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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
The advancement and latest development of major construction is largely associated
with improving the efficiency of the building under seismic effect, reducing cost, economic use
of new materials etc., concrete is one such material, which is consumed in construction
industry next to water consumption in the world. This marvelous material is strong in
compression but very weak in tension. Use of dispersed reinforcement in the cement based
matrix/concrete attains promising new material and eliminates certain drawbacks and entrances
certain property.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND
Historically, fibers were used to reinforced the brittle material since ancient times,
straws were used to reinforce sun-baked bricks, horse hairs were used to reinforce plaster and
asbestos fibers were used to reinforce cement.
In 1910, porter put the idea that concrete can be strengthened by the inclusion of
fibers. Till 1963; there was only slow progress on fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). Romualdi
and Batson gave rise to FRC by conducting numerous experimental works to determine the
basic engineering properties such as compressive, tensile strength FRC.
Typical types of fibers used are steel, acrylic asbestons, glass, xylon, polyster,
polyethylene, polypropylene, rayon, rock wool and so on. Steel fibers are available in round,
flat, reimped, deformed forms. Steel fibers were used in different structural elements in
various zones and investigated its performance. Now-a-days synthetic fibers have become
more attractive and used for the reinforcement of cementitious materials.

Fiber Reinforced Cement as a material made from hydraulic cement and discrete,
discontinuous fibers (containing no aggregate). Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is made
with hydraulic cement, aggregates of various sizes, in corporating discrete, discontinuous
fibers. Both are firmly established as a new construction material.
Steel fibers and synthetic fibers find applications in civil engineering on a larger scale
by virtue of their inherent advantages; it is of interest to note that the performance of concrete
can be enhanced through the employment of these micro-reinforcements in a hybrid form. The
volume of data available on the performance studies of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete
appears to be inadequate for a better understanding the investigation, it is proposed to combine
these fibers at different proportions in the beam structural elements and engineering properties
and performance are being investigated.
The necessity for the addition of fibers in structural material is to increase the strength
of the concrete and mortar and also to reduce the crack propagation that mainly depends on the
following parameters.
Strength characteristics of fiber
Bond at fiber matrix interface
Ductility of fibers
Volume of fiber reinforcement
Spacing, dispersion, orientation, shape and aspect ratio of fiber.
High strength fibers, favorable orientation large volume, fiber length and diameter of
fiber have been found independently to improve the strength of composites. The steel fiber is
known to have possessed high tensile strength and ductility.

The most significant factor affecting resistance to crack propagation and strength of the
fibrous concrete and mortar are
Shape and bond at fiber matrix interface
Volume fraction of fibers
Fiber aspect ratio and Orientation of fibers
Workability and Compaction of Concrete
Size of Coarse Aggregate
Mixing:
A) SHAPE AND BOND AT FIBER MATRIX INTERFACE
The modulus of elasticity of matrix must be much lower than that of fiber for
efficient stress transfer. Low modulus of fibers such as nylon and polypropylene are therefore
unlikely to give strength improvement, but they help in the absorption of large energy and
therefore impart greater degree of toughness and resistance to impact. High modulus fibers
such as steel, glass and carbon impart strength and stiffness to the composite. Interfacial bond
between the matrix and the fibers also determine the effectiveness of stress transfer, from the
matrix to the fiber. A good bond is essential for improving tensile strength of the composite.
The interfacial bond could be improved by larger area of contact, improving the frictional
properties and degree of gripping and treating the steel fibers with sodium hydroxide or
acetone.

B) VOLUME FRACTION OF FIBER


The strength of the composite largely on the quantity of fibers used in it. The increase
in the volume of fibers, increase approximately linearly, the tensile strength and toughness of
the composite. Use of higher percentage of fiber is likely to cause segregation and hardness of
concrete and mortar.

