating to protection for safety,
design, selection, erection and verification of electrical
installations. All the principles covered in this chapter will
be repeated at relevant sections later on. This duplication
matches the duplication in the Regulations.
Chapter 13 is a broad but very crucial chapter to for an

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131.1 General - Risk of injury

1. Shock currents
A person or livestock can be protected against shock
by direct contact, by limiting the current which can
pass through a body to a non-hazardous value.
Fault protection can also protect against shock by
limiting the magnitude of a current to a nonhazardous value, and by limiting the duration of the
current to a non-hazardous time period. The method
of equipotential bonding is an important principle for
protection for safety. Note that the definition for
direct contact has been deleted by BS7671:2008 and
is now covered by the basic protection definition.
2. Excessive temperatures likely to cause burns and
fires
To protect against thermal effects, the installation
must be arranged that the risk of ignition of
flammable materials is minimized. The factors of

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17th Edition Training Manual

3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

combustion, ignition, or degradation of materials,


risk of burns, and impairment of the safe function of
installed equipment should be taken into
consideration.
Ignition of potentially explosive atmosphere
Undervoltages, overvoltages and electromagnetic
influences likely to cause or result in injury or
damage
Personnel and livestock should be protected against
effects of a fault between live parts of circuits
supplied at different voltages and atmospheric
events. In addition, protection must be provided for
undervoltage and the subsequent recovery. When
installed, there should be an adequate level of
immunity against electromagnetic disturbances by
taking into consideration electromagnetic emissions
that the installation will produce.
Mechanical movement of electrically actuated
equipment therefore causing injury
Power supply interruptions of safety services
When damage or danger is expected to arise due to
an interruption of supply, suitable provisions shall be
made in the installation or installed equipment.
Arcing, likely to cause blinding effects, excessive
pressure, and/or toxic gases

132 Installation Design

The installation should be designed for the protection of


persons, livestock and property and for the proper
functioning of the installation for intended use.

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The following characteristics should be included in the


documentation to show conformity with the Regulations.
This section has been the source of exam questions.

Nature of current (AC / DC)

Purpose and number of conductors:

For AC: Line conductors, neutral conductors,


protective conductor, PEN conductors

For DC: Conductors equivalent to those listed


above (outer/middle/earthed live conductors,
protective conductor, PEN conductor)

Values and tolerances:

Nominal voltage and voltage tolerances

Nominal frequency and frequency tolerances

Maximum current allowable

Earth-fault loop impedance

Protective measures inherent in the supply


(earthed neutral of mid-wire)

Particular requirements of the distributor.

The nature of the demand should be determined


from knowledge of:

Location of points of power demand

Loads to be expected on the various circuits

Daily and yearly variation of the demand

Harmonics and any other special conditions

Anticipated future demand

Requirements for control, signalling,

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17th Edition Training Manual


communication and information technology

If a supply for safety services is specified, the


following should be determined:

Source of supply

Circuits to be supplied by the electrical source for

electrical installation. When the installation is complete, a


qualified individual should inspect and verify the
installation's completion. They should also make a
recommendation for subsequent periodic inspection and
testing.

safety services or the standby electrical source


Equipment exposed to the environment should be protected
to prevent dangerous conditions.
The cross-sectional area of conductors, the type of wiring
and method of installation, and protective equipment should
all be factors in the design with respect to both normal
current loads and fault current loads.
If a possibility of danger exists that would require
immediate interruption of the supply of power, an
interrupting device should be installed. Accessibility should
be a factor for installation and repair, as well as
disconnecting devices. All documentation should be
supplied with the electrical device upon installation.
A single-pole fuse, switch or circuit breaker shall be inserted
in the line conductor only. NEVER should a switch, fuse or
circuit breaker be inserted in an earthed neutral conductor.
When selecting electrical equipment, compliance with the
appropriate British Standard is mandatory. In addition, the
voltage, current, frequency and power should all comply
with the circuit's needs and capacities.
At all times, good workmanship by skilled persons and
proper materials should be used in the erection of the

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17th Edition Training Manual


REVIEW QUESTIONS Scope, Object and Fundamental Principles

Question 1

Question 3

BS7671 Wiring Regulations do NOT apply to the design,


erection and verification of:

BS7671 Wiring Regulations apply to the design, erection and


verification of:

A.

public premises

A.

Equipment of mobile and fixed offshore installations

B.

photovoltaic systems

B.

Marinas

C.

equipment on board ships covered by BS 8450

C.

D.

external lighting and similar installations

Railway traction equipment, rolling stock and


signalling equipment

D.

Electric fences covered by BS EN 60335-2-76.

Question 2
BS7671 Wiring Regulations do NOT apply to the design,
erection and verification of:

Question 4

A.

low voltage generating sets

BS7671 Wiring Regulations may need to be supplemented by


the requirements or recommendations of other standards in
cases where they are applied to:

B.

public premises

A.

operating and maintenance gangways.

C.

prefabricated buildings

B.

low voltage generating sets

D.

aircraft equipment

C.

mobile or transportable units

D.

electrical installations for open-cast mines and


quarries

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17th Edition Training Manual


Question 5

Question 7

One of the important principles for safety in connection with


fault protection is the application of the method of

An interrupting device for emergency control shall be


installed

A.

protective insulation

A.

B.

protective equipotential bonding

in such a way that it can be rapidly and effectively


operated

C.

protective connection

B.

D.

equipotential insulation

in such a way that it can be easily recognized and


effectively and rapidly operated for immediate
interruption of the supply

Question 6

C.

closer to the power supply

Which characteristic does not need to be included in the


documentation referred to in Regulation 132.13 to show
conformity with the Regulations:

D.

in such a way that it can be easily recognized

A.

Particular requirements of the distributor.

B.

Nature of current: a.c. and/or d.c.

When equipment is not covered by a known standard, the


designer must confirm the same degree of safety as afforded
by

C.

The cost of equipment

A.

European standards

D.

Purpose and number of conductors

B.

British standards

C.

CENELEC standards

D.

IEC standards

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Question 8

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17th Edition Training Manual


Question 9

Question 10

The IET Requirements for Electrical Installations BS7671


applies for

The fundamental principles of BS 7671 covering design,


states that every electrical installation shall be provided with

A.

electrical equipment on aircraft

A.

emergency control devices

B.

traction equipment

B.

fuses in the neutral conductor

C.

construction sites

C.

an alternative source of supply

D.

fire alarms fed from a safety source

D.

appropriate documentation

ANSWERS Scope, Object and Fundamental Principles


1C, Ref: BS7671: 110.1.1, 110.2
2D, Ref: BS7671: 110.1.1, 110.2
3B, Ref: BS7671: 110.1.1, 110.2
4D, Ref: BS7671: 110.1.3
5B, Ref: BS7671: 131.2.2
6C, Ref: BS7671: 132.2
7B, Ref: BS7671: 132.9
8B, Ref: BS7671: 110.1.3
9C, Ref: BS7671: 110.1.1
10D, Ref: BS7671: 132.13

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17th Edition Training Manual

MODULE 3:PART 2 - DEFINITIONS NEW AND


CHANGED

New definitions and changed definitions


The aim of this chapter is to draw attention to the many new
definitions which are described in the 17th Edition Wiring
Regulations. Some existing definitions have new words and
descriptions.
There are over 300 definitions in the 17th Edition Wiring
Regulations, Amendment 3 there were 170 in the 16th
Edition. Some new definitions came in to the Regulations at
the time of the first publication of the 17th Edition, others
have been introduced more recently with the publication of
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Amendments 2 and 3.
As with the previous chapter, this chapter introduces
concepts which will be repeated later in the relevant Parts.
This duplication is intentional; we aim to illustrate how the
Regulations are structured.
Itemised below is a complete list of all the Definitions, those
that have been introduced in Amendment 3 are highlighted.
Extended descriptions of significant new and changed
definitions are detailed later in this section.

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17th Edition Training Manual


Definitions
(New or significantly changed in Amendment 3 marked in RED
8/20 Current impulse, {534}.

Building void, non-accessible.

Accessory.

Bunched.

Central power supply system (low


power output).

Agricultural and horticultural


premises.xx

Busbar trunking system

Circuit.
Circuit-breaker.

Ambient temperature

Bypass equipotential bonding


conductor, {444}.

Amusement device.

Cable channel.

Circuit protective conductor (cpc).

Appliance.

Cable cleat.

Class I equipment.

Arms reach.

Cable coupler.

Class II equipment.

Arrangements for livestock keeping.

Cable ducting.

Class III equipment.

Auxiliary circuit.

Cable ladder.

Cold tail.

Back-up protection.

Cable tray.

Barrier.

Cable trunking.

Basic insulation.

Cable tunnel.

Common equipotential bonding


system, common bonding network
(CBN), {444}.

Basic protection.

Caravan.

Basin of fountain.

Caravan park / camping park.

Conducting location with restricted


movement.

Bonding conductor.

Caravan pitch.

Conduit.

Bonding network (BN), {444}.

Connector.

Bonding ring conductor (BRC), {444}.

Caravan pitch electrical supply


equipment.

Booth

Cartridge fuse link.

Building void, accessible.

Central power supply system.

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Circuit-breaker, linked.

Complementary floor heating.

Consumer unit (may also be known


as a consumer control unit or
electricity control unit).

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17th Edition Training Manual


Continuous operating voltage
(Uc),{534}.

Earth electrode resistance.

Controlgear

Earth fault loop impedance.

Conventional impulse withstand


voltage.

Earth leakage current

Current-carrying capacity of a
conductor.

Earthing.

Earth fault current.

Earthed concentric wiring.

Electrical supply system for safety


services.
Electrically independent earth
electrodes.
Electrode boiler (or electrode water
heater).

Current-using equipment.

Earthing conductor.

Electronic convertor (static


convertor).

d.c. system

Electric shock.

Emergency stopping.

Danger.

Electric vehicle (EV), {722}.

Emergency switching.

Electric vehicle charging


point.

Enclosure.

Mode 1 charging.

Equipotential bonding.

Direct heating system.

Mode 2 charging.

Escape route.

Disconnector.

Mode 3 charging.

Exhibition.

Discrimination.

Mode 4 charging.

Exposed-conductive-part.

Distribution board.

Vehicle connector.

External influence.

Distribution circuit.

Vehicle coupler.

Extra-low voltage

Design current (of a circuit).


Device for connecting a luminaire
(DCL).

Equipment

Distributor.

Electrical circuit for safety services.

Extraneous-conductive-part.

Double insulation.

Electrical equipment (abbr:


Equipment).

Fairground.

Earth.

Electrical installation (abbr:


Installation).

Fault current.

Earth electrode.

Electrical source for safety services.

Duct, Ducting

Earth electrode network, {444}.


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Fault.
Fault protection.
Final circuit.
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17th Edition Training Manual


Fixed equipment.

Highway.

Flexible cable.

Highway distribution board.

Low voltage switchgear and


controlgear assembly.

Flexible sheet heating element.

Highway distribution circuit.

Luminaire.

Flexible wiring system.

Highway power supply.

Luminaire supporting coupler (LSC).

Follow-current interrupting rating,


{534}.

Houseboat

Main earthing terminal.

Impulse current (Iimp), {534}.

Maintenance.

Functional bonding conductor, {444}.

Impulse withstand voltage, {534}.

Marina.

Functional earth.

Inspection.

Mechanical maintenance.

Functional extra-low voltage (FELV).

Installation.

Medical location, {710}.

Functional switching.

Instructed person (electrically).

Applied part.

Fuse.

Insulation.

Group 0.

Fuse carrier.

Insulation co-ordination, {534}.

Group 1.

Fuse element.

Isolation.

Group 2.

Fuse link.

Isolator.

Fused connection unit.

Ladder

Medical electrical equipment (ME


equipment).

Gas installation pipe.

Leakage current.

Harmonized Standard.

Medical electrical system (ME


system).

Leisure accommodation vehicle.

Hazardous-live-part.

Medical IT system.

Heating cable.

Lightning protection zone (LPZ),


{534}.

Patient.

Heating-free area.

Line conductor.

Heating unit.

Live conductor.

Meshed bonding network (MESHBN), {444}.

High-density livestock rearing.

Live part.

Minimum illuminance.

High voltage

Low voltage

Minor works.

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Patient environment.

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17th Edition Training Manual


Mobile and offshore installations.

PEM.

PV array junction box.

Mobile equipment

PEN conductor.

PV cell.

Mobile home.

Person

PV convertor.

Monitoring.

Phase conductor

PV d.c. main cable.

Motor caravan.

Pleasure craft.

PV generator.

Neutral conductor.

Plug.

PV generator junction box.

Nominal discharge current (Inspd),


{534}.

Point (in wiring).

PV installation.

Portable equipment

PV module.

Nominal voltage

Powertrack.

PV string.

Non-flame propagating.

Powertrack system (PT system).

PV string cable.

Obstacle.

Prefabricated wiring system.

PV supply cable.

Open-circuit voltage under standard


test conditions Uoc STC.

Prospective fault current (Ipf).

Rated current.

Operating and maintenance


gangway, {729}.

Protective bonding conductor.


Protective conductor (PE).

Rated impulse withstand voltage


level (Uw), {534}.

Ordinary person.

Protective conductor current.

Reduced low voltage system.

Origin of an installation.

Protective earthing.

Reinforced insulation.

Origin of a temporary electrical


installation.

Protective equipotential bonding.

Reporting.

Protective multiple earthing (PME).

Overcurrent.

Protective separation.

Residences and other locations


belonging to agricultural and
horticultural premises.

Overcurrent detection.

PV, {712}.

Residential park home.

Overload current.

PV a.c. module.

Residual current.

PEL.

PV array.

Residual current device (RCD).

PELV (protective extra-low voltage).

PV array cable.

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17th Edition Training Manual


Residual operating current.

Standby electrical source.

Resistance area (for an earth electrode


only).

Standby electrical supply system.

Temporary overvoltage (UTOV),


{534}.

Static convertor.

Temporary structure.

Response time.

Stationary equipment.

Temporary supply unit.

Restrictive conductive location.

Street furniture.

Testing.

Ring final circuit.

Supplementary insulation.

Thermal storage floor heating system.

Safety service.

Supplier

Triplen harmonics.

Sauna.

Surge current, {534}.

Trunking

SELV (separated extra-low voltage).

Surge protective device (SPD), {534}.

Verification.

Selectivity

Switch.

Voltage, nominal.

Shock

Switch, linked.

Extra-low.

Shock current.

Switch-disconnector.

Low.

Short-circuit current.

Switchboard.

High.

Short-circuit current under standard


test conditions Isc STC.

Switchgear.

Voltage, reduced

System.

Voltage band

Show.
Simple separation.
Simultaneously accessible parts.
Skilled person (electrically).
Socket-outlet.
Spur.
Stand.
Standard test conditions (STC).

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TN system.

Band I

TN-C system.

Band II

TN-S system.

Voltage protection level (Up), {534}.

TN-C-S system.

Wiring system.

TT system.
IT system.
Multiple source and d.c. systems
Temporary electrical installation.
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17th Edition Training Manual


It is well worth taking a good amount of time to read
through the Definitions. Dont attempt to memorize them,
but familiarity will help you quickly locate answers to
questions on the Definitions section in the exam.

electrical energy other than a neutral conductor, a protective


conductor or a PEN conductor. The term also means the
equivalent conductor of a d.c. system unless otherwise
specified in the Regulations.

Significant regulations new to 17th Edition

Definitions relating to personnel

Definitions relating to current

It is important you fully understand the difference between:


Overcurrent
A current exceeding the rated value. For conductors the
rated value is the current-carrying capacity
Overload
An overcurrent occurring in a circuit which is electrically
sound
Fault current
A current resulting from a fault
Earth fault current
A current resulting from a fault of negligible impedance
between a line conductor and an exposed-conductive-part or
a protective conductor

The definition of Competent person no longer applies.


Instead new definitions are introduced which more
accurately define the nature of skills and competency.
Skilled person (electrically)
Person who possesses, as appropriate to the nature of the
electrical work to be undertaken, adequate education,
training and practical skills, and who is able to perceive risks
and avoid hazards which electricity can create.
Instructed person (electrically)
Person adequately advised or supervised by a skilled person
(as defined) to enable that person to perceive risks and to
avoid hazards which electricity can create..
Ordinary person
Person who is neither a skilled person nor an instructed
person.Other significant new definitions

Short-circuit current
An overcurrent resulting from a fault of negligible
impedance between live conductors having a difference in
potential under normal operating conditions

Auxiliary circuit.
Circuit for transmission of signals intended for control,
detection, supervision or measurement of the functional
status of a main circuit.

Line conductor.
A conductor of an a.c. system for the transmission of

Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assembly.


Combination of one or more low voltage switching devices
together with associated control, measuring, signalling,

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17th Edition Training Manual


protective, regulating equipment, etc., completely assembled
under the responsibility of the manufacturer with all the
internal electrical and mechanical interconnection and
structural parts. The components of the assembly may be
electromechanical or electronic. The assembly may be either
type-tested or partially type-tested (see BS EN 601439-1).

Extraneous-conductive-part
The important definition for an Extraneous-conductive-part
remains unchanged:

Electric vehicle (EV)


Definitions relating to electric vehicles: charging points,
modes of charging and vehicle connectors and couplers

Equipotential
The term equipotential is still used within BS 7671 and can
be seen in equipotential bonding and protective
equipotential bonding

Medical Locations
Definitions relating to medical locations and equipment

Changed definitions

The definition for an Exposed-conductive-part has changed


from:
A conductive part of equipment which can be touched
and which is not a live part but which may become
live under fault conditions
to:
Conductive part of equipment which can be touched
and which is not normally live, but which can become

A conductive part liable to introduce a potential , generally


Earth potential, and not forming part of the electrical
installation

NOTE: The previous (undefined) term of main equipotential


bonding conductor is now replaced with the (defined) term:
protective bonding conductor

Section summary
This chapter has introduced the new definitions included in
17th Edition Wiring Regulations. You have learnt the
importance of the definition of Line and the definitions for
different currents and personnel. You have also learnt that
some definitions have remained but carry revised wording.

live when basic insulation fails

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17th Edition Training Manual

PART 2 - DEFINITIONS - TYPES OF SYSTEM &


EARTHING ARRANGEMENTS AND VOLTAGE TERMS

Section Objectives

Earthing Systems

This short section introduces definitions relating to systems


and earthing arrangements and voltage terms. Earthing
systems will be discussed and illustrated in full later on in
the course.

Five electrical systems are recognized by BS 7671 17th Edition


Wiring Regulations. These are:

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TN-S

TN-C

TN-C-S

TT

IT
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The SUPPLY system earthing arrangement is indicated by
the first letter and signifies one or more points directly
connected to Earth.
(T stands for terre, French for Earthed)
The INSTALLATION earthing arrangements are indicated
by the second letter
T Indicates that the exposed-conductive-parts of the
installation are directly connected to Earth.
N Indicates that the exposed-conductive-parts of the
installation are directly connected to the earthed point
of the source of energy.
(N represents neutre neutral)
The SYSTEM PROTECTIVE AND NEUTRAL
CONDUCTOR arrangements are indicated by the following
letters.
S Separate neutral and protective conductors are
provided.
(S is forsepareeseparate).
C Implies that the Neutral and protective functions are
both performed by single conductor, called a
combined protective and neutral (PEN) conductor.
(C stands forcommune combined)

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TN-S (TerreNeutre-Separee)

For a TN-S system, means shall be provided for the main


earthing terminal of the installation to be connected to the
earthed point of the source of energy. (Part of the connection
may be formed by the distributors lines and equipment).

TN-C-S (TerreNeutre-Commune-Separee)

For a TN-C-S system, where protective multiple earthing is


provided, means shall be provided for the main earthing
terminal of the installation to be connected by the distributor
to the neutral of the source of energy.

TT and IT

For a TT or IT system, the main earthing terminal shall be


connected via an earthing conductor to an earth electrode
complying with Regulation 542-2.

TN-C

The TN-C system is uncommon in the United Kingdom


Neutral and protective functions are combined in a single
conductor (a PEN conductor) throughout the system
(although, the term CNE is sometimes used for such a
conductor forming part of the distributors lines).
The exposed-conductive-parts of the installation are
connected to the PEN conductor, and hence to the earthed
point of the source of.
Regulation 8(4) of the Electricity Safety, Quality and
Continuity Regulations 2002 prohibits the use of PEN
conductors in consumers installations.

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Definitions Relating to Voltage Terms

covered in detail in Sections 411 and 414 of the Regulations

Nominal voltage ranges (rms values for a.c.) are defined as:

Extra-low

Not exceeding 50 V a.c. or 120 V ripple-free d.c., whether


between conductors or to Earth

Low

Exceeding extra-low voltage but not exceeding 1000 V a.c. or


1500 V d.c. between conductors or 600 V a.c. or 900 V d.c.
between conductors and Earth

High

Normally exceeding low voltage

Voltage bands relating to nominal voltage


categories

Fig. 10 Extra low voltage - Band I, telephone wiring (not part of BS7671)

BandI

Installations where protection against electric shock is


provided under certain conditions by the value of voltage.
Installations where the voltage is limited for operational
reasons (e.g. telecommunications, signaling, bell, control and
alarm installations).
Extra-low voltage (ELV) will normally fall within Band I.

Band II

The voltages for supplies to household, and most


commercial and industrial installations.
Low voltage (LV) will normally fall within Band II.

Fig. 11 Low voltage - Band II, domestic wiring (BS7671)

SELV, PELV, FELV, and reduced low voltage are terms

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PART 2 - DEFINITIONS - EXTERNAL INFLUENCE AND


INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION CODE (IP CODE)

Section Objectives
The aim of Lesson 7 is to introduce the concepts of alphanumeric codes which are used in the electrotechnical
industry. The codes follow logical patterns and are used to
identify levels of protection and influence for electrical
equipment.

External Influence
External Influence is defined as any influence external to an
electrical installation which affects the design and safe
operation of that installation
The main references to external influences in BS 7671:2008
are Regulation Group 512.2, Section 522 and Appendix 5.
Appendix 5 gives the classification and codification for
external influences. Categories are identified by two letters
and then a number (e.g. AD6).

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The first letter signifies the general category of external
influence, either:

Category

Code

Description

Environment (A)

AJ

Other mechanical stresses

AK

Flora (plants)

AL

Fauna (animals)

AM

Radiation

AN

Solar (sunlight)

The second A relates to Ambient Temperature.

AP

Seismic (earthquakes)

The 5 relates to an ambient temperature in the range of +50


C to + 400 C.

AQ

Lightning

Category

Code

Description

AR

Wind

Environment (A)

AA

Ambient temperature

BA

Capability(such as physical
handicap)

AB

Humidity

BB

Resistance

AC

Altitude

BC

Contact with earth

AD

Water

BD

Evacuation (such as difficult)

AE

Foreign bodies

BE

Materials (fire risk)

AF

Corrosion
CA

Materials (combustible or nonflammable)

CB

Structure (spread of fire etc.)

A Environment
B Utilization
C Construction of buildings
Taking the code AA5 as an example:
The first letter A signifies this classification relates to
Environment.

AG

Impact

AH

Vibration

Utilisation (B)

Building (C)

Table 1 External influence codes

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International Protection Code

Fig. 12 IP236S - Protection against solid bodies > 12.5mm (ie finger), water sprayed up to 60 Deg from vertical, 20 joule impact and manufacturer specific

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The IP Code, Ingress Protection Rating, sometimes also
interpreted as International Protection Rating, classifies and
rates the degree of protection provided in mechanical
casings and with electrical enclosures against

the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts


like hands and fingers),

dust,

accidental contact

water

There is some correlation between some external influence


classifications and IP Codes.

What are IP Codes/Ratings

IEC (International Electro technical Commission) Publication


60529 Classification of Degrees of Protection Provided by
Enclosures provides a system for specifying the enclosures
of electrical equipment on the basis of the degree of
protection provided by the enclosure
The European standard is based on IEC529, which in Europe
is EN 60529. In the UK this standard is prefixed with BS
(British Standard). The Ingress Protection/International
Protection Code (IP) ratings are developed by the European
Committee for Electro Technical Standardization
(CENELEC) and specify the environmental protection an
enclosure provides.
The IP rating normally has two (or three) numbers:
Protection from solid objects or materials

Protection against mechanical impacts (commonly


omitted)
The rating refers to the equipment's ability to permit solids
and liquids to penetrate the equipment enclosure. Electrical
equipments IP rating is expressed as a two-digit number.
The first number designates protection from solids, while
the second number designates protection from liquids. It is
important that manufacturers have their equipment certified
by an outside laboratory to verify the product's IP rating.
Epsilon is one such organization, which can verify the
equipments IP rating; there are other companies that
provide this service. The important thing is that the product
is certified by an outside organization. If IP ratings are
specified on a product's data sheet, then an approval
certification number should also be included.
An "X" is used for one of the digits if there is only one class
of protection; i.e. IPX4 which addresses liquids only.

First Figure

The first digit of the IP code indicates the degree that


persons are protected against contact with moving parts
(other than smooth rotating shafts, etc.) and the degree that
equipment is protected against solid foreign bodies (dusts)
intruding into equipment.

Second Digit

The second digit indicates the degree of protection of the


equipment inside the enclosure against the harmful entry of
water or moisture (e.g. dripping, spraying, submersion, etc.).

Protection from liquids

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1stFigure - Protection against Solids
IP

Test

Comment

No protection

Protected against solid


bodies greater than 50mm
diameter. (e.g. accidental
contact with the hand)

Protected against solid


bodies greater than 12.5mm
diameter. (e.g. finger)

Protected against solid


bodies greater than 2.5mm
diameter (e.g. tools, wires)

IP

Test

Comment

Protected against solid bodies


greater than 1.0mm diameter
(e.g. thin tools and fine wire).

Protected against dust (no


harmful deposit)

Completely protected against


dusts

Dust Proof

Dust Tight

Table 2 IP Code - Protection against solids

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2nd Figure - Protection against Moisture
IP

Test

Comment

IP

Test

Comment

No protection

Protected against vertically


falling drops of water
(condensation)

Protected against jets of water


from all directions

Protected against drops of


water falling up to 15 from
the vertical

Protected against powerful jets


of water from all directions

Protected against water


sprayed up to 60 from the
vertical

Protected against the effects of


temporary immersion in water

Protected against the continuous


effects of immersion in water
having regard to specific
conditions

Protected against splashing


water from all directions

Table 3 IP Code Protection against moisture

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The next table shows the particle size used in the first digit of the IP code. Although this table is not an accurate scale
representation it gives an indication of the relative sizes of the solids.
IP1X= 50mm

IP2X= 12.5mm

IP3X= 2.5mm

IP4X= 1mm

IP5= Dust

Table 4 Representation of sizes of solids of IP Code, first figure

Definitions Summary
In these three sections we reviewed some of the more important definitions contained in Part 2, Definitions. Although Definitions
covers just 4% of the 2382-15 Exam, it is a critical area of electrical knowledge. You should have read and understood every
definition listed in the Regulations. It is vitally important to understand each definition as outlined in the 17th Wiring Regulations
themselves.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS Definitions

Question 1

Question 3

A device other than current-using equipment, associated


with such equipment or with the wiring of an installation is
called

Path to follow for access to a safe area in the event of


emergency is called
A.

escape route

A.

not current-using equipment

B.

escape path

B.

accessory

C.

emergency route

C.

supplementary

D.

emergency path

D.

additional equipment

Question 2
The interface between the fixed installation and a heating
unit is called

Question 4
External influence is any influence external to an electrical
installation which
A.

causes the installation to stop working

B.

affects the design and safe operation of that


installation

thermal isolation

C.

affects working parameters of that installation

cold tail

D.

must be taken into account by the installation


designers

A.

heat protection

B.

heating connection

C.
D.

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Question 5

Question 8

The maximum current rating of a power track system is

A fault is defined as

A.

50 A

B.

63 A

A.
a circuit condition in which current flows through an
abnormal or unintended path

C.

78 A

B.

electric shock under overload conditions

D.

110 A

C.

electric shock under fault free conditions

D.

electric shock under overcurrent conditions

Question 6
Maximum demand and diversity should be determined
before an installation is to begin
A.
to enable the REC to prepare the correctly rated
supply

Question 9
Protection against electric shock under fault free conditions
is known as
A.

fault protection

B.

the customer needs the correct information

B.

indirect contact

C.

as it is a requirement of the REC

C.

basic protection

D.

for economic and reliable design

D.

direct contact

Question 7

Question 10

SELV denotes an extra low voltage system that is

Low voltage is defined as having a value which does not


exceed

A.

centre tapped to the general mass of the earth

B.
electrically separated from the general mass of the
earth
C.
connected to the earth on the secondary of the
transformer

A.

50v a.c.

B.

230v a.c.

C.

240v a.c.

D.

1000v a.c.

D.
designed so as to avoid an electric shock between live
conductors

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ANSWERS Definitions
1B,
2D,
3A,
4B,
5B,
6D,
7B,
8A,
9C,
10D,

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MODULE 4 - PART 3 ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL


CHARACTERISTICS

Section Overview
This is a short section which contains the guidance required
for the assessment of general characteristics of each
installation. By the end of the module you should be able to
state the maintainability and compatibility requirements and
how each characteristic of each installation should be
designed to meet the compatibility and maintainability
requirements.

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Pay particular attention to:

Determination of supply characteristics

Division of installation into circuits

You should also be able to identify and classify the external


influences that dictate the selection and installation of
equipment and be able to identify the characteristics of the
source of power to each installation and how they are
integrated into each installation.

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The following characteristics of an installation should be
assessed:

The purpose for which the installation is intended


to be used, its general structure and it supplies

The external influences to which it is to be exposed

The compatibility of its equipment

Its maintainability

Recognized safety services

Assessment for continuity of service

Ch31 -Purpose, Supplies & Structure


311 Maximum demand and diversity
Regulation 311.1 has been reworded to:For economic and
reliable design of an installation within thermal limits and
admissible voltage drop, the maximum demand shall be
determined. In determining the maximum demand of an
installation or part thereof, diversity may be taken into
account.
312 Conductor arrangement and system earthing
Understand codes earthing systems codes:
First letter identifies relationship of the power system to
Earth:
T - direct connection of one point to Earth;
I - all live parts isolated from Earth, or one point connected
to Earth through a high impedance.
Second letter identifies relationship of the exposedconductive-parts of the installation to Earth:
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T - direct electrical connection of exposed-conductive-parts


to Earth, independently of the earthing of any point ofthe
power system;
N - direct electrical connection of the exposed-conductiveparts to the earthed point of the power system (in a.c.
systems, the earthed point of the power system is normally
the neutral point or, if a neutral point is not available, a line
conductor).
Subsequent letter(s) (if any) Arrangement of neutral and
protective conductors:
S
Protectivefunctionprovidedbyaconductorseparatefromthene
utralconductororfromtheearthedline(or,in a.c. systems,
earthed phase) conductor.
C
neutralandprotectivefunctionscombinedinasingleconductor(
PENconductor)
313 Supplies
313.1 The following characteristics of the supply or supplies,
from whatever source, and the normal range of those
characteristics where appropriate, shall be determined by
calculation, measurement, enquiry or inspection:

The nominal voltage(s)

The nature of the current and frequency

The prospective short-circuit current at the origin


of the installation

The earth fault loop impedance of that part of the

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system external to the installation

from the failure of a single circuit such as a lighting

The suitability for the requirements of the

circuit.

installation, including the maximum demand

residual current devices (RCDs) due to excessive

device(s) acting at the origin of the installation.

protective conductor currents produced by

Supply

Number and type of live conductors

Earthing arrangement

313.2 Supplies for safety services and standby systems.


Where the provision of safety services is required, their
supplies should be separately assessed. Typical systems are:

Emergency lighting systems,

Sprinkler systems,

Generators,

Smoke extract system etc.

314 Division of installation


Every installation shall be divided into circuits, as necessary,
to:
Avoid danger and minimize inconvenience in the
event of a fault.

Reduce the possibility of unwanted tripping of

The type and rating of the overcurrent protective

The characteristics of the following also need to be


ascertained:

equipment in normal operation.

Mitigate the effects of EMI (electromagnetic


disturbances)

Prevent the indirect energizing of a circuit


intended to be isolated.

Separate circuits shall be provided for parts of the


installation, which need to be separately controlled, in such a
way that those circuits are not affected by the failure of other
circuits.
The number of final circuits, with each final circuit
connected a separate way in a distribution board, should
comply with the standards for overcurrent protection
(BS7671 Chapter 43), isolation and switching (Section 537),
and current carrying capacities of conductors.

Ch32 - Classification of External Influences


The external influences that determine the selection of
equipment and installation methods/techniques are defined
in Appendix 5 and are classified as follows:

(see also Section 537).

Each condition of external influence is designated by a code


comprising a group of two capital letters and a number.

Take account of danger or hazards that may arise

The first letter relates to the general category of external

Facilitate safe inspection, testing and maintenance

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influence:
A Environment

Earth leakage current

Excessive protective conductor currents not due to


a fault.

B Utilization
C Construction of buildings
The second letter relates to the nature of the external
influence: A, B, C, D..S
The number relates to the class within each external
influence: 1, 2, 3, 4
For example, the code AA4 signifies:
A

= Environment

AA

= Environment Ambient temperature

AA4 = Environment Ambient temperature in the range


of -5 C to + 40 C
See table in previous module

Ch33 - Compatibility of Characteristics


An assessment shall be made of all characteristics of
equipment that are likely to have harmful effects upon other
electrical equipment or other services or likely to impair the
supply. Those characteristics include:

d.c. feedback

High-frequency oscillations

Necessity for additional connections to earth

Power factor

332.1 Electromagnetic Compatibility

332.1 has been modified; it no longer refers to installations


but only to equipment.All electrical equipment forming part
of an electrical installation shall meet the appropriate
electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) requirements and shall
be in accordance with the relevant EMC standard.

Ch 35 - Safety Services
Chapter 35 adds requirements for safety services, which
recognizes the need for safety services as they are frequently
regulated by statutory authorities whose requirements have
to be observed. e.g. emergency escape lighting, fire alarm
systems, installations for fire pumps, fire brigade lifts and
smoke and heat extraction equipment.Sources for safety
services should be separately assessed.The following sources
are recognized:

Transient overvoltages

Undervoltage

Storage batteries

Unbalanced loads

Primary cells

Rapidly fluctuating loads

Independent generator sets

Starting currents

Separate feeders

Harmonic currents

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Ch 36 - Continuity of Service
Chapter 36, Continuity of Service, requires that an
assessment shall be made for each circuit of any need for
continuity of service considered necessary during the
intended life of the installation.
These characteristics shall be ascertained for an external
supply and shall be determined for a private source. These
requirements are equally applicable to main supplies and to
safety services and standby supplies.
If the provision of safety services is required, and/or standby
supplies is required by the person specifying the installation,
the characteristics of the source or sources of supply for
safety and/or standby systems shall be separately assessed.
Such supplies shall have adequate capacity, reliability and
rating and appropriate change over time for the operation
specified. Further details are contained in Chapter 56.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS Assessment of General Characteristics

Question 1

Question 3

Which of the following should be taken into account in the


choice of methods of protection for safety and the selection
and erection of equipment?

