Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Outline in Intern 1 (Preliminary Exams) By Eloisa Lorraine V. Barandon 2CPH

GG NA MGA BESH

EXERCISE 5: INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Drug agent intended for use in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, cure, or prevention of disease in human or in other animals.

Non-medical agents pharmaceutical ingredients or excipients.

Method of administration:

1. Oral Dosage Form orally

2. Parenteral Dosage Form injections through the skin, mucous, veins, spinal or serous membranes.

3. Rectal Dosage Form for systemic effect

or local action through the rectum.

4. Inhalation Dosage Form vaporized to

mucous membranes of the lower part of the respiratory tract.

5. Topical Dosage Form applied on the

skin or instilled into the eyes, nose, or ears.

Classification of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms (IIYAK NA AKO)

I. Liquids

1. Solutions

A. AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS homogenous mixture that is prepared by dissolving a solid of liquid or gas in another liquid.

(a) Water vehicle/solvent for the desired flavoring or medicinal ingredients. (b) Aromatic Water – “medicated waterhehe clear saturated solutions of volatile oils or aromatic volatile substances

BARANDON 2016

 

(c)

Aqueous

acids

inorganic acids

 

(d)

Diluted acids strength of

10% w/v

(e) Douches directed

against a part or into a cavity of the body ok

(f) Enemas – “evacuation

enemas/ evacuate bowel retention

(g) Gargles treat pharynx

and nasopharynx by forcing air chenes (h) Mouthwashes deodorant, refreshing, or antiseptic effect

(i) Juices from fruits usually for syrups which are employed as vroom vroom (vehicles hahaha ok sana magets joke ko)

(j) Nasal solutions nasal

passages in drops/spray form

(k) Otic solutions drops to

ear

II. Sweet or Viscid Aqueous Solutions

1. Syrups sweet, thick, liquid made of

sugar and water with flavoring or medicine added.

2. Honey thick, sweet substance made

from bees

3. Mucilages gelatinous substance of various plants (gums)

4. Jellies soft, elastic made usually with

gelatin/pectin. (pek genern)

III. Non-Aqueous Solutions

1. Collodion liquid preparation containing

pyroxillin in a mixture of ethyl ether and ethanol 2. Elixirs clear, pleasantly flavored sweeted hydro-alcoholic liquids interact for oral use

3. Glycerites not less than 505 chenes by

weight of glycerine

4. Inhalations nasal/oral respiratory route

for local/systemic effect

5. Liniments oil, alcoholic solutions of

soap or emulsions 6. Oleovitamins fish liver oils 7. Spirits – “essences/alcoholic hydroalcohol solutions of volatile

substances

8. Toothache drops temporary relief of

toothache (sana may heartache drops din kahit temporary mawala lang yung sakit awtsu)

B. EMULSIONS

prepared by combining 2 immiscible liquids.

two phase system

C. SUSPENSIONS two phase system

B. Suspensions dispersion of finely

divided insoluble drug substances

C. Ointments medicinal agents

added to ointment base of white petrolatum

+ mineral oil

D. Lens Care sterile preparation to

protect lens

VIII. Medicated Application

A. Ointments

of

absorptive powders dispersed in petrolatum

or hydrophilic petrolatum

use/

dusting powders

B. concentrates

Pastes

C. Powders

for

external

consisting of finely divided solid.

D.

Dressings

covering or

1. Gels semi-solid systems made

protection

up of small inorganic/large particles

E.

Creams semi-solid emulsions

interpenetrated by liquid.

F.

Plasters adhere to skin/attach to

2. Lotions liquid suspension or

dispersion for external application

3. Magmas and Milks aqueous

suspension of insoluble inorganic drugs

IV.

1. Tinctures alcoholic/hydroalcoholic

solutions prepared from vegetable materials/chemical substances

2. Fluidextracts vegetable drug as a

solvent

3. Extracts concentrated preparation of

vegetable/animal drugs obtained by removal of active constituent.