C) FIBER ASPECT RATIO


Fiber aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of fiber length to the equivalent fiber diameter.
In order to utilize fracture strength of fibers fully, adequate bond between the matrix and the
fiber has to be developed. This depends on the shape of the fibers viz., straight, crimped,
hooked end and its aspect ratio. An aspect ratio 60 to 100 is commonly used.
D) ORIENTATION OF FIBERS
One of the differences between conventional reinforcement and fiber reinforcement is
that in conventional reinforcement bars are oriented in the direction desired while fibers are
randomly oriented. It was observed that in fiber reinforced mortar the fibers aligned parallel to
the applied load offered more tensile strength and toughness than randomly distributed or
perpendicular
E) WORKABILITY AND COMPACTION OF CONCRETE
Incorporation of steel fiber decreases the workability considerably and even
prolonged external vibration fails to compact the concrete. This situation adversely affects the
consolidation of fresh mix. The fiber volume at which this situation is reached depends on the
length and diameter of the fiber and non-uniform distribution of the fibers. Generally, the
workability and compaction standard of the mix are improved through increased water/cement
ratio or by the use of water reducing admixtures. The overall workability of fresh fibrous mixes
was found to be largely independent of the fiber type. Crimped fibers produce slightly higher
slumps, and hooked fibers were found to be more effective than straight and crimped ones.

F) SIZE OF COARSE AGGREGATE


Several investigators recommended that the maximum size of the coarse aggregate
should be restricted to 10mm, to avoid appreciable reduction in strength of the composite. A
fiber in effect, as aggregate having a simple geometry, their influence on the properties of fresh
concrete is complex.

The inter-particle friction between fibers and between fibers and

aggregates controls the orientation and distribution of the fibers and consequently the
properties of the composite. Friction reducing admixtures and admixtures that improve the
cohesiveness of the mix can significantly improve the mix.
G) MIXING
Mixing of fiber reinforced concrete needs careful conditions to avoid balling of
fibers, segregation, and difficulty of mixing the materials uniformly. Increase in the aspect
ratio, volume percentage and size and quantity of coarse aggregate intensify the difficulties and
balling tendencies. It is important that the fibers are dispersed uniformly throughout the mix.
This can be done by adding fibers before adding water. When mixing in a laboratory mixer,
introducing the fibers through a wire mesh basket will help even distribution of fibers.

1.3 SCOPE FOR THE PRESENT STUDY


To study the physical properties of concrete using polypropylene fiber, steel fiber
Evaluation of compressive strength and of splitting tensile strength of concrete with
steel fiber
Evaluation of compressive strength and of splitting tensile strength of concrete with
polypropylene fiber.
Evaluation of compressive strength and of splitting tensile strength of concrete
without fiber.
To establish the physical properties of constituents (cement, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate and fiber)
To design the concrete mix using IS (Indian Standard)

1.4 EFFECT OF FIBERS IN CONCRETE


Fibers are initially used in concrete to control plastic shrinkage and drying
Shrinkage cracking.
They also lower the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water.
Some types of fibers produce greater impact, abrasion and shatter resistance in
Concrete.
The material ductility is increased by the addition of fibers.
High-performance fiber-reinforced concrete used in bridges found to provide
Residual strength and control cracking. The residual strength is directly proportional
to the fiber content.
Generally fibers do not increase the compressive strength of concrete. Fibers
cannot replace moment resisting or structural steel reinforcement. Some fibers reduce
the strength of concrete

CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW
A) Waheeb Ahmed al-khaja (1997 volume 7) studied the mechanical properties
And time dependent deformation of polypropylene fiber concrete. This investigation
conducted to study the effect of PPF used for reinforcing concrete mixes.
The compression, tension and flexural strength test were performed changing fiber
0.1 to 3 % of the cement weight content. Adding the 0.5 % of PPF the compressive strength
can obtain the maximum value.
B) K.Anbuvelan, M.M. Khadar. M.h, M.Lakshmipathy and K.S. Sathyanarayann
studies on properties of concretes containing polypropylene, steel and reengineered plastic
shred fiber work an attempt has been made to study the influence of polypropylene fibers, steel
fibers and re-engineered plastic shreds with0.1 %, 0.5 % and 0.5 % by volume of concrete mix.
1.