A system which has only one point directly earthed at the


source, the exposed-conductive-parts of the installation(s)
being connected to earth electrodes electrically independent
of the earth electrode of the supply system (the source earth)
is

A.

It's maximum power

B.

Its maintainability

C.

It's suitability for public service

D.

The country of origin

Question 2
Which of the following are NOT referred to in the
regulations as current-carrying conductors in a.c. circuit
under normal operating conditions

A.

TT system

B.

NN system

C.

NT system

D.

TN system

Question 4

A.

Two-phase 3-wire

The second letter of the code for system earthing type has a
meaning of

B.

Three-phase 3-wire

A.

Relationship of the power system to Earth

C.

Three-phase 4-wire

B.

Arrangement of neutral and protective conductors

D.

Two-phase 4-wire

C.

Relationship of the exposed-conductive-parts of the


installation to Earth

D.

Relationship of the exposed-conductive-parts of the


installation to the power system

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Question 5

Question 7

The third letter of the code for system earthing type has a
meaning of

Electrical installations shall be divided into circuits to


A.

allow for more socket outlets

A.
Relationship of the exposed-conductive-parts of the
installation to Earth

B.

reduce power usage

B.
Relationship of the exposed-conductive-parts of the
installation to the power system
C.

Relationship of the power system to Earth

D.

Arrangement of neutral and protective conductors

Question 6

C.
allow for expansion without changing the maximum
demand
D.
minimise inconvenience in the event of a fault
condition

Question 8

Electrical installations shall be divided into circuits to

Identify which of the following forms part of the assessment


of general characteristics

A.

allow easier access to the installation

A.

distribution circuits

B.

allow more even distribution of power

B.

switchgear requirements

C.

allow for expansion without changing the maximum


demand

C.

diversity

D.

recognised safety services

D.

reduce electromagnetic interference

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Question 9

Question 10

Electrical installations should be divided into circuits where


necessary in order to

A two story house should have at least two lighting circuits


in order to

A.

prevent the indirect energizing of a circuit intended


to be isolated

A.

reduce the load on a consumer circuit

B.

allow for fluorescent luminaires

B.

prevent harmonic currents

C.

C.

ensure at least one socket outlet is available in the


event of a fault

be split across the RCD protected part of the


consumer unit

D.

minimise danger in the event of a fault

D.

avoid unbalanced loads

ANSWERS Assessment of General Characteristics


1B, Ref: BS7671: 301.1
2D, Ref: BS7671: 312.1.1
3A, Ref: BS7671: 312.2.2.1
4C, Ref: BS7671: 312.2
5D, Ref: BS7671: 312.2
6D, Ref: BS7671: 314.1
7D, Ref: BS7671: 314.1
8D, Ref: BS7671: 301.1
9A, Ref: BS7671: 314.1
10D, Ref: BS7671: 314.1

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MODULE 5 - PART 4 PROTECTION FOR SAFETY

Overview

Ch41 - Protection Against Electric Shock

Part 4 contains four Chapters, which are:

410 Protection against electric shock

Chapter 41:

Protection against electric shock

Chapter 42:

Protection against thermal effects

Chapter 43:

Protection against overcurrent

Chapter 44: Protection against voltage disturbances &


electromagnetic disturbances

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This chapter deals with protection against shock applied in


electrical installations. It is based on BS EN 61140, which
applies to the protection of persons and livestock, has a
fundamental rule that hazardous-live-parts shall not be
accessible and conductive live parts shall not be hazard-live,
either in use without a fault or in single-fault conditions.

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Protection is required against two types of hazard:

Protection in use without a fault (now designated


as basic protection), known previously as

Additional protection can be provided by:


Residual current devices (RCDs), and/or Supplementary
bonding

protection against direct contact in the 16th Edition


(BS 7671:2001).

Protection under fault conditions (now designated


as fault protection), known previously as
protection against indirect direct contact in the 16th
Edition (BS 7671:2001).

Basic protectionis protection against something that is


intentionally meant not to be LIVE.
Fault protectionis protection against something that is
LIVE through a fault. e.g. water pipe, metal casing.
Basic protection relates to protection under fault free
conditions. Basic protection is covered in Section 416 of BS
7671.

Fig. 13 RCD with test button

A person (or livestock) can receive a shock in one of two


ways:

Contact with a live part whilst in contact with


Earth

Contact with live parts at different potentials

410.3.2 In addition to basic and fault protection,


additional protection is required under specified conditions
of external influence and in certain special locations covered
in Part 7 of BS7671:2008

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Fig. 14 Supplementary bonding across the stop-cock

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410.3.3 There are four main protective measures in
Chapter 41:

Automatic disconnection of supply (Section 411)

Double or reinforced insulation (Section 412)

Electrical separation for the supply to one item of


current-using equipment (Section 413)

Extra-low voltage provided by SELV or


PELV(Section 414)

Each protective measure has to consist of:


An appropriate combination of a provision for basic
protection and an independent provision for fault

Shall be only installed in installations where it is under the


supervision of a skilled or instructed person so that
unauthorized changes cannot be made

411 Protective measure Automatic Disconnection


of Supply
Automatic disconnection of supply (ADS for short) is the
most commonly used protective measure. This measure of
protection is used in virtually every electrical installation.
Basic protection for ADS can be provided by either:

Basic insulation

Barriers or Enclosures

protection,
OR
An enhanced protective provision whichprovides both
basic protection and fault protection.
410.3.4 For special installations or locations, additional
protectivemeasures specified in Part 7 shall be used.
410.3.5 The protective measure of placing out of reach, as
specified in 417 shall only be used in installations where
access is restricted to Skilled, orInstructed persons under the
supervision of skilled persons
410.3.6 The protective measures in 418 i.e.

Non conducting location

Earth-free local equipotential bonding

Electrical separation

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Fig. 15 Electrical cabinet providing basic protection

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Fault protection is provided by the combination of:

Protective earthing of installation exposedconductive-parts

Protective equipotential bonding of extraneousconductive-parts

Automatic disconnection of supply by a protective


device(e.g. fuse, circuit-breaker or RCD)

ADS earthing and bonding requirements for TN systems


(411.4), TT systems (411.5), IT systems (411.6), Functional
extra-low voltage (FELV) (411.7), Reduced low voltage
systems (411.8) and Earthing systems were covered
previously in Part 2 refer back for revision if necessary.
The requirements of Chapter 54 Earthing arrangements and
protective conductors may also need to be consulted.
Structural parts which may provide earthing could include:

Water installation pipes

Gas installation pipes

Other installation pipes and ducting (such as


incoming pipe-work from an oil tank)

Central heating and air conditioning systems

Exposed metallic parts of the building structure

Lightning protective systems (in accordance with


BS EN 62305)Explanation of ADS Basic circuit
concept Earth loop path:Basic circuit concept (earth
fault loop path)
Fig. 16 Examples of earthing to structural parts

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The current path

Line conductor from transformer


winding to point of use.
Returned back to the Neutral
conductor
Then to the Neutral point at the
transformer winding.
Via the supply meter,
distribution board and local
switching.

Fig. 17 Current path TN-S System

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The fault current path

Line conductor from transformer


winding to point of use / fault
From the earth casing of the
appliance to the Cpc of circuit
Earthing terminal of Distribution
board
Steel armouring of SWA cable
Earthing terminal of Supply
Isolator
Main Earthing Conductor
Main Earthing Terminal
Supply Companys Earth
(Sheath of Cable)
Earthed Neutral point at the
transformer
Transformer winding
Or unfortunately
Through the body of the user to
the point of contact with the
Earth

Fig. 18 Fault current path - TN-S System

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Maximum disconnection times

411.3.2 Automatic disconnection in case of a fault.


50 V < UO 120 V 120 V < UO 230 V

System

230 V < UO 400 V

UO> 400 V

A.C.

D.C.

A.C.

D.C.

A.C.

D.C.

A.C.

D.C.

TN

0.8

Note

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.1

TT

0.3

Note

0.2

0.4

0.07

0.2

0.04

0.1

Table 5 BS7671 Table 41.1 (page 53)

411.3.2.2 Maximum disconnection time limited to:


0.4 second for TN system final circuits NOT exceeding 32 A
and 0.2 second for TT systems.

labelled socket-outlet, or where a documented risk


assessment determines that RCD protection is not necessary.

411.3.2.3 In a TN system, a disconnection time not


exceeding 5 seconds is permitted for distribution circuits and
for circuits 32 A.

In a.c. systems, additional protection by means of an RCD in


accordance with Regulation

411.3.2.4 In a TT system, a disconnection time not


exceeding 1 second is permitted for distribution circuits and
for circuits 32 A.

411.3.3 Additional protection

Reference to ordinary persons in Regulation 411.3.3 has been


deleted.
The regulation now requires RCD protection in accordance
with Regulation 415.1 for socket-outlets up to 20 A (and for
mobile equipment up to 32 A for use outdoors) for all
installations. However, there is an exception for RCD
protection (for socket-outlets up to 20 A) for a specific

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411.3.3 Additional protection

415.1 shall be provided for:


i)

socket-outlets with a rated current not exceeding 20 A,


and

ii) mobile equipment with a current rating not exceeding


32 A for use outdoors.
An exception to (i) is permitted:
a) where, other than for an installation in a dwelling, a
documented risk assessment determines that the RCD
protection is not necessary, or
b) for a specific labelled or otherwise suitably identified

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socket-outlet provided for connection of a particular
item of equipment.

apply to FELV systems according to Regulation 411.7 or


reduced low voltage systems according to Regulation 411.8.
NOTE 3: See Appendix 2, item 10 in respect of risk
assessment

NOTE 1: See also Regulations 314.1(iv) and 531.2.4


concerning the avoidance of unwanted tripping.
NOTE 2: The requirements of Regulation 411.3.3 do not

Example

411.3.3 (b) can apply for installations other than dwellings


A risk assessment must be attached to the electrical installation certificate or minor electrical installation works certificate
Table 6 Requirements for documented risk assessment

RCD not exceeding 30


mA

Documented risk
assessment

Specifically labelled
socket outlet

Domestic

YES

NO

YES

Commercial/Industrial

YES

YES

YES

Type of property

The HSE risk assessment follows a 5-step method


Step 1

Identify the hazard

Step 2

Identify who is at risk

Step 3

Evaluate the risk

Step 4

Report your findings

Step 5

State when the assessment is to be reviewed

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Table 7 Risk assessment template

Hazard

Whos
at risk

Likelihood
of injury

Severity
of injury

Risk
Level

Existing
control
measures

New control
measures

Review
date

Electric
shock

Ordinary
persons

Low

Insulation,
Barriers &
Enclosures

Signs &
Labels

Quarterly

Formula for calculating Risk Level

Risk Level = (Likelihood or injury + Severity of injury) / 2


[(1 + 7) / 2 = 4]
4 = Low risk level
Example of code for Likelihood or injury + Severity of injury
Low 1 4 | Medium 5 8 | High 9 10

Chapter 41 - Protection against electric shock


Regulations 411.4.5, 411.5.4 and 411.6.4 now include a Cmin
factor.
Maximum earth fault loop impedances given in Tables 41.2,

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41.3, 41.4 and 41.6 have been revised to take account of the
Cmin factor given in CLC/TR 50480:2011. Cmin is the
minimum voltage factor to take account of voltage variations

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depending on time and place, changing of transformer taps
and other considerations. Also, the notes to the Tables have
been changed in connection with maximum permitted
operating temperature.

been reduced by 0.05% to take into account voltage


variations depending on time and place, changing of
transformer taps and other considerations.

Maximum earth fault loop impendence values (Zs) have

BS 7671 Appendix 2 section 14


Effective dates

Nominal voltage

Permitted tolerance

Permitted voltage range

Pre-1995

240 V

+6 % / 6 %

225.6 254.4 V

1 Jan. 1995

230 V

+10 % / 6 %

216.2 253.0 V

Table 8 Voltage variation

How to use Cmin

Uo = Nominal a.c. rms line voltage to earth


Zs = Earth fault loop impedance

Example

(using BS EN 60898 Type B circuit breaker values)


Ia = 160 A (Appendix 3 Fig. 3A4)

Ia = Current causing automatic operation of protective


device with the stated time

Uo = 230 V
Zs = 1.44 (Table 41.3)

Cmin = 0.95
Cmin = minimum voltage factor to take account of voltage
variations depending on time and place, changing of
transformer taps and other considerations.

Zs = Uo / Ia

Formula in BS 7671

1.44 = 230 V / 160 A

Transposed

Zs Ia Uo Cmin
Zs (Uo x Cmin ) / Ia

Cmin = 0.95

Zs x Cmin = New tabulated Zs values contained in


BS 7671 Amendment 3
1.44 = 0.95 = 1.37

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411.3.2.3.Where an RCD is used this current is the rated
residual operating current providing disconnection in the
time specified in Table 41.1 or Regulation 411.3.2.3.

where:
Zs is the impedance in ohms () of the fault loop
comprising:

Uo is the nominal a.c. rms or d.c. line voltage to Earth in


volts (V).

the source
the line conductor up to the point of the fault, and

Cmin is the minimum voltage factor to take account of


voltage variations depending on time and place, changing of
transformer taps and other considerations.

the protective conductor between the point of the fault


and the source.
Ia is the current in amperes (A) causing operation of the
protective device within the time specified in Table 41.1 of
Regulation 411.3.2.2 or, as appropriate, Regulation
Table 41.3

Maximum earth fault loop impedance (Zs) for circuit-breakers with Uo of 230 V, for operation giving compliance with the 0.4 s
disconnection time of Regulation 411.3.2.2 and 5 s disconnection time of Regulation 411.3.2.3 (for RCBOs see also Regulation
411.4.9)
(a) Type B circuit-breakers to BS EN 60898 and the overcurrent characteristics of RCBOs to BS EN 61009-1
Rating (amperes)

Zs (ohms)

10

7.28
14.57

16

20

2.73
4.37

25

32

1.75
2.19

40

50

1.09
1.37

63

80

0.69
0.87

100

125

0.44
0.55

0.35

Table 9 Zs values for circuits breakers

The IET On-site Guide and IET Guidance Note 3 will apply rule of thumb to the New Tabulated Zs figures contained in BS 7671
BS 7671 states a maximum Zs figure of 1.37 for a 32 A type B circuit breaker.
The figure quoted in both the OSG and GN3 will be 1.37 x 0.8 = 1.10

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411.7 Functional Extra Low Voltage FELV
Where an extra-low voltage system does not meet all the
requirements of a SELV or PELV system, supplementary
provisions are required.
Such an arrangement is known as FELV with protective
requirements being generally the same as for low-voltage
(e.g. 230/400 V) circuits.

voltage could appear in the event of a failure in the basic


insulation of a live part.The measure generally applies to
individual items of equipment, such as:

Hand-held luminaires

Handheld portable appliances

Casing assemblies of switchgear and controlgear

411.8 Reduced Low Voltage Systems


Where for functional reasons the use of extra-low voltage is
impracticable, a reduced low voltage system may be
used.These systems are often used on construction and
demolition sites, together with providing supplies to
equipment in industrial installations:

Nominal voltage between line and neutral, and


between phases, is 110 V A.C. rms

Nominal voltages:

55 V to Earth for a single-phase system

63.5 V to Earth for a three-phase system

Maximum disconnection time of 5 seconds at all


points of utilization

412 Protective measure Double or reinforced


insulation

The protective measure double or reinforced insulation


relies on the use of equipment, meeting certain requirements
and having no exposed metal parts on which a dangerous

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Fig. 19 Example of a hand held portable appliance indicating live and


protected parts

Where it is intended to use double or reinforced insulation


as the sole protective measure in an installation it must be
under effective supervision in normal use so that no change
is made that would impair the effectiveness of the protective

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measure.
This protective measure provides: basic protection by the
use of basic insulation and fault protection by the use of
supplementary insulation.Or both basic and fault protection
can be provided by reinforced insulation (between live parts
and accessible parts).

Electrical equipment

Refer to Regulations 412.2.1.2 and 412.2.1.3, where electrical


equipment has basic insulation only or uninsulated live
parts.

Fig. 20 Do not connect to earth symbol

Following the
application of
supplementary or
reinforced insulation
applied in the process of
erection the symbol do
not connect to earth
should be fixed in a
visible position on the
exterior and interior of
the enclosure.

The supply is electrically separate from all other


systems and from Earth.

Shaver supply units complying with BS EN 615582-5 are one example of such a system.

Basic protection is provided by basic insulation of live parts,


or barriers and
enclosures, or double or
reinforced
insulation.Fault
protection is provided
by:
Ensuring the separated
circuit is supplied by a
source with at least
simple separation.
Fig. 21 A transformer

Limiting the voltage of


the separated circuit to
not greater than 500 V.

Precautions being present to prevent live parts of the


separated circuit from being in contact with any other circuit
or Earth or to a protective conductor

413 Protective measure Electrical separation

Electrical separation is commonly referred to as


compartment trunking, this is mostly a misconception as
electrical separation is where there are two supplies that are
separate within the same enclosure e.g. a transformer.

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414 ELV provided by SELV or PELV
SELV Separated extra-low voltage
PELV Protective extra-low voltage

single fault cannot give rise to the risk of an electric shock


Requirements for both basic and fault protection are:

Safety is achieved by:

Nominal voltage limits of 50 V A.C. and 120 V


ripple-free D.C.

Limiting system voltage

Supply sources listed in 414.3.

Deriving supply from a specified source of energy

Requirement for compliance with Regulation

Specifying strict conditions relating to their


installation and use.

Specified safety measures enable the systems to be suitable


for use in most situations.

Group 414.4 is fulfilled


NOTE: Additional basic protection is required where the
nominal voltage exceeds 25 V a.c. or 60 V d.c.

Note however some special installations or locations may


require the maximum voltage to be limited and in some
cases additional basic protection to be provided.
Separation of circuits:

Required between SELV and PELV circuits from all


other circuits (other than other SELV and PELV
circuits).

Requirement for basic insulation between SELV


and PELV systems and all other SELV and PELV
systems.

For SELV systems only, basic insulation is required


between the SELV system and Earth

SELV is defined as:


An extra-low voltage system which is electrically separated
from Earth and from other systems in such a way that a

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Fig. 22 SELV protects the user from electric shock in the case of a fault

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415 Additional Protection

In addition to basic protection and fault protection,


additional protection is required under certain conditions
of external influence and in certain of the special locations
covered in Part 7

417 Obstacles and placing out of reach


The protection by placing out of
reach is intended to prevent
unintentional contact with live
parts.

Additional protection can be provided by:


RCDs (specific requirement in some parts), or
Supplementary bonding.
415.1 Additional protection by RCD
The use of RCDs with a rated residual operating current
(In) not exceeding 30 mA and an operating time not
exceeding 40 ms at a residual current of 5 In is recognized
in a.c. systems as additional protection in the event of:
Failure of the provision for basic protection and/or the
provision of fault protection, or
Carelessness by users (e.g. penetrating a cable concealed in a
wall or partition with a nail or screw, or cutting through a
lead connected to a outdoor appliance.
415.2 Supplementary bonding
This is an additional protective provision used to enhance
the standard fault protection system, as outlined in Chapter
41. It may be required where disconnection times cannot be
met, or where required due to the special nature of the
installation

Fig. 23 A common but not


mandatory symbol for placing
out of reach

Overhead lines are the most


common to be within this
criteria and are dealt with more
by the Electricity Safety, Quality
and Continuity Regulations
2002.

417.3.1 A bare live part of an overhead line shall not be


within arms reach or within 2.5m of:
An exposed-conductive part
An extraneous-conductive part
A bare live part of any other circuit
418 Protective measures for application only where the
installation is controlled or under the supervision of skilled
or instructed persons.
The following fault protective provisions have limited use:

Non-conducting location

Protection by earth-free local equipotential


bonding

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Electrical separation for the supply to more than


one item of current-using equipment

Please refer to Section 418 of BS 7671:2008 for a


more comprehensive description.

Ch42 - Protection Against Thermal Effects


The existing regulations have been modified slightly and a
new Section 424. Protection against overheating, has been
added. A new Regulation 421.1.200 has also been included.
Regulation 421.1.200 requires switchgear assemblies
including consumer units to have their enclosure
manufactured from non-combustible or not readily
combustible material or be enclosed in a cabinet or enclosure
constructed of non-combustible or not readily combustible
material.

420 Scope

To prevent people, livestock and property from the effects of


arcing, sparking, overcurrents and many other risks of fire!

Fig. 24 The consequence of arcing can be serious

Detrimental thermal effects result from badly designed or


incorrectly installed electrical equipment including:

Harmful effects of heat or thermal radiation


developed by electrical equipment.

Ignition, combustion or degradation of materials.

Flames and smoke (where a fire hazard could be


propagated from an electrical installation to other
nearby fire compartments.

Safety services being cut off by the failure of


electrical equipment.

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421 Protection against fire caused by electrical
equipment
421.1.201

Within domestic (household) premises, consumer units and


similar switchgear assemblies shall comply with BS EN
61439-3 and shall:
i)

have their enclosure manufactured from noncombustible material, or

ii) be enclosed in a cabinet or enclosure constructed of


non-combustible material and complying with
Regulation 132.12.
NOTE 1: Ferrous metal, e.g. steel, is deemed to be an
example of a non-combustible material.

View You Tube interview with London Fire Brigade


indicating reasons for changes to BS 7671 in 2015

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-AaKOx5q1j4
The draft of Amendment 3 proposes changes to the fire
protection regulations in BS 7671 Wiring Regulations. If
approved, these changes will be incorporated in the 17th
Edition of the Wiring Regulations, due to be published in
January 2015. Chief engineer Geoff Cronshaw interviews
London Fire Brigade

Devastating effects of a consumer unit fire

NOTE 2: The implementation date for this regulation is the


1st January 2016, but does not preclude compliance with the
regulation prior to that date.

What is driving this change to non-combustible


consumer units?

Investigation into several fires involving plastic consumer


units, by the London Fire Brigade, has concluded that a key
cause of the fires was substandard cable connections made
by the Electrician. These resulted in overheating, which
eventually ignited the plastic enclosure.
London Fire brigade report that there are on average 2
domestic fires per week due to consumer units. Loose and
poor connection cause high resistance which in turn
increases heat above manufacture recommendations.

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The reason for the change is to contain a fire within the


consumer unit and/or enclosure.

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What impact will this regulation have?

Eventually all new consumer units installed in UK homes,


i.e. within domestic (household) premises must have their
enclosures manufactured from a non-combustible material,
or be enclosed in a cabinet or enclosure constructed from a
non-combustible material. This is likely to result in an
increased use of metal enclosures.

What is meant by within domestic (household)


premises?

It is understood that Regulation 421.1.200 applies to


consumer units and similar switchgear assemblies to BS EN
61439-3 inside all domestic (household) premises including
their integral/attached garages and outbuildings or those in
close proximity.

Fig. 25 Consumer unit - all cables are to pass through the same entry/exit
hole

When will Regulation 421.1.200 come into effect?


Amendment 3 is intended to come into effect on 1st July
2015. Installations designed after 30th June 2015 are to
comply with BS 7671:2008 incorporating Amendment 3,
2015.

However, Regulation 421.1.200 does not come into effect


until the 1st January 2016 to allow manufacturers time to
change their product ranges to comply.

Other consideration when using metal consumer


units

As electromagnetic effects from incorrectly installed cables


of alternating current (a.c.) circuits can cause heat, all cables
are to pass through the same entry/exit hole

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Fig. 26 A non-ferromagnetic metal or non-metallic entry plate is to be used

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Fire propagating structures are used

Locations are of national, commercial, industrial or


public significance

422.2 Conditions for evacuation in an emergency


BD2 Low density occupation, difficult to evacuate
(e.g. high-rise buildings)
BD3 High-density occupation, easy to evacuate (e.g.
theatres, cinemas, etc)
BD4 High-density occupation, difficult to evacuate
Fig. 27 Ferro-magnetic fixing plate may be used provided slots are cut in
plate between conductors

(e.g. buildings open to the public, hospitals, hotels


residential homes etc.)
422.3 Locations with risks of fire

421.4 Precautions must be taken against fire caused by


electrical equipment located where heat may be focused
onto a concentrated surface.

Risk of fire is increased due to the manufacture, processing


or storage of flammable materials (BE2)
Additional requirements also relate to:

Heat sources must be a suitable distance from adjacent


materials or building elements.

422.4 Building that are mainly constructed of combustible


material, such as wood (CA2)

422 Precautions where particular risks of fire


exists

422.5.1 Fire propagating structures

Section 422 contains additional requirements where


particular risks of fire exist due to:

Where a building has a shape and dimension that


facilitates the spread of fire (CB2); high-rise buildings
(e.g. chimney or up draft effect):

Difficult conditions for evacuation and/or high

422.6 Installations in locations of national,

density occupation

commercial, industrial or public significance.

The nature of processed or stored materials

Special measures and the installation of particular

Combustible construction materials used

cables in such locations may have to be considered.

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These are locations, which are of national monuments,
museums and other significant public buildings, i.e.
railway stations, airports and visitor attractions fall
within this criteria.
Additional requirements where particular risks of fire exists
and depending upon the particular risk (BD2, BD3, BD4,
BE2, CA2 or CB2), consideration should be given to:

Distances between electrical equipment and

A part intended to Metallic


be touched but not
Non-metallic
hand-held

70*

A part which need Metallic


not be touched for
normal operation Non-metallic

80*

80*

90*

Table 10 BS7671 Table 42.1 - Temperature limit under normal load


conditions for an accessible part of equipment within arms reach.

combustible materials

Protection against overheating

Maximum temperatures of electrical enclosures

The location of switchgear, and choice of wiring

Equipment such as motors, motor controls,

424 Protection Against Overheating is a new Section


concerning the overheating of heating appliances. It stresses
the importance of using British Standard equipment
installed to the manufactures instructions.

luminaires, heating appliances etc.

Overload and fault protective devices, & use of


RCDs

423 Protection against burns

Except where a Harmonized Standard specifies otherwise,


electrical equipment within arms reach should not attain a
temperature in excess of the appropriate limit.

Accessible part
A hand-held part

Material of
Maximum
accessible surfaces temperature (0C)
Metallic

55*

Non-metallic

65*

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424.1 Forced air heating systems

Forced air heating systems shall be such that their heating


elements, other than those of central storage heaters, cannot
be activated until the prescribed air flow has been
established and are deactivated when the air flow is less
than the prescribed value. In addition, they shall have two
temperature limiting devices independent of each other
which prevent permissible temperatures from being
exceeded in air ducts.
Supporting parts, frames and enclosures of heating elements
shall be of non-combustible material.

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424.2 Appliances producing hot water or steam

All appliances producing hot water or steam shall be


protected by design or erection against overheating in all
service conditions. Unless the appliances comply as a whole
with the appropriate British Standards, the protection shall
be by means of an appropriate non-self-resetting device,
functioning independently of the thermostat.
If an appliance has no free outlet, it shall also be provided
with a device which limits the internal water pressure.

The side walls of radiant heaters which are not touched by


the heat radiation should have a sufficient distance from
flammable parts. In case of a reduction of the distance by an
inflammable partition, this partition should have a distance
of at least 1 cm to the enclosure of the radiant heater and to
flammable parts.
Radiant heaters shall be mounted so that in the direction of
radiation a safety distance of at least 2 m from flammable
parts is ensured unless otherwise declared by the
manufacturer

Ch43 - Protection Against Overcurrent


Chapter 43 describes how live conductors are to be protected
by one or more devices for the automatic disconnection of
the supply in the event of:
Overload (Section 433)
Fault current (Section 434)
Protection against both of the above should be coordinated
(Section 435)
Fig. 28 Quooker, boiling water tap. An example of a new type of hot water
producing appliance

424.3 Space heating appliances

The frame and enclosure of space heating appliances shall be


of non-combustible material.
NOTE: In operating areas with a fire risk, space heating
appliances may not be operated if the air from these areas is
guided through the appliance.

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Section 436 covers situations where overcurrent is limited by


the characteristics of the supply.Let us review the following
definitions:

Overcurrent, overload current and fault current

Short-circuit current

Earth fault current

.and because it is important, we refresh our understanding


of currents:

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What is the difference between an overload current
and a fault current?
What is the difference between a short-circuit current
and earth fault current?

Overcurrent and fault current

An overcurrent situation, is one that a current exists that is


larger (slightly) than the design operating current.

Overload current

An overload occurs when a current flows that is somewhat


too high (usually 50% to 100% too high) for the system.
Overloads don't normally cause immediate damage. Instead,
the likelihood of damage increases gradually as the duration
of the overload increases. If the fault is not resolved, cables
will overheat and melt, exposing bare conductors. The heat
generated may be sufficient to cause a fire.
In a domestic setting, overloads usually result from using
too many appliances at the same time, or plugging a heavyduty appliance into a supply that isn't strong enough for it.

Short-circuit current

A short-circuit current is a overcurrent, resulting from a fault


of negligible impedance between Live conductors.
A short-circuit is a connection between live and neutral, or
between live and earth, that bypasses an appliance. The
connection will probably have a low resistance, and the
current that can flow may be hundreds or thousands of
times too high for the system. This current is usually called
the fault current or short-circuit current. A short-circuit will

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by produced if, for example, the wires in a mains plug


become loose and touch one another.

Earth fault current

An earth-fault current is an overcurrent resulting from a


fault of negligible impedance between a Line conductor and
exposed-conductive-part or a protective conductor
What is the difference betweenan overload current and a
fault current?
What is the difference betweena short-circuit current and
earth fault current?
These questions are best answered by the following:
Overcurrent - Is the name giving to all of the following
conditions and could be classed as an integument
Overload current - As previously described, the situation in
which the current is larger than the designed operating
current i.e. too many 3Kw loads inserted into a ring circuit at
the same time resulting in the device to rupture or trip after
a period of time
Fault current - Is usually described as a short, large intake of
current usually due to a fault
Short-circuit current - Is caused when there is a fault
between Live conductors with little or no resistance e.g. the
Line and Neutral conductors touching together
Earth fault current - Occurs when there is a connection with
negligible resistance between Line or Neutral (Live)
conductors and any connection to Earth

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A nail inserted in a PVC sheathed
cable accidentally could be either a
Short-Circuit or a Earth fault
current, as is water penetrating into
a exterior luminaire.
A common short-circuit is when
trying to insert a light-bulb into a
flex drop, the lamp-holder turns
and, due to the conductors
becoming bare both wires twist
together.
Unfortunately this fault is still very
common: the consumer trying to
retrieve the toast with a knife
touching the casing of the toaster
and the element.

Fig. 29 Overcurrent

431 Protection of line conductors

432.4 Characteristics of protective


devices 433.1 Coordination between conductor and
overload protective devices

Except in two cases (431.1.2), detection of overcurrent is


required for all line conductors and should cause
disconnection of the conductor in which the overcurrent is
detected.

Every circuit is to be designed so that a small overload of


long duration is unlikely to occur.

Disconnection of other line conductors is not necessary,


unless the loss of one phase could cause danger or damage
(e.g. in a 3-phase motor)

When an overload occurs, the protective device should


automatically disconnect the circuit (e.g. by tripping the
MCB or rupturing / blowing a fuse).

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Where no overload protection is provided, the temperature
of the circuit conductors may rise excessively, possibly
damaging the insulation, joints and terminations of the

Coordination will be met and comply with Regulation


433.1.1 if:
Ib In Iz
Where:
IbIs the design current of circuit (i.e. the load)
InIs the rated current or current setting of the
protective device
IzIs the current-carrying capacity of the conductor (i.e.
a cable, busbar or powertrack)
What this means is that the cable must have a current
carrying capacity greater than that of the protective device,
which must be able to manage the load required.

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conductors and/or their surroundings.


433.1.1 Coordination between conductor and overload
protective device

Where the current (I2) causing effective operation of the


protective device does not exceed 1.45 times the lowest of
the current-carrying capacities(Iz) of any cable of the circuit,
represented as:
I2 1.45 x Iz
Which is:2 x In 1.45 x Iz
In 1.45 / 2 x Iz 0.725 x Iz

433 Rewireable fuses and buried cables

433.1.101 Semi enclosed fuses (BS 3036), also comply if its


rated current (In) does not exceed 0.725 times the currentcarrying capacity (Iz) of the lowest rated conductor in the
circuit protected.

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433.1.102 For buried cables and those buried in ducts etc,
Regulation 433.1.4 requires a factor of 0.9 to be applied to the
current-carrying capacity (Iz) of the lowest rated conductor
in the circuit protected:
In 0.9 Iz
433.2 Position of devices for protection against overload
Except where not required, a device for protection against
overload is to be installed at the point where a reduction
occurs in the value of current-carrying capacity of
conductors:

433.3.1 Omission of devices for protection against


overload
Where:

A conductor is effectively protected against


overload by a protective device placed on the
supply side of that point

the characteristics of the load or the supply, is not


likely to carry overload current (e.g. resistive load)

The Distributor agrees that their overload device(s)


provide overload protection between the origin
and the main distribution point of the installation

Fig. 30 Distributor's overload device

433.3.3 Omission of devices for protection against


overload for safety reasons
To avoid unexpected disconnection of a circuit (causing
danger or damage) the following, as examples, do not
require overload protection:

Exciter circuits of rotating machines

The supply circuit of lifting magnet

The secondary circuit of a current transformer

A circuit supplying a fire extinguisher device

A circuit supplying a safety service

434 Protection against fault current

The prospective fault current at every relevant point of the

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installation is to be determined.
In a single-phase circuit, this would be the higher value of
either line to earth, or line to neutral.
In a three-phase circuit, this would be the highest value
between all live conductors.The highest value measured is
usually at the origin.
Prospective fault current can be determined by calculation,
measurement or enquiry.
434.2 Position of devices for protection against fault
current
Like overload protection, a device providing protection
against fault current is usually installed at the point where a
reduction occurs in the cross-sectional area causing a
reduction in the current-carrying capacity of conductors

have worked. This will be shown later on in the calculations


section.
Some installations, like the following, do not require
protection against fault current:

A conductor connecting a generator, transformer.