Extracts

V. Parenteral Preparations sterile preparation intended to be administered by injection on skin/mucous membrane

VI. Intravenous Admixtures mixture of IV

fluids + administer by injection

VII. Ophthalmic Preparations A. Solutions clear, sterile solution

BARANDON 2016

dressing

G. Suppositories insertion in the

rectum, vagina or urethra

IX. Powders

finely

divided/effervescent granules

bulk powders

containing soap/detergent and mild abrasive

soluble

powders dissolved in water for antiseptic/cleaning agents of body cavity.

D. Insufflation body cavities

E. Triturations dilution of potent powdered drugs by mixing with suitable diluent

A.

Oral

Powders

B. Dentifrices

C. Douche

Powders

X. Oral Solid Dosage Forms

A. Tablets

solid dosage form

containing drug substances churva

1. Compressed Tablets

2. Molded Tablets

B. Capsules enclosed in hard/soft

gel capsules

C. Pills small, round, solid dosage

forms containing medicinal agents intended for oral administration

D. Troches lozenges/pastilles/ discoid shaped solid containing medicinal agent in a flavored base

E. Cachets related to capsules kasi they provide edible container for oral administration of solid drugs

F. Pellets small, sterile cylinders

about 3.2 mm (diameter) x 8 mm (length)

formed by compression

XI. Aerosols with active ingredients

dissolved, suspended or emulsified in a propellant or mixture of solvent and propellant

XII. Radiopharmaceuticals radioisotopes

used in medicine

XII. Biologicals

A. Biologics for active immunity

immunity

1.

Vaccines

induce

2. Toxoid modified antigen

B. Biologics for passive immunity

1. Human immune sera

(a) Immune globulin antibodies from pooled plasma of not less than 1000 normal individuals (b) Hyperimmune system human donor polls

2. Animal immune system

(a) Antitoxin neutralizing the specific toxin

(b) Antiviral serum combat/defend

against viruses

(c) Antivenin antiserum containing

antibodies against specific poisons

BARANDON 2016

EXERCISE 6: PRESCRIPTION Prescription (prae” – before | scribo” – write) I WRITE order of medication issued by a physician, dentist, veterinarian, or other properly licensed practitioner. - formula written on a piece of paper which is prescription blank - oral instruction that directs the use of certain drugs or call for the use of some physical agent such as heat

Types of Prescription:

1. Simple Prescription 1 ingredient

2. Compound Prescription more than 1

ingredient

3. Polypharmacal Prescription more than

10/12 ingredients.

4. Magistral Prescription prescribed by

ingredients, same

pharmacist

same

doctor,

same

blind

prescription/words, symbols to represent

name of drugs

5.

Coded

Prescription

Parts of Prescription (ano na mga ineng)

1. Prescribers information

2. Patients information

3. Date prescription was written

4. Superscription Rx symbol

5. Inscription brand name, generic name

and dosage form

the

pharmacist

6.

Subscription

instruction

to

7. Transcription instruction to the patient

8. Prescribers signature

Types of Medication Order Order someone will carry out 1. Prescription out-patient (patient will carry out)

2. Medication Order in-patient (nurse will

- CR

carry out)

- Hazardous substance

 

- institutional setting

Essential

Drug

List

(EDL)

/

National

Guidelines if Incorrect Prescription

Formulary (NF)

List of alternative drugs period

Updated by DOH PNDF

1. Core list must meet the health care needs of the majority of the population 2. Complimentary list rare diseases and when core drug is ineffective

- more response to the core

- reaction if not be given

Dangerous Drugs S2 license PHYSICIAN S1 or S3 license PHARMACIST 3 copies of the yellow prescription

Original pharmacist

Duplicate patient

Triplicate doctor

Incorrect Prescription

1. Erroneous

Brand name precedes generic name

Generic name is in parenthesis

Brand name is not in parenthesis

2. Violative

Generic name is not written

Generic name is not legible but brand name is legible

NO SUBSTITUTIONis written

3. Impossible

Only generic name is written and not legible

Generic name does not correspond to brand name

Generic and brand name is not legible

Drug is not registered with BFAD

-

drug registry

BARANDON 2016

1. Erroneous filled

2. Violative and Impossible

not filled

Generic Dispensing patients choice as long as:

Same API

Same Dosage Form

Same Strength

Partial Filling dispensing

units

prescribed.

less

than

the

total

CAN

YOU

PARTIAL

FILL

DANGEROUS

DRUG

RX?