With the addition of polypropylene fibers to plain concrete, its strength


is

increased in the range of 4 %-17 %. The improvement in its wear and impact

resistance were 28 %-58 % and 72 %-134 %, respectively and reduction in


maximum crack width is to an extent of 21 %-74 %.
2.

The steel fiber added to plain concrete resulted in improvement of the


strength, wear and impact resistance characteristics by 4 %-49 %, 42 %-52 % and
34 %-38 % respectively. The reduction in maximum crack width is found to be 46
%-67 %.

3.

With the addition of reengineered plastic fibers to plain concrete,


strength, wear and resistance to impact are increased to 20%-17.60%, 31%-48%
8

and 123%-139% respectively. The reduction in its maximum crack width is 59%73%.

C) Maalej and Paramasivam (2002) studied the effectiveness of ductile fiber


reinforced cementitious composites (DFRCC) in retarding the corrosion of steel in reinforced
concrete beams. A fiber content of 1.5 % PVA & 1.0 % steel fibres was used in a DFRCC and a
layer of DFRCC was used around the main longitudinal reinforcement (FRC). The authors
concluded that the FGC concept using DFRCC material was very effective in preventing
corrosion induced damage in RC beams and minimizing the loss in the beam load and
deflection capacities. They also reported that the functionally graded concrete (FGC) beams
have higher resistance against corrosion and cracking compared with conventional reinforced
concrete.
D) Nataraja, Dhang and Gupta (1999) examined the feasibility of using UPV
technique for assessing the quality of steel fiber reinforced concrete. The study parameters
included fiber content, aspect ratio of fibres and concrete strength. The pulse velocity readings
were taken longitudinally at the centre of cylinders and prisms. The authors concluded that the
quality of SFRC could be adequately confirmed using UPV technique. They also reported that
the pulse velocity at 7 days and 28 days can be estimated knowing the pulse velocity at 1day using amplification factors of 1.11 and 1.13 for both plain and fiber reinforced concrete up
to a compressive strength of 50 MPa.
E) Mohammed and Kaushik (2000) investigated the influence of mixed aspect ratio of
fibres on compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength and
ductility of SFRC. They tried different mixed aspect ratio of fibres with a total volume fraction
of 1.0%. The authors concluded that the use of 65% long fibres and 35% short fibres gave
optimum mechanical properties.

CHAPTER-3
METHODOLOGY
Collection of materials
Mix proportions
(M20 grade of concrete)
Casting of specimens

Fiber added with concrete at various %

Control concrete (without fiber)

Steel Fiber

Polypropylene Fiber

Curing of Specimens

Test on Specimens

Hardened concrete
1. Comprehensive strength test
2. Split tensile strength test

10

Analysis and discussion of test results

Conclusion

CHAPTER-4
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

4.1 PROPERTIES OF CEMENT


The properties of ordinary Portland cement as shown in the table 4.1.

Test Particulars

Result Obtained

Requirements as per IS:


12269 1987

Specific gravity
Normal consistency (%)
Initial setting time
(minutes)

3.15
31
37

3.10-3.15
30-35
30 minimum

Final setting time (minutes)


Compressive strength
(MPa)
a) 3 days
b) 7 days
c) 28 days

570

600 maximum

28
38
44

43
33
23

Table 4.1: Physical properties of ordinary Portland cement

11

4.2 PROPERTIES OF FIBERS


4.2.1 STEEL FIBER (METALLIC FIBER)
Steel fiber is one of the most commonly used fibers. Generally, round fibers are used.
The diameter may vary from 0.25 to 0.75 mm. The steel fiber is likely to get rusted and lose
some of its strength. But investigations have shown that the rusting of the fibers takes place
only at the surface. Use of steel fibers make significant improvements in flexural, impact and
fatigue strength of concrete, it has been extensively used in various types of structures,
particularly for overlays of roads, airfield pavements and bridge decks. Thin shells and plates
have also been constructed using steel fibers.