A circuit where disconnection could cause danger


such as those quoted in omission of overload.

Certain measuring circuits.

The origin of an installation provided the


distributor install one or more devices to provide
affordable protection.

434.2.1 Position of devices for protection against fault


current
Except where not required, no device for fault current
protection is required provided the conductor:

Does not exceed 3 m in length.

Is installed in such a manner as to reduce the risk


of fault to a minimum.

Is installed in a manner to reduce to a minimum


the risk of fire or danger to persons.

The reasoning behind this is that it is deemed that any cable


above 4mm2has within 3m enough resistance to withstand
33kA at which point the previous protective device should

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Calculation of maximum permissible fault clearance
time:

TIs the duration of the fault, in seconds.


S Is the conductor cross-sectional area in mm2.
I Is the effective fault current, in amperes, expressed
for A.C. as the rms value, due account being taken of
the current limiting effect of the circuit impedances.
K

Is a factor taking account of resistivity,

temperature coefficient and heat capacity of the


Fig. 31 Protection device not required

Typical example of where a device for protection against


fault current is not required. Conductors having a reduction
in current-carrying capacity between the busbars and the
switchboard

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conductor material, and the initial and final conductor


temperatures.
For common materials, the values of k are in Table 43.1

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Ch44 - Protection Against Voltage
Disturbances & Electromagnetic Disturbances
442 Protection of low voltage installations against
temporary overvoltages due to earth faults in the
high voltage system and due to faults in the low
voltage system

The following four situations can have an effect on the safety


of an LV installation by creating temporary overvoltages:

A fault between the HV system and Earth in the


transformer. (Regulation Group 442.2).

Loss of the supply neutral in the LV installation


(Regulation 442.3).

Short-circuit between a line conductor and neutral


in the LV installation (Regulation 442).

Accidental earthing of a line conductor of an LV IT


system (Regulation 442.4).

443 Protection against overvoltages of


atmospheric origin or due to switching

As the UK has 25 thunderstorm days per year (AQ1). NO


additional protection is required against overvoltages of
atmospheric origin where installations are supplied by LV
overhead lines.
Refer to Table 44.4 for examples of various impulse
categories of equipment.Switching overvoltages may be
generated within an installation as the result of switching of:

High current loads,

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Inductive loads, such as motors, transformers or


arc welding equipment, or

Capacitive loads, such as power factor correction


equipment.

444 Measures against electromagnetic influences added in AM1


Section 444 has been added in Amendment 1 of the IET
Wiring Regulations to provide basic requirements and
recommendations to enable the avoidance and reduction of
electromagnetic disturbances.

Electromagnetic compatibility, better known as EMC, is the


prerequisite for the correct design and functioning of
electrical equipment in an installation to prevent
electromagnetic radiation from some equipment does not
influence the operation of other equipment within the
installation or vicinity to operate.
This section is important when designing an electrical
installation as consideration will need to be taken into
account to reduce electromagnetic disturbances on electrical
equipment.
IT equipment and equipment with electronic components or
circuits can be particularly prone to damage or disturbances
which can be caused by lightning, switching operations,
short-circuits or other electromagnetic phenomena.
These effects can be potentially more severe:

where large metal loops exist

where different electrical wiring systems are

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installed in common routes. e.g. data
communication cables connecting IT equipment
within a building.
An important consideration is with regards to medical
equipment which which can be affected by electromagnetic
disturbances associated with electrical installations.
444.4.1 Sources of electromagnetic disturbances
Consideration shall be given to the location of the sources of
electromagnetic disturbances relative to the positioning of
other equipment.
Typical sources of electromagnetic disturbances:

switching devices for inductive loads

electric motors

fluorescent lighting

welding machines

rectifiers

choppers

frequency convertors/regulators including Variable


Speed Drives

lifts

transformers

switchgear

power distribution busbars

Further information can be found by referring to the BS EN


50174 standards series.

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444.4.2 Measures to reduce EMI


Regulation 444.4.2.1 identifies measures to be considered,
where appropriate, in order to reduce the effects of
electromagnetic interference.
This covers screened signal or data cables, the use of surge
protective devices, the installation of power cables, the
separation of power and signal cables and the installation of
an equipotential bonding network with reference to
Regulation 444.5.3
444.4.3 TN system
This deals with requirements to minimize electromagnetic
disturbances in a TN system.
444.4.3.1 A PEN conductor shall not be used downstream of
the original installation. Note that Regulation 8(4) of the
Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations 2002
prohibits the use of PEN conductors in consumers
installations in the UK.
444.4.3.2 The installation shall have separate neutral and
protective conductors downstream of the origin of the
installation.
444.4.4 TT system
Consideration shall be given to overvoltages which might
exist between live parts and extraneous-conductive-parts
where the extraneous-conductive-parts of different buildings
are connected to different earth electrodes.
The use of an isolating transformer to provide a TN-S system
shall be considered.

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444.4.6 Multiple source TN or TT power supplies
For TN or TT multiple source power supplies to an
installation, the system shall be earthed at one point only.
444.4.7 Transfer of supply
In an installation forming part of a TN system, the transfer of
supply to an alternative supply shall be by means of a
multipole switching device which switches the line
conductors and the neutral conductor, if any.
(This method prevents electromagnetic fields due to stray
currents in the main supply system of an installation)
Note the sections and regulations concerning separate
buildings, inside buildings, within a single building and
between buildings. Note that these refer to other regulations
and British Standards.
444.5.2 Equipotential bonding networks
The structure for bonding conductors shall be appropriate
for the installation.
444.5.3 Sizing and installation of copper bonding ring
network conductors
Equipotential bonding designed as a bonding ring network
shall have the following minimum nominal dimensions:

Flat cross-section: 25 mm x 3 mm

Round diameter: 8 mm

Bare conductors shall be protected against corrosion at their


supports and on their passage through walls.
444.5.3.1 Parts to be connected to the equipotential bonding
network
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Note the parts required by the regulation to be connected to


the equipotential bonding network:

Metallic containment, conductive screens,


conductive sheaths or armouring of data
transmission cables or of IT equipment.

Functional earthing conductors of antenna systems

Conductors of the earthed pole of a d.c. supply for


IT equipment.

Functional earthing conductors.

Protective conductors.

444.5.7.1 Earthing arrangements and equipotential bonding


of IT installations for functional purposes
444.5.7.1 Earthing busbar
Where an earthing busbar is required for functional
purposes, consideration shall be given to extending the main
earthing terminal of the building by using one or more
earthing busbars.
The purpose of this is to enable information technology (IT)
installations to be connected to the main earthing terminal
by the shortest practicable route from any point in the
building.
A new regulation governs the cross-sectional area of the
busbar:
444.5.7.2 Cross-sectional area of the earthing busbar
For installations connected to a supply having a capacity of
200 A per phase or more - minimum cross sectional area

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50mm2 copper and shall be selected in accordance with
Regulation 444.5.2(iii)
For supplies having a capacity of less than 200 A per phase,
then the earthing busbar shall be selected in accordance with
Table 54.8 which can be found on page 167 of BS7671:2008
Amendment 1.
Where the earthing busbar is used as part of a d.c. return
current path, its cross sectional area shall be selected
according to the expected d.c. return currents.
444.6 Segregation of circuits
Low voltage and extra low voltage cables sharing the same
cable management system or route shall be installed
according to Regulations 528.1 and 528.2

automatically or unexpectedly on the restoration of the


power. In BS7671: 2008 there is a requirement that suitable
precaution to be taken where this danger may occur.
Regulation 445.1.1 refers to regulation 522.1.3, which states
that every motor to be fitted with means to prevent
automatic restarting after a stoppage due to a drop in
voltage or failure of supply. Where unexpected restarting of
the motor might cause danger, one way of addressing the
problem is to install starters incorporating undervoltage
relays with manual restart facilities.

444.6.2 Equipment
Note that the minimum distance between IT cables and high
intensity discharge lamps shall be 130 mm.
Section 444 was reserved for future use in the 17th
Edition:2008 (red cover) publication. Section 444 has now
been added to Amendment 1 (green cover) and no doubt
questions on this new section will arise in the 2382
Requirements for Electrical Installations exam.
Section 444 is not a large section, but it contains some
important regulations and clear illustrations. Its worth
taking a little time to read through section 444 and
familiarise yourself with its content at this point in the
course.445 Protection against undervoltage
Where a reduction or a loss in voltage happens, there is a
potential danger that any equipment may restart
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REVIEW QUESTIONS Part 4 Protection for Safety

Question 1

Question 3

Which one is the most commonly used protective measure


against electric shock?

A circuit protective conductor shall be run to and terminated


at each point in wiring and at each accessory except

A.

Automatic disconnection of supply

A.

a connection point

B.

Double or reinforced insulation

B.

an earthing point

C.

a voltage source

D.

a lamp holder having no exposed-conductive-parts


and suspended from such a point.

C.
Electrical separation for the supply to one item of
current-using equipment
D.

Extra-low voltage (SELV and PELV)

Question 2
The provision for fault protection against electric shock may
be omitted for
A.
Metal supports of overhead line insulators which are
attached to the building and are placed out of arm's reach

Question 4
In each installation main protective bonding conductors
shall connect to the main earthing terminal extraneousconductive-parts including:
A.

Water installation pipes

B.

Switchers and connectors

B.

metal pieces of furniture

C.

Unearthed lines

C.

power supply

D.

Low voltage supply lines

D.

multimedia network system cables

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Question 5

Question 7

In case of a fault, the maximum disconnection time for a d.c.


circuit with line voltage to Earth in the range 120 V-230 V in
a TN system (for final circuits not exceeding 32 A) is
A.

0.5 sec

Which type of circuit does BS7671 not refer to when


considering the ommission of a device for protection against
overload, eventhough unexpected disconnection may cause
danger or damage

B.

0.2 sec

A.

a circuit supplying luminaires

C.

0.4 sec

B.

a circuit supplying a fire extinguishing device

D.

0.1 sec

C.

the exciter circuit of a rotating machine

D.

a circuit supplying a safety service, such as a fire


alarm or a gas alarm

Question 6
Where disconnection of the neutral conductor in IT system is
required, disconnection and reconnection shall be such that
A.

the neutral conductor shall be disconnected before


the line conductors and shall be reconnected at the
same time as or before the line conductors.

B.

the neutral conductor shall not be disconnected


before the line conductors and shall be reconnected
at the same time as or before the line conductors.

C.

D.

the neutral conductor shall not be disconnected at the


same time as or before the line conductors and shall
be reconnected after the line conductors.

Question 8
For an installation with nominal voltage 400/690 V the
required minimum impulse withstand voltage of category I
overvoltage protective device (equipment with reduced
impulse voltage) is
A.

2.5 kV

B.

4 kV

C.

5 kV

D.

6 kV

the neutral conductor shall be disconnected before


the line conductors and shall be reconnected at the
same time as or after the line conductors.

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Question 9

Question 10

When tested at 5 times the rated operating current, an RCD


used for additional protection should operate within

Under what circumstances is additional protection not


required by means of an RCD in <20A circuit

A.

400ms

A.

when applied to mobile equipment outdoors

B.

40ms

B.

it is always required

C.

0.2s

C.

D.

0.5s

when in a dwelling a documented risk assessment


determines RCD protection is not necessary

D.

it is never required in any circumstance

ANSWERS Protection for safety


1A, Ref: BS7671: 410.3.3
2A, Ref: BS7671: 410.3.9
3D, Ref: BS7671: 411.3.1.1
4A, Ref: BS7671: 411.3.1.2
5A, Ref: BS7671: 411.3.2.2
6B, Ref: BS7671: 431.3
7A, Ref: BS7671: 433.3.3
8A, Ref: BS7671: 443.2.6
9B, Ref: BS7671: 415.1.1
10C, Ref: BS7671: 411.3.3

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PART 5 SELECTION & ERECTION OF EQUIPMENT

Well now work through Part 5. Many of the important


regulations have been highlighted in this part and relevant
regulations and definitions are expanded upon and
illustrated where necessary.
Chapter 51: Common rules (Compliance with
Standards, external influences, identification (circuit
and wiring systems) notices, etc.
Chapter 52:Selection and erection of wiring systems
(types of wiring system, mechanical protection
including cables in walls etc.), requirements for the

monitoring.
Chapter 54: Earthing arrangements and protective
conductors (sizing of CPCs, earthing conductors and
main bonding conductors).
Chapter 55:Other equipment (generators, transformers
etc and Section 559 Luminaires and lighting
installations).
Chapter 56:Safety services (Sources, circuits and
wiring systems).

methods of support of wiring systems in escape routes.


Chapter 53: Protection, isolation, switching control and

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Part 5 deals with the selection of equipment and its erection.
It provides some common rules for the compliance with the
measures of protection for safety, and requirements for
proper functioning of the intended use of the installation
and any external influences that may affect that installation.

Ch 51 - Common Rules
511 Compliance with Standards

Every item of equipment will comply with:

The relevant requirements of an applicable current


British Standard (BS) or Harmonized European
standard, or

Any foreign national standard based on an IEC


standard provided the designer or specifier of the
installation verifies that any differences between
these Standards will not result in a lesser degree of
safety than the relevant British Standard.

512.1 Operational conditions:

512.1.4 Power
512.1.5 Compatibility
512.1.6 Voltage impulse
512.2 External influences:
Electrical equipment to be designed appropriate to the
situation in which it is to be used or its mode of installation
should take account of the conditions likely to be
encountered. (Refer to Appendix 5 of BS 7671:2008 for more
specific information.)

513 Accessibility

Equipment, especially joints in cables, to be installed so that


it can be easily operated, inspected and maintained and
provide ease of access to any connections.

514 Identification and notices

This section covers the requirements for a label or other


suitable means of identification to avoid any possibility of
confusion and to indicate the purpose of each item of
switchgear:

Equipment to be suitable for its intended operational


conditions.

Identification

Diagrams and

512.1.1 Voltage

Warning notices including colour identification of

512.1.2 Current

cables and wiring systems.

512.1.3 Frequency

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514.3 Identification of conductors
Every core of a cable should be identified at its terminations and preferably throughout its length.Except where identification is
not required, cores of cables should be identified by colour, letters or numbers.
Table 51 of BS 7671 provides the details in relation to identification of conductors.

Fig. 32 Harmonized wiring colours

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514.8 Identification of protective devices
Circuit protective devices are required to be arranged and
identified so that the circuit protected may be easily
recognized.

A permanent label to BS951 with the words Safety


Electrical Connection Do Not Remove shall be
permanently fixed in a visual position near:

an earth electrode.

514.9 Diagrams and documentation


A legible diagram, chart or table (or equivalent form of
information) must be provided indicating information on
that particular installation, this is more detailed in
BS7671:2008 [Amendment 1 - p 117].
For simple installations the information may be given in a
schedule, a durable copy of which relating to the
distribution board should be provided within or adjacent
to each distribution board.

The connection between an earthing conductor and

The connection between every bonding conductor


and an extraneous-conductive-part.

The main earth terminal.

514.14 Warning notice: non-standard colours


If alterations are made to an existing installation and there
are two versions of wiring colours then a warning notice to
indicate this must be displayed.

514.10 Warning notice: voltage


A warning notice is required where a voltage in excess of
230 V exists,and where this voltage would not normally be
expected. This notice must be clearly visual before any
access is gained to this dangerous live part.
514.11 Warning notice: isolation
A durable notice shall be fixed to indicate live parts that are
not able to be isolated by a single device.
514.12.2 RCD notice (label
A notice shall be placed in a prominent position where a
installation incorporates a RCD.
514.13 Warning notices: earthing and bonding
connections

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Fig. 33 Old and new wiring warning notice

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514.15 Warning notice: alternative supplies (previously
dual supplies)

carrying capacity of a cable or flexible cord from Tables


4D1A to 4J4A.

Where an installation includes alternative or additional


sources of supply, warning notices should be affixed at the
following locations in the installation.

At the origin

At the meter position (if remote from origin)

At the consumer unit

At all points of isolation of both sources of supplies

515 Prevention of mutual detrimental influence


Electrical equipment shall be selected and erected to prevent
any harmful influences between the electrical installation
and any non-electrical installation envisaged.
The equipment shall also be selected and erected to prevent
any electromagnetic influences that may occur.

Ch52 - Selection & Erection of Wiring Systems


521 Types of wiring system

Table 4A2 of Appendix 4 states which installation methods


are appropriate for commonly installed conductors and
cables.
521.3 Types of wiring system
Examples of wiring systems are shown in Table 4A2.
This table should be used first to find the installation
method and then the reference method relating to it. The
reference method is required to determine the current-

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Fig. 34 Complex wiring installation

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521.4 Busbar trunking systems
Commonly used in buildings in a variety of ways to
distribute electricity. Must comply with the requirements of
BS EN 60439-2 / BS EN 61534, also addressed in the
Appendix. Such trunking is used for both distribution and
final circuitry by means of interconnecting busbar trunking
of different ratings.
Advantage of this type of system of overhead busbar
trunking

Is to supply machinery, providing flexibility.

Available in a wide range of current ratings (up to


several thousand amperes).

Designed to be installed in installations where


there may be high fault levels.

Another variation of this type of system is the Rising main


busbar. This trunking system is often used to provide
supplies in multi-story commercial or domestic properties,
as its capability to distribute the supply to individual floors
within buildings.
521.4 Powertrack systemsare commonly used for underfloor distribution systems
feeding socket-outlets or
office furniture, or above
ceilings to provide supplies
and final connection points
to luminaires. They
generally have a maximum

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rating of 63 A and must comply with requirements of BS EN


61534 series.
521.5 Electromagnetic effects
Electromagnetic effects from incorrectly installed cables of
alternating current (a.c.) circuits can cause heat. To prevent
such heat, which may damage cables and other materials,
single-core cables armoured with steel wire or steel tape
must not be used for a.c. circuits.
521.6 Conduit, ducting, trunking and ladder systems
Two or more circuits are allowed in the same conduit,
ducting or trunking system provided the requirements of
Section 528 are met. Regulations 521-6 to 521-10 provide
some general requirements for these wiring systems
including:

Multiple circuits are permitted within the same


wiring system or multi-core cable (See Section 528
though).

Separation of conductors from different final


circuits (See also Section 314).

Use of flexible cables or cords (See also Section


522).

Non-sheathed cables of fixed wiring to be enclosed


(See also Section 522).

521.10 Installation of cables


521.10.1 Non-sheathed cables for fixed wiring shall be
enclosed in conduit, ducting or trunking. This requirement

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does not apply to a protective conductor complying with
Section 543.

There is still an exception for cables forming part of a SELV


or PELV circuit.

Non-sheathed cables are permitted if the cable trunking


system provides at least the degree of protection IPXXD or
IP4X, and if the cover can only be removed by means of a
tool or a deliberate action.

521.11.201 Wiring systems in escape routes shall be


supported such that they will not be liable to premature
collapse in the event of fire. The requirements of Regulation
422.2.1 shall also apply, irrespective of the classification of
the conditions for evacuation in an emergency.

NOTE : For a cable trunking system to meet IP4X


requirements, IP4X trunking and related system components
would need to be installed. If a system includes sitefabricated joints the installer must confirm the completed
item meets at least the degree of protection IPXXD.
521.10.201 A bare live conductor shall be installed on
insulators.

NOTE 1: Non-metallic cable trunking or other non-metallic


means of support can fail when subject to either direct flame
or hot products of combustion. This may lead to wiring
systems hanging across access or egress routes such that
they hinder evacuation and firefighting activities.

Wiring in escape routes

NOTE 2: This precludes the use of non-metallic cable clips,


cable ties or cable trunking as the sole means of support. For
example, where non-metallic cable trunking is used, a
suitable fire-resistant means of support/retention must be
provided to prevent cables falling out in the event of fire.

The regulations concerning selection and erection of wiring


systems (impact) have been redrafted. Reference to under
the supervision of a skilled or instructed person has been
removed.

In 2012at Shirley Towers, Southampton, two members of the


Hampshire Fire Brigade lost their lives. The investigation
found that becoming entangled in cables fallen from the roof
was a contributory factor in the deaths of Jim Shears and
Alan Bannon.

A new Regulation (521.11.201) is included, giving


requirements for the methods of support of wiring systems
in escape routes.

It is now required to protect cables concealed in a wall or


partition (at a depth of less than 50 mm) by a 30 mA RCD for
all installations if other methods of protection including use
of cables with an earthed metallic covering or mechanical
protection are not employed. This applies to a cable in a
partition where the construction includes metallic parts
other than fixings, irrespective of the depth of the cable.

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Investigation into a previous fire in Stevenage in 2005 came


to a similar conclusion.
Regulation 521.11.201 will help prevent significant loss of
life and serious injury due to cables and non-metallic
containment obstructing escape routes during fires due to
the melting of fixings and accessories.

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An external influence is defined as Any influence external
to an electrical installation which affects the design and safe
operation of that installation.

External influences to be considered.

Section 522 outlines the external influences, categorized in


Appendix 5 and provides further information relating to
electrical installations.

Fig. 35 Aftermath of fire at Shirley Towers in Southampton

522 Selection & Erection of Wiring Systems in


relation to External Influences

All electrical installations shall be selected so that it has the


correct protection against any of the expected external
influences. This will also be taken into consideration
especially when it enters equipment.

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522.1 Ambient temperature (AA)


Highest and lowest temperatures to be considered. When
erecting systems and installing cables, the ambient
temperature must also be considered.
522.2 External heat sources
Heat from an external source can be detrimental to wiring
systems.
Cables and flexible cords that are installed inside accessories,
appliances or luminaires must be suitable for temperatures
likely to be encountered or additional insulation, suitable for
those temperatures, should be provided. Methods allowed:

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Shielding

Placing sufficiently far from the heat source.

Selecting a system with due regard for the


additional temperature rise that may occur.

Local reinforcement or substitution of insulation


material.

522.3 Presence of water (AD) or high humidity (AB)


A wiring system shall be selected and erected so that no
damage is caused by the ingress of water or condensation.

Fig. 36 We may not see sandstorms like this in the UK, but dust and
particles can cause significant damage

522.5 Presence of corrosive or polluting substance (AF)


Where there is the presence of a corrosive or polluting
substance, including where water is likely to cause corrosion
or deterioration, the vulnerable parts of the system shall be
suitably protected of manufactured from a material resistant
to such substances.
522.4 Presence of solid foreign bodies (AE)
A wiring system shall be selected and erected so that no
damage is caused by the ingress of solid foreign bodies.

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Consideration must be taken where two dissimilar metals


may cause electrolytic action.

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An assessment must be made of the likely impact on wiring
systems.Risk of impact is categorized as:

50 mm from a surface of the wall or partition shall:


i)

low (AG1),

wall or partition or within 150 mm of an angle formed

medium (AG2), and

by two adjoining walls or partitions. Where the cable is

high severity (AG3)

connected to a point, accessory or switchgear on any


surface of the wall or partition, the cable may be

522.6 Impact (AG


Wiring systems are required to be protected from damage
arising from mechanical stress.The following need to be
considered during installation, use or maintenance:

installed in a zone either horizontally or vertically, to


the point, accessory or switchgear. Where the location
of the accessory, point or switchgear can be determined

Impact

from the reverse side, a zone formed on one side of a

abrasion

wall of 100 mm thickness or less or partition of 100 mm

penetration

thickness or less extends to the reverse side, or

tension or compression

522.6.201
A cable installed under a floor or above a ceiling shall be run
in such a position that it is not liable to be damaged by
contact with the floor or ceiling or their fixings.
A cable passing through a joist within a floor or ceiling
construction or through a ceiling support (e.g. under
floorboards), shall:
i)

be installed in a zone within 150 mm from the top of the

be installed at least 50 mm measured vertically from the


top, or bottom as appropriate, of the joist or batten, or

ii) comply with Regulation 522.6.204.


522.6.202
A cable installed in a wall or partition at a depth of less than

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ii) comply with Regulation 522.6.204.


Where indent (i) but not indent (ii) applies, the cable shall be
provided with additional protection by means of an RCD
having the characteristics specified in Regulation 415.1.1.
522.6.203
Irrespective of its buried depth, a cable concealed in a wall
or partition, the internal construction of which includes
metallic parts, other than metallic fixings such as nails,
screws and the like, shall:
i)

be provided with additional protection by means of an


RCD having the characteristics specified in Regulation
415.1.1, or

ii) comply with Regulation 522.6.204.

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For a cable installed at a depth of less than 50 mm from the
surface of a wall or partition the requirements of Regulation
522.6.202 shall also apply.
522.6.204
For the purposes of Regulation 522.6.201(ii), Regulation
522.6.202(ii) and Regulation 522.6.203(ii), a cable shall:
i)

incorporate an earthed metallic covering which


complies with the requirements of these Regulations for
a protective conductor of the circuit concerned, the
cable complying with BS 5467, BS 6724, BS 7846, BS

particularly where cables and cable connections are


concerned.
522.8 Other mechanical stresses (AJ)
A wiring system should be selected and erected to avoid
during installation, use or maintenance, damage to the
sheath or insulation of cables and their terminations.
The radius of every bend in a wiring system should be such
that no damage occurs and terminals are not stressed. Cables
need to be supported continuously so as not to suffer
damage or strain from their own weight.

8436 or BS EN 60702-1, or
ii) be installed in earthed conduit complying with BS EN
61386-21 and satisfying the requirements of these
Regulations for a protective conductor, or
iii) be enclosed in earthed trunking or ducting complying
with BS EN 50085-2-1 and satisfying the requirements
of these Regulations for a protective conductor, or
iv) be provided with mechanical protection against
damage sufficient to prevent penetration of the cable by
nails, screws and the like, or
v) form part of a SELV or PELV circuit meeting the
requirements of Regulation 414.4.
522.7 Vibration (AH)
A wiring system supported by or fixed to a structure or
equipment subject to vibration of either medium (AH2) or
high severity (AH3) must be suitable for such conditions,

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Fig. 37 Wiring supported by cable tray (in this example this is likely to be
network cabling and not an electrical installation)

Except where installed within a conduit or duct that


provides adequate mechanical protection, cables buried in
the ground must incorporate an earthed amour or metal
sheath or both, suitable for use as a protective conductor.
The location of buried cables should be marked by cable

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covers or suitable marking tape, and should be buried at a
sufficient depth to avoid damage.
522.8.14 Penetration of an element of building
construction
Wiring systems should not penetrate an element of building
construction intended to be load bearing unless the integrity
of the load-bearing element can be assured after such
penetration.
The other regulations in 522.x cover Presence of Flora and
/or mould growth (AK), Presence of Fauna (AL), Solar and
Ultraviolet radiation (AN), Seismic effects (AP), Movement
of air (AS) (previously wind), Nature of processed or stored
materials (BE), Building design (CB)
The above regulations are defined more in Appendix 5.

523 Current-Carrying Capacities of Cables

The requirement of this regulation is considered satisfied if


the current for non-sheathed and sheathed cables does not
exceed the appropriate values selected from the tables of
current carrying capacity given in Appendix 4
523.5 Groups containing more than one circuit
For groups of cables there is a grouping factor which can be
found in Tables 4C1 to 4C6 of Appendix 4.
523.8 Variation of Installation conditions along a route
Where the heat differs in one part of a route to another, the
current-carrying capacity shall be appropriate for that part
of the route having the most adverse conditions.

523.9 Cables in Thermal Insulation


A cable should preferably not be installed in a location
where it is liable to be covered by thermal insulation. Where
a cable is to be run in a space to which thermal insulation is
likely to be applied, the cable shall wherever practicable be
fixed in a position such that it will not be covered by the
thermal insulation. Where fixing in such a position is
impractical the cross-sectional area of the cable shall be
selected to meet the requirements of Chapter 43.
For a cable installed in a thermally insulated wall or above a
thermally insulated ceiling, the cable being in contact with a
thermally conductive surface on one side, current-carrying
capacities are tabulated in Appendix 4.
For a single cable likely to be totally surrounded by
thermally insulating material over a length of more than 0.5
m, the current-carrying capacity shall be taken, in the
absence of more precise information, as 0.5 times the
current-carrying capacity for that cable clipped direct to a
surface and open (Reference Method C).
Table 52.2 Cable surrounded by thermal insulation
Length in insulation (mm)

Derating factor

50

0.88

100

0.78

200

0.63

400

0.51

Table 11 Derating factors for insulated cable - Table 52.2 of BS7671

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524.1 Cross-sectional areas of conductors of cables
The cross-sectional area of each conductor in an A.C. circuit
or of a conductor in a D.C. circuit shall be not less than the
value given in Table 52.3.
For information about minimum csa of conductors for extralow voltage lighting installations, see Regulation 559.11.5.2.
524.2 Cross-sectional area of neutral conductor
A neutral conductor is required to have a cross-sectional
area not less than that of the line conductor:

in single-phase, two-wire circuits whatever the

protection.
The following dangers need to be protected against:

fire or other harmful thermal effects

contact with a live part

failure of fault protection measures

526.3 Accessibility of connections


With certain exemptions, electrical connections (including
protective conductors) should be accessible for the purposes
of:

cross-sectional area.

inspection

in polyphase and single-phase three-wire circuits,

testing

where the size of the line conductors is less than or

maintenance

equal to 16 mm2 for copper, or 25 mm2 for


aluminum.

525 Voltage drop in consumers installations

The regulations are deemed to be satisfied if the voltage


drop between the origin of the installation (usually the
supply terminals) and that of the socket-outlet or the
terminals of fixed current-using equipment does not exceed
that stated in Appendix 4, Section 6.4. That is 3% for lighting
and 5% for other uses from the public electricity supply and
6% and 8% respectively for private electricity supply

526 Electrical connections

Every connection between conductors or between a


conductor and other equipment should provide durable
electrical continuity and adequate mechanical strength and

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Connections in non-readily accessible locations.


Connections made in roof spaces, inter-floor spaces and
other non-readily accessible locations should be enclosed,
and normally fixed.
Effects of temperature of connections on insulation.
The temperature attained by a connection should not impair
the effectiveness of the insulation of the conductors
connected to it or any insulating material used to support
the connection.
A cable that utilizes thermosetting insulation(often called
XLPE), has a maximum operating temp for insulation of
90C.

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526.5 Requirements for terminations and joints to be
enclosed in:

A suitable accessory (such as a lighting switch or a


socket-outlet).

An equipment enclosure (see opposite).

An enclosure partially formed or completed with


building material, which is non-combustible when
tested to BS 476-4.

526.9 Requirements for sheathed and non-sheathed


cable enclosure
Cores of sheathed cables from which the sheath has been
removed and non-sheathed cables at the termination of
conduit etc. should be enclosed.(as required by Regulation
526.5)

527 Selection and erection of wiring systems to


minimize the spread of fire

Section 527 considers two aspects in relation to the risk of


spread of fire:

The precautions within a fire-segregated


compartment (527.1) and

The sealing of wiring system penetrations (527.2)

The risk of spread of fire should be minimized by the


selection of appropriate materials and erection methods.
Wiring systems shall be installed so that the general building
structural performance and fire safety are not reduced.
Cables: Most common cables will comply, without further

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precautions, provided they comply with, at least, BS EN


60332-1-2 (which relates to fire tests on cables).
Conduit and trunking systems: Should comply with their
product standard in which case no further precautions are
required.Where a conduit or trunking system passes
through elements of building construction, the opening
remaining after the passage of the wiring system is required
to be sealed according to the degree of fire resistance of the
building element prior to penetration.
527.2.3 Internal sealing of wiring systems
Review Regulation 527.2.6 for the requirements relating to
the sealing of conduit, trunking or ducting.
Internal sealing of wiring systems such as conduit, trunking
or ducting is not required where the system is classified as
non- flame propagating according to the relevant product
standard and has a maximum internal cross-sectional area of
710 mm2 provided that:

The system provides a degree of protection IP33,


and

Any termination of the system in one of the


compartments, separated by the building
construction being penetrated, provides a degree of
protection to IP33.

528 Proximity of wiring systems to other services,

Section 528 sets out requirements for measures to be taken


where electrical equipment, including wiring systems, are in
close proximity to other electrical services and to non-

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electrical services.
Voltage bands I and II are used in Section 528 for the
purposes of defining segregation.
Neither a Band I or Band II circuit should be contained in the
same wiring system as a circuit of nominal voltage
exceeding that of low voltage, and Band I circuits should not
be contained in the same wiring system as Band II circuits
unless one (or more) of the following methods is adopted:
528.1 (i) every cable or conductor is insulated for the
highest voltage present (i.e. for the highest circuit
voltage in excess of low voltage).

of 100 mm is to be maintained between services, or the


requirements of Regulation 528.1 (i) or (ii) must be fulfilled.
Wiring systems should not be installed in the vicinity of a
service, which produces heat, smoke or fumes likely to be
detrimental to the wiring, unless the wiring is protected
against such harmful effects.
Where condensation may occur, precautions have to be
taken to prevent deleterious effects.
528.3.5 Lift shafts
The only cables that may be run in the lift or hoist shaft are
those that form part of the lift installation as defined.

528.1 (ii) each core of a multi-core cable is insulated


for the highest voltage present in the cable.
528.1 (iii) the cables are insulated for their system
voltage and installed in a separate compartment.
528.1 (iv) the cables are installed on a cable tray
system where physical separation is provided by a
partition.
528.1 (v) a separate conduit, trunking or ducting
system is employed.
528.1 (vi) for a multi-core cable or cord, the cores of
the Band I circuit are separated from the cores of Band
II circuit by an earthed metallic screen.
Proximity of communications cables (underground).
Where underground power cables and telecommunications
cables cross or are in close proximity a minimum clearance

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529 Selection and erection of wiring systems in
relation to maintainability, including cleaning

All electrical installations and electrical equipment will


deteriorate over time due to accidental or deliberate damage,
corrosion, electrical overloading and from environmental
factors.
Electrical installations may need to be maintained without
undue difficulty and kept in a safe condition throughout its
life in BS EN 81-1 series.

Ch53 - Protection, Isolation, Switching


Control and Monitoring
Section 530 deals with the common requirements for
protection, isolation, switching control and monitoring. And
in section 530.4 references the fixing of equipment, most
generally according to manufacturers instructions.

531 Fault protection by automatic disconnection


of supply
Reference is made to Chapter 41 and the nature of the
supply system: TN, TT or IT which detail the selection and
erection of devices for fault protection.
531.2 RCD Devices
Summary of RCD
requirements:
An RCD should be
capable of disconnecting
all line conductors at
substantially the same
time.
An RCD cannot be used
for fault protection on its
own, for example where a
circuit does not contain a
protective conductor.