YES

PO.

BUT

PATIENT

SHOULD

GET

ANOTHER

RX.

Record Books Expiration

1.

Poison Book 5 years

 

2.

Prescription

Book

2

years

3. Dangerous Drug Book 1

year

EXERCISE

7:

PROCESSING

THE

PRESCRIPTION

1. Receiving the prescription

2. Reading and checking the

prescription

3. Numbering and dating

4. Labeling

5. Preparing the prescription

6. Packaging

7. Rechecking

8. Delivering

Counselling

9. Recording and Filling

10. Pricing the Prescription

and

Patient

Factors to Consider in Determining The Safety of a Dose of Medicinal Agents

1.

2. Weight

3. Condition

4. Dosage form prescribed

5. Frequency of administration

Age

EXERCISE 8: LABELING PRESCRIPTION AND MEDICATIONS Principal Display Panel most likely to be displayed Cosmetics rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed

Altering appearance

Cleansing

Beautifying

Promote attractiveness

Auxiliary Labels give patient information needed for storing or using the product.

1. Shake well liquid disperse system

2. Keep in refrigerator chemically unstable

at room temperature

3. Do not use after parenteral products,

antibiotics

4. Refrigerate, Shake well, Discard avoid

multiple auxiliary labels (antibiotics)

5. May cause drowsiness sched 2

narcotics, anxiolytic and antihistamines

6. External Use Only external products

7. Do not drink alcohol give disulfram

reaction

8. Avoid sun exposure photosensitivity

11. Finish all this medication compliance aid for antibiotics 12. Do not take aspirin warfarin type, anticoagulants 13. Keep out of reach of children containers without safety closures

Inner

immediate container

Label

label or

an

official to

an

Packaging materials all items used/attached to blind, enclose or contain the preparation in the final form for market presentation of the product

Packaging activity of designing and producing the container

Devices

instruments,

apparatus

or

contrivance

 

Label of the Compound Prescription

1. Prescription Number

2. Date of Fillinf

3. Name of Patient

4. Quality and Quantity of Use

5. Direction

WHITE INTERNAL | RED EXTERNAL

Terms Generally Employed in Storage Labeling

1.

Cold 2°C - 8°C

2.

Cool 8°C - 15°C

3.

Room Temperature 20°C -25°C

4.

Warm 40°C

5.

Excessive heat > 40°C

reaction

EXERCISE

9:

DRUG

LABELS

AND

9.

Take with food cause stomach upset

PACKAGING

10. Take one empty stomach drugs that

decrease absorption when taken with food

BARANDON 2016

1.

Component

intended for use in manufacturing drugs

any ingredient

2.

Lot batch or any portion of a batch

3.

Active ingredient substance intended to furnish pharmacologic activity

4.

Strength (i need diz) concentration of known active ingredient

5.

Brand name proprietary trade name

6.

Pharmacologic category classification based on therapeutic action

7.

Warning/Precautions instruction and special care required in use of product

8.

Contraindication conditions wherein use of may harm the patient

9.

Expirations date after which product is not expected to retain safety, efficacy, and potency

10.

Net content total amount of dosage form in container

11.

Batch specific homogenous quantity of drug produced

12.

Lot number any distinctive combination of letters or numbers

13.

Materials Approve Unit authority with duty to approve or reject raw materials

14.

Generic name scientifically and internationally recognized active ingredient

15.

Inactive ingredient substances other than active ingredient

16.

Formulation names and amounts of active medicinal ingredient

17.

Dosage forms pharmaceutical form of preparation

18.

Mode of Administration site and manner product is introduced to the body

19.

Storage Conditions prevailing specified range of temperature, humidity chenes

BARANDON 2016