12

Figure 4.1: The figure shows the general view of steel fiber

4.2.2 POLYMERIC FIBER


Synthetic polymeric fibers have been produced as a result of research and
development in the petrochemical and textile industries. Fiber types that have been tired with
cement matrices include arcrylic, aramid, nylon, polyester, polypropylene and polyethylene.
They all have a very high tensile strength, but most of these fibers (except for aramids) have a
relatively low modulus of elasticity. The quality of polymeric fibers that makes them useful in
FRC is their very high length to diameter ratios, their diameters are on the order of
micrometers.
A.POLYPROPYLENE FIBER (PPF)
Polypropylene fibers are synthetic types of fibers. Synthetic fibers are gradually
replacing steel fibers due to the fact that are cost effective, can be used in low volume fractions
and there is no risk of corrosion by there is used in concrete. Polypropylene fibers are currently
manufactured in variety of geometries and configuration. These fibers are produced by drawing
or stretching the synthetic fiber into film sheets which are then slit longitudinally into tapes .
Polypropylene fibers are composed of crystalline and non-crystalline region.
Polypropylene fibers have a softening point in the region of 150 c and a melting
point at 160 to 170 c. It is lowest thermal conductivity of all commercial fibers. It has
excellent chemical resistance to acid and alkalis, high abrasion resistance.

13

Figure 4.2: The figure shows the general view of polypropylene fiber

B. NYLON FIBER
Commercial available nylon fibers are made of nylon 6. They are available in varies
lengths in single filament form. Since this fibers are very thin, a number of fibers per pound in
the range of 35 million per pound for fiber length of 0.75 inch (19 mm).
C. POLYESTER

14

Polyester fibers are made of ethyl acetate monomers. Their physical and chemical
properties can be changed substantially by altering manufacturing techniques. The higher
modulus of elasticity and better bonding to concrete that is important for FRB application can
be achieved by some of this modification.

Figure4.3: The figure shows the general view of polyester fiber


Physical properties of polymeric fibers as shown in the given table 4.2
Fiber type

Effective Dia
10-3 (mm)

Specific
Gravity

Tensile
Strength
(MPa)

Elastic
Modulus
(GPa)

Ultimate
Elongation
(%)

Nylon

1.16

965

5.17

20

Polyester

1.34-1.39

896-1100

17.5

25-1020

0.96

200-300

0.9-0.91

310-760

3.5-4.9

15

Polyethylene
Polypropylene

Table 4.2: Physical properties of polymeric fibers


D. POLYETHYLENE
15

Polyethylene fibers are available both in standard length (0.52-2, 12-50 mm)and in
pulp form .the longer fiber available in the market have wart-like surface deformation, better
bond to concrete. The fibers that are available in pulp form have been promoted has a
replacement for asbestos fibers in concrete. These short fibers can also used in cement matrix
to improve ductility, impact resistance and fatigue strength

Figure4. 4: The figure shows the general view of polyethylene fiber

E. GLASS FIBERS
The glass fibers are primarily used for glass fiber reinforced cement (GFRC) sheets.
Regular E-Glass fibers were found to deteriorate in concrete.

16

Figure4. 5; The figure shows the general view of glass fiber

4.2.3 NATURALLY OCCURING FIBERS


The oldest forms of fiber reinforced composites were made with naturally occurring
fiber such as straw and horse hair. Modern technology has made it possible to extract fibers
economically from various plants, such as jute and bamboo to use in cement composites.
The unique aspects of this fiber in the low amount of the energy required to extract
these fibers. The primary problem with used of this fibers in concrete is their tendency to
disintegrate in an alkaline environment. Effects of being made to improve durability of this
fiber in concrete by using admixture to make the concrete less alkaline and the subjecting the
fibers to special treatment.
Natural fibers used in Portland cement composite include akwara bamboo, coconut,
flax, jute, sisal, sugarcane bagases, wood, and others mechanical properties of some of these
fibers are presented in the succeeding.
A. AKWARA FIBERS
17