Fig. 38 Installation design needs to take account of maintenance

Requirements for future maintenance should be assessed in


the early stages of the electrical installation design and taken
into account in the design.

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Fig. 39 RCD device

Discrimination between
devices is achieved the
device electrically nearest

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to the fault operates, leaving other upstream protective
device(s) still supplying other circuits.
Review Sections 531.3, 531.4, 531.5 to understand the
regulations relating to RCDs in alternative supply systems.

532 Devices for protection against the risk of fire


Where it is necessary to limit the consequence of fault
currents with respect to the risk of fire, an RCD should be
installed which:

Complies with Regulation Group 531.2 for fault


protection and

Is installed at the origin of the circuit to be


protected and

Switches all live conductors, and

Has a rated residual operating current 300 mA.

536 Coordination of protective devices

Where coordination of series protective devices is necessary


to prevent danger and where required for proper
functioning of the installation, consideration should be given
to selectivity and/or any necessary back-up protection.
Where selectivity between overcurrent devices or RCDs is
necessary to prevent danger and where required for proper
functioning of the installation, the manufacturers
instructions must be taken into account.

537 Isolation and switching

The term isolation and switching, relates to four distinct


operating functions which are defined in Part 2 of BS 7671:

Isolation (537.2)

Switching off for mechanical maintenance (537.3)

Emergency switching (537.4)

Functional switching (537.5

533 Devices for protection against overcurrent

Firefighter switches (537.6) are also covered in this section.

The relevant symbols are defined as:

Table 53.4 of BS 7671 provides guidance on the selection of


protective, isolation and switching devices.

This section provides further information relating to the


selection of devices for overload and fault current (to be read
in conjunction with Chapter 43)
Ib - The current for which the circuit is designed i.e. the
current intended to be carried in normal service.
Iz - The current-carrying capacity of the cable.
In - The rated current of the protective device.
I2 - The current giving effective operation of the
overload protective device.

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General requirements

Each installation is to have provision for disconnecting


supply. A main linked switch or linked circuit breaker is
required as near as practicable to the origin of every
installation as a means of switching the supply on load and
as a means of isolation.
Where an installation is supplied from more than one
source, a main switch is required for each source of supply

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or alternatively, a suitable interlock system must be
provided.
Table 53.4 Guidance to the selection of protective, isolation
and switching devices. This table has been introduced to
clarify the application and function that the selected device
is deemed to carry-out.This table also has the listed BS
numbers of the selected device.

Table 53.4 Guidance on the selection of


protective, isolation and switching devices
Device

Standard

Isolation

Emergency
switching

Functional
switching

Circuitbreaker

BS EN
608998

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

BS EN
60947-2

Yes

Yes

Yes

BS EN
60947-2

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

BS EN
61008-1

Yes

Yes

Yes

(5) Circuit-breakers and RCDs are primarily circuitprotective devices and, as such, they are not intended for
frequent load switching. Infrequent switching of circuitbreakers on-load is admissible for the purposes of isolation
or emergency switching.
For a more frequent duty, the number of operations and load
characteristics according to the manufacturers instructions
should be taken into account or an alternative device from
those listed as suitable for functional switching in Table 53.4
should be employed.
537.1.4 General requirements
A main switch intended for operation by ordinary persons
e.g. of a household or similar installation, should interrupt
both live conductors of a single-phase supply.

BS EN
61009-1
RCD

BS EN
61009-1
Table 12 Selection of protective, isolation and switching devices

Note added

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Fig. 41 A locked RCD with notice


Fig. 40 A consumer unit with a clearly identified main switch. From
January 2016, such units will be constructed of material according to
regulation 421.1.201

537.2 Isolation
Isolation is the function that allows operatives to work safely
on electrical equipment, and is defined as:

Items to be considered in relation to isolation devices


include:

Numbers of poles to be isolated.

Isolation of groups and inconvenience.

Devices designed and/or installed to prevent


unintentional or inadvertent closure.

A function intended to cut off for reasons of safety the


supply from all, or a discrete section, of the installation
by separating the installation or section from every
source of electrical energy.

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Isolation devices to be clearly identified and


indicate the installation or circuit it isolates.

Where an isolating device is placed remote from the


equipment to be isolated, provision must be made to secure
the device in the open position.

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Where there is more than one source of supply a durable
warning notice is required.
537.3 Switching off for mechanical maintenance
Switching off for mechanical maintenance is not necessarily
intended to provide protection against electric shock.
Switching off for mechanical maintenance is to enable nonelectrical maintenance to be performed safely without the
risk of burns or injury from mechanical movement.
Mechanical maintenance is defined as:

The replacement, refurbishment or cleaning of

removal of the hazard by cutting off the


appropriate supply.
537.5 Functional switching
Functional switching is provided for the users of electrical
installations for normal operating purposes to control items
of current-using electrical equipment. The equipment may
be controlled either individually or in groups and via a
manual or automatic operation.

and machinery.

An operation intended to switch on or off or vary the


supply of electrical energy to all or part of an installation for
normal operating purposes.Examples of functional
switching devices include:

Switching off for mechanical maintenance.

Emergency switching is defined as:


An operation intended to remove, as quickly as
possible, danger, which may have occurred
unexpectedly.
The means for emergency switching must consist
of either:

operated by a single action and resulting in the

Functional switching is defined as:

Where, in case of danger, there is necessity for immediate


interruption of supply, an interrupting device must be
installed in such a way that it can be easily recognized and
effectively and rapidly operated.

A combination of several items of equipment

lamps and non-electrical parts of equipment, plant

537.4 Emergency Switching

A single switching device directly cutting off the

A switch in a socket-outlet

A contactor switching the supply

Push buttons

A thermostat

A pressure switch

A micro switch

537.6 Firefighter switches


A firefighter switch shall be provided in a low voltage
system supplying exterior electrical installations and interior
discharge lighting installations operating at a voltage
exceeding low voltage.

incoming supply, or

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Fig. 42 Sign indicating presence of a
fireman's switch

527.6.3 Every firefighters switch


will comply with the following
requirements and in conjunction
with the local fire authority
For an exterior installation, the
switch shall be outside the
building and adjacent to the equipment, or a notice
indicating the position of the switch must be placed next to
the equipment and a notice at the switch to indicate its
control.
In an interior installation, the switch will be located at the
main entrance of the building.
The switch will be:

A conspicuous position

Accessible to firefighters

Not more than 2.75m from the ground

Where more than one switch is installed, each will be clearly


marked to indicate the installation which it controls.

Fig. 43 Fireman's switch including extraction control

527.6.4 Afirefighters switch will be:

Coloured red and have fixed onto it or placed near


it a permanent durable nameplate marked with the
words Firefighters Switch. The minimum size of
the plate to be 150mm x 100mm and the words
legible from a distance but no less than 36 point.

It ON and OFF positions clearly marked by


lettering and its OFF position at the top.

Have a device to prevent it being inadvertently


returned to the ON position.

Be arranged so that it operation is easily facilitated


by a firefighter.

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538 Monitoring

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Section 538 of BS 7671 provides the requirements relating to
monitoring.
Within Section 538 there are two types of monitoring
devices: aninsulation monitoring devices (IMD) (538.1), and
Residual current monitor (RCM) (538.4)
The IMD is part of an IT system and provides continuous
monitoring of insulation resistance throughout the system.
An IMD may or may not be connected to insulation fault
location equipment.

538.4 Residual current (RCM) monitor


An RCM permanently monitors any leakage current in the
downstream installation or part of it; such a device is NOT
intended to provide protection against electric shock.
In supply systems, RCMs may be installed to reduce the risk
of operation of the protective device in the event of excessive
leakage current of the installation or the connected
appliances.
Where an RCD is installed upstream of the RCM, it is
recommended that the RCM has a rated residual operating
current not exceeding a third of that of the RCD.

Fig. 44 RCM Monitor

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Ch54 - Earthing Arrangements & Protective


Conductors
Chapter 54 is concerned with the sizing of CPCs, earthing
conductors and main bonding conductors. This is a common
source of 2382-15 questions.
541.1 Every means of earthing and every protective
conductor shall be selected and erected so as to satisfy the
requirements of the Regulations.
541.2 The earthing system of the installation may be
subdivided, in which case each part thus divided shall
comply with the requirements of this Chapter.
541.3 Where there is also a lightning protection system,
reference shall be made to BS EN 62305.

542 Earthing arrangements

542.1.100 Main earthing terminal (MET)


The main earthing terminal (MET) shall be connected with
Earth by one of the methods described in Regulations 542.1.2
to 542.1.3, as appropriate to the type of system of which the
installation is part.

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Fig. 45 Main earthing terminal

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Earthing arrangements explained
It would be advantageous to recap on the different earthing
supplies that are used, as previously described in Part 2
Definitions. Of the five mentioned the most commonly
installed are TN-S, TNC-S and TT.
TheSUPPLY system earthing arrangement is indicated
by the first letter:
T signifies that one or more points directly connected
to Earth (T stands for terre, the French for Earthed.)
The INSTALLATION earthing arrangements are
indicated by the second letter:
T Indicates that the exposed-conductive-parts of the
installation are directly connected to Earth.
N Indicates that the exposed-conductive-parts of the
installation are directly connected to the earthed point
of the source ofenergy. (N representsneutre neutral)
The SYSTEM PROTECTIVE AND NEUTRAL
CONDUCTOR arrangements are indicated by the
following letters:
S.Separate neutral and protective conductors are
provided. (S is forseparee-separate).
C Implies that the Neutral and protective functions are
both performed by a single conductor, called a
combined protective and neutral (PEN) conductor. (C
stands for commune combined)

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542.1.2.1 TN-S

Fig. 46For a TN-S system, means shall be provided for the main earthing terminal of the installation to be connected to the earthed point of the source of
energy.( Part of the connection may be formed by the distributors lines and equipment).

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542.1.2.2 TN-C-S

Fig. 47For a TN-C-S system, where protective multiple earthing is provided, means shall be provided for the main earthing terminal of the installation to be
connected by the distributor to the neutral of the source of energy

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542.1.2.3 TT and IT

Fig. 48For a TT or IT system, the main earthing terminal shall be connected via an earthing conductor to an earth electrode complying with Regulation 542.2.

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542.1.2.4 Where the supply to an installation is at high
voltage, protection against faults between the high voltage
supply and earth shall be provided in accordance with
Section 442.
542.1.3.1 The earthing arrangements shall be such that:
1. The value of impedance from the consumers main
earthing terminal to the earthed point of the supply
for TN systems, or to Earth for TT and IT systems, is
in accordance with the protective and functional
requirements of the installation, and considered to be
continuously effective, and
2. Earth fault currents and protective conductor
currents which may occur are carried without
danger, particularly from thermal, thermomechanical
and electromechanical stresses, and
3. They are adequately robust or have additional
mechanical protection appropriate to the assessed
conditions of external influence.
542.1.3.2 Precautions shall be taken against the risk of
damage to other metallic parts through electrolysis.
542.1.3.3 Where a number of installations have separate
earthing arrangements, any protective conductors common
to any of these installations shall either be capable of
carrying the maximum fault current likely to flow through
them or be earthed within one installation only and
insulated from the earthing arrangements of any other
installation. In the latter circumstances, if the protective
conductor forms part of a cable, the protective conductor

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shall be earthed only in the installation containing the


associated protective device.
542.2 Earth electrodes
542.2.1 The design used, and the construction of, an earth
electrode shall be such as to withstand damage and to take
account of possible increase in resistance due to corrosion
542.2.3 Seven distinct types of earth electrode have been
recognized in BS 7671.The following types of earth electrode
are recognized for the purposes of the Regulations:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Earth rods or pipes.


Earth tapes or wires.
Earth plates.
Underground structural metalwork embedded in
foundations.
5. Welded metal reinforcement of concrete (except prestressed concrete) embedded in the earth.
6. Lead sheaths and other metal coverings of cables,
where not precluded by Regulation 542.2.5.
7. Other suitable underground metalwork.
(You can also refer to BS 7430 for further specifications)
Earth rods and pipes
Although suitable for many, if not most, earthing
applications, solid rod orpipe earth electrodes are not
particularly well suited to situationswhere rock or other
hard layer prevent deep driving.
Earth plates
Earth plates are usually of copper or cast iron, and

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normallynot more than 1.2 meters square. They are designed
to belaid into the ground vertically and not horizontally
(flat) asin many cases are.If the ground composition prevent
this then Earth gridsand Earth tape as shown should be
used.
542.2.4 The type and embedded depth of an earth
electrode shall be such that soil drying and freezing will not
increase its resistance above the required value.
542.2.5 The use, as an earth electrode, of the lead sheath
or other metal covering of a cable shall be subject to all of the
following conditions:

Adequate precautions to prevent excessive


deterioration by corrosion

The sheath or covering shall be in effective contact


with earth

The consent of the owner of the cable shall be


obtained

Arrangements shall exist for the owner of the


electrical installation to be warned of any proposed
change to the cable, which might affect its
suitability as an earth electrode.

542.2.6 A metallic pipe for gases or flammable liquids


shall not be used for an earth electrode. The metallic pipe of
a water utilityshall not be used for an earth electrode. Other
metallic water supply pipework shall not be used unless
precautions are taken to prevent its removal.

Four common earthing methods


1.
2.
3.
4.

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Structural metalwork
Earth plate
Earth tape
Earth rod

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542.3 Earthing conductor
The earthing conductor of an electrical installation is the
protective conductor connecting the Main Earthing Terminal
(MET) of the installation with the means of earthing (the
external earthing system).
Mechanical Damage

Protected

NOT protected

2.5mm2 copper

2.5mm2 copper

10mm2 steel

16mm2 steel

Corrosion Damage
Protected by a sheath

NOT protected

Note:The covering of a green-and-yellow single-core cable is


not a sheath.
542.4 Main earthing terminals or bars (MET)
MET connecting the earthing conductor to installation
protective conductors.
To facilitate measurement of the resistance of the earthing
arrangement, a means of disconnecting the installation
earthing conductor will be required. This provision may be
combined with the main earthing terminal.

2.5mm2 copper
50mm2 steel

Table 13 Minimum cross-sectional area of a buried earthing conductor.


BS7671 Table 54.1

Fig. 50 Disconnect by removing bolted link

Fig. 49 Earthing conductor

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543 Protective conductors

Regulation Group 543 provides information on the selection


of both type and cross-sectional area of protective
conductors.Protective conductors are conductors provided
for the purposes of safety. For example protection against
electric shock.

Selected (in accordance with Regulation 543.1.4) or

Calculated (in accordance with Regulation 543.1.3)

Except where a protective conductor is an integral part of a


cable, formed by a conduit, ducting or trunking or contained
in an enclosure of a wiring system what is the minimum csa
for a copper protective conductor if:

There are two methods that may be employed when


choosing a protective conductor as required by Regulation
543.1.1. The cross sectional area (csa) of every protective
conductor (other than protective bonding conductors, which
are discussed later) must either be:

Cross-sectional area of a line


conductor (mm2)

Protection against mechanical damage is provided,


and

Mechanical protection is not provided.

Selection of protective conductor (reference to the related


line conductor and Table 54.7

Minimum cross-sectional area of the corresponding protective


conductor
Protective conductor same
material as line conductor (mm2)

NOT the same material (mm2)

S <16

16 < S < 35

16

S > 35

Table 14Cross-sectional areas of protective conductors.

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1
16
2
1

2 2

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Calculation of protective conductors (adiabatic equation):

2
=

Where the selection method has not been utilized, every


protective conductor, other than a protective bonding
conductor, will need to be verified by use of the calculation
method.

543.2.2 Where a metal enclosure or frame of a low voltage


switchgear or controlgear assembly or busbar trunking
system is used as a protective conductor, it shall satisfy the
following three requirements:

construction or by suitable connection, in such a


way as to be protected against mechanical,
chemical or electrochemical deterioration.

543.2.1 A protective conductor may consist of one or more


of the following:

A single-core cable

A conductor in a cable

An insulated or bare conductor in a common


enclosure with insulated live conductors

A fixed bare or insulated conductor

A metal covering, for example, the sheath, screen


or armouring of a cable

A metal conduit or other enclosure or electrically


continuous support system for conductors

An extraneous-conductive-part complying with


Regulation 543.2.6.

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Its cross sectional area shall be at least equal to that


resulting from the application of Regulation 543.1,

543.2 Types of protective conductor


A gas pipe an oil pipe, Flexible or pliable conduit, support
wires or flexible metallic parts or parts of a construction
shall not be selected as a protective conductor.

Its electrical continuity shall be assured, either by

or verified by test in accordance with BS EN 604391.

It shall permit the connection of other protective


conductors at every predetermined tap-off point.

543.2.4 A protective conductor of the types and of crosssectional area 10mm2 or less shall be copper
543.2.5 The metal covering including the sheath (bare or
insulated) of a cable, in particular the sheath of a mineral
insulated cable, trunking and ducting for electrical purposes
and metal conduit, may be used as a protective conductor
for the associated circuit, if it satisfies both requirements of
items (i) and (ii) of Regulation 543.2.2.
543.2.6 Except as prohibited in Regulation 543.2.3, an
extraneous-conductive-part may be used as a protective
conductor if it satisfies all the following requirements:

Electrical continuity shall be assured, either by


construction or by suitable connection, in such a
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way as to be protected against mechanical,
chemical or electrochemical deterioration.

The cross-sectional area shall be at least equal to


that resulting from the application of Regulation
543.1.1.

And unless compensatory measures are provided,


precautions shall be taken against its removal.

And it has been considered for such a use and, if


necessary, suitably adapted.

543.2.7 Earthing tail requirement


Where the protective conductor is formed by conduit,
trunking, ducting or the metal sheath and/or armour of a
cable, the earthing terminal of each accessory shall be
connected by a separate protective conductor to an earthing
terminal incorporated in the associated box or other
enclosure.

formed by a metal covering or enclosure containing all of the


conductors of the ring, the circuit protective conductor of
every ring final circuit shall also be run in the form of a ring
having both ends connected to the earthing terminal at the
origin of the circuit.
543.2.10 A separate metal enclosure for cable shall not be
used as a PEN conductor.
543.3 Preservation of electrical continuity of protective
conductors
543.3.1 A protective conductor shall be suitably protected
against both mechanical and chemical deterioration and
electrodynamic effects
543.3.2 A protective conductor having a cross-sectional
area up to and including 6 mm2 shall be protected
throughout by a covering at least equivalent to that
provided by the insulation of a single-core non-sheathed
cable of appropriate size having a voltage rating of at least
450/750 V:

A protective conductor forming part of a multicore


cable.

Cable trunking or conduit used as a protective


conductor.

543.3.5 An exposed-conductive-part of equipment shall


not be used to form a protective conductor for other
equipment except as provided by Regulations 543.2.1,
543.2.2 and 543.2.5
543.2.9 Except where the circuit protective conductor is

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Where the sheath of a cable incorporating an uninsulated


protective conductor of cross-sectional area up to and
including 6 mm2 is removed adjacent to joints and
terminations, the protective conductor shall be protected by
insulating sleeving complying with BSEN 60684

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543.3.2 Every connection and joint shall be accessible for
inspection, testing and maintenance
543.3.3 No switching device shall be inserted in a
protective conductor except for the following:

As permitted by Regulation 537.1.5.

Multipole linked switching or plug-in devices in


which the protective conductor circuit shall not be
interrupted before the live conductors and shall be
re-established not later than when the live
conductors are e-connected.

Joints, which can be disconnected for test purposes, are


permitted in a protective conductor circuit.
543.3.4 Where electrical earth monitoring is used, no
dedicated devices will be connected in series with the
protective conductor (see BS 4444).
543.3.6 Every joint in metallic conduit shall be
mechanically and electrically continuous
543.5.1 Where earthing for combined protective and
functional purposes is required, the requirements for
protective measures shall take precedence.When energized
and in normal use, some electrical equipment can cause
current to flow in the circuit protective
conductors.Equipment having such currents may include:
Information technology equipment
Industrial and telecommunications equipment with radiofrequency interference suppression filtering

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High frequency luminaires, and

Certain types of heating elements

543.6 Earthing Arrangements for Protective Purposes


543.6.1 When overcurrent protective devices are used for
protection against electric shock, the protective conductor
shall be incorporated in the same wiring system as the live
conductors or in their immediate proximity.
543.7 Earthing requirements for the installation of
equipment having high protective conductor currents
543.7.1.101 - Equipment having a protective conductor
current exceeding 3.5 mA but not exceeding 10 mA, shall be
either permanently connected to the fixed wiring of the
installation without the use of a plug and socket-outlet or
connected by means of a plug and socket complying with BS
EN 60309-2.
543.7.1.102 Equipment having a protective conductor
current exceeding 10 mA shall be connected to the supply by
one of the following methods:
1) Preferably by being permanently connected to the wiring
of the installation, with the protective conductor elected
in accordance with Regulation 543.7.1.103. The
permanent connection to the wiring may be by means of
a flexible cable.
2) A flexible cable with a plug and socket-outlet complying
with BS EN 60309-2, provided that either:
a) The protective conductor of the associated flexible

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cable is of a cross-sectional area not less than 2.5mm2

iii) Two individual protective conductors, each

for plugs rated at 16A and not less than 4 mm2 for

complying with the requirements of Section 543. The

plugs rated above 16A, or

two protective conductors may be of different types

b) The protective conductor of the associated flexible


cable is of a cross-sectional area not less than that of
the phase conductor.
3) A protective conductor complying with Section 543 with
an earth monitoring system to BS 4444 installed which,
in the event of a continuity fault occurring in the
protective conductor, automatically disconnects the
supply to the equipment.
543.7.1.103 The wiring of every final circuit and
distribution circuit intended to supply one or more items of
equipment, such that the total protective conductor current
is likely to exceed 10 mA, shall have a high integrity
protective connection complying with one or more of the
following:

e.g. a metallic conduit together with an additional


conductor of a cable enclosed in the same conduit.
Where the two individual protective conductors are both
incorporated in a multicore cable, the total cross-sectional
area of all the conductors including the live conductors shall
be not less than 10 mm2. One of the protective conductors
may be formed by the metallic sheath, amour or wire braid
screen incorporated in the construction of the cable and
complying with Regulation 543.3.5.
iv) An earth monitoring system to BS 4444 may be
installed which, in the event of a continuity fault
occurring in the protective conductor, automatically
disconnects the supply to the equipment.
v) Connection of the equipment to the supply by means

A single protective conductor having a cross-

of a double wound transformer or equivalent unit,

sectional area of not less than 10 mm2, complying

suchas a motor-alternator set, the protective

with the requirements of Regulations 543.2 and 543.3

conductor of the incoming supply being connected to

ii) A single copper protective conductor having a cross-

the exposedconductive-parts of the equipment and to

i)

sectional area of not less than 4mm2, complying with

a point of the secondary winding of the transformer

the requirements of Regulations 543.2 and 543.3, the

or equivalent device. The protective conductor(s)

protective conductor being enclosed to provide

between the equipment and the transformer or

additional protection against mechanical damage, for

equivalent device shall comply with one of the

example, within a flexible conduit.

arrangements described in (i) to (iv) above.

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543.7.1.4 Where two protective conductors are used in
accordance with Regulation 543.7.1.103 (iii), the ends of the
protective conductors shall be terminated independently of
each other at all connection points throughout the circuit,
e.g. the distribution board, junction boxes and socket-outlets.
This requires an accessory to be provided with two separate
earth terminals.
Socket outlet final circuits
543.7.2.101 For a final circuit with a number of socketoutlets or connection units intended to supply several items
of equipment, where it is known or reasonably to be
expected that the total protective conductor current in
normal service will exceed 10 mA, the circuit shall be
provided with a high integrity protective conductor
connection complying with the requirements of Regulations
543.7.1 The following arrangements of the final circuit are
acceptable:
i)

connection to the metal conduit or ducting; or


c. Where two or more similar radial circuits
supply socket-outlets in adjacent areas and
are fed from thesame distribution board, have
identical means of short-circuit and
overcurrent protection and circuit protective
conductors of the same cross-sectional area,
then a second protective conductor may be
provided at the final socket-outlet on one
circuit by connection to the protective
conductor of the adjacent circuit.
Any equipment or circuits having a protective conductor
current greater than 3.5 mA may increase the risk of electric
shock. There are therefore, additional requirements
stipulated for these circuits.

A ring final circuit with a ring protective conductor.


Spurs, if provided, require high integrity protective
conductor connection complying with the
requirements of Regulation 543.7.1

ii) A radial final circuit with a single protective


conductor:
a. The protective conductor being connected as
a ring; or
b. A separate protective conductor being
provided at the final socket-outlet by

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543.7.1.104 Where two protective conductors are used
NOTE: The ends of protective conductors to be terminated independently; the same is true at distribution boards

Fig. 51 Protective conductors separately terminated

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High protective conductor current Labelling
A label or similar information should be provided at the
distribution board, indicating those circuits having a high
protective conductor current.

Fig. 52 Sample label

Fig. 53 High protective current for sensitive equipment

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544 Protective Bonding Conductors

544.1.1 Except where PME conditions apply, a main


equipotential bonding conductor shall have a cross-sectional
area not less than half the cross-sectional area required for
the earthing conductor of the installation and not less than 6
mm2. The cross-sectional area need not exceed 25mm2 if the
bonding conductor is of copper or a cross-sectional area
affording equivalent conductance in other metals.
The minimum copper equivalent cross-sectional area is
given by a copper bonding conductor of the tabulated crosssectional area or a bonding conductor of another metal
affording equivalent conductance.
544.1.2 The main equipotential bonding connection to any
gas, water or other service shall be made as near as
practicable to the point of entry of that service into the
premises. Where there is an insulating section or insert at
that point, or there is a meter, the connection shall be made
to the consumers hard metal pipework and before any
branch pipework. Where practicable the connection shall be
made within 600 mm of the meter outlet union or at the
point of entry to the building if the meter is external.544.2
Supplementary bonding conductor sizes

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Cross-sectional area of main bonding conductors

The purpose of main equipotential bonding was discussed


previously in Chapter 41 (Section 411).
The requirements for the minimum cross-sectional area (csa)
of a main protective bonding conductor are given in
Regulation 544.1.1 and (for PME conditions) Table 54.8, main
bonding conductors buried in the ground are subject to
additional requirements.
Where PME conditions do not apply, a main bonding
conductor should have a csa of not less than half that

required for the earthing conductor of the installation and


not less than 6 mm2.
NOTE: The csa need not exceed 25 mm2 if the bonding
conductor is made of copper or, if of other metals, a csa
affording equivalent conductance.
Where Protective Multiple Earthing (PME) conditions apply,
the main bonding conductors should be selected in
accordance with the neutral conductor of the incoming
supply and Table 54.8. should be followed.

Supplementary Bonding

544.2 Supplementary bonding conductors


544.2.1 A supplementary bonding conductor connecting two exposed-conductive-parts shall have a conductance, if sheathed
or otherwise provided with mechanical protection, not less than that of the smaller protective conductor connected to the
exposed-conductive-parts. If mechanical protection is not provided, its cross-sectional area shall be not less than 4 mm2.
Bonding Conductor
Regulations:
544.2.1
544.2.2
544.2.3

Sheathed or
Mechanically
protected

Two Exposed Conductive


Parts

An Exposed Conductive
Part and anExtraneous
Conductive Part

Two Extraneous
Conductive Parts

Yes

CSA CSA of smallest CPC

CSA CSA of smallest CPC

CSA 2.5mm2

No

CSA 4mm2

CSA 4mm2

CSA 2.5mm2

Table 15 Representation by table of Regulations 544.2.1, .2, .3 relating to supplementary bonding conductor sizes

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544.2.2 A supplementary bonding conductor connecting
an exposed-conductive-part to an extraneous-conductivepart shall have a conductance, if sheathed or otherwise
provided with mechanical protection, not less than half that
of the protective conductor connected to the exposedconductive-part. If mechanical protection is not provided, its
cross-sectional area shall be not less than 4 mm2.
544.2.3 A supplementary bonding conductor connecting
two extraneous-conductive-parts shall have a cross-sectional
area not less than 2.5 mm2 if sheathed or otherwise provided
with mechanical protection or 4 mm2 if mechanical
protection is not provided, except that where one of the
extraneous-conductive-parts is connected to an exposedconductive-part in compliance with Regulation 544.2.2, that
regulation shall apply also to the conductor connecting the
two extraneous-conductive-parts.

appliance, the protective conductor can provide both circuit


protective conductor and supplementary bonding conductor
functions
Supplementary bonding was covered in Section 415
(Additional protection).
Its use may be required where disconnection times cannot be
met or where required due to the special nature of the
installation.

Connections to extraneous-conductive-parts

Main bonding connections to metal pipewrk should


normally be made using bonding clamps complying with BS
951: Specification for clamps for earthing and bonding
purposes.Clamps should be selected to suit both the pipe
diameter and bonding conductor size.

544.2.4 Except where Regulation 544.2.5 applies,


supplementary bonding shall be provided by a
supplementary conductor, a conductive part of a permanent
and reliable nature, or by a combination of these.
544.2.5 Where supplementary bonding is to be applied to
a fixed appliance which is supplied via a short length of
flexible cord from an adjacent connection unit or other
accessory, incorporating a flex outlet, the circuit protective
conductor within the flexible cord shall be deemed to
provide the supplementary bonding connection to the
exposed-conductive-parts of the appliance, from the
earthing terminal in the connection unit or other accessory.
Where a short flexible cord is used to connect a fixed
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Fig. 54 Earth clamp

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Fig. 55 Supplementary bonding conductors and clamps

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Ch55 - Other Equipment
Other equipment: low voltage generating sets, rotating
machines, accessories, current using equipment,
transformers and luminaires and lighting installations.

551 Low voltage generating sets

Section 551 applies to both low voltage and extra-low


voltage installations which incorporate generating sets
intended to supply, either continuously or occasionally, all
or part of the installation.

Requirements are included for:

Supply to an installation which is not connected to


a system for distribution of electricity to the public

Supply to an installation as an alternative to a


system for distribution of electricity to the public

Supply to an installation in parallel with a system


for distribution of electricity to the public

or an appropriate combination of the above

The ESQCR (2002) (Electricity Safety, Quality and


Continuity Regulations) will need to be referred to for
additional requirements
When designing or installing generators special
consideration needs to be given to the prospective shortcircuit current and prospective earth fault current for each
source as well as:

Capacity and operating characteristics

Overcurrent protection

Fault protection

Synchronizing (if operating in parallel)

Locking-off/interlock devices

Additional requirements where a generating set provides a


supply as a switched alternative:
Fig. 56 Low voltage portable generator

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To prevent parallel operation, suitable precautions may


include an electrical, mechanical or electro-mechanical
interlock between the operating mechanisms or control
circuits of the changeover switching devices.

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Additional requirements where a generating set may operate
in parallel with other sources:

Several additional requirements are required for


installations where the generating set may operate
in parallel with the system for distribution of
electricity to the public.

Where the installation and generating set are NOT


permanently fixed, an RCD with a rated residual
operating current of not more than 30 mA should

Therefore, motors circuits require additional consideration


in relation to their starting currents and control equipment.
The starting, and load (running)currents of a motor must be
considered when assessing the suitability of the equipment
and cables carrying these load currents.
Every motor should be fitted with means to prevent
automatic restarting after a stoppage due to a drop in
voltage or failure of supply, where unexpected restarting of
the motor might cause danger

be installed in accordance with Regulation 415.1.


The RCD is to protect every circuit!

552 Rotating machines

All equipment, including cable, of every circuit carrying the


starting, accelerating and load currents of a motor shall be
suitable for a current at least equal to the full-load current
rating of the motor.

Fig. 58 Rotating machine stop switches

Every electric motor having a rating in excess of0.37 kW


should be provided with control equipment incorporating
means of protection against overload of the motor.
Fig. 57 Lathe - a rotating machine

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553 Accessories

553.1 Plug and Socket-outlets


Every plug and socket shall comply with the requirements.
Except for SELV circuits, it shall not be possible for any pin
of a plug to make contact with any live contact while any pin
of the plug is completely exposed.

553.2 Cable couplers


A cable coupler shall be arranged so that the connector of the
coupler is fitted at the end of the cable remote from the
supply.

It shall not be possible for any pin of a plug to make contact


with any live contact of any socket-outlet other than the type
if its design.
Every socket-outlet for household and similar use shall be of
the shuttered type.
A plug and socket must be installed and used in the voltage
it is designed for.
A socket on a wall shall be mounted at a height above the
floor or surface to minimize any risk of damage to either the
socket-outlet or plug and cord during insertion, use or
withdrawal of the plug.
Where portable equipment is likely to be used, provision
should be made so that the equipment can be fed from an
adjacent and conveniently accessible socket outlet, taking
into account the length of flexible cord normally fitted to
appliances and luminaires.

Fig. 59 Extension cable with couplers

554 Current-using equipment


Electrode water heaters or boilers

Used to heat water or raise steam in certain domestic,


commercial and industrial applications.They can be either
single-phase or three-phase.
Typical applications include saunas, central heating,
humidifying, heat pumps, cleaning and sterilizing.Electrode
boilers can be low voltage, high voltage.
Special requirements must be complied with relating to:

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Earthing and bonding, Overcurrent protection, and Isolation
and Switching.

554.4 Heating conductors and cables


Heating conductors and cables are specifically designed to
generate heat, they are used for:

Underfloor electric heating in dwellings and other


premises (the requirements of Part 7, Section 753
must also be met in this case).

Heating of the playing area at out-door sports


stadiums.

Heating roads and pavements to prevent icing.

Soil warming in agricultural and horticultural


premises.

Industrial heating applications.

Trace heating of pipes and vessels.

Fig. 60 A single phase immersion heater is not considered to be an


electrode boiler

Water heaters having immersed and uninsulated heating


elements.: A single-phase water boiler or heater having an
uninsulated heating element immersed in water (ie a kettle)
is deemed not to be an electrode water heater or electrode
boiler.

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Fig. 61 Underfloor heating

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Section 753 states: When installing heating conductors and
cables care must be taken to prevent mechanical damage,
damage from corrosion, thermal effects to adjacent material
and to ensure the system temperature is not exceeded.

covered by specific product or system standards, e.g. the


construction of assemblies of electrical equipment to the
appropriate part of the BS EN 61439 series.

555 Autotransformers and step-up transformers

557.3.1 General

Where an autotransformer is connected to a circuit having a


neutral conductor, the common terminal of the winding
must be connected to the neutral conductor.
Where a step-up transformer is used, a linked switch must
be provided for disconnecting the transformer from all live
conductors of the supply.