Akwara is a natural fiber derived from a plant stem grown in large quantities in
Nigeria. They are made of a cellular core covered with a smooth sheath. Akwara fibers were
found to be durable in alkaline environment of cement matrix, and they are also dimensionally
stable under wetting and drying conditions. The disadvantages are their low elastic modulus
and brittleness.
B. BAMBOO FIBERS
Bamboo, which is a member of the grass family, grows in tropical and subtropical
region. Plants can grow up to a height of 15 m. their hollow stalks have intermediate joints, the
diameters of these stalks range from 0.4 to 4.0 inch (1 to 10 cm).

Special techniques are needed to extract the fibers from bamboo. Bamboo fibers are
strong in tension, but have a relatively low modulus of elasticity. Their tendency absorb water
adversely affects the bonding between the fibers and the mixture during the curing process.
C. COCONUT FIBERS
A mature coconut has an outer fibrous husk. Coconut fibers, called coir, can be
extracted simply by soaking the husk in water or, alternatively, by using mechanical processes.
These short (only a few inches) stiff fibers have been used for making rope for centuries. Coir
has a low elastic modulus and is also sensitive to moisture changes.
D. FLAX AND VEGETABLE FIBERS
Flax is grown for its fiber. Flax fibers are strong under tension and also possess a high
modulus of elasticity. Fibers extracted from other plant such as elephant grass, water reed,

18

plantain, and musamba have also been tried as reinforcements for concrete. Most of these
fibers are removed from the stems of the plants manually.

Physical properties of naturally occurring fibers as shown in the given table 4.2
Fiber
Coconut
Type
Fiber
52
Length
to
(mm)
350
Fiber Dia
0.1
(mm)
to
0.4
Specific
1.12
Gravity
to
1.15
Modulus
19
of
to
Elasticity
26
(GPA)
Ultimate
120
Tensile
to
Strength
200
(MPa)

Sisal

Sugarcane
Bagasse
-

Bamboo

Jute

Flax

500

0.05
to
0.4
1.5

13
to
16

0.2
to
0.4
1.2
to
1.3
15
to
19

33
to
40

180
to
300
0.1
to
0.2
1.02
to
1.04
26
to
32

280
to
568

170
to
290

350
to
500

250
to
350

19

Elephant Musamba
Grass
-

Wood
fiber
2.5
to
5
0.015
to
0.08
1.5

100

4.9

.9

1000

178

83

700

Elongatio
n of
Break
(%)
Water
Absorpti
on (%)

10
to
25

3
to
5

1.5
to
1.9

1.8
to
2.2

3.6

9.7

130
to
180

60
to
70

70
to
75

40
to
45

50
to
75

Table4. 3: Table shows the physical properties of naturally occurring fiber

4.4 MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE


Various advantages of fiber reinforced concrete are
a) Resistance to micro cracking
b) Toughness and post failure ductility
c) Impact resistance
d) Resistance to fatigue
e) Improved strength in shear, tension, flexure, and compression
f) Reduced permeability

4.5 AREAS OF APPLICATION


The areas where these fibers can be used as secondary reinforcement are given as under
a) Plain and reinforced concrete
b) Plaster (stucco)
20

c) Pre-cast concrete productions


d) Trench-less constructions
e) Productive lining
f) Roofing product

CHAPTER-5
MATERIAL SELECTION

For concrete ingredients are,


Cement
Aggregate
a) Fine aggregate
b) Coarse aggregate

Water

5.1 CEMENT

21

Ordinary Portland cement is hydraulic cement that hardens by interacting with water and
forms a water resistance compound when it receives its final set. Compared with non-hydraulic
cements such as gypsum and lime, which absorb water after hardening, Portland cement is highly
durable and produces high compressive strengths in mortars and concretes.
The size of the cement particles has a strong influence on the reaction of cement with
water. For a given weight of finely ground cement, the surface area of the particles is greater than
that of the coarsely ground cement. Since there are different types of cement for various needs, it is
necessary to study the percentage variation in the chemical composition of each type n order to
interpret the reasons for variations in behavior. OPC-53 Grade con forming to IS: 12269-1987 was
used.

5.2 AGGREGATES
Aggregate are those parts of the concrete that constitute the bulk of the finished product.
They comprise 60-80% of the volume of the concrete and have to be so graded that the entire mass
of concrete acts as a relatively solid, homogenous, dense combination, with the smaller sizes acting
as an inert filler of the voids that exist between the larger particles.
They are two types:
1. Coarse aggregate, such as gravel, crushed stone, or blast furnace slag
2. Fine aggregate, such as natural or manufactured slag
Since the aggregate constitutes the major portion of the mixture, the more aggregate in the
mixture, the cheaper is the concrete, provided that the mixture is of reasonable workability for the
specific job for which it is used.
22

The long term performance if the concrete produced, whether normal strength or high
strength is governed to a large extent by the quality of the coarse aggregate, low porosity and low
permeability, high resistance to freezing and thawing, high resistance to abrasion strength, and low
expansion that can be produce cracking, disintegration, low or no alkali-aggregate reactivity.
Aggregate should always be selected to have minimum drying shrinkage effects. Their
choice determines the long term performance of a structure, as drying shrinkage is a long term
process that takes several years for the concrete in a structural member to achieve complete drying.
The following are the factors to be taken into account in selection of the coarse aggregate.

5.2.1 COARSE AGGREGATE


Crushed granite coarse aggregate conforming to IS: 383-1987 was used. Coarse aggregate
passing through 20mm, having the specific gravity and fines modulus vales 2.80-7.20 respectively
were used. Properties of the coarse aggregates affect the final strength of the hardened concrete
and its resistance to disintegration, weathering, and other destructive effects. The mineral coarse
aggregate must be clean or organic impurities and must bond well with the cement gel. The
common types are,
1. Natural crushed stone
2. Natural gravel
3. Artificial coarse aggregate

5.2.2 FINE AGGREGATE


23

The fine aggregate conforming to zone-II as per IS: 383-1987 was used. Fine aggregate is
smaller filler made of sand. A good fine aggregate should always be free of organic impurities,
clay, or any deleterious materials or excessive filler of size smaller than N.For radiation-shielding
concrete, fine steel shot and crushed iron ore are used as fine aggregate.
A fineness modulus (FM) in the range 2.5-3.2 is recommended for concrete, to facilitate
workability. Lower values result in decreased workability and a higher water demand. The mixing
water demand is dependent on the void ratio in the sand.

CHAPTER-6
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
6.1 GENERAL
In order to increase the performance of concrete, many types of mineral and chemical
admixtures are added. Addition of fibers may change the performance in the hardened stages.
Therefore, it is very essential to evaluate the effect of fibers on mechanical properties of concrete.
Thus chapter deals with the properties of materials used in this investigation, methodology,
preparation of test specimens, experimental test set up and testing procedure that have been
performed.
6.2 STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS
24

The age at is a governing criterion for selecting mixture proportions. The standard 28-day
strength for normal-strength concrete penalizes high strength concrete since the later continues
gaining strength after that age. One has also to consider that a structure is subjected to service load
at 60 to 90 days age at the earliest.

Table5.1 shows the Specific gravity test result for fine aggregate by using Pyconometer test.
Description

Pyconometer bottle (W1)

651.5

651.5

Wt of Pyconometer + dry soil (W2)

851.5

855.5

Wt of Pyconometer + dry soil + water

1668

1675

Wt of Pyconometer + water (W4)

1545.5

1549.5

Specific gravity = W2-W1/[(W2-W1)-

2.6

2.6

Average

(W3)

2.6

(W3-W4)]
Table5.1: Specific gravity of fine aggregate coarse

Table5,2 shows the Specific gravity test result for coarse aggregate by using Pyconometer test.
25

Description
Pyconometer bottle (W1)
Wt of Pyconometer + dry soil (W2)
Wt of Pyconometer + dry soil + water (W3)

651.5
881.5
1753.68

651.5
855.5
1765

Wt of Pyconometer + water (W4)


Specific gravity = W2-W1/[(W2-W1)-(W3-

1606
2.8

1633
2.8

Average

2.8

W4)]
Table 5.2: Specific gravity of coarse aggregate

Table5.3 shows the Sieve analysis test for fine aggregate concrete.