New Section 557 - Auxiliary Circuits


Section 557 provides regulations concerning auxiliary
circuits. Included are three diagrams of how an auxiliary
circuit can be supplied (from the main circuit, via a rectifier
and via a transformer). The Section lists regulations under
the headings listed and finishes with table 55.2 listing the
minimum cross-sectional area of copper conductors in mm2.
We list below major points relating to this new section, we
encourage readers to pay close attention to all the
regulations introduced in Section 557 Auxiliary Circuits.
An Auxiliary Circuit is defined as a circuit for transmission
of signals intended for control, detection, supervision or
measurement of the functional status of a main circuit.

557 Auxiliary Circuits


557.1 Scope

This section applies to auxiliary circuits, except those

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557.2 Not used


The power supply, a.c. or d.c., for an auxiliary circuit may be
either dependent or independent of the main circuit
according to its required function. If the status of the main
circuit has to be signalled, then the signalling circuit shall be
able to operate independently of that main circuit.
A control circuit shall be designed, arranged and protected
to limit dangers resulting from a fault between the control
circuit and other conductive parts liable to cause
malfunction (e.g. inadvertent operation) of the controlled
equipment.
557.3.2 Power supply for auxiliary circuits dependent on the
main circuit
557.3.2.1 General
Auxiliary circuits with a power supply dependent on the
main a.c. circuit shall be connected to the main circuit:
i)

directly (see Figure 55.1), or

ii) via a rectifier (see Figure 55.2), or


iii) via a transformer (see Figure 55.3).
It is recommended that auxiliary circuits supplying
primarily electronic equipment or systems should not be
supplied directly but at least via simple separation from the
main circuit.

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Fig 55.1 Auxiliary circuit supplied directly from the main
circuit

Fig 55.3 Auxiliary circuit supplied from the main circuit


via a transformer

Fig. 64 Auxiliary circuit supplied from the main circuit via a transformer

Fig. 62 Auxiliary circuit supplied directly from the main circuit

Fig 55.2 Auxiliary circuit supplied from the main circuit


via a rectifier

557.3.2.2 Auxiliary circuit supplied from the main circuit via


transformer
557.3.3 Auxiliary circuit supplied by an independent source
557.3.4 Auxiliary circuits with or without connection to earth
557.3.4.1 General
557.3.4.2 Earthed auxiliary circuit
557.3.4.3 Unearthed auxiliary circuit
557.3.5 Power supplies for auxiliary circuits
557.3.5.1 General
557.3.5.2 Standby power supply or power supply for safety
services

Fig. 63 Auxiliary circuit supplied from the main circuit via a rectifier

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557.3.5.3 AC supply

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557.3.5.4 DC supply

537.3.6.2 Protection against short-circuit

557.3.5.4.1 Supply by a power system

557.4 Characteristics of cables and conductors


557.4.1 Minimum cross-sectional areas

557.3.5.4.2 Supply by batteries


557.3.6 Protective measures
557.3.6.1 Protection of wiring systems
Table 55.2 Minimum cross-sectional area of copper conductors in mm2
Application

Type of cable
Single-core
Single-wire

Stranded

Two-core
Screened

Unscreened

Multi-core
Screened or
unscreened

Control
circuitsa

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.1

Data transfer

0.1

Other auxiliary circuits may need a larger cross-sectional area of copper conductors, e.g. for
measuring
a

Note The cross sectional area of copper conductors is derived from Section 524

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559 Luminaires and lighting installations

Section 559 applies to luminaires (lighting fittings) and


lighting installations intended to be part of the fixed
installation.
Note: With effect from Amendment 3 regulations relating to
highway power supplies and street furniture have moved to
Special Locations 714.
Excluded are

High voltage signs supplied at low voltage (such as


neon tubes).

Signs and luminous discharge tube installations


operating from a no-load rated output voltage
exceeding 1 kV but not exceeding 10 kV (BS EN
50107).

temporary festoon lighting.

559.4 Luminaires - Protection against fire


This section deals with the thermal effects of radiant energy
on the surroundings of a luminaire, to be taken into account
is:

The maximum permissible power dissipated by the


lamps

The fire-resistance of the adjacent material both at


the point of installation and in the thermally
affected areas

The minimum distance to combustible material,


including in the path of a spotlight beam

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559.5.1.1 Connection to the fixed wiring


At each fixed lighting point or position, one of the
connection devices listed below must be used for the
connection of the luminaires:

A ceiling rose to BS 67

A LSC to BS 6972 or BS 7001

A batten lamp holder or pendant set to BS EN


60598

A luminaire to BS EN 60598

A suitable socket-outlet to 1363-2, BS 546 or BS EN


60309-2

A plug-in lighting distribution unit to BS 5733

A connection unit to BS 1363-4

Appropriate terminals enclosed in a box complying


with BS EN 60670 or BS 4662

A device for connecting a luminaires (DCL) to IEC


61995.1

559. 5.1.201 A ceiling rose or lampholder shall not be


installed in any circuit operating at a voltage normally
exceeding 250 volts.
559. 5.1.202 A ceiling rose shall not be used for the
attachment of more than one outgoing flexible cable unless it
is specially designed for multiple pendants.
559. 5.1.203 Luminaire supporting couplers and devices for
the connection of luminaires are designed specifically for the
electrical connection of luminaires and shall not be used for

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the connection of any other equipment.
559. 5.1.204 Lighting circuits incorporating B15, B22, E14,
E27 or E40 lampholders shall be protected by an overcurrent
protective device of maximum rating 16A.
559. 5.1.205 Bayonet lampholders B15 and B22 shall comply
with BS EN 61184and shall have the temperature rating T2
described in that standard.
559.5.1.206 In circuits of a TN or TT system, except for E14
and E27 lampholders complying with BS EN 60238, the
outer contact of every Edison screw or single centre bayonet
cap type lampholder shall be connected to the neutral
conductor. This regulation also applies to track mounted
systems.
559. 5.1.207 A lighting installation shall be appropriately
controlled.

559.5.1.208 Consideration shall be given to the provision of


the neutral conductor, at each switch position, to facilitate
the installation of electronic switching devices.
559.5.2 Fixing of luminaire
Luminaires must be fixed securely, and the means of fixing
must be able to support the weight of the luminaires, this
fixing must be able to carry a mass of not less than 5 kg.
If the mass of the luminaires is greater than 5kg, then the
installer must ensure the fixing means can support the
weight of the luminaires.
Any flexible cables between the fixing means and the
luminaires should be installed to accommodate any expected
stress in the conductors or terminals so as not to impair the
safety or operation of the luminaires
559.6.3 Through wiring
Through wiring is only permitted if the luminaires are
designed for that purpose.
For luminaires complying with BS EN 60598, but with no
temperature markings, heat resistant cables are not required.
Luminaires to this standard with temperature marking will
require suitable heat resisting cables.
Where no information is provided, heat-resisting cables
and/or insulated conductors of type H05S-U, H05S-K, H05SJK, H05SS-K (BSEN 50525series) or equivalent shall be used.

Fig. 65 Ceiling rose pay regard to the particular requirements concerning


ceiling lights and lampholders

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Selection of symbols used in Section 559 (Table 55.2)

Fig. 66 Symbols used in 559 Table 55.3 of BS7671

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Ch56 - Safety services
(Sources, circuits and wiring systems)
A Safety Service is defined as:
An electrical system for electrical equipment provided to
protect or warn persons in the event of a hazard, or essential
to their evacuation from a location

560.1 Scope

This chapter covers the requirements for the installation of


Safety Services and Standby supply services are outside the
scope of this Chapter.

Safety services include:

Emergency lighting

Fire pumps

Fire rescue service lifts

Fire detection and alarm systems

CO2 detection and alarm systems

Fire evacuation systems

Smoke ventilation systems,

Fire service communication systems

Essential medical systems

Industrial safety services

Fig. 67 Fire safety equipment

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Additional specialist systems classed as safety services also
include:

It is normally the case that safety service systems


will be required to operate at times of mains
failure and also continue their effective operation
through the harsh environment of a fire condition.

It is imperative that these potential life-saving


installations have adequate consideration given for
their design, installation and continued verification
(via regular inspection and testing) to ensure that
they have and maintain, the appropriate level of
operational integrity.

The requirements for the general characteristics relating to


these systems are specified within Chapter 35.
Four distinct sources are recognized as being suitable for use
as the safety service.

storage batteries

primary cells

generator sets independent of the normal supply

a separate feeder of the supply network effectively


independent of the normal feeder

The integrity of the electrical source is of paramount


importance and as such must be of appropriate capacity
capable of supplying the total load and installed as fixed
equipment, located in an area that is only accessible to
appropriate personnel.

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The majority of safety sources take the form of either a


dedicated, constantly charged battery, or a combination of
battery and generator set. However, the less common system
of separate independent feeder supplies is also recognized,
providing appropriate assurance is obtained from the
supplying network or networks that these supplies are
unlikely to fail concurrently.
560.4 Classifications
An electrical safety service supply is classified as either:
i)

A non-automatic supply (initiated by an operator)

ii) An automatic supply (independent of an operator)


Automatic systems are further classified by whether they
offer a continuous no-break supply, or are based on their
maximum changeover time duration:
iii) No break
iv) Very short break
v) Short break
vi) Normal break (was lightning break pre - AM1)
vii) Medium break
viii)

Long break

a short break An automatic supply available between


0.15 s and 0.5 s.
a medium break An automatic supply available
within 15s.

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560.6 Electrical Sources for safety services

type, comply with BS EN 62040.

560.6.2 Electrical sources for safety services shall not be


affected by the failure of the normal service.

560.6.13 Generator supply sourcesA generator supply


source will comply with BS 7698-12

560.6.3 Electrical sources for safety services will be located


in a location only accessible by a skilled or instructed person.
560.6.4 Electrical sources for safety services will be located
in a adequately ventilated location to prevent the exhaust
gases, smoke of fumes from contaminating the area where
there is an occupied area.
560.6.5 Separated independent feeders from a
distributors network shall not serve as electrical sources for
safety services unless assurance can be obtained that the 2
supplies are unlikely to fail concurrently.
560.6.10 Central power supply sources for safety services.:
Batteries used in a central battery system will have a design
life of 10 years and comply with the standards in 560.6.10
560.6.11 Batteries used in a low power supply system will
have a design life of 5 years and comply with the standards
in 560.6.11A low power supply system is limited to 500W for
3 hours duration or 1500W for 1hour duration.
560.6.12 Uninterruptible power supply sources (UPS).
Where an uninterruptible power supply is used, it shall:

Operate distribution circuit protective devices.

Start the safety devices.

Fig. 68 Illuminated fire exit sign

Uninterruptible power supply systems should comply with


the requirements of Regulation 560.6.10 and if of the static

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560.7 Circuits of safety services
In addition to the requirements relating to cables, specific
requirements also relate to:

Overload protection switchgear and controlgear


locations routes of wiring systems.

The required minimum operational design life of batteries


should be in accordance with BS EN 50171, with a minimum
declared life of (1) 10 years for central power supply sources
and (2) 5 years for low power supply sources.

Drawings and information relating to all (safety

Circuits for safety services.

service) current-using equipment

To ensure a high integrity supply and to minimize


disruption (electrical faults, maintenance or modification to
other systems) a safety service should employ a dedicated
independent circuit that is ideally run through areas of low
fire and risk.

Batteries used as the supply for safety services are classified


into two categories:
Central power supply sources andLow power supply
sources, the low power source being limited to 1500 watthours.

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Where impracticable, a circuit should be run using a fireresistant cable system

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REVIEW QUESTIONS Selection and erection of equipment
Question 1

Question 3

Every item of equipment shall be suitable for the design


current, taking into account any capacitive and inductive
effects, and

What is the minimum cross-sectional area for aluminium


non-sheathed and sheathed cables used in power circuits?
A.

40 mm2

A.

the current likely to flow in abnormal conditions for


such periods of time as are determined by the
characteristics of the protective devices concerned.

B.

10 mm2

C.

30 mm2

B.

overload current

D.

16 mm2

C.

the maximum current in abnormal conditions for


such periods of time as are determined by the
characteristics of the protective devices concerned.

Question 4

D.

the maximum current in abnormal conditions for any


period of time.

A heating cable intended for laying directly in soil,


concrete, cement screed or other material used for road and
building construction shall be
A.

capable of withstanding mechanical damage under


the conditions that can reasonably be expected to
prevail during its installation

B.

constructed of material that will be resistant to


damage from dampness and/or corrosion under
normal conditions of service

C.

either the first two answers

D.

both the first two answers

Question 2
What type of cables necessarily must be enclosed in conduit,
ducting or trunking?
A.

Sheathed cables for fixed wiring.

B.

Sheathed cables for temporary wiring.

C.

Non-sheathed cables for fixed wiring.

D.

Non-sheathed cables for temporary wiring.

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Question 5

Question 8

Bare conductors may be used for extra-low voltage lighting


installations If their nominal voltage does not exceed
A.

15 V a.c. or 40 V d.c.

Where a generating set is used as an additional source of


supply in parallel with other sources, protection shall remain
effective in all situations against overcurrent and

B.

25 V a.c. or 60 V d.c.

A.

harmonic distortion

C.

60 V a.c. or 25 V d.c.

B.

high protective conductor currents

D.

25 V a.c. and 25 V d.c.

C.

unbalance

D.

thermal effects

Question 6
If a cable is buried in a wall less than 50mm depth and is not
protected by metallic enclosures, the additional protection
required is

Question 9

A.

RCD protection

Identify which one of the following sources for safety


services are recognised the IET Wiring Regulations
incorporating Amendment 1

B.

MCB protection

A.

primary cells

C.

supplementary bonding

B.

generator set dependent on the normal supply

D.

external notification of cable routes

C.

secondary cells

D.

solar energy cells

Question 7
The maximum operating temperature of standard general
purpose thermoplastic PVC cable is
A.

50

B.

75

C.

110

D.

70

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Question 10
Identify which one of the following sources for safety
services are recognised by BS7671
A.

generator set dependent on the normal supply

B.

secondary cells

C.

parallel feeder to the normal feeder from the supply


network

D.

storage batteries

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ANSWERS Selection and erection of equipment

1A, Ref: BS7671: 512.1.2


2C, Ref: BS7671: 521.10.1
3D, Ref: BS7671: 524.2.3
4D, Ref: BS7671: 554.4.2
5B, Ref: BS7671: 715.521.106
6A, Ref: BS7671: 522.6.202
7D, Ref: BS7671: 523.1
8D, Ref: BS7671: 551.7.1
9A, Ref: BS7671: 560.6.1
10D, Ref: BS7671: 560.6.1

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PART 6 INSPECTION & TESTING

Overview
Part 6, which was Part 7 in the 16th Edition, covers the
requirements for Inspection & Testing.
Chapter 61: Initial Verification Inspection 611 and
Testing 612
Chapter 62: Frequency of Inspection and Testing
Chapter 63: Certification and Reporting
This section of the 17th Edition Course is intended to be
informative only; the comprehensive understanding of
Inspection and Testing of Electrical Installations must be
obtained from a recognized certifiable course which satisfies

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legislative requirements. This section covers those


regulations that relate to Inspection and Testing and which
of those regulations you may expect to be asked about in the
2382-15 exam.
The fundamental reason for inspection and testing an
electrical installation is to determine whether new
installation work is safe to put into service, or whether an
existing installation is safe to remain in service until the next
inspection date.
IET Guidance Notes 3 (GN3), is the essential companion for
inspectors and testers

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Ch 61 - Initial Verification
Initial verification (inspection and testing) is used to ensure
that electrical installations are safe before being put into
service.
610.1 Every installation shall, during erection and on
completion before being put into service, be inspected and
tested to verify, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the
requirements of the Regulations have been met.
Precautions shall be taken to avoid danger to persons and
damage to property and installed equipment during the
inspection and testing.
Three principle criteria for an electrical installation which
informs initial verification and inspection:
1. compliance with BS 7671, particularly in reference to:
a. The Fundamental Principles (Section 131)
b. The general characteristics (Sectiosn 311 and
313)
c. Information required by 514.9.1
2. compliance with the project specification
(commissioning)
3. that it is safe to use.

Avoid Danger to Persons

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Have you checked to see if any essential services are


supplied from the board e.g. emergency lighting, fire
alarms, life-support equipment, UPS systems, gas
monitoring systems, etc.?
Have you isolated the circuit correctly?

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Have you discharged any capacitors?


Is the test equipment appropriate for the
environment, e.g. intrinsically Safe?
Are you using long test leads that could cause people
to trip over?
Have you informed people of the dangers?

Avoid Damage to Property

Is there an RCD in the circuit?


Are there computers on line?
Is there electronic equipment in the circuit?
Could gaskets be damaged when removing covers?
Are all the loads disconnected?
Is there any equipment or processes which may be
damaged if disconnected for long periods of time?
Is there any essential equipment which cannot be
turned off?

610.5 - The verification shall be made by a skilled person, or


persons, competent in such work..

(this may be ascertained by mark or by certification


furnished by the installer or by the manufacturer),
and

Correctly selected and erected in accordance with


the Regulations, and

Not visibly damaged or defective so as to impair


safety.

611.3 The inspection shall include at least the checking of


the following items where relevant, including as appropriate
all particular requirements for special installations or
locations (Part 7).

Connection of conductors

Identification of conductors

Routing of cables in safe zones or protection


against mechanical damage, in compliance with
Section 522

Selection of conductors for current-carrying

This replaces the reference to competent person.

capacity and voltage drop, in accordance with the

611 Inspection

design

611.1 Inspection shall precede testing and shall normally


be done with that part of the installation under inspection
disconnected from the supply.
611.2 The inspection shall be made to
verify that the installed electrical
equipment is:
In compliance with Section 511

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Connection of single-pole devices for protection or


switching in phase conductors only

Correct connection of accessories and equipment

Presence of fire barriers, suitable seals and


protection against thermal effects

Methods of protection against electric shock


covered in detail earlier in this course.

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Summary of Initial verification

1. Precedes testing and the installation being inspected


should be disconnected from the supply.
2. Is necessary before any new installation work or
alterations and additions to existing installations are
permanently connected to the supply.
3. Confirms that equipment:
4. Complies with UK or European standards (BS, BS
EN)
5. Is correctly selected and erected, and
6. Is not damaged or defective as to impair safety.

A Schedule of items inspected should be completed to


ensure all relevant requirements have been met.

612 Testing

This section details the required tests to be for initial


verification. The tests should be carried out in a prescribed
sequence, some prior to the circuits being energized.
612.1
The tests of Regulations 612.2 to 13, where relevant, shall be
carried out and the results compared with relevant criteria.
Measuring instruments and monitoring equipment and
methods shall be chosen in accordance with the relevant
parts of BS EN 61557. If other measuring equipment is used,
it shall provide no less degree of performance and safety.
When undertaking testing in a potentially explosive
atmosphere, appropriate safety precautions in accordance
with BS EN 60079-17 and BS EN 61241-17 are necessary.
The tests of Regulations 612.2 to 6, where relevant, shall be
carried out in that order before the installation is energized.
Where the installation incorporates an earth electrode, the
test of Regulation 612.7 shall also be carried out before the
installation is energized.
If any test indicates a failure to comply, that test and any
preceding test, the results of which may have been
influenced by the fault indicated, shall be repeated after the
fault has been rectified.
Before the supply is energized Dead tests
612.2

Fig. 69 Continuity of conductors

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Continuity of Conductors

612.2.1 Continuity of protective conductors including main


and supplementary equipotential bonding

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612.2.2 Continuity of ring final circuit conductors

612.5

Insulation resistance/impedance of floors and walls

612.3

612.6

Polarity

Insulation resistance

Fig. 71 Polarity test (part)

Fig. 70 Single phase insulation resistance

612.4

Protection by SELV, PELV or Electrical separation

612.7

Earth electrode resistance

612.4.1 Protection by SELV


612.4.2 Protection byPELV
612.4.3 Protection by Electrical separation
612.4.4 FELV
612.4.5 Basic protection by barriers and enclosures provided
during erection

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preceding test, the results of which may have been
influenced by the fault indicated, shall be repeated after the
fault has been rectified.
It is recommended you become familiar with each of the
tests describe in Section 612, and to be prepared to refer to
Table 61.

Ch62 - Periodic Inspection & Testing


Periodic testing is not the same as testing as part of an Initial
Verification. The same range and level of testing is not
required and in the majority of cases will not be possibleThe
two Regulations which you should pay attention to are:

Fig. 72 Earth electrode test (one of many)

With the electrical supply connected


612.8

Protection by ADS

612.9

Earth fault loop impedance

612.10 Additional Protection(RCDs)


612.11 Prospective Fault current
612.12 Check for Phase Sequence (multi-phase supply)
612.13 Functional Testing
612.14 Verification of Voltage drop

621.1 Where required, periodic inspection and testing of


every electrical installation shall be carried out in accordance
with regulations 621.2 to 621.5 to determine, as is reasonably
practical, whether the installation is in a satisfactory
condition for continued service.
621.2 Inspection comprising careful scrutiny of the
installation shall be carried out without dismantling or with
partial dismantling as required, together with the
appropriate tests of Chapter 61.
Such inspection and testing shall provide, so far as is
reasonably practicable, for:

The safety of persons and livestock against the


effects of electric shock and burns.

Protection against damage to property by fire and


heat arising from an installation defect, and

If any test indicates a failure to comply, that test and any

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Confirmation that the installation is not damaged


or deteriorated so as to impair safety, and

The identification of installation defects and noncompliance with the requirements of the
Regulations which may give rise to danger.

621.3 Precautions shall be taken to ensure that the


inspection and testing does not cause danger to persons or
livestock and does not cause damage to property and
equipment even if the circuit is defective.
621.5 Periodic inspection and testing shall be undertaken
by a competent person
622 Frequency of Inspection and Testing
622.1 The frequency of periodic inspection and testing of
an installation shall be determined having regard to the type
of installation, its use and operation, the frequency and
quality of maintenance and the external influences to which
it is subjected.
The results and recommendations of the previous report if
any shall be taken into account.
622.2 In the case of an installation under effective
management systemfor preventive maintenance in normal
use, periodic inspection and testing may be replaced by an
adequate regime of continuous monitoring and maintenance
of the installation by skilled persons, competent in such
work Appropriate records shall be kept.

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Ch 63 - Certification & Reporting


631.1 Upon completion of the verification of a new
installation or changes to an existing installation, an
Electrical Installation Certificate, based on the model given
in Appendix 6, shall be provided. Such documentation shall
include details of the extent of the installation covered by the
Certificate, together with a record of the inspection, the
results of testing and a recommendation for the interval until
the first periodic inspection.
631.2 Upon completion of the periodic inspection and
testing of an existing installation, an Electrical Installation
Condition Report, based on the model given in Appendix 6,
shall be provided. Such documentation shall include details
of the extent of the installation and limitations of the
inspection and testing covered by the Report, together with
records of inspection, the results of testing and a
recommendation for the interval until the first periodic
inspection.
631.3 Where minor electrical installation work does not
include the provision of a new circuit, a Minor Electrical
Installation Works Certificate, based on the model given in
Appendix 6, shall be provided for each circuit altered or
extended.
631.4 Electrical Installation Certificates, Electrical
Installation Condition Reports and Minor Electrical
Installation Works Certificates shall be compiled and signed
or otherwise authenticated by skilled persons, competent to
verify that the requirements of the standard have been met.

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631.5 Electrical Installation Certificates, Electrical
Installation Condition Reports and Minor Electrical
Installation Works Certificates may be produced in any
durable medium, including written and electronic media.
Regardless of the media used for original certificates, reports
or their copies, their authenticity and integrity shall be
verified by a reliable process or method. The process or
method shall also verify that any copy is a true copy of the
original.

632 Initial Verification

632.1 Following the initial verification required by


Chapter 61, an Electrical Installation Certificate, together
with a schedule of inspections and a schedule of test results,
shall be given to the person ordering the work.
These schedules shall be based upon the models given in
Appendix 6.
632.2 The schedule of test results shall identify every
circuit, including its related protective device(s), and shall
record the results of the appropriate tests and measurements
detailed in Chapter 61.
632.3 The person or persons responsible for the design,
construction, inspection and testing of the installation shall,
as appropriate, give to the person ordering the work a
Certificate which takes account of their respective
responsibilities for the safety of that installation, together
with the schedules described in Regulation 632.1.
Fig. 73 Sample Electrical Installation Condition

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632.4 Defects or omissions revealed during inspection and


testing of the installation work covered by the Certificate

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shall be made good before the Certificate is issued.

633 Alterations and Additions

633.1 The requirements of Sections 631 and 632 for the


issue of an Electrical Installation Certificate or a Minor
Electrical Installation Works Certificate shall apply to all the
work of the alterations or additions.
633.2 The contractor or other person responsible for the
new work, or a person authorized to act on their behalf, shall
record on the Electrical Installation Certificate or the Minor
Electrical Installation Works Certificate, any defects found,
so far as is reasonably practicable, in the existing installation.

634 Periodic Inspection and Testing

634.1 Following the periodic inspection and testing


described in Chapter 62, an Electrical Installation Condition
Report, together with schedules of inspection and schedules
of test results shall be given by the person carrying out the
inspection, or a person authorized to act on their behalf, to
the person ordering the inspection.
These schedules shall be based upon the models given in
Appendix 6.
The schedule of test results shall record the results of the
appropriate tests required by Chapter 61.
634.2 Any damage, deterioration, defects, dangerous
conditions, and non-compliance with the requirements of
the Regulations which may give rise to danger, together
with any limitations of the inspection and testing shall be
recorded.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS Inspection and Testing
Question 1

Question 3

Any insulation or insulating arrangement of extraneousconductive-parts intended to satisfy Regulation 418.1,4(iii) if

On a residual current device, the purpose of the integral test


button is to check

A.

A.

the mechanical function

B.

the electrical function

C.

the rating

D.

the disconnection time

B.

when tested at 500 V d.c. shall be not less than 1


megohm
shall be able to withstand a test voltage of at least 2
kV a.c. rms

C.

shall not pass a leakage current exceeding 1 mA in


normal conditions of use

D.

all the written answers

Question 2
Which one is NOT a subject of periodic inspection?
A.

protection against damage to property by fire and


heat arising from an installation defect

B.

confirmation that the installation satisfies efficiency


requirements

C.

safety of persons and livestock against the effects of


electric shock and bums

D.

confirmation that the installation is not damaged or


deteriorated so as to impair safety

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Question 4
The minimum value of insulation resistance test performed
on a PELV installation is
A.

9.0M

B.

5.5M

C.

0.2M

D.

0.5M

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Question 5

Question 8

An insulation resistance test performed on a PELV


installation should be capable of producing a test voltage of

Before conducting an insulation resistance test you should


A.

ensure that the polarity is correct

A.

250v d.c.

B.

ensure correct RCDs are fitted

B.

500v d.c.

C.

C.

250v a.c.

ensure that the earth fault loop impedance is


satisfactory

D.

50v d.c.

D.

ensure that all lamps are removed

Question 6

Question 9

On a 230v a.c. installation, the minimum value of insulation


resistance is

An insulation resistance test performed on a 230v


a.c.installation should be capable of producing a test voltage
of

A.

10.0M

B.

2.0M

C.

1.0M

D.

0.5M

Question 7
An electrical installation certificate should be signed by

A.

500 V a.c.

B.

1000 V d.c.

C.

50 V d.c.

D.

500 V d.c.

Question 10

A.

the customer

B.

the local authority

The most convenient method of determining the value of the


prospective short circuit current at the origin of an existing
installation would be by

C.

the REC

A.

functional testing

D.

a skilled person

B.

measurement

C.

calculation

D.

inspection

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ANSWERS Inspection and Testing

1D, Ref: BS7671: 612.5.2


2B, Ref: BS7671: 621.2
3A, Ref: BS7671: 612.13.1
4D, Ref: BS7671: 612.3.2
5A, Ref: BS7671: 612.3.2
6C, Ref: BS7671: 612.3.2
7D, Ref: BS7671: 610.6, 610.5
8D, Ref: BS7671: 612.3.2
9D, Ref: BS7671: 612.3.2
10B, Ref: BS7671: 612.11

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MODULE 5 - PART 7 SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS


OR LOCATIONS

movement

Overview
Section 700:

General

Section 701:

Locations containing a bath or shower

Section 702:

Swimming pools and other basins

Section 703:

Rooms and cabins containing sauna heaters

Section 704:

Construction and demolition site installations

Section 705:

Agricultural and horticultural premises

Section 706:

Conducting locations with restricted

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Section 708: Electrical installations in caravan / camping


parks and similar locations
Section 709:

Marinas and similar locations

Section 710:

Medical locations *

Section 711:

Exhibitions, shows and stands

Section 712:

Solar photovoltaic (pv) power supply systems

Section 717:

Mobile or transportable units

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Section 721:
caravans

Electrical Installations in caravans and motor

Section 729:

Operating and maintenance gangways *

701.1 Such locations and the surrounding area are


considered to be locations where there is an increased risk of
electric shock due to:
A reduction in body resistance caused either by

Section 740: Temporary electrical installations for


structures, amusement devices and booths at fairgrounds,
amusement parks and circuses

Absence of or minimal clothing and

Section 753:

Likely contact of substantial areas of the body with

Floor and ceiling heating systems

*Sections 710 and 729 are new for the 17th Edition. Section
710 was also completely updated by the Corrigendum
published in June 2013

Section 701 - Locations containing a bath or


shower
Pay great attention to understanding the Regulations
concerning bathrooms. A strong understanding will enable
you to answer the inevitable exam questions quickly. Easy
marks.

bodily immersion or by wet skin

earth potential.
Classification of external influence
Zone 0 -The interior of the bath tub or shower
Zone 1 - The area up to 2.25m high above the bath tub,
or the highest point of the shower head/water outlet;
the area circumscribing the bath tub or shower, a
distance within 1.2m of the water outlet on the wall or
ceiling for showers without a basin
Zone 2 The area above 2.25m; the area which is
greater than 0.6m from the Zone 1 border.
Zonal concept is based on the perceived risk of electric shock
in relation to areas in/around the bath etc.
Having established the zones, particular requirements are
then prescribed for:
Switchgear, Controlgear,Accessories and Current using
equipment

Fig. 74 If only all bathrooms were like this

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Zone 0 - The interior of the bath tub or shower


Zone 1 - The area up to 2.25m high above the bath tub, or the
highest point of the shower head/water outlet; the area
circumscribing the bath tub or shower, a distance within 1.2m of
the water outlet on the wall or ceiling for showers without a basin
Zone 2 - The area above 2.25m; the area which is greater than
0.6m from the Zone 1 border.

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701.41 Protection for safety: protection against electric
shock
701.410.3.5 The protective measures of obstacles and
placing out of reach is not permitted
701.411.3.3 Additional protection by RCDs

having the characteristics specified in Regulation 415.1.1


shall be provided for low voltage circuits:
i.

serving the location

ii.

passing through zones 1 and/or 2 not serving the


location.

Additional protection by RCDs


Additional protection by the use of one or more RCDs

Fig. 75 Low voltage circuits passing through the location require RCD protection

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701.413 Electrical separation
Only to be used for 1 item of equipment or 1 single socket.
701.413 Extra low voltage provided by SELV or PELV
circuits
Where SELV or PELV is used basic protection is supplied by
basic insulation complying with 416.1 or barriers complying
with 416.2
701.415 Additional protection
701.415.2 Supplementary equipotential bonding is not
necessary where all circuits of the location:

Comply with requirements for automatic


disconnection

Are 30 mA RCD protected, and

All extraneous-conductive-parts of the location are


connected to the protective equipotential bonding
within the installation.

However, if supplementary equipotential bonding, is


required supplementary bonding shall be established
connecting together the terminals of the protective
conductor of each circuit to the accessible extraneousconductive-parts

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Fig. 76 Equipotential bonding in a bathroom (three water pipes bonded 1. Hot water, 2. Cold water, 3. Heating)

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701.5 Selection and erection of equipment

Electric Showers

Zone 0

IPX7

Zone 1&2

IPX4

Usually suitable for installation within zone 1. Not required


by BS 7671 to be protected by an RCD, however, often
shower manufacturers recommend an RCD

701.512.2 External influences


Minimum IP codes for:

Where water jets are used for cleaning - IPX5


701.512.3 Switchgear
ZONE 0
No switchgear permitted. Socketoutlets prohibited within 3m of zone 1.

Electric showers and electric shower pumps should comply


with BS EN 60335-2-35 and BS EN 60335-2-41 respectively.

Normal practice is to provide isolation switch within the


bathroom.The switch must be installed outside zones 0, 1
and 2 although the cord of cord operated switches, may
reach into zones 1 or 2.

ZONE 1
SELV switching only 12V A.C.
(source outside zones).
ZONE 2
SELV switching & socket-outlets as
above and shaver outlets to BSEN 61558-2-5.
701.55 Current using equipment
ZONE 0 Fixed, permanent connection, SELV & to relevant
standard
ZONE 1 Allowed:

Whirlpool units

Electric Showers

Shower Pumps

SELV (not exceeding 25 V ac)

Fans (ventilation equipment)

Towel rails

Water heaters

Luminaires

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Fig. 77 Shower isolator switch

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701.753 Electric floor heating
Where installed in a room containing a bath or shower all
heating cables must be of a type incorporating:

A metal sheath, or

Metal enclosure, or

Fine mesh metallic grid.

NOTE:In all of the above cases, the metallic sheath,


enclosure or grid must be connected to the supply protective
conductor (unless SELV)
A typical electric floor heating application (covered further
in Section 753).

Section 702 - Swimming Pools & Other Basins


702.1 Scope
This particular section applies to the basins of swimming
pools, the basins of fountains and the basin of paddling
pools; the requirements also apply to the surrounding zones
of these basins. In these areas the risk of shock is increased
due to:

Fig. 78 In scope - swimming pools, Out of scope - beaches

702.32 Classification of external influences


As with bathrooms and shower rooms, the zonal concept is
used. The zones for Section 702 have the same names, but do
not have the same definitions. Refer to the illustrations. The
zone definitions are:

A reduction in body resistance caused either by

Zone 0 the interior of the basin

bodily immersion or by wet skin, and

Zone 1 2m from the rim of the basin and a height of

Likely contact of substantial areas of the body with

2.5m

earth potential.

Zone 2 1.5m external to zone 1

Exclusions from Scope:Except for areas designed especially


for swimming pools, the requirements of Section702 DO
NOT apply to natural waters, lakes or coastal beaches

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Zone 2 does not apply to fountains.