IS Sieve size
(mm)

Quantity
Retained (g)

10
4.75
2.36
1.18
0.6
0.3
0.15

0
0
120
1425
880
1670
905

Cumulative
Wt Retained
(g)
0
0
120
1545
2425
4095
5000

% Retained

% Passing

0
0
2.4
28.5
17.6
33.4
18.1

100
100
97.6
69.1
51.5
18.1
0

Limits for
Zone-II
(IS383)
100
90-100
95-100
55-90
35-59
8-30
0-10

Table5.3: Sieve analysis of fine aggregate concrete

Table5.4 shows the Sieve analysis test for coarse aggregate concrete.

Sieve Size (mm)

Quantity
Retained (g)

Cumulative Wt
Retained (g)
26

% Retained

% Passing

63
40
20
12.5
10
4.75

0
0
803
0
12562
374

0
0
803
803
13365
13739

0
0
5.8
5.8
96.5
99.2

100
100
94.2
94.2
3.5
0.8

Table 5.4: Sieve analysis of coarse aggregate concrete

CHAPTER-7
MIX DESIGN
Proper design of concrete mixture is intended to obtain such proportioning of ingredients
which will produce concrete of high durability performance during the designed life of a structure,
usually 50 years.
For a particular strength and long term qualities and performance. Several factors
determine these properties.
1. Quality of cement
2. Proportion of cement and other cementations materials in relation to water in the
mixture (water/cementation ratio)
3. Strength and cleanliness of aggregate
4. Interaction or adhesion between cement paste and aggregate
27

5. Adequate mixing of ingredients


6. Proper placing, finishing, and compaction of fresh concrete
7. Curing at a temperature not below 50 F while the placed concrete gains strength
8. Chloride content not exceeds 0.15% in reinforced concrete exposed to chlorides in
service and 1% for dry protected concrete.

A study of these requirements shows that most of the control actions have to be taken
prior to placing the fresh concrete. Since each control is governed by the proportion and the
mechanical ease or difficulty in handling and placing, the development of criteria based on the
theory of proportioning for each mixture should be studied.
In addition, a determination has to be made as to the admixtures that need to be
prescribed to enhance the long-term high performance and durability of the finished product.
There are several types of strength-modifying admixtures: high range water reducers
(super plasticizer), polymers, granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, or slica fume. However, in
mixture proportioning for very high strength concrete, isolating the water/cementation materials
ratio W/(C+P) (often called simply w/cm) from the paste/aggregate ratio due to the very low water
content can be more effective in arriving at the optimum mixture with fewer trial mixtures and
field trial batches. The very low w/cm material ratio required for strength in the range 138 Mpa or
higher requires major modification to the present standard approach used in mixture proportioning
that seems to work well for strength up to 83 Mpa. The optimum mixture that can be chosen with
minimum trials has to produce satisfactory concrete product in both its plastic and hardened states.
28

7.1 VARIOUS METHODS OF DESIGN MIX PROPORTIONING


Arbitrary proportion
Maximum density method
Fineness modulus method
Surface area method
ACI Committee method
Grading curve method
IRC-44 method
High strength concrete mix design
Design based on flexural strength
Indian standard method

29

7.2 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN FOR INDIAN STANDARD METHOD


STEP 1: Design stipulation
A) Characteristic compressive strength = 20 N /mm2
B) Max size of aggregate = 20 mm (angular)
C) Degree of workability = 0.9 compacting factor
D) Degree of quality control = good
E) Type of exposure = severe

STEP 2: Test data for materials


Cement used opc = 53 grade
Specific gravity of cement = 3.15
Specific gravity of fine aggregate = 2.6
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate = 2.8
Water absorption
1. Coarse aggregate = 0.5%
2. Fine aggregate = 1%

STEP 3: Target mean strength of concrete


Target compressive strength F ck = f ck + t.s
30

fck = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days


s = Standard deviation
t = tolerance factor (its take 1.65)
For using table(1) the target mean strength for the specified characteristic strength
20 + (1.65 4.6) = 27.6 N/ mm2
STEP 4: Selection of water-cement ratio
The w/c ratio required for target mean strength of 27.6 N/ mm2 is 0.5 from table
5 of IS 456-2000.

STEP 5: Selection of water and sand content.


Table 4 of IS 10262-1282 (for 20 mm nominal max size aggregate)
And confirming to grading zone-II
Water content per m3 concrete = 186 kg sand content as percentage of

total

aggregate by absolute volume = 35% for changes in values in water-cement ratio


for following adjustment is required.

31

Changing Condition

Adjustment Required
In water content %

For decrease in water cement ratio


(0.6-0.5)=0.1
For increase in compacting factor
(0.9-0.8)=0.1
For sand conforming zone-II of table 4
IS 383-1970

%sand in total
aggregate
-2.0

+3

-1.5

3%

-3.5%

Therefore required sand content as % of total aggregate by absolute volume = 353.5 = 31.5%
Required water content = 186 + (1863)/100
=191.6 l/m3

STEP 6: Determination of cement content


Water cement ratio = 0.5
Water = 191.6 l
Cement = 191.6/0.5
=383 kg/m3
This cement content is adequate for extreme exposure condition. According to IS:
456-2000
32

STEP 7: Determine aggregate content


By using equation 3.15 form 10262-1982
V = [w + (C/Sc) + (1/p) + (fa/Sfa)] (1/1000)
Where
V = absolute volume of fresh concrete, which is equal to gross

volume (m 3)

minus the volume of entrapped air,


W = mass of water (kg) per m3 of concrete,
C = mass of cement (kg) per m3 of concrete,
Sc = specific gravity of cement,
p = ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume,
fa = total masses of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate (kg) per m 3 of concrete
respectively, and
Sfa = specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine aggregate and coarse
aggregate respectively.

From IS: 383 : 1970 specified maximum size of aggregate 20 mm, the amount of
entrapped air in the wet concrete is 2%, taking this into account and apply into the
above equation.
0.98 = [191.6 + (383/31.5) + (1/0.315) + (fa/2.6)] (1/1000)
fa = 545 kg/m3
Therefore
Ca = (1-0.315/0.315) (1/1000)
33

Ca = 1188 kg/m3
fa = amount of fine aggregate
Ca = amount coarse aggregate
MIX PROPORTION
Water
191.6 kg
0.5

Cement
383kg
1

Fine Aggregate
545 kg
1.4

Coarse Aggregate
1188 kg
3.1

CHAPTER-8
TESTING OF SPECIMEN
8.1 SPECIMEN PREPARATION
The steel fiber and polypropylene fiber added in the range of 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75, 2%, and
2.5% by volume of concrete specimen.
The concrete was mixed in hand then the decided quantity of fiber was added evenly and
mixed to get the uniform distribution and homogeneous mixer without forming fiber balls.

34

The compressive strength and tensile strength performance were evaluated using 150 mm
cube, 100 mm diameter and 200 mm height cylinder.
The specimens were cast in steel mould. The test specimens were normal cured under
water.

8.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST


The compressive strength of concrete is one of the most important and useful properties
of concrete. I most structure applications concrete is employed primarily to resist compressive
stresses. In those case where strength in tension or in shear is of primary importance, stresses. In
those cases where strength in tension or in shear is of primary importance, the compressive
strength is frequently used as a measure of these properties. Therefore, the concrete making