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Fig. 79 Zone dimensions for swimming pools and paddling pools

r1=2m
r2=3.5m

Fig. 80 Zone dimensions for basin above ground

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Fig. 81 Plan of zones.


See BS7671 Fig 702.3
for details, including
where partitions are
present

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702.415.2 Additional Protection: Supplementary
equipotential bonding

sheath of a wiring system shall be connected to the


supplementary equipotential bonding.

All extraneous-conductive-parts in zone 0,1, and 2 shall be


connected by supplementary protective bonding conductors
to the protective conductors of exposed-conductive-parts of
equipment situated in these zones in accordance with
regulation 415.2.All the requirements of Part 4 should be met
as well as additional protection provided by:

702.522.22 In zones 0 and 1, a wiring system shall be


limited to that is necessary to supply the equipment in that
zone.

Residual Current Devices for circuits in all zones


and

Supplementary equipotential bonding.

702.414.4.5 Basic protection shall be provided by either


basic insulation complying with Regulation 416.1, or barriers
or enclosures affording a degree of protection of at least
IPXXB or IP2X.
702.512.2 Electrical equipment shall have at least a degree
of protection according to BS EN 60529.
Zone 0

IPX8

Zone 1

IPX4,
IPX5 where jets are likely to be used for
cleaning purposes

Zone 2

IPX2 for indoor locations and

702.522.23 For a fountain the following additional


requirements are to be met.

The cable for electrical equipment in zone 0 to be


run in the shortest route practical.

In zone 1 the cable should have the protection of


AG2 and the relevant submersion in water depth
AD8.

702.522.24 Junction boxes are not allowed in zones 0 and


1, but in SELV circuits this is permitted in zone 1 only.
702.53 Switchgear and controlgear
In zone 0 and 1 Switchgear and controlgear shall not
be installed.
In zone 0 and 1 a socket-outlet shall not be installed.
In zone 2 a socket-outlet may be installed provided
one of the following measures are applied: SELV, ADS
or Electrical separation

IPX4 for outdoor locations


IPX5 where jets are likely to be used for
cleaning purposes
702.522.21 In zones 0, 1 and 2 any metallic covering or

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NOTE: For a swimming pool for where it is not possible to
locate a switch or socket-outlet outside zone 1, a socketoutlet preferably having a non-conductive coverplate is
permitted in zone 1. It must be located 1.25 m from the
border of zone 0 and 0.3m above the floor level with the
protection of either SELV, ADS or electrical separation.

removable by the use of a tool.


Luminaires to be to BS EN 60598-2-18 and electric pumps to
comply with BS EN 60335-2-41.
702.55.4 Special requirements for the installation of
electrical equipment in zone 1 of swimming pools and
other basins.
Fixed equipment designed for use in swimming pools and
other basins (e.g. filtration systems, jet stream pumps) and
supplied at low voltage is permitted in zone 1, subject to
requirements being met.
For swimming pools where there is no Zone 2 lighting
equipment other than SELV may be installed on a wall or a
ceiling provided.

It is protected by a RCD to Regulation 415.1.1.

Mounted at a height a least 2m above the level of


Zone 1.

Fig. 82 Socket with non-conductive plate can be installed in Zone 1 where


not possible to install elsewhere

702.55.2 Underwater Luminaires


A luminaire for use in the water or in contact with the water
shall be fixed and comply with BS EN 60598-2-18.
702.55.3 Electrical equipment in fountains
Equipment in zones 0 and 1 of a fountain will have a
mechanical protection to AG2 e.g. glass or grids only

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Fig. 83 Zones for fountains including air spray - see BS7671 Fig 702.4

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Section 703 - Rooms & Cabins Containing
Sauna Heaters

Zone 1 - The volume containing the sauna heater and


the area of 0.5m from the surface of the heater.
Zone 2 - The volume outside Zone 1 and rises to 1

Rooms and cabins containing sauna heaters are considered


by BS7671 to be a location of increased electric shock risk, as
large areas of the human body are exposed and are wet due
to perspiration and occasional high humidity.

703.411.3.3 Additional protection by RCDs

For those changing updating from 16 to 17 Edition, note


that zones A, B & C in the 16th are now Zones 1, 2 and 3, and
the related dimensions have been changed.

All circuits of the sauna will be protected by the use of one


or more RCDs.The sauna heater need not be protected by a
RCD unless recommended by manufacturer.

th

Fig. 84 Zone dimensions - sauna. Elevation

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th

meter above the floor level.


Zone 3 - The volume outside of Zones 1 and 2.

Fig. 85 Zone dimensions - sauna. Plan

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703.512.2 External Influences
All equipment shall have a degree of protection to at least
IPX4. If cleaning is carried out using jets to at least IPX5.
Zone 1
Only the heater and directly associated
equipment to be installed.
Zone 2

No special requirements for heat resistance.

Zone 3

Equipment suitable for 125C Cables 170C.

All Switchgear, other than the thermostat and the thermal


cut-out, to be installed outside the sauna.
703.52 Wiring systems
The wiring should be installed outside the zones, preferable
outside the sauna. When this is unavoidable the wiring
should be heat-resistant and metallic sheaths and metallic
conduits shall not be accessible in normal use.
703.53 Selection and erection of equipment; Isolation,
switching, control and accessories
703.537.5 Switchgear and controlgear, which form part of
the sauna heater equipment of other fixed equipment
installed in zone 2, may be installed within the sauna room
in accordance to manufacturers instructions. Other
switchgear and controlgear, e.g. lighting shall be placed
outside the sauna room or cabin. Socket-outlets shall not be
installed within a sauna room or cabin.
703.55 Other equipment
Sauna heating appliances shall comply with BS EN 60335-253

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Fig. 86 Electric sauna heater

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Section 704 - Construction and Demolition
Sites
Construction sites are considered to be a special location due
to the increased risks associated with:

Trailing cables

The use of portable electric tools

Many extraneous-conductive-parts that cannot,


practically, be bonded

Adverse weather conditions and incomplete


structures

Difficult working conditions

704.1 Scope
The buildings and installations that are covered by Section
704 are:

Construction work on new buildings

Repair, alteration, extension, demolition of existing


buildings or parts of buildings

Engineering works

Earthworks

Work of similar nature

704.410.3.10 Circuits up to and including 32A supplying


socket-outlets and hand-held equipment to be protected by:

Reduced low voltage or

Automatic disconnection of supply with RCD


protection to 415.1.1), Electrical separation, or
SELV or PELV.

NOTE: Reduced low voltage is strongly preferred for


portable hand lamps, portable tools and local lighting up to
2 kW.
NOTE: SELV is preferred for portable hand lamps in
confined spaces.
704.411 Protective measures: ADS

Construction site earthing systems will normally


be TT.

TN-S may be used, particularly on larger sites in


conjunction with TT systems.

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TN-C-S is prohibited for supplies to construction


sites (except fixed buildings on the site).

Current using equipment shall be supplied by ACSs


comprising of:

Distributors may be reluctant to supply a TN-C-S

Overcurrent protective devices

system to some sites as the ESQCR prohibit its use.

Devices affording fault protection

Socket-outlets, if required

704.4113.2 ADS in the case of a fault


Circuits supplying one or more socket-outlets with a rated
current exceeding 32A requires a RCD not exceeding 500
mA for protection.
704.414 Reduced low voltage systems
For portable hand-held tools and hand lamps and local
lighting 110 V single-phase, centre point earthed or 110 V 3phase, star point earthed systems should be used.
704.511.1 All assemblies for the moveable electrical
distribution system shall comply with BS EN 60439-4. All
cable couplers (Socket-outlets and plugs) must comply with
BS EN 60309-2
704.52 Wiring systems
704.522.8.10 Care required to be taken to avoid cables
being installed across a site road or walkway unless
adequate mechanical protection has been provided.
704.537.2.2 Devices for isolation
Each Assembly for Construction Sites (ACS) shall
incorporate suitable devices for isolation and switching of
the incoming supply.
Distribution equipment to BSEN 60439-4 to incorporate
suitable devices for switching and isolation (lockable).

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Fig. 87 Construction site electrical distribution equipment

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Identification of different voltages on site

25V

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>50V-250V DC

100-130V

200-250V

380-460V

50-60Hz

50-60Hz

50-60Hz

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Section 705 - Agricultural & Horticultural
Premises
Increased shock risk due to:

Reduced body resistance of humans resulting from


the wet environment and nature of premises.

Animals susceptible to electric shock at lower


levels.

Mechanical damage to wiring systems from


machinery and animals.

Fire.

Fig. 88 Farm and farmyard

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705.1 Scope
Section 705 applies to indoor and outdoor installations
where livestock is kept (not to dwellings intended for
human habitation)

Stables, barns, chicken-houses, piggeries

Horticultural premises:

Garden centre, nurseries, greenhouses

Also locations carrying out the production, storage,


preparation and processing of animal feeds,
fertilizers and vegetable and animal products.

Fig. 89 Section 705 includes garden centres

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705.411.4 Earthing systems
A TN-C system earthing arrangement must not be used on
these installations. This requirement applies also to
residences and other locations belonging to agricultural and
horticultural premises.
705.415.2.1 Additional protection
In locations intended for livestock, supplementary bonding
shall be used to connect all exposed-conductive-parts and
extraneous-conductive-parts that can be touched by
livestock.

IPX4 either by construction or by supplementary /


additional.
705.512.2 External influences
In agricultural or horticultural premises, electrical
equipment will have a minimum IP rating of IP44, either by
construction or by supplementary / additional.
Socket-outlets must have the appropriate protection against
the external influences that may apply.
These requirements do not apply to any residential
locations, office, shops belonging to the agricultural or
horticultural premises.

705.422 Measures for protection against fire

705.513 Accessibility

705.422.6 Heating appliances used for the breeding and


rearing of livestock shall comply with BS EN 60335-2-7-1and
be fixed as to maintain an appropriate distance from
livestock and combustible materials to avoid the risk of
burns to livestock or fire.

Electrical equipment must be inaccessible to livestock, where


this is unavoidable it must be constructed and installed to
avoid damage and minimize the risk of injury to livestock.

705.422.7 For fire protection purposes a 300ma RCD must


be installed, if there are no socket-outlets in the protected
circuit a time-delayed or S type can be used.
When a circuit that protects socket-outlets is protected by a
30mA RCD to Regulation 411.1 it also fulfils the criteria for
fire protection.
705.422.8 In locations where there is a risk of fire exists
any circuit supplied from an extra-low circuit (50v A.C./
120v D.C.) must have a degree of protection to IPXXD or

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705.514.9.3 Diagrams and documentation


The following documentation must be provided to the user

A plan indicating the location all electrical


equipment

The routing of all concealed cables

A single-line diagram of the distribution system

An equipotential bonding diagram indicating the


locations of all bonding connections

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705.52 Wiring systems

705.522.16 Conduit/trunking systems

In locations accessible to livestock, the wiring system shall


be erected to be inaccessible to the livestock or suitably
protected against mechanical damage.

Where livestock is kept external influences classified to AF4


Conduit and protection against corrosion of Class 2
(medium) for indoor, Class 4 (high) for outdoors to BS EN
61386-21.

Cable selection and installation to take account of presence


of rodents.
Where vehicles and mobile machinery operate:

Cables shall be buried 0.6m with mechanical


protection.

Cables in cultivated land to be buried to at least


1m.

Cables used for overheads to be insulated and


suspended at least 6 m high.

In locations where impact is deemed to be likely due to


vehicles operating the equipment will be classified as AG3
and conduit will have a degree of protection 5J (impact) to
BS EN 61386-21 and trunking and ducting systems will
comply with BS EN 50085-2-1.
705.537.2 Isolation
The electrical installation in each building or part of a
building shall be isolated by a single isolation device
according to Chapter 53.
The isolation devices shall be clearly marked according to
the part of the installation to which they belong.
Devices used for isolation and switching and devices used
for emergency stopping or switching shall be erected so they
are accessible to users and inaccessible to livestock. They
will also be clearly marked and will break all live
conductors.

Fig. 90 Pests such as rats and mice are a particular problem to protect
against on agricultural locations

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705.560.6 Automatic life support for high density livestock rearing
Special consideration needs to be given where high density livestock rearing occurs.In these cases it is essential that supplies of
food, water, air, ventilation, heating and/or lighting where required, are not compromised.
Standby electrical supplies and automatic monitoring may be necessary.

Fig. 91 Indication of earth bonding connections in a milking parlour

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Section 706 - Conducting Locations with
Restricted Movement
706.1 Scope
This requirement of this section applies to:
Fixed equipment in a conducting location or surroundings
where movement of
persons is physically
constrained or
restricted and these
locations are
conductive and in
contact with the
general mass of Earth.
The supplies for the
use of any electrical
equipment or mobile
equipment should be
therefore, limited to
only essential items.
706.41 Protection against electric shock
Hand-held tools or items of mobile equipment should be
supplied by either:

Electrical separation or

SELV

For supplies to hand lamps, only SELV systems

Requirements for fault protection


For supplies to fixed equipment there are several options:

Automatic disconnection of supply combined with


supplementary bonding

Class II equipment supplemented by RCD

Electrical separation (supplying only one item of


equipment being connected to the secondary
winding of the isolating transformer),

SELV, or

PELV (with equipotential bonding).

706.411 Automatic disconnection of supply


Only circuits and protective measures stated in Regulation
706.410.3.10 are permitted.
706.411.1.2 If a functional earth is required for certain
equipment, all exposed-conductive-parts must be connected
to any extraneous-conductive-parts.
706.413 Electrical separation
The unearthed source must be located outside the
conducting location, unless it is part of the fixed installation
within the conducting location.
706.414 SELV and PELV
The source for SELV and PELV must be located outside the
conducting location, unless it is part of the fixed installation
within the conducting location.

should be used

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Section 708 - Electrical Installations in
Caravan/Camping Parks and Similar
Locations

TN-C-S can be used to supply permanent buildings on the


site although consideration should be given where this
includes buildings open to the public e.g. toilet blocks
containing bath or showers and kitchen or washing facilities.

It is important that the differentiation between Section 708


electrical installations in caravan parks, camping parks and
similar locations and 721 Electrical installations in caravans
and motor caravans is fully understood.

708.512.2 External influences


Electrical equipment installed outside in a caravan park shall
comply with.
External Influence

IP Rating

Water splashes

AD4

IPX4

BSEN 60529

Ingress of objects

AE2

IP3X

BSEN 60529

Mechanical impact

AG3

IK08

BSEN 62262

Table 16 IP Rating for equipment installed outside on caravan park

708.521.1 Wiring Systems supplies to caravan pitches


Either underground or overground distribution systems are
suitable.
708.521.1.1 Underground cables
Maximum supply voltage of 230V single-phase or 400V
three-phase applies.
708.411.4 The Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity
Regulations 2002 prohibits distributors from offering
connections to earthing terminals from PME networks.

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Underground cables shall be buried to a depth of at least


600mm and have additional mechanical protection. If this is
not possible, to be placed outside the zone of the caravan
pitch away from where tent pegs or ground anchors are
expected to be used.

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708.521.1.2 Overhead cables

All overhead conductors to be insulated.

Poles and other supports to be protected against


damage by vehicle movement.

Overhead conductors to be at a height of no less


than 6m in areas with vehicle movement and 3.5 in
any other area.

accommodation vehicle (including caravans) or tent shall be


protected individually by an overcurrent protective device,
in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 43.
708.553.1.13 Each socket-outlet to have its own RCD
protection as specified in Regulation 415.11
708.533.1.14 Socket outlet protective conductors shall not
be connected to a PME earthing facility.

708.530.3 Caravan pitch electrical supply equipment


Supply equipment should be located adjacent to the pitch
and not more than 20 m from the connection facility of
caravan or tent when on its pitch.
NOTE: Not more than four socket-outlets should be grouped
in supply/board, to avoid the supply cable crossing a pitch
other than the one intended to be supplied.
708.553.1.8 Each socket-outlet will comply with BS EN
60309-2 and have an IP rating of IP44
708.553.1.9 The socket-outlet will be mounted at a height
of 0.5m to 1.5m from the ground, if there is a risk of flooding
or heavy snowfall this maximum height is permitted to
exceed 1.5m
708.553.1.10 The current rating of each socket-outlet to be
no less than 16A
708.553.1.11 At least one socket outlet for each caravan
708.553.1.12 Each socket-outlet to have its own
overcurrent protection.
A fixed connection for supply to each leisure

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Fig. 92 Electrical supply point (includes water supply in this instance).


Note voltage of 200-250V indicated by colour of socket

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Pitch socket-outlets and connection to an earth electrode.

Section 709 - Marinas and Similar Locations

TN-S systems can be used on caravan sites but TT systems


are more common.The separation of the caravan pitch TT
earthing arrangement from the distributors PME earthing
terminal may be made at one of a number of places:

709.1 Scope

Option 1: Separation of caravan pitch TT earthing


arrangement from distributors PME earthing facility.
At consumers distribution position.

Section 709 provides information relating to the additional


requirements in relation to circuits intended to supply
pleasure craft or houseboats in marinas and similar
locations.

Option 2: Separation of caravan pitches TT earthing


arrangement from distributors PME earthing facility
At pitch supply position.
Cord extension sets are used to connect the caravan pitch
socket-outlet to the caravan.Fig 708 of BS 7671 provides the
requirements, which includes:

A plug as specified in BSEN 60309-2

Flexible cable to H05RN-F (BS 7919):

Maximum length 25 m

A current rating of 16 A (minimum) conductor csa


to be 2.5 mm2

Colour identification in accordance with Table 51

A socket as specified in BSEN 60309-2.

Fig. 93 Chichester marina - local to the publishers of this course

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There is increased risk of electric shock due to:

Wet conditions

The environment can be very harsh (mechanical


damage, corrosion, movement etc

Flammable liquids

Standardization of equipment issues

The normal voltage for the supply to pleasure craft or


houseboats shall be 230V A.C. single-phase or 400V A.C.
three-phase.
709.411.4 In the UK the ESQR prohibit the connection of a
PME earthing facility to any metalwork in a boat.
TN-C-S may be used for fixed site buildings, for supplies
other earthing arrangements to be considered i.e. TT systems
would normally be used for boat supplies although there are
other methods.
Shore-side supplies to permanent buildings may be TN-C-S,
TN-S or TT.

709.512.2 External influence


External Influence

IP Rating

Water splashes

AD4

IPX4

Water jets

AD5

IPX5

Water waves

AD6

IPX6

Ingress of objects

AE2

IP3X

Corrosive or polluting substances

AF2

If hydrocarbons present

AF3

Mechanical impact

AG3

IK08

Table 17 IP Rating for marinas

709.521 Wiring systems for marinas


Regulation 709.521 lists six wiring systems that are
acceptable and four that arent (above a jetty, wharf, pier or
pontoon).
Acceptable wiring systems

Underground cables.

Overhead cables or overhead insulated conductors.

Cables with copper conductors with thermoplastic


insulation and sheath installed within a cable
management system that has been considered

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taking into account of any external influences such
as Movement, Impact, Corrosion and Ambient
temperature

Mineral Insulated cables with PVC protective


coating.

Cables with armoring and thermoplastic material.

Other cables and materials that are no-less than


those listed above.

Not acceptable and not to be used above a jetty, wharf, pier


or pontoon

Cables in free air suspended from or incorporating


a catenary wire

Non-sheathed cables in conduit or trunking

Cables with aluminium conductors

Mineral insulated cables

709.521.1.6 Cables shall be selected and installed to


prevent mechanical damage from movement of floating
structures and allow for constant flexing, be able to resist
corrosion and tolerate the presence of water.
Cable management systems to have drainage holes
709.521.1.7 Underground cables
Underground cables to be buried to the minimum depth of
500mm if no additional protection is provided.
709.521.1.8 Overhead cables

Poles and other supports to be protected against damage by


vehicle movement.
Overhead conductors to be at a height of no less than 6m in
areas with vehicle movement and 3.5 in any other area.
709.531 Fault protection by automatic disconnection of
supply.
Where automatic disconnection of supply is the protective
measure, socket-outlets supplying pleasure craft and
houseboats and all final circuits intended for fixed supplies
to houseboats require:
Socket-outlets to be protected by an RCD having the
characteristics specified in 415.1.1. RCDs must also be of a
type that disconnects all poles (including the neutral).
709.533 Protection against overcurrent
Each socket-outlet, shall be protected by an individual
overcurrent device in accordance with Chapter 43.
In the instance where a houseboat requires a fixed supply, it
shall be protected by an individual overcurrent device in
accordance with Chapter 43.
709.537 Isolation and switching
709.537.2.1 At least one means of isolation shall be
installed in each distribution board. This switching device
shall disconnect all live conductors. A requirement of this
isolation device is that it should only supply a maximum of
four socket-outlets.

All overhead conductors to be insulated.

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709.553.1 Plugs and socket-outlets
Requirements for marina socket-outlets.
709.533.1.8 Socket-outlets to comply with BS EN 60309-2
up to 63A and BS EN 60309-1 above 63A.
Every socket-outlet to meet with the degree of protection to
IP44. If the external influence increase to AD5 or AD6 the
degree of protection required will be IPX5 or IPX6
respectively.

All feeder pillar and distribution board doors should be


fitted with locks to prevent unauthorized access and have
intermediate barriers to protect against accidental contact
with live parts when the doors are open. The barriers should
provide a degree of protection of at least IP2X or IPXXB.
Fig 709.3 in the Regulations details a sample electrical
information notice for marina users.

709.533.1.9 Each socket-outlet will be located within


proximity to the berth to be supplied.
709.533.1.10 No more than 4 sockets at any one point.
709.533.1.11 The maximum number required for each
craft is 1 per craft or houseboat.
709.533.1.12 In general the rating will be 16A at 200-250V.
709.533.1.13 The mounting height of socket-outlets will be
no less than 1m above the highest water level. On floating
pontoons and walkways, this can be reduced to 300mm
provided appropriate measures are taken to protect against
water splashing.
Where the particular feeder pillars are in external locations
they should be constructed of glass reinforced plastic (GRP),
or have GRP housings. GRP is preferred to galvanized steel
for protection against corrosion in such environments.
In order to counteract condensation within feeder pillar
enclosures, low wattage anti-condensation heaters should
be installed.

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Fig. 94 Marina pedestal for the supply of electricity (and water)

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Section 710 - Medical Locations
This is a new section added in Amendment 1 of BS7671 and
then fully replaced in June 2013 with the Corrigendum
710.1 Scope
Section 710 applies to electrical installations in medical
locations to ensure the safety of patients and medical staff.
These requirements, in the main, refer to hospitals, private
clinics, medical and dental practices, healthcare centres and
dedicated medical rooms in the workplace, they can also be
used in veterinary clinics and applies to locations designed
for medical research.

The requirements of this section do not apply to medical


electrical (ME) equipment.
710.3 - Assessment of general characteristics
Each medical location shall have its own classification and
group number which shall be determined by the type of
medical procedures that will take place within the location.
This makes it necessary for the relevant medical staff to
indicate which medical procedures will take place within the
location.
(Annex 710 on Page 238 of BS7671 provides examples for the
allocation of group numbers and classification for safety
services of medical locations)
Where a medical location may be used for different medical
procedures the requirements of the higher Group
classification should be applied
710.312.2 Types of system earthing
PEN conductors shall not be used in medical locations and
medical buildings downstream of the main distribution
board.
710.313.1 - The distribution system for medical locations
shall be designed and installed to facilitate the automatic
changeover from the main distribution network to the
electrical safety source feeding essential loads, as required
by Regulation 560.5.

Fig. 95 Hospital theatre room, but note, the specialist medical equipment
is not part of BS7671

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710.411.3.2.1 - Automatic disconnection in the case of a fault


710.411.3.2.1 - In medical locations of Group 1 and Group 2,
where RCDs are required, only type A according to BS EN

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61008 and BS EN 61009 or type B according to IEC 62423
shall be selected, depending on the possible fault current
arising.
Type AC RCDs shall not be used.
710.411.3.2.5 - In medical locations of Group 1 and Group 2,
the following shall apply:

For TN, TT and IT systems, the voltage presented


between simultaneously accessible exposedconductive-parts and/or extraneous-conductiveparts shall not exceed 25 V a.c. or 60 V d.c.

For TN and TT systems, the requirements of Table


710 shall apply.

Make a mental note of the location of Table 710 on page 231


of BS7671 as there is a likelihood of a question appearing in
the exam relating to thie values contained within this table.
710.411.3.3 - An RCD shall not be used as a means of
additional protection for a medical IT system.
710.411.4 - TN system
In final circuits of Group 1 rated up to 63A, RCDs with a
rated residual operating current not exceeding 30 mA and an
operating time not exceeding 40 ms shall be used. (See
regulation 415.1.1 for full characteristics of RCD).
In Group 2 medical locations (excluding IT), RCDs
complying with Regulation 415.1.1 can only be used on the
following circuits:

Circuits for the supply of movements of fixed

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operating tables, or

Circuits for X-ray units, or

Circuits for large equipment with a rated power


greater than 5 kVA.

710.411.5 - TT system
In Group 1 and Group 2 medical locations, RCDs shall be
used as disconnection devices.
710.411.6 - IT system
An IT system shall be used for final circuits supplying
medical electrical equipment and life support systems,
surgical applications and other electrical equipment located
or that may be moved into the patient environment in
Group 2 medical locations. Equipment listed in Regulation
710.411.4 is excluded.
At least one IT system is necessary for each group of rooms
serving the same function and the IT system shall be
equipped with an IMD (insulation monitoring device) in
accordance with BS EN 61557-8.
Note the additional specific requirements required by
Regulation 710.411.6.3.1
710.411.7 - Functional extra-low voltage (FELV) is not
permitted as a method of protection against electric shock in
medical locations.
710.415.2 - Additional protection: Supplementary
equipotential bonding
Supplementary equipotential bonding shall be installed in
medical locations of Group 1 and 2. The supplementary

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bonding conductors shall be connected to the equipotential
bonding busbar for the purpose of equalizing potential
differences between the following parts. These are parts that
may be located or moved into the patient environment.

Protective conductors

Extraneous-conductive-parts

Screening against electrical interference fields

Connection to conductive floor grids

Metal screens of isolating transformers

Supplementary equipotential bonding connection points for


the connection of ME equipment shall be provided in each
medical location, as follows:
Group 1: a minimum of one per patient location
Group 2: a minimum of four but not less than 25% of the
number of medical IT socket-outlets provided per patient
location
710.415.2.2 - In Group 1 and Group 2 medical locations, the
resistance of protective conductors, including the resistance
of the connections, between the protective conductor of
socket outlets and of fixed equipment or any extraneousconductive-parts and the equipotential busbar shall not
exceed 0.7 and 0.2 respectively.
710.415.2.3 - The equipotential bonding busbar shall be
located in or near the medical location. Connections shall be
arranged so that they are accessible, labelled and clearly
visible and can easily be disconnected individually.
710.512.1.1 - Transformers for IT systems shall be in

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accordance with BS EN 61558-2-15 and installed in close


proximity to the medical location.
There are also additional requirements for transformers for
IT systems at these locations which are covered by
Regulation 710.512.1.1
710.512.1.2 - In the event of a first fault to earth, a total loss of
supply in Group 2 locations shall be prevented.
710.512.2.1 - Socket outlets, switches and electrical devices
shall be installed at least 0.2 m from medical gas outlets in
order to minimize the risk of ignition of flammable gases.
710.537 - Isolation and switching
Automatic changeover devices shall be arranged so that safe
operation between supply lines is maintained. Automatic
changeover devices shall comply with BS EN 60947-6-1
710.553.1 - Socket outlet circuits in the medical IT system for
medical locations of Group 2
Socket-outlets intended to supply medical equipment shall
be unswitched.
At each patients place of treatment e.g. bedheads, the
configuration of socket-outlets shall be as follows:

each socket-outlet supplied by an individually


protected circuit, or

several socket-outlets separately supplied by a


minimum of two circuits

Socket-outlets used on medical IT systems shall be coloured


blue and clearly and permanently marked Medical

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Equipment Only.

Changeover period less than or equal to 0.5 s

710.559 - In Group 1 and Group 2 medical locations at least


two different sources of supply shall be provided for
luminaires and lighting installations, one of which shall be
connected to the supply system for safety services.

In this case, a safety power supply source that is capable of


providing power for at least 3 hours to essential lighting
such as operating theatre tables, light sources in medical
equipment such as endoscopes and monitors and life
supporting medical equipment, shall be used.

710.56 - In medical locations, a power supply for safety


services is required. The safety power supply shall
automatically take over if the voltage of one or more
incoming live conductors of the main distribution board of
the building with the main power supply has dropped for
more than 0.5 s and more than 10%. Refer to Annex A710 of
BS 7671 for a list of examples.
710.560.5.5 - General requirements for safety power supply
sources of Group 1 and Group 2
Primary cells are not allowed as safety sources
An additional main incoming power supply, from the
general power supply, is not regarded as a source of the
safety power supply.
The availability (readiness for service) of safety power
sources shall be monitored and indicated at a suitable
location.
Regulations 710.560.6.1.1 to 710.560.6.1.3 provide detailed
requirements for safety power supply services.
Depending on the medical equipment concerned and to
some extent, how critical that equipment is to the health of
the patient, various changeover periods and durations of
secondary power are defined.

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The normal power supply shall be restored within a


changeover period not exceeding 0.5 s.
Changeover period less than or equal to 15 s
In this case, a safety power supply source that is capable of
providing power for at least 24 hours to equipment meeting
the requirements of Regulations 710.560.6.1.1 and
710.560.6.1.2 shall be used.
In the event of the voltage of one or more live conductors at
the main distribution board for the safety services
decreasing by more than 10% of the nominal supply voltage
and for a duration of greater than 3 s, then the equipment
shall be connected to the safety power supply source within
15 s.
Changeover period greater than 15 s
This is for less critical equipment required for the
maintenance of hospital services and not covered by
Regulations 710.560.6.1.1 and 710.560.6.1.2. In this case, a
safety power supply source that is capable of providing
power for at least 24 hours and which can be connected
either automatically or manually shall be used.

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710.560.9.1 - Safety lighting

safety source power supply in Group 1 medical

In the event of mains power failure, the changeover period


to the safety power source shall not exceed 15 s. The
necessary minimum illuminance shall be provided for:

location rooms.

Emergency lighting and exit signs to BS 5266.

Locations for switchgear and controlgear for

safety services power source.

boards of the normal and safety services power

710.560.11 - Other services

At least one luminaire in rooms in which essential


safety services power source.
Locations of central fire alarm and monitoring
systems.

medical location rooms shall be supplied from the


The luminaires of escape routes shall be arranged on
alternate circuits.

services are intended, shall be supplied from the

A minimum of 90% of the lighting in Group 2

emergency generating sets, for main distribution


supplies.

At least one luminaire shall be supplied from the

This regulation lists examples of other services that may


require a safety service supply with a changeover period not
exceeding 15s. The list is not exhaustive and includes
examples such as firefighters lifts, smoke extractors, paging
systems, medical equipment and fire detection and
extinguishing systems. Fig 710.1 and 710.2 provide diagrams
of typical patient environment and operating theatre layout.

Fig. 96 Illustration of patient environment. See BS7671 Figs 710.1 and 710.2 for full details

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Section 711 - Exhibitions, Shows and Stands
711.1 Scope
Temporary electrical installations in exhibitions, shows and
stands are specified as a special location due to the:

Section 711.1 does not apply to the electrical systems as


defined in BS 7909 for:

Structures

Sets

Temporary nature of the installation

Mobile units as used in public or private events

Lack of permanent structures

Touring shows

Severe mechanical stresses

Theatrical, radio

Increased risk of fire and burns

TV or film productions and similar activities of the

Access to these installations by the general public

Typical examples of such installations include:

entertainment industry
711.313 Supplies

Exhibitions

The nominal supply voltage for a temporary electrical


installation shall not exceed 230/400V A.C. or 500V D.C.

Trade fairs

Outdoor shows

711.32 External influences

Temporary entertainment venues

Kiosks

Outdoors fast food outlets

Any external influence that may be present or anticipated


must be taken into account e.g. water, mechanical
stress/damage.
711.410.3.4 The cable intended to supply temporary
structures shall be protected at its origin by a RCD rated not
to exceed 300mA. A device to BS EN 60947-2(time delay) or
BS EN 61008-1 or BS EN 61009-1(S-Type) can be used
provided there is an RCD protecting the final circuits.
711.411.3.1.2 Protective equipotential bonding
Because of the practical difficulties ensuring main
equipotential bonding to all extraneous-conductive-parts,
structural metallic parts shall be connected through the main
protective bonding conductors to the main earthing terminal
within the unit.

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711.411.3.3 RCD protection requirements

711.42 Protection against thermal effects

Type of Circuit

Maximum Rated Residual

711.422.4.2 Heat generation

Current l n

Equipment that generates heat to be suitably guarded and


installed as not to cause danger.

At the origin of a cable


intended to supply a
temporary structure

300 mA RCD incorporating


time delay to provide
discrimination with final
circuit RCDs
(BS EN 60947-2 or S-type to
BS EN 61008-1 or BS EN 610091)

Additionally, where the protective measure is automatic


disconnection of supply
Each socket-outlet circuit
rated current up to 32 A

30 mA

All final circuits (other


than those supplying
emergency lighting)

30 mA

Table 18 RCD protection requirements

Particular attention should be given to the choice and


location of lighting equipment. The construction material of
showcases and signs should have adequate heat resistance,
mechanical strength, ventilation and electrical insulation.
711.51 Switchgear and controlgear to be in locked cabinet
which can only be opened by the use of a tool or key.
711.52 Wiring systems
Armored Cables or cables to be mechanically protected i.e.
conduit.
The minimum csa of the wiring cables to be 1.5mm2.
Flexible cords shall not be laid in areas accessible to the
public unless they are protected against mechanical damage.
711.521 If no fire alarm system installed in the building
that the temporary installation is erected:

711.411.4 TN System

Flame retardant cable to be used.

Only TN-S systems to be used for suppliesTN-C and TN-C-S


systems are prohibited by BS 7671.TN-S supplies are
acceptable provided accessible metallic parts to have
protective equipotential bonding.

Single core or multi core unarmored cables


enclosed in either metallic or non-metallic trunking
or conduit to BS EN 61386 orBS EN 50085providing
a degree of protection to IP4X.

In most cases TT systems will be the norm, especially


outdoors.Indoor systems will vary.

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711.526.1 Electrical connection
Joints to be avoided where possible except where necessary
as a connection into a circuit. Where these joints are made
they shall be in accordance with the relevant standards or
within an enclosure to IP4X or IPXXD.
711.537.2.3 Every separate temporary structure, vehicle
stand or unit shall be provided with its own means of
isolation, which is readily accessible and properly
identifiable.
711.55.7 Sockets
Adequate number of socket-outlets for safety reasons and, if
floor mounted be protected against the ingress of water and
withstand the anticipated walking traffic.
711.559 Luminaires and lighting

guarded to prevent risk of injury to persons or ignition of


materials711.6 Inspection and Testing
All temporary electrical installations of exhibitions, shows
and stands are required to be inspected and tested in line
with Chapter 61 after each assembly on site.

Section 712 - Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Power


Supply Systems
712.1 Scope
Section 712 specifies the requirements for solar photovoltaic
(PV) power supply systems.
It also outlines the requirements for solar photovoltaic (PV)
power supply systems operating in parallel with public low
voltage distribution networks.

711.559.4.2 Extra-low voltage systems to comply with BS


EN 60598-2-23.
711.559.4.3 Insulation piercing lampholders for festoon
lighting to be compatible with cable and non-removable.
711.559.4.4.1 Any sign or lamp to be fixed out of arms
reach or protected against the risk of injury to persons.
711.559.4.4.2 Luminaires to be fixed onto a noncombustible surface.
711.559.4.4.3 An emergency switch that is easily visible,
accessible and clearly marked to control any circuit
supplying signs, lamps or exhibits.
711.559.5 Thermal effect
Luminaires below 2.5m (arms reach) to be firmly fixed and
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Fig. 97 PV equipment on roof

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712.410.3 PV equipment on the D.C. side considered to be
energised at all times.
712.411.3.2.1.1 The PV supply cable shall be connected to
the supply side of the protective device for automatic
disconnection.
712.411.3.2.1.2 Where ADS is the protective measure on
the a.c. side, RCD protection may be required.
The preferred protective measures on the d.c. side is Class II
or equivalent insulation.
712.412 Protection by Class II preferred for d.c. side
712.434.1 PV cables protected against short-circuit
currents by appropriate device.

to be carried out.
712.552.8.1 PV cables shall be installed to prevent any risk
of earth faults or short-circuits.
712.522.8.3 Equipment & wiring systems selected for
external influences i.e. wind, ice etc.
712.537.2.1.1 To allow maintenance of the PV converter a
means of isolation from both the a.c. and d.c. side to be
provided.712.537.2.2.5 Switch disconnectors to be
supplied for d.c. side ( PV converter).
712.537.2.2.5.1 Suitable warning notices fitted indicating
that parts of the PV installation may still be live after
isolation from the PV converter.

712.444.4.4 Protection against EMI in buildings


Wiring loops short (lightning strikes).
712.511.1 Crystalline PV modules shall comply with the
requirements of BS EN 61215.
Class II modules are recommended if Uoc STC exceeds 120V
d.c.
712.512 PV strings may be connected in series depending
on the voltage capabilities of the PV modules or the PV
converter.
The installation of PV modules should be installed so that
the heat dissipation does not impose a risk.
712.513.1 Accessibility
The selection and erection of the PV equipment shall be
installed to facilitate the safe maintenance and service work

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Fig. 98 PV Array warning notice

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712.54 Where protective conductors are installed they will
be in parallel to and in close proximity with the cables and
accessories.
Further information should be sought prior to design or
installation:

Section 714 Outdoor lighting installations


This section applies to outdoor lighting installations
comprising one or more luminaires, a wiring system and
accessories, and to highway power supplies and street
furniture.

Electrical Safety, quality and Continuity


Regulations 2002 (ESQCR).

Energy Networks Associations Engineering


Recommendation G83/1.

Engineering Recommendation G59/1 (for


installations over 16A).

Electrical Safety Councils Best Practice Guide


Connecting a microgeneration system to a
domestic or similar installation.

Fig. 99 Bus shelters included in new regulation Special Locations 714

The following are included:


i.

Lighting installations such as those for roads, parks,


car parks, gardens, places open to the public,
sporting areas, illumination of monuments and
floodlighting

ii.

Other lighting arrangements in places such as


telephone kiosks, bus shelters, advertising panels

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and town plans
iii.

Road signs.

The following are excluded:


i.

Temporary festoon lighting

ii.

Luminaires fixed to the outside of a building and


supplied directly from the internal wiring of that
building

iii.

Road traffic signal systems.

New regulation - 714. Isolation and switching


714.537.2 Isolation

Section 715 Extra-low voltage lighting


installations
Protection against overcurrent
715.430.104

Protection against overcurrent in ELV lighting installations


The use of self-resetting overcurrent protective devices is
permitted only for transformers up to 50 VA.

715.5 - Selection and erection of equipment


715.52 Wiring systems
i)

Insulated conductors in conduit systems according to

714.537.2.1 General

BS EN 61386 series or cable trunking/ducting systems

714.537.2.1.1

according to BS EN 50085 series

Every circuit shall be capable of being isolated individually


from each of the live supply conductors, except as detailed
in Regulation 537.1.2.
714.537.2.1.201 Where it is intended that isolation and
switching is carried out only by instructed persons and
subject to suitable provisions being made so that precautions
can be taken to prevent any equipment from being
inadvertently or unintentionally energized, for TN systems,
the means of switching the supply on load and the means of
isolation is permitted to be provided by a suitably rated fuse
carrier.

ii) Rigid cables


iii) Flexible cables
iv) Systems for ELV lighting according to BS EN 60598-2-23
v) Track systems according to BS EN 60570
vi) Bare conductors (see Regulation 715.521.106).
Where parts of the ELV lighting installation are accessible,
the requirements of Section 423 also apply.
Metallic structural parts of buildings, for example pipe
systems, or parts of furniture, shall not be used as live
conductors.

714.537.2.1.202 Where the distributor's cut-out is used as the


means of isolation of a highway power supply the approval
of the distributor shall be obtained.

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715.521.106 Bare conductors
If the nominal voltage does not exceed 25 V a.c. or 60 V d.c.,
bare conductors may be used providing that the extra-low
voltage lighting installation complies with all the following
requirements:
i)

The lighting installation shall be designed, and installed


or enclosed in such a way that the risk of a short-circuit
is reduced to a minimum

ii) The conductors used shall have a cross-sectional area


according to Regulation 715.524
iii) The conductors shall not be placed directly on
combustible material.
For suspended bare conductors, at least one conductor and
its terminals shall be insulated for that part of the circuit
between the transformer and the short-circuit protective
device to prevent a short-circuit.
715.521.107 Suspended systems
Suspension devices for extra-low voltage luminaires,
including supporting conductors, shall be capable of
carrying five times the mass of the luminaires (including
their lamps) intended to be supported, but not less than 5 kg.
Terminations and connections of conductors shall be made
by screw terminals or screwless clamping devices complying
with BS EN 60998-2-1 or BS EN 60998-2-2.
Safety of the installation due to expected stresses in the
conductors shall be in accordance with Regulation 559.5.2.

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Insulation piercing connectors and termination wires which


rely on counterweights hung over suspended conductors to
maintain the electrical connection shall not be used.
The suspended system shall be fixed to walls or ceilings by
insulated distance cleats and shall be continuously accessible
throughout the route.
715.524.201 The minimum cross-sectional area of the extralow voltage conductors shall be:
i)

1.5 mm2 copper, but in the case of flexible cables with a


maximum length of 3 m a cross-sectional area of 1 mm
2 copper may be used

ii) 4 mm2 copper in the case of suspended flexible cables or


insulated conductors, for mechanical reasons
iii) 4 mm2 copper in the case of composite cables consisting
of braided tinned copper outer sheath, having a
material of high tensile strength inner core.
In ELV lighting installations, if the voltage drop between the
transformer and the furthest luminaire does not exceed 5 %
of the nominal voltage of the ELV installation it shall be
deemed to comply with Section 525.
Protective devices may be located above false ceilings, which
are removable or easily accessible, provided that information
is given about the presence and location of such devices.
If the identification of a protective device for a circuit is not
immediately evident, a sign or diagram (label) close to the
protective device shall identify the circuit and its purpose.

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SELV sources, protective devices or similar equipment
mounted above false ceilings or in a similar place shall be
permanently connected.
SELV sources and their protective devices shall be installed
so as to:
i)

avoid mechanical stress on their electrical connections,


and

ii) be adequately supported, and


iii) avoid overheating of the equipment due to thermal
insulation.
715.537.1.1 Where transformers are operated in parallel, the
primary circuits shall be permanently connected to a
common isolating device.

Section 717 - Mobile or Transportable Units


717.1 Scope
Applies to mobile vehicles & transportable
containers/cabins. These types of units are designated as a
special location because:

The temporary nature of the installation

Risks associated with repeated connection and


disconnection

Risks associated with different connection facilities

Difficulties establishing an equipotential zone

Vibrations problems

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Fig. 100 Mobile medical unit

Units can be either:

Mobile (vehicles, self-propelled or towed)

Transportable (containers, cabins etc)

These units will be pre-wired and require a suitable supply


and connection. Typical industries employing these units
are: entertainments, medical, advertising, fire-fighting,
industry, commerce and catering. Section 717 does NOT
apply to generating sets, marinas and boats, caravans,
vehicle electrics.

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717.313 - Supplies
Added in Amendment 1, one or more of the following
methods shall be used to supply a unit:
i.

Connection to a low voltage generating set, located

712.411.4 PME earthing facility shall not be used.

inside the unit, in accordance with Section 551 (see

Unless these installations are under continuous supervision


by a skilled or instructed person and the effectiveness of the
means of earth has been confirmed prior to connection, TNC-S systems are prohibited.

Figure 717.1 of the Regs)


ii.

Connection to a low voltage electrical supply


external to the unit, in which the protective measures
are effective (see Figure 717.3 of the Regs), the supply
derived from either a fixed electrical installation or a
generating set in accordance with Section 551

iii.

through the main protective bonding conductors to the main


earthing terminal within the unit. The main protective
bonding conductors shall be finely stranded.

717.415.1 RCD protection is required for every socketoutlet intended to supply current-using equipment outside
the unit (unless SELV, etc).

Connection to a low voltage electrical supply


external to the unit, and where internal protective
measures are provided by the use of simple
separation, in accordance with Section 413(see
Figures 717.4, 717.5, (see Figures 717.4, 717.5, 717.6
and 717.7 of the Regs showing alternative forms of
fault protection within the unit).

717.411.1 Protective measures against electric shock ADS


Automatic disconnection of supply.
For a supply in accordance with 717.313(ii), Automatic
disconnection of supply shall be provided by means of a
residual current protective device, with a rated residual
operating current not exceeding 30 mA.
717.411.3.1.2 Accessible conductive parts of the unit, such
as the conductive structure of the unit, shall be connected

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Fig. 101 Outside equipment

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717.514 Notices shall be available near the incoming
supply to state the characteristics of:

i.

Plugs shall have an enclosure of insulating material

ii.

Connecting devices, plugs and socket-outlets, with

The type of supply which may be connected to the

an enclosure as necessary, shall afford a degree of

unit

protection of at leastIP44 when in use or connected

The voltage rating of the unit

and protection of at least IP55 when not connected,

The number of phases and their configurations

e.g. when the unit is in transit

The on-board earthing arrangement

The maximum power requirements of the unit

717.52 Wiring systems


H07RN-F (BS EN 50525-2-21) or equivalent, flexible cable,
made of copper, have a minimum csa of 2.5mm2 and enter
the unit by an insulating inlet
717.528.3.4 Proximity of non-electrical services.
No electrical equipment or wiring to run through gas
cylinder storage areas except ELV controls.
Where cables have to run through such a compartment, they
shall be protected against mechanical damage by installation
within a conduit or ducting system complying with relevant
parts of BS EN 61386 and BS EN 50085 respectively.
717.55.1

The inlet (with male contacts) shall be situated on the unit.

Section 721 - Electrical Installations in


Caravans and Motor Caravans
Caravans are installations of increased electric shock risk
because:

Persons may be minimally clothed or exposed to


wetness and, when outside, in contact directly with
Earth.

Frequent road movement and the associated risk of


vibration.

Potential problems relating to frequent connection


and disconnection of supplies.

References to caravans also apply to motor-caravans.

Where the means of connection is a plug and socket-outlet,


mounted, accessed or used outside the unit and used to
connect the unit to the supply, or supply other equipment, it
shall comply with the appropriate parts of BS EN 603092series and shall meet with the following requirements:

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apply), or transportable units (Section 717 applies).
721.313.1.2 Supplies
The nominal supply voltage shall be 230 Vsinge phase or 400
V three phase a.c.
The d.c. voltage should not exceed 48 V.
721.41 Protection against electric shock
721.410.3.3.1 Any portion of the installation operating at
extra-low voltage will comply with Section 414 of BS
7671:2008. These power sources generally used operate at 12
V, 24 V and 48 V. d.c.

Fig. 102 Caravan interior

Caravan parks are covered in Section 708, and transportable


units are covered in Section 717.
721.1 Scope
This particular requirement applies to the electrical
installation of touring caravans and motor caravans with
nominal voltages of 230Va.c or 48Vd.c. for circuits and
equipment for use of the caravan for habitation purposes.
Exclusions from scope

Electrical circuits and equipment for automotive


purposes.

Electrical installations of mobile homes and


residential park homes (general requirements

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In particular circumstances the voltage of 42 V rms is


utilized.
The protective measures of obstacles, placing out of reach,
non-conduction location, earth-free equipotential bonding
and electrical separation are not permitted except for the
installation of shaver socket outlets.
721.411 Protective measure : Automatic disconnection of
supply.
Where automatic disconnection of
supply is used, a 30 mA RCD is
required, which must interrupt all live
conductors (Line and Neutral). This will
normally be in place of the main
incoming switch of the consumer unit of
the caravan.
The wiring system must include a CPC

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connected to:

The protective contact of the inlet, and

The exposed-conductive-parts of the electrical


equipment (such as the metallic enclosure of Class
I items of equipment), and

The protective contacts of the socket-outlets.

721.411.3.1.2 Protective equipotential bonding


Structural metallic parts accessible from within the caravan
(such as the chassis) is required to be bonded to main
earthing terminal of the caravan.
721.43 Devices for protection against overcurrent.
Each final circuit must be protected by an overcurrent
protective device that disconnects all live conductors (line
and neutral).
NOTE: This means double-pole circuit-breakers are to be
used for single-phase circuits.
721.514.1 Identification
Instructions shall be provided and will include:
A description of the installation.
A description of the function of the RCDs and use of the test
button.
A description of the function of the main isolating switch.
The text of the instructions in Fig 721 must be displayed.

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721.522 External influences


721.522.7.1 Vibration
All cables that pass through metalwork or supported on
rigid surfaces, will be protected against damage due to the
likelihood of vibration.
721.522.8 Mechanical stresses
All cables and cables in rigid conduit to be supported at
intervals not exceeding 400mm vertically and 250mm
horizontally. (Onsite Guide Table 4A page 113.)
721.524.1 All cable conductors to be no less than 1.5mm2
721.528.3.4 Proximity of non-electrical services
No electrical equipment or wiring to run through gas
cylinder storage areas except ELV controls.
Where they run through this area, they shall be protected
against mechanical damage by installation in conduit to BS
EN 61386 which has an impact equivalent toAG3.
721.537.2.1.1 Isolation
Each installation in a caravan will be provided with a main
disconnector, which shall disconnect all live conductors
(Line and Neutral) and positioned in a suitable accessible
position.
721.537.2.1.1.1 A notice of durable material to be
permanently fixed near the main isolating device inside the
caravan as shown in Fig 721.
721.543.2.3 Protective conductors
All protective conductors shall be incorporated in a
multicore cable or in a conduit together with the Live

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conductors.
721.55.1.1 Inlets
Any A.C. electrical inlet on the caravan shall be compliant
with BS EN 60309-1 and only interchangeable with a BS EN
60309-2 socket.
721.55.1.2 The inlet shall be installed

installed, provision is to be made for the securement when


the caravan is in motion.
721.55.2.6 The means of connection to the caravan pitch
socket-outlet shall be supplied with the caravan and shall
comprise of:

A plug as specified in BSEN 60309-2.

At a maximum height of 1.8 m from ground level

Flexible cable to H05RN-F (BS 7919):

In a readily accessible position on outside of

Maximum length 25 m

caravan,

A current rating of 16 A (minimum) conductor

Have a minimum degree of protection of IP44

Must not protrude significantly beyond the


caravan body

CSA to be 2.5 mm2


Colour identification in accordance with Table 51 and as
covered earlier

A 16 A single-phase inlet is adequate for most caravans; to


comply with BS EN 60309-2 with key position 6h, and be
coloured blue.Higher rating connections to comply with BS
EN 60309-2, if needed.
721.55.2 Accessories
721.55.2.1 Every low voltage socket-outlet other than one
supplied from an isolating transformer shall incorporate an
earth pin.
721.55.2.2 Every socket-outlet shall have its voltage
marked.
721.55.2.3 Every accessory in a location which is exposed
to moisture will be protected to IP44.
721.55.2.4 Every luminaire shall be fixed directly to the
structure of the caravan. In the case where a pendant is

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Section 722 Electric Vehicle Charging
722.1 Scope
The particular requirements of this section apply to:
i.

circuits intended to supply electric vehicles for


charging purposes

ii.

protection for safety when feeding back electricity


from an electric vehicle into a private or public
supply network (under consideration).

722.410 - Protective measures of obstacle and placing out of


reach and earth-free local equipotential bonding are not
permitted
722.411 - A PME earthing facility shall only be used in
particular installations:
i.

installation is not likely to exceed 70V


ii.

Where the installation is connected to an earth


electrode, the rms voltage between the main earthing

Inductive charging is not covered.


Electrical installations for charging mobility scooters and
similar vehicles of 10 A and less are not covered.

An open-circuit fault of the network supplying the

terminal and Earth does not exceed 70V


iii.

Protection is provided by a device which disconnects


within 5s in the event of a the voltage between the
protective conductor and Earth exceeding 70V

These regulations do not apply in the case of a charging


point located at a dwelling. A dwelling is defined as a selfcontained unit to accommodate a single household.
722.512 - IP44 protection against water
722.531 - Each charging point to be protected by RCDs
722.55.201 - Detailed requirements relating to permitted
sockets and connectors
Fig. 103 Electric vehicle charging is becoming an important of the
electrical installation infrastructure

722.311 - A dedicated final circuit shall be provided for the


connection to electric vehicles
722.312 - For a TN system, the final circuit shall not include a
PEN conductor

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722.55.101.3 - One socket-one vehicle


722.55.101.5 - Socket height shall be between 05.m and 1.5m
from the ground.
Requirements of National Building Regulations need to be
adhered to

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Section 729 - Operating and Maintenance
Gangways
Another new section added in Amendment 1, applying to
basic protection and other aspects relating to the operation
or maintenance of switchgear and control gear within areas
including gangways, where access is restricted to skilled or
instructed persons.

evacuation. Clear signage warning of restricted access is


therefore paramount.
729.513.2 - The width of gangways and access areas shall be
adequate for work, transportation of equipment and
emergency evacuation.
Equipment doors and hinged panel must have space to open
to at least 90 degrees.
729.513.2.1 - Restricted access areas where basic protection is
provided by barriers or enclosures (refer to Fig 729.1 BS7671)
Gangway width between:

Barriers or enclosures and switch handles or circuit


breakers and the wall - 700mm

Barriers or enclosures or other barriers or


enclosures - 700mm

Height of gangway to barrier or enclosure above


floor - 2000mm

Live parts placed out of reach - 2500mm

729.513.2.1 - Restricted access areas where protective


measures of obstacles is applied (refer to Fig 729.2
BS7671)Gangway width between:
Fig. 104 Passenger boarding bridge - a gangway

729.3 - Assessment of general characteristics

Restricted areas shall be clearly marked by appropriate


signage and shall not provide access to unauthorized users.
However, access doors to restricted areas shall be easily
opened without a key or tool in order to allow for easy

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Obstacles and switch handles or circuit breakers


and the wall - 700mm

Obstacles or other obstacles and the wall - 700mm

Height of gangway to obstacles, barrier or


enclosure above floor - 2000mm

Live parts placed out of reach - 2500mm

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729.513.2.3 - Access of gangways
Gangways longer than 10m shall be accessible from both
ends.
Closed restricted access areas longer than 20m shall be
accessible by doors from both ends.
Fig 729.3 (a), (b) and (c) provides examples of positioning of
doors in closed restricted access areas and require that doors
giving access to gangways shall open outwards and be
700mm wide and 2000mm high as a minimum.
Annex A729 provides normative information for closed
restricted access areas and illustrates how handles should be
fitted, access doors should be hung and minimum passing
width in the case of evacuation.
Doors should close in the direction of the evacuation route.
Where doors can be fixed in the open position and circuit
breakers are withdrawn fully for maintenance, a minimum
passing width of 500mm shall apply.

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Section 740 - Temporary Electrical
Installations for Structures, Amusement
Devices and Booths at Fairgrounds,
Amusement Parks and Circuses
Some of the reasons why these installations are considered
special installations/locations include:
Temporary nature of the installation and the risks associated
with the repetitive connection of these units and the risks
associated with different connection provision at different
locations.

With the constant transportation to locations there is risk of


vibration problems due to trailer or vehicular movement and
the effects of vibration and movement of structures during
operation.
740.1.1 Scope
Section 740 relates to the safe design, installation and
operation of temporary erected mobile or transportable
electrical machines and structures which incorporate
electrical equipment.
This Section does NOT apply to:

Internal electrical wiring of the machines (BS EN


60204-1).

Any permanent electrical installations that may


supply such equipment.

740.313.1.1 The nominal supply of temporary installations


in booths, stands and amusement devices shall not exceed:

230 V single-phase a.c..

400 V three-phase a.c.

440 V d.c.

740.313.3 Irrespective of the number of sources of


supplies, the line and neutral from different sources shall not
be interconnected downstream of the origin of the
temporary installation.
Fig. 105 Fairground ride

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740.410.3 Protection against electric shock


Automatic disconnection of the supply to the temporary
electrical installation shall be provided by a 300mA RCD at

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origin. A time delayed RCD can also be used provided there
is other RCDs protecting the final circuits.

740.51 Switchgear and controlgear shall be placed in


cabinets which is only accessible with a key or tool.

740.411 Supplies to a.c. motors, RCDs where used should


be the time delay type to prevent unwanted tripping.

740.512.2 External Influence


All electrical equipment will have protection to IP44.

740.411.4.1 In the UK, the ESQCR prohibit the use of a


PME earthing facility for the supply for a caravan or similar
construction.

740.52 Wiring Systems

740.415 .1 Additional protection ADS


All circuits shall be protected by RCDs as specified in
Regulation 415.1.1:

Lighting

Socket-outlets

Mobile equipment up to 32A

Special note:
The supply to a battery-operated emergency lighting circuit
shall be connected to the same RCD protecting the circuit.
740.415.2 Supplementary equipotential bonding, the
connection between all exposed-conductive-parts and
extraneous-conductive-part may be required in locations
intended for livestock.
If animals are kept in these locations reference to Section 705
may also need to be required.
740.422.3 In the situation where stored materials may be
considered a fire risk, a motor which is automatically or
remotely controlled and is not supervised must be fitted
with a manual reset to protect against excess temperature.

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Cables installed in walkways which may be flexible to be


suitably mechanically protected and flexible, they may also
be installed in flexible conduit.
(Cables of H07RNF and H07BN4-F with conduit to BS EN
61386-23 are deemed to comply with this requirement.)
740.526 Joints to be avoided where ever possible. Where
they are made, they are to be enclosed and have a degree of
protection to IP4X or IPXXD.
740.537 Every booth or stand to have its own means of
isolation. This device willdisconnect all live conductors and
not only be readily accessible, but properly identified for the
circuit it protects.
740.55 Equipment
Luminaires and decorative lighting shall be suitably IP rated
and fixed securely so that the weight of the lighting is not
carried by the cable.
Luminaires and decorative lighting fixed if below 2.5m
(arms reach), must be guarded and firmly fixed to avoid
injury due to heat concentration.
740.55 .1.2 Insulation-piercing lampholders shall not be
used unless the lampholders and cable are compatible and
are non-removable.
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740.55 .1.3 All lamps in stalls where projectiles are used
i.e. shooting galleries shall be protected against accidental
damage.
740.55 .1.4 All transportable floodlights to be inaccessible
to the public.
740.55 .1.5 All luminaires and floodlights to be mounted
as not to considered a fire risk.
740.55 .3.2 Separate circuit used to supply luminous
tubes, signs or lamps to be controlled by an emergency
switch. This will be easily visible, accessible and marked in
accordance with the local authority requirements.
740.55 .7 An adequate number of socket-outlets shall be
installed and this is recommended to be one socket-outlet for
every square metre.

The means of placing out of arms reach may be used.


740.551.8 All generators to be placed in a location to
prevent any inadvertent contact that imposes a risk of
contact with hot surfaces or mechanical injury.
These generators may require to be mounted on an antivibration mounting.
The earthing arrangements with the use of earth electrodes
must comply with Regulation 542.1 or 542.2 of BS 7671:2008.
The neutral conductor of the star point of the generator will
be connected to the exposed conductive parts of the
generator, (Except an IT system).
740.6 All equipment is to be inspected and tested after
each site assembly.

Sockets to be identified for their intended dedication.


When used outdoors be to BS EN 60309-2 or BSEN 60309-1.
740.55 .8 Each amusement device shall be permanently
marked to indicate the:

Rated voltage

Rated current

Rated frequency

At its connection point.


740.55 .9 Electric dodgems shall only be operated at
voltages not exceeding50V a.c. or 120 V d.c. The circuit shall
be electrically separated from the supply by means of a
transformer to BS EN 61558-2-4 or a motor generator set.

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Section 753 - Floor and Ceiling Heating
Systems
753.1 Scope
Section 753 includes the installation of electric floor and
ceiling heating systems erected either as:

The following Sections also have specific requirements


relating floor and ceiling heating:
Section 701 (bathrooms/shower rooms).
Section 702 (Locations containing a swimming pool or
other basin).
Regulation Group 554.4 (the general requirements of 554.4
apply to all heating cables).

Thermal storage systems

Direct heating systems

NOT covered by Section 753:

753.411.3.2 Protective measures ADS

Wall heating systems

Outdoor floor and ceiling heating systems

A 30mA RCD for automatic disconnection of supply shall be


installed. Any metallic grid installed to be connected as an
exposed conductive part.
To avoid unwanted tripping the load to be limited to 7.5kW
at 230V.
753.423 Protection against burns
In floor areas where contact with skin or footwear is
possible, the surface temperature of the floor must be limited
(for example 35 C).
753.424.3.1 Maximum temperatures are required for both
the floor surface temperature and the zone where heating
units are installed to be no greater than 80C by the
following measures:

Appropriate design of the heating system.

Appropriate installation of the heating system to


the manufacturers instructions.

Fig. 106 Underfloor electrical heating

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Use of protective devices.

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Heating units must be connected to the installation via cold
leads or suitable terminals.Connection between cold leads
and heating units must be inseparable (e.g. by crimping).

Conductors

Heated area

Rated voltage

Note:The cold tail (or cold lead) is the connection between


the fixed installation and the heating.

Rated resistance of cold heating units

Rated current of overcurrent device

753.424.3.2 Where the heating unit is pleased in an area


close to easily ignitable material, special measures are
required to be taken to ensure that under fault conditions, no
risk occurs. This may be done by the placing of metal sheet
or conduit.

Rated residual operating current of RCD

Insulation resistance of the heating unit

The leakage capacitance

753.512.2.5 Ceiling heating will require to have a degree


of protection no less than IPX1.
Floor heating in concrete or similar to IPX7 and have
appropriate mechanical properties.
753.514 Identification and notices
The designer will provide a plan for each heating system
must be provided adjacent to the heating system distribution
board. Details include:

Manufacturer and type of units

Number

Length/area

Rated power

Surface power density

Layout

Position/depth of units

Position of junction boxes

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753.515 Elements not to cross expansion joints of the


building structure.
753.520.4 Heating-free areas
Requirement for the attachment of room fittings to be
provided in a way that heat emission is not prevented by
such fittings.
753.522.4.3 Where heating units are installed they will be
heat-free areas where drilling and fixing by screws, nails or
the like are permitted. This information needs to be given to
other contractors to avoid any damage.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS Special Installations or Locations
Question 1

Question 3

Zone 3 of a sauna is limited by a horizontal surface located


above the floor at a height

Which protective measure for electrical installations in


caravan parks is not permitted?

A.

0.7 m

A.

non-conducting location

B.

1.0 m

B.

extra-low voltage by SELV or PELV

C.

1.2 m

C.

electrical separation

D.

1.5 m

D.

double or reinforced isolation

Question 2

Question 4

Which one may NOT be used as a protective bonding


conductor in a location where livestock is kept?

As a specific requirement for an insulation monitoring


device (IMD) in a medical IT system, it's a.c. internal
impedance must be more than

A.

Hot-dip galvanized steel strip with dimensions of 40


mm x 5 mm

B.
C.

A.

150 k

Hot-dip galvanized round steel of 4 mm diameter

B.

100 k

Copper conductor having a cross-sectional area of 5

C.

80 k

D.

50 k

mm

2.

D.

Hot-dip galvanized round steel of10 mm diameter

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Question 5

Question 8

Identify one of the following which would be classed as a


Group 2 medical location

In an area containing a bath or a shower, socket outlets must


be installed

A.

Endoscopic room

A.

a minimum of 3m horizontally from zone 1 boundary

B.

Urology room

B.

3m horizontally from zone 0

C.

Haemodialysis room

C.

3m horizontally from zone 2

D.

Massage room

D.

within zone 2 but outside zone 1

Question 6

Question 9

A copper flexible cable used for connecting a mobile unit to


the supply must have a minimum cross-sectional area of

In a bathroom zone 1 is defined as the


A.

area outside a 0.60m circumference from the bath or


shower

B.

area within a 0.60m circumference from the bath or


shower

C.

area directly above the bath or shower up to 2.25m


above the finished floor level

Question 7

D.

area within the bath or shower

Within agricultural premises, final circuits feeding socket


outlets exceeding 32A should be protected by a

Question 10

A.

2.0 mm

B.

2.5 mm2

C.

3.0 mm2

D.

4.0 mm2

A.

100mA RCD

B.

10mA RCD

C.

300mA RCD

D.

250mA RCD

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Photovoltaic equipment should always


A.

be considered energised on the d.c. side

B.

be used in certain listed countries only

C.

be considered energised on the a.c. side

D.

use a low voltage supply

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ANSWERS Special Installations or Locations

1B, Ref: BS7671: 703.32.3


2B, Ref: BS7671: 705.544.2
3A, Ref: BS7671: 708.410.3.6
4B, Ref: BS7671: 710.411.6.3.1
5C, Ref: BS7671: Annex A710
6B, Ref: BS7671: 717.52.1
7A, Ref: BS7671: 705.411.1
8A, Ref: BS7671: 701.512.3
9C, Ref: BS7671: 701.32.3
10A, Ref: BS7671: 712.410.3

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PART 8 APPENDICES
AppendicesOverview
BS 7671 contains 16 listed Appendices, although Appendices
11 and 12 have been moved in Amendment 1.
1. British standards to which reference is made in the
regulations
2. Statutory regulations and associated memoranda
3. Time/current characteristics of overcurrent protective
devices and RCDs
4. Current-carrying capacity and voltage drop for
cables
5. Classification of external influences
6. Model forms for certification and reporting
7. Harmonized cable core colours
8. Current-carrying capacity and voltage drop for
busbar trunking and powertrack systems
9. Definitions multiple source d.c. and other systems
10. Protection of conductors in parallel against
overcurrent
11. Effect of harmonic currents on balanced three phase
systems - moved to Appendix 4 Sections 5.5 and 5.6
in Amendment 1

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12. Voltage drop in consumers installations - moved to


Appendix 4 Section 6.4 in Amendment 1
13. Methods for measuring the insulation
resistance/impedance of floors and walls to Earth or
to the protective conductor system
14. Measurement of fault loop impedance: consideration
of the increase of the resistance of the conductors
with the increase of temperature
15. Ring and radial final circuit arrangements,
Regulation 433.1
16. Devices for protection against overcurrent

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Appendix 1:British Standards Referenced by
the Regulations
Appendix 1 is described as normative, all other appendices
are informative.
Normative means that this Appendix provides reference to
documents which are the standards, for all the other
appendices, they are informative, which means they provide
additional information

These graphs use a logarithmic scale and this must be kept


in mind or mistakes or miscalculations may be made. For
this reason a table has been introduced for quick reference.
The information within these graphs, are interrelated onto
various other tables throughout BS7671 2008 i.e. tables 41.2
to 41.6 and also in the Onsite Guide.

Appendix 4: Current-Carrying Capacity and


Voltage Drop for Cables and Flexible Cords

Appendix 2: Statutory Regulations and


Associated Memoranda

This section has greatly changed from the previous 16th


edition and care is required in the reading of this section.

Electrical installations are to comply with not only BS 7671


2008 but to specific Statutory Regulations. Refer to Appendix
2 for the up to date list of Statutory Regulations

Appendix 5: Classification of External


Influences

Appendix 3:Time / Current Characteristics of


Overcurrent Protective Devices and Residual
Current Devices
Appendix 3 provides the Time/current characteristics of
overcurrent protective devices and RCDs.
The characteristics are provided in the form of graphs and
by plotting time in seconds against prospective current in
amperes. By referencing the graphs the disconnection time
of the selected device can be ascertained when the current
passing through the device is known, conversely the current
required to disconnect the device in a given time can also be
known.

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The Classification of External Influences is noticeably


mentioned throughout BS7671 2008 and are intended to give
the classification and codification of the external influences
of the installation
The First letter relates to the general category of the external
influence.
The Second letter relates to the nature of the external
influence.
The number relates to the class within the external influence,
i.e. AD4
A represents the Environment:

Ambient temperature

Temperature and Humidity

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Water

Foreign bodies

Corrosion

Impact

Vibration

Flora fauna

Electromagnetic

Solar

Seismic

Lighting

Lightning

Movement of air

Wind

B represents the Utilization of the building:

Capability of the occupants

Contact of the occupants with Earth potential

Conditions of evacuation in an emergency

Nature of stored materials

C represents the construction of the building:

Construction combustible or non-combustible

Building design

It is recommended that installers and designers become


familiar with these classifications. There is also a high
probability of several exam questions occurring concerning
external influence codes.

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Appendix 6:Model Forms for Certification


and Reporting.
The forms required for the Certification of Electrical
Installations are:

The Electrical Installation Certificate

The Minor Electrical Installation Works Certificate

Electrical Installation Condition Repor


(This replaces the Periodic Inspection Report in
Amendment 1)

Further information on inspection and testing and periodic


inspection, testing and reporting can be found in IET
Guidance Note 3.
The documentation above also requires:

The Schedule of Inspections

The Schedule of Results

As mentioned in Part 6 Testing and Reporting of Electrical


Installations is covered more thoroughly in qualifications
such as the 2394 and 2395

Appendix 7:Harmonized Cable Core Colours


This section indicates the colour identification and
harmonization of conductors and the interconnection with
existing installations.

Appendix 8: Current-Carrying Capacity and


Voltage-Drop for Busbar Trunking and
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Powertrack Systems
This addition to BS671 2008 for the 17th edition (from 16th),
is for designers and installers to take volt-drop and currentcarrying-capacity of busbar trunking considerations into
account, along with the manufacturers instructions.

Appendix 9:Definitions Multiple Source,


D.C. and Other Systems
Covers specialized supply systems.

Appendix 10: Protection of Conductors in


Parallel Against Overcurrent
Provides information and guidance in relation to
overcurrent protection (for overload and short-circuit
currents) where conductors are connected in parallel
(normally larger current designs).

Appendix 12: Volts Drop in Consumers


Installations
This Appendix has been deleted and the content moved to
Appendix 4, Section 6.4

Appendix 13:Methods for Measuring the


Insulation Resistance/Impedance of Floors &
Walls to Earth or to the Protective Conductor
System
In previous editions of BS7671 this was incorporated in the
section on testing. It has now been relocated in the
appendices and cover the measurement of impedance or
resistance of insulating floors and walls. It can be assumed
that this is a specialized subject and is not addressed in
everyday testing and reference is to be made to the
Guidance note 3 concerning this procedure.

Appendix 11:Effect of Harmonic Currents on


Balanced Three-Phase Systems
This Appendix has been deleted and the content moved to
Appendix 4, Sections 5.5 and 5.6

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Appendix 14:Measurement of Earth Fault
Loop Impedance: Consideration of the
Increase of the Resistance of Conductors with
Increase of Temperature
Where there is a possibility that when a earth fault loop
impedance tests are carried out on a circuit, the full load
current will not be used and therefore, the maximum
operating temperature will not be reached. The
requirements of Regulations 411.4.5 and 411.5.4 are
considered to be met if the following equation is applied.

() = 0.8

voltage variations depending on time and place, changing of


transformer taps and other considerations.
Appendix 15: Ring and Radial Final Circuit Arrangements
Sets out options for the design of ring and radial final
circuits for household and similar premises

Appendix 16: Devices for protection against


overvoltage
Typical installation of a surge protective device (SPD) in a
power distribution board for a TN-S system

Zs (m) is the measured impedance of the earth fault current


loop up to the most distant point of the relevant circuit from
the origin of the installation ()
Uo is the nominal a.c. rms line voltage to Earth (V)
Ia is the current in amperes (A) causing operation of the
protective device within the time stated in Table 41.1 or
within 5 s according to the conditions stated in Regulation
411.3.2.3 (A).
Cmin is the minimum voltage factor to take account of

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REVIEW QUESTIONS Appendices
Question 1

Question 3

When determining design current, the correction factor that


is applied to a BS3036 rewirable fuse is

BS EN 60228 relates to
A.

conduit systems

A.

.752

B.

conductors of insulated cables

B.

.527

C.

cable trunking and ducting systems

C.

.725

D.

industrial plugs, couplers and socket outlets

D.

1.725

Question 4

Question 2

BS EN 60309 relates to

The correction factor for cables installed in free air with 70


thermosetting insulation and an ambient temperature of 50
is

A.

conduit systems

B.

conductors of insulated cables

C.

cable trunking and ducting systems

D.

industrial plugs, couplers and socket outlets

A.

.71

B.

.17

C.

.567

D.

.77

2008-2015 Electacourse

Question 5
On completion of a Electrical Installation Condition Report,
the person ordering the report should be provided with
A.

a duplicate copy of the report

B.

a summary of the report

C.

the 'original' of the report

D.

advice as to who can be contacted in order for the


report to be viewed

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Question 6

Question 9

The code given to an area that has a high humidity level


when classifying for external influences would be
A.

AB

Where three or more conductors are connected in parallel,


then multiple fault current paths can occur and it may
therefore be necessary to provide

B.

AF

A.

C.

AA

short circuit protection at both the supply and the


load end of each parallel conductor

D.

CB

B.

short circuit protection at the supply end only of each


parallel conductor

Question 7

C.

When determining the current carrying capacity 'Iz' of a


busbar trunking system, the rating factor 'ka' has to be
applied to 'In' if the ambient temperature exceeds

short circuit protection at the load end only of each


parallel conductor

D.

overload protection at the supply end only of each


parallel conductor

A.

30

B.

40

C.

35

D.

45

Question 8
When referring to a TN-C-S multiple source system, the
number of connections permitted between the
interconnected neutral points of the sources and the PE
conductor is
A.

B.

C.

D.

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Question 10
Measurement of the impedance of insulating floors and
walls may be carried out with a lower voltage than the
system voltage to earth, if combined with
A.

a touch current measurement test

B.

an earth leakage measurement test

C.

a visual inspection

D.

an insulation resistance test

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ANSWERS Appendices
1C, Ref: BS7671: Appx 4, 4
2A, Ref: BS7671: Appx 4, Table 4B1
3B, Ref: BS7671: Appx 1
4D, Ref: BS7671: Appx 1
5C, Ref: BS7671: Appx 6, guidance for recipients
6A, Ref: BS7671: Appx 5
7C, Ref: BS7671: Appx 8, 2
8C, Ref: BS7671: Appx 9, Fig 9A
9A, Ref: BS7671: Appx 10, 3
10D, Ref: BS7671: Appx 13, 1

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CITY & GUILDS 2382-15 SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS

Starting on the next page are 60 questions of the type which


you might expect in the actual City & Guilds 2382-15 exam.
As discussed earlier in this course, the exam takes place at
an examination centre and is delivered online using the City
& Guilds eVolve exam system.

Although the number and type of the following 60 questions


are the same as those you will experience in the 2382-15, this
is not an exam simulation, it is a practice to test your
understanding of the course you have completed.
Electacourse publishes a popular 17th Edition 2382-15 Exam
Simulator which you can use to experience the actual exam.
It can be purchased from electacourse.com, (note the exam
simulator is for desktop and laptop computers only.
In the real life exam you will have 2 hours to answer these 60
questions. Once you have completed these practice
questions, use the answer sheet at the end to check your
score and to view where in the Regulations the answers to
the question will be found.
The 60 questions are not sorted by section, this is how they
are presented in the exam.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS City & Guilds 2382-15
Question 1

Question 3

BS7671 Wiring Regulations do NOT apply to the design,


erection and verification of:

In a TN system, the maximum earth fault loop impedance Zs


when using a 32 A , type B circuit breaker for instantaneous
operation would be

A.
railway traction equipment, rolling stock and
signalling equipment

A.

1.37

B.

prefabricated buildings

B.

1.09

C.

commercial premises

C.

1.44

D.

medical locations

D.

0.72

Question 2

Question 4

A protective measure in which basic protection is provided


by basic insulation of live parts or by barriers or enclosures
and fault protection is provided by protective earthing,
protective equipotential bonding and automatic disconnection
in case of a fault is called

Where an electrode water heater or electrode boiler is


connected to a three-phase low voltage supply, the shell of the
electrode water heater or electrode boiler shall be connected
to
A.

the neutral of the supply

A.

Double or reinforced insulation

B.

to the earthing conductor

B.

Automatic disconnection of supply

C.

to the neutral of the supply AND to the earthing


conductor

D.

to the neutral of the supply OR to the earthing


conductor

C.
Electrical separation for the supply to one item of
current-using equipment
D.

Extra-low voltage (SELV and PELV)

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Question 5

Question 7

In medical locations for transformers for IT systems the


leakage current of the output winding to earth and the
leakage current of the enclosure, when measured in no-load
condition and the transformer supplied at rated voltage and
rated frequency, shall not exceed

In each installation main protective bonding conductors shall


connect to the main earthing terminal extraneous-conductiveparts including:

A.

0.5 mA

B.

1.0 mA

C.

1.5 mA

D.

2.5 mA

Question 6
BS7671 Wiring Regulations apply to the design, erection and
verification of:
A.

Equipment of mobile and fixed offshore installations

B.

Radio interference suppression equipment not


affecting safety of the electrical installation

C.

Systems for the distribution of electricity to the public

D.

Equipment on board ships covered by BS 8450

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A.

Water installation pipes

B.

metal pieces of furniture

C.

power supply

D.

multimedia network system cables

Question 8
The maximum disconnection time for a lighting circuit in a
commercial premises protected by a TT system is
A.

0.3 s

B.

0.2 s

C.

2s

D.

0.04 s

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Question 9

Question 12

Which one is NOT a thermal effect of radiant and convection


energy on the surroundings in the selection and erection of a
luminaire?

In each installation main protective bonding conductors shall


connect to the main earthing terminal extraneous-conductiveparts including:

A.

A.

power supply

B.

metal fences

C.

Central heating and air conditioning systems

D.

metal pieces of furniture

the maximum permissible power dissipated by the


lamps

B.

the efficiency of converting electric power to radiated


power

C.

the minimum distance to combustible materials,


including material in the path of a spotlight beam

D.

the fire-resistance of adjacent material

Question 10
In transformers for medical IT systems capacitors
A.

may be used if necessary

B.

must be used

C.

shall not be used

D.

is recommended

Question 13
The maximum floor area served by a single 30A ring final
circuit using socket outlets in a domestic installation is
A.

25m2

B.

50m2

C.

75m2

D.

100m2

Question 14

Identify one of the following that is a non-statutory

Lighting circuits incorporating 15, B22, E14, E27 or E40 lamp


holders shall be protected by an overcurrent protective device
of maximum rating

A.

BS 7671:Requirements for Electrical Installations

A.

6A

B.

Electricity at Work Act

B.

10A

C.

Health and Safety at Work Act

C.

12A

D.

Cinematograph Regulations

D.

16A

Question 11

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Question 15

Question 18

The nominal d.c. supply voltage of the installation of the


caravan shall not exceed

The current carrying capacity of a busbar trunking system is


affected by its mounting conditions and

A.

12 V

A.

its IP rating

B.

24 V

B.

type of enclosure

C.

36 V

C.

external influences

D.

48 V

D.

ambient temperature

Question 16

Question 19

The fundamental principles of BS 7671 covering the protection


against voltage disturbances etc., states that the installation
design shall take into consideration the anticipated

Where a generating set is used as an additional source of


supply in parallel with other sources, protection shall remain
effective in all situations against overcurrent and

A.

weather conditions

A.

harmonic distortion

B.

load current

B.

high protective conductor currents

C.

electromagnetic emissions

C.

unbalance

D.

vibration

D.

thermal effects

Question 17

Question 20

Live parts shall be completely covered with insulation which


can only be removed by
A.

skilled persons

Restricted access areas where the protective measure of


obstacles is applied the minimum height of gangway to
barrier or enclosure above floor is

B.

destruction

A.

1800 mm

C.

instructed persons

B.

1900 mm

D.

special permission

C.

2000 mm

D.

2100 mm

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Question 21

Question 24

Temporary electrical installations erected for a particular


purpose must be dismantled

Cable up to 10 mm2 surrounded by thermal insulation for


470mm of it's length has a derating factor of

A.

within 1 day after erection

A.

.51

B.

within 3 days after erection

B.

.63

C.

within 1 week after erection

C.

.78

D.

when no longer required for that purpose

D.

.88

Question 22

Question 25

Simultaneously accessible parts at different potentials


A.

shall not be easily connected

Circuits within booths at fairground premises should be


protected at the origin of an installation by at least a

B.

shall have basic insulation

A.

500mA RCD

C.

shall be protected by obstacles

B.

300mA RCD

D.

shall not be within arm's reach.

C.

100mA RCD

D.

10mA RCD

Question 23
An overcurrent protective device installed at the origin of a
circuit must have a breaking capacity of

Question 26

A.

A.

basic protection only

B.
equivalent or more than the prospective short circuit
current

B.

fault protection only

C.

basic and fault protection

C.

twice the prospective short circuit current

D.

earth fault loop impedance fault protection

D.

equivalent to maximum earth fault current

at least 15kA

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Class II equipment would provide

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Question 27

Question 29

In case of a fault, the maximum disconnection time for an a.c.


circuit with nominal rms voltage in the range 50 V-120 V in a
TN system (for final circuits not exceeding 32 A) is

Outdoor lighting involves all the following except

A.

0.8 sec

B.

0.4 sec

C.

0.2 sec

D.

0.1 sec

Question 28

A.

shelters

B.

road traffic signals

C.

flood lighting

D.

temporary festoon lighting

Question 30
Identify one of the following which would be classed as a
Group 1 medical location

If frequency has an influence on the characteristics of the


equipment, the rated frequency of the equipment shall
correspond to

A.

operating plaster room

B.

intensive care room

A.

the average frequency of the supply to the circuit


concerned.

C.

anaesthetic area

D.

physiotherapy room

B.

the maximum frequency of the supply to the circuit


concerned.

Question 31

C.

the nominal power of the supply to the circuit


concerned.

Which of the following does not need to be taken into account


in the choice of methods of protection for safety and the
selection and erection of equipment?

D.

the nominal frequency of the supply to the circuit


concerned.

A.

Its maintainability

B.

The cost of equipment

C.

The compatibility of its equipment

D.

Assessment for continuity of service

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Question 32

Question 34

If it is necessary to remove a barrier or open an enclosure or


remove parts of enclosures, this shall be possible

Identify which one of the following sources for safety services


are recognised the IET Wiring Regulations incorporating
Amendment 1

A.

by the use of a key or tool

B.

after disconnection of the supply to live parts against


which the barriers or enclosures afford protection,
restoration of the supply being possible only after
replacement or re-closure of the barrier or enclosure

C.

D.

where an intermediate barrier providing a degree of


protection of at least IPXXB or IP2X prevents contact
with live parts, by the use of a key or tool to remove
the intermediate barrier.
by any of the three means

A.

primary cells

B.

generator set dependent on the normal supply

C.

secondary cells

D.

solar energy cells

Question 35
A junction box can be installed within zone 1 of a swimming
pool if it is
A.

sealed using a suitable gasket sealant

Question 33

B.

protected by an RCD

The colour used for Protective conductor shall be

C.

supplied by SELV

A.

blue

D.

rated to IPX2

B.

black

C.

green-and-yellow

Question 36

D.

blue with green-and-yellow at the terminations.

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Which of the following are NOT referred to in the regulations


as current-carrying conductors in a.c. circuit under normal
operating conditions
A.

Single-phase 1-wire

B.

Single-phase 2-wire

C.

Single-phase 3-wire

D.

Two-phase 3-wire

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Question 37

Question 38

Where fixed equipment may attain surface temperatures


which could cause a fire hazard to adjacent materials, one or
more of the following installation methods shall be adopted.
The equipment shall:

For groups containing non-sheathed or sheathed cables


having different maximum operating temperatures, the
current-carrying capacity of all the non-sheathed or sheathed
cables in the group shall be based on

A.

A.

the average maximum operating temperature of any


cable in the group together with the appropriate group
rating factor.

B.

the highest maximum operating temperature of any


cable in the group together with the appropriate group
rating factor.

C.

the lowest maximum operating temperature of any


cable in the group together with the appropriate group
rating factor.

D.

ambient operating temperature of any cable in the


group together with the appropriate group rating
factor.

B.

C.

D.

be mounted on a support which has low thermal


conductance or within an enclosure which will
withstand, with minimal risk of fire or harmful
thermal effect, such temperatures as may be generated
be screened by materials of low thermal conductance
which can withstand, with minimal risk of fire or
harmful thermal effect, the heat emitted by the
electrical equipment
be mounted so as to allow safe dissipation of heat and
at a sufficient distance from adjacent material on
which such temperatures could have deleterious
effects. Any means of support shall be of low thermal
conductance
any of the three applicable.

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Question 39
An electrical installation certificate should be signed by
A.

the local authority

B.

the installation designer

C.

a competent person

D.

a skilled person

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Question 40

Question 42

The socket outlet and it's enclosure, forming part of the pitch
supply equipment for a caravan park, must comply with BS
EN 60309-2 and have a minimum protection of
A.

IP2X

B.

IP4X

Except for equipment for which an appropriate product


standard specifies requirements a luminaire shall be kept at
an adequate distance from combustible materials. Unless
otherwise recommended by the manufacturer, a small
spotlight or projector rated up to 100 W shall be installed at
the following minimum distance from combustible materials:

C.

IP44

A.

0.3 m

D.

IP55

B.

0.4 m

Question 41

C.

0.5 m

Which characteristic of the supply or supplies does not need


to be determined by calculation, measurement, enquiry or
inspection?

D.

0.7 m

A.
The type and rating of the overcurrent protective
device(s) acting at the origin of the installation.

What is the minimum cross-sectional area for copper nonsheathed and sheathed cables used in lightning circuits?

B.

The nature of the current and frequency

A.

1.0 mm2

C.

The minimal voltage(s) and its characteristics

B.

2.0 mm2

D.

The earth fault loop impedance of that part of the


system external to the installation, Ze

C.

3.0 mm2

D.

4.0 mm2

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Question 43

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Question 44

Question 46

Which one is NOT an item for inspection checking?

Which characteristic of the supply or supplies does not need


to be determined by calculation, measurement, enquiry or
inspection?

A.

Availability of additional power sources

B.

Presence of diagrams, instructions and similar


information

C.

Connection of conductors

D.

Presence of danger notices and other warning signs

A.

The nominal voltage(s) and its characteristics


including harmonic distortion

B.

The suitability for the requirements of the installation,


including the maximum demand

Question 45

C.

Which combination of electrical vehicles are within the scope


of the EV regulations?

The prospective short-circuit current at the origin of


the installation

D.

The maximum voltage(s) and its characteristics

A.

Mobility scooters alone

B.

Mobility scooters and electric cars

C.

Electric cars and bicycles

D.

Electric cars alone

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Question 47
Except for equipment for which an appropriate product
standard specifies requirements a luminaire shall be kept at
an adequate distance from combustible materials. Unless
otherwise recommended by the manufacturer, a small
spotlight or projector rated over 300W up to 500 W shall be
installed at the following minimum distance from
combustible materials:
A.

0.5 m

B.

0.8 m

C.

1.0 m

D.

1.5 m

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Question 48

Question 51

What is the minimum cross-sectional area for aluminium nonsheathed and sheathed cables used in lightning circuits?

Electrical installations shall be divided into circuits to


A.

allow for more socket outlets

A.

10 mm

B.

reduce power usage

B.

16 mm

C.

C.

30 mm

allow for expansion without changing the maximum


demand

D.

40 mm2

D.

minimise inconvenience in the event of a fault


condition

Question 49
Which one is NOT an item for inspection checking?

Question 52

A.
Presence of appropriate devices for isolation and
switching correctly

Equipotential copper bonding designed as a bonding ring


network must have a minimum round diameter of

B.

Identification of conductors

A.

8 mm

C.

Prevention of mutual detrimental influence

B.

10 mm

D.

Selection of methods of power switching

C.

12 mm

D.

15 mm

Question 50
A BS EN 60898 protective device is also known as a

Question 53

A.

circuit breaker

RCM stands for

B.

cartridge fuse

A.

Response current monitor

C.

RCD

B.

Residual current monitor

D.

semi enclosed rewirable fuse

C.

Residential current monitor

D.

Reduced current monitor

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Question 54

Question 57

An earth fault loop impedance test performed on a ring final


circuit will record

The maximum Zs for a 10A Typecircuit breaker protecting a


standard discharge type lighting circuit is

A.

the resistance of the protective conductor

A.

0.47

B.

the resistance of the line conductor, protective


conductor and external loop impedance

B.

0.57

C.

2.30

C.

the resistance of the line conductor and the protective


conductor

D.

2.19

D.

the external loop impedance

Question 58

Question 55
BS EN numbers specify compliance with
A.

IEC Standards

B.

the Kite Mark

C.

BS Standard

D.

European Standards

Which one can serve as a part of a protective conductor?


A.

A fixed bare or insulated conductor

B.

A gas pipe

C.

An oil pipe

D.

Support wires under mechanical stress

Question 59

Question 56

Which protective measure in medical locations is not


permitted?

A suitable electrical source for safety services would be

A.

extra-low voltage by SELV or PELV

A.

storage batteries

B.

obstacles and placing out of reach

B.

a standard mains supply

C.

Automatic disconnection in case of a fault

C.

a generator connected to the mains supply

D.

double or reinforced isolation

D.

a supply not exceeding 50 v a.c.

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Question 60
The external influence code AA2 relates to the ambient
temperature range
A.

-5 to +40

B.

+5 to +40

C.

-25 to +5

D.

-40 to +5

ANSWERS City & Guilds 2382-15


1A, Ref: BS7671: 110.1.1, 110.2

12C, Ref: BS7671: 411.3.1.2

23B, Ref: BS7671: 434.5.1

2B, Ref: BS7671: 411.1

13D, Ref: BS7671: Appx 15, Fig 15A

24A, Ref: BS7671: 523.9

3A, Ref: BS7671: 411.4.7

14D, Ref: BS7671: 559.5.1.204

25B, Ref: BS7671: 740.410.3

4C, Ref: BS7671: 554.1.5

15D, Ref: BS7671: 721.313.1,2

26C, Ref: BS7671: N/A

5A, Ref: BS7671: 710.512.1.1

16C, Ref: BS7671: 131.6.4

27A, Ref: BS7671: 411.3.2.2

6B, Ref: BS7671: 110.1.1, 110.2

17B, Ref: BS7671: 416.1

28D, Ref: BS7671: 512.1.3

7A, Ref: BS7671: 411.3.1.2

18D, Ref: BS7671: Appx 8, 2

29D, Ref: BS7671: 714

8B, Ref: BS7671: 411.3.2

19D, Ref: BS7671: 551.7.1

30D, Ref: BS7671: Annex A710

9B, Ref: BS7671: 559.4.1

20C, Ref: BS7671: 729.513.2.2

31B, Ref: BS7671: 301.1

10C, Ref: BS7671: 710.512.1.1

21D, Ref: BS7671: Part 2: Definitions

32D, Ref: BS7671: 416.2.4

11A, Ref: BS7671: 114.1

22D, Ref: BS7671: 417.3.1

33C, Ref: BS7671: 514.4.2

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34A, Ref: BS7671: 560.6.1

44A, Ref: BS7671: 611.3

54B, Ref: BS7671: 612.9

35C, Ref: BS7671: 702.522.24

45D, Ref: BS7671: 722.1

55D, Ref: BS7671: Appx 1

36A, Ref: BS7671: 312.1.1

46D, Ref: BS7671: 313.1

56A, Ref: BS7671: 351.1

37D, Ref: BS7671: 421.1.2

47C, Ref: BS7671: 422.3.1

57D, Ref: BS7671: 411.4.7

38C, Ref: BS7671: 523.5

48B, Ref: BS7671: 524.2.3

58A, Ref: BS7671: 543.2.1, 543.2.2

39D, Ref: GN3: 1.2; BS7671: 610.5

49D, Ref: BS7671: 611.3

59B, Ref: BS7671: 710.410.3.5

40C, Ref: BS7671: 708.533.1.8

50A, Ref: BS7671: Appx 1

60D, Ref: BS7671: Appx 5

41C, Ref: BS7671: 313.1

51D, Ref: BS7671: 314.1

42C, Ref: BS7671: 422.3.1

52A, Ref: BS7671: 444.5.3

43A, Ref: BS7671: 524.2.3

53B, Ref: BS7671: 538.4

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2382-15 EXAM SIMULATOR

The Electacourse 17th Edition 2382-15 Exam Simulator has been designed to accurately represent the real-life City & Guilds 238215 exam. The following pages illustrate the Exam Simulator to give an idea of what you might expect when you take the exam.

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Fig. 1 The IET, publisher of the Wiring Regulations ............. 12


Fig. 2 17th Edition Wiring Regulations, you can purchase the
book new or second hand from Amazon. If you buy it
second hand, make sure it does not have any pencil or pen
markings inside. ......................................................................... 12
Fig. 3 The first electric street lamps in the UK ....................... 13
Fig. 4 Basic structure of the Regulations ................................. 19
Fig. 5 Structure of the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations....... 20
Fig. 6The 2382-15 exam is set and administered by City &
Guilds........................................................................................... 21
Fig. 7 The number and percentage of questions for each
section of the 2382-15 exam ...................................................... 22
Fig. 8 Page of the Regulations showing dot numbering .... 27
Fig. 9 Outside scope of Regulations ........................................ 30
Fig. 11 Extra low voltage - Band I, telephone wiring (not part
of BS7671) .................................................................................... 47
Fig. 12 Low voltage - Band II, domestic wiring (BS7671) ..... 47
Fig. 13 IP236S - Protection against solid bodies > 12.5mm (ie
finger), water sprayed up to 60 Deg from vertical, 20 joule
impact and manufacturer specific ........................................... 50
Fig. 14 RCD with test button .................................................... 67
Fig. 15 Supplementary bonding across the stop-cock........... 67
Fig. 16 Electrical cabinet providing basic protection ............ 68
Fig. 17 Examples of earthing to structural parts .................... 69
Fig. 18 Current path TN-S System ........................................... 70
Fig. 19 Fault current path - TN-S System ................................ 71
Fig. 21 Example of a hand held portable appliance indicating
live and protected parts ............................................................ 77

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Fig. 22 Do not connect to earth symbol ................................... 78


Fig. 23 A transformer ................................................................. 78
Fig. 24 SELV protects the user from electric shock in the case
of a fault ....................................................................................... 79
Fig. 25 A common but not mandatory symbol for placing out
of reach ......................................................................................... 80
Fig. 26 The consequence of arcing can be serious .................. 81
Fig. 25 Consumer unit - all cables are to pass through the
same entry/exit hole ................................................................... 83
Fig. 26 A non-ferromagnetic metal or non-metallic entry
plate is to be used ....................................................................... 83
Fig. 27 Ferro-magnetic fixing plate may be used provided
slots are cut in plate between conductors ............................... 84
Fig. 26 Quooker, boiling water tap. An example of a new
type of hot water producing appliance ................................... 86
Fig. 27 Overcurrent..................................................................... 88
Fig. 28 Distributor's overload device ....................................... 90
Fig. 29 Protection device not required ..................................... 92
Fig. 30 Harmonized wiring colours ....................................... 102
Fig. 31 Old and new wiring warning notice ......................... 103
Fig. 32 Complex wiring installation ....................................... 104
Fig. 35 Aftermath of fire at Shirley Towers in Southampton
..................................................................................................... 107
Fig. 33 We may not see sandstorms like this in the UK, but
dust and particles can cause significant damage ................. 108
Fig. 34 Wiring supported by cable tray (in this example this
is likely to be network cabling and not an electrical
installation) ................................................................................ 110

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Fig. 35 Installation design needs to take account of
maintenance .............................................................................. 115
Fig. 36 RCD device ................................................................... 115
Fig. 37 A consumer unit with a clearly identified main
switch. From January 2016, such units will be constructed of
material according to regulation 421.1.201 ........................... 118
Fig. 38 A locked RCD with notice .......................................... 118
Fig. 39 Sign indicating presence of a fireman's switch ....... 120
Fig. 40 Fireman's switch including extraction control ........ 120
Fig. 41 RCM Monitor ............................................................... 121
Fig. 42 Main earthing terminal ............................................... 122
Fig. 43For a TN-S system, means shall be provided for the
main earthing terminal of the installation to be connected to
the earthed point of the source of energy.( Part of the
connection may be formed by the distributors lines and
equipment). ............................................................................... 124
Fig. 44For a TN-C-S system, where protective multiple
earthing is provided, means shall be provided for the main
earthing terminal of the installation to be connected by the
distributor to the neutral of the source of energy ................ 125
Fig. 45For a TT or IT system, the main earthing terminal
shall be connected via an earthing conductor to an earth
electrode complying with Regulation 542.2. ........................ 126
Fig. 46 Earthing conductor...................................................... 129
Fig. 47 Disconnect by removing bolted link ......................... 129
Fig. 48 Protective conductors separately terminated .......... 136
Fig. 49 Sample label ................................................................. 137
Fig. 50 High protective current for sensitive equipment .... 137
Fig. 51 Earth clamp .................................................................. 140
Fig. 52 Supplementary bonding conductors and clamps ... 141

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Fig. 53 Low voltage portable generator................................. 142


Fig. 54 Lathe - a rotating machine .......................................... 143
Fig. 55 Rotating machine stop switches ................................ 143
Fig. 56 Extension cable with couplers .................................... 144
Fig. 57 A single phase immersion heater is not considered to
be an electrode boiler ............................................................... 145
Fig. 58 Underfloor heating ...................................................... 145
Fig. 62 Auxiliary circuit supplied directly from the main
circuit .......................................................................................... 147
Fig. 63 Auxiliary circuit supplied from the main circuit via a
rectifier ....................................................................................... 147
Fig. 64 Auxiliary circuit supplied from the main circuit via a
transformer ................................................................................ 147
Fig. 59 Ceiling rose pay regard to the particular
requirements concerning ceiling lights and lampholders .. 150
Fig. 60 Symbols used in 559 Table 55.3 of BS7671................ 151
Fig. 61 Fire safety equipment .................................................. 152
Fig. 62 Illuminated fire exit sign ............................................. 154
Fig. 63 Continuity of conductors ............................................ 162
Fig. 64 Single phase insulation resistance ............................. 163
Fig. 65 Polarity test (part) ........................................................ 163
Fig. 66 Earth electrode test (one of many) ............................. 164
Fig. 67 Sample Electrical Installation Condition .................. 166
Fig. 68 If only all bathrooms were like this ........................... 172
Fig. 70 Low voltage circuits passing through the location
require RCD protection ........................................................... 174
Fig. 77 Equipotential bonding in a bathroom (three water
pipes bonded 1. Hot water, 2. Cold water, 3. Heating) .... 176
Fig. 71 Shower isolator switch ................................................ 177
Fig. 72 In scope - swimming pools, Out of scope - beaches178

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Fig. 73 Zone dimensions for swimming pools and paddling
pools ........................................................................................... 179
Fig. 74 Zone dimensions for basin above ground ............... 179
Fig. 75 Plan of zones. See BS7671 Fig 702.3 for details,
including where partitions are present ................................ 179
Fig. 76 Socket with non-conductive plate can be installed in
Zone 1 where not possible to install elsewhere ................... 181
Fig. 77 Zones for fountains including air spray - see BS7671
Fig 702.4 ..................................................................................... 181
Fig. 78 Zone dimensions - sauna. Elevation ......................... 182
Fig. 79 Zone dimensions - sauna. Plan .................................. 182
Fig. 80 Electric sauna heater ................................................... 183
Fig. 81 Construction site electrical distribution equipment185
Fig. 82 Farm and farmyard ..................................................... 187
Fig. 83 Section 705 includes garden centres ......................... 187
Fig. 84 Pests such as rats and mice are a particular problem
to protect against on agricultural locations .......................... 189
Fig. 85 Indication of earth bonding connections in a milking
parlour ....................................................................................... 190
Fig. 86 Electrical supply point (includes water supply in this
instance). Note voltage of 200-250V indicated by colour of
socket ......................................................................................... 193

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Fig. 87 Chichester marina - local to the publishers of this


course ......................................................................................... 194
Fig. 88 Marina pedestal for the supply of electricity (and
water) ......................................................................................... 197
Fig. 89 Hospital theatre room, but note, the specialist
medical equipment is not part of BS7671 .............................. 198
Fig. 90 Illustration of patient environment. See BS7671 Figs
710.1 and 710.2 for full details ................................................ 202
Fig. 98 PV equipment on roof ................................................. 205
Fig. 91 PV Array warning notice ............................................ 206
Fig. 93 Bus shelters included in new regulation Special
Locations 714 ............................................................................. 207
Fig. 92 Mobile medical unit ..................................................... 210
Fig. 102 Outside equipment .................................................... 211
Fig. 93 Caravan interior ........................................................... 213
Fig. 96 Electric vehicle charging is becoming an important of
the electrical installation infrastructure................................. 216
Fig. 94 Passenger boarding bridge - a gangway .................. 217
Fig. 95 Fairground ride ............................................................ 219
Fig. 96 Underfloor electrical heating...................................... 222

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17th Edition Training Manual

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 External influence codes .............................................. 49
Table 2 IP Code - Protection against solids .......................... 52
Table 3 IP Code Protection against moisture ......................... 53
Table 4 Representation of sizes of solids of IP Code, first
figure ............................................................................................ 54
Table 5 BS7671 Table 41.1 (page 53) ........................................ 72
Table 6 Requirements for documented risk assessment....... 73
Table 7 Risk assessment template ............................................ 74
Table 8 Voltage variation .......................................................... 75
Table 9 Zs values for circuits breakers .................................... 76
Table 9 BS7671 Table 42.1 - Temperature limit under normal
load conditions for an accessible part of equipment within
arms reach. ................................................................................. 85

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Table 10 Derating factors for insulated cable - Table 52.2 of


BS7671 ........................................................................................ 111
Table 12 Selection of protective, isolation and switching
devices ........................................................................................ 117
Table 11 Minimum cross-sectional area of a buried earthing
conductor. BS7671 Table 54.1 .................................................. 129
Table 12Cross-sectional areas of protective conductors. .... 130
Table 13 Representation by table of Regulations 544.2.1, .2, .3
relating to supplementary bonding conductor sizes ........... 139
Table 14 IP Rating for equipment installed outside on
caravan park .............................................................................. 192
Table 15 IP Rating for marinas ............................................... 195
Table 16 RCD protection requirements ................................. 204

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17th Edition Training Manual

WHAT NEXT?

Now you have spent time studying the Regulations, you


need to confirm your understanding by using the
Electacourse 17th Edition 2382-15 Exam Simulator.
The Exam Simulator contains nearly a thousand questions
which will thoroughly test your ability to find your way
around the Regulations. Practice with the Exam Simulator
and once you are consistently getting above the 70% pass
mark, you are ready for the City & Guilds 2382-15 Exam.
Book with Electacourse and take the exam at one of our
partner centres around the country.
http://www.electacourse.com

2008-2015 Electacourse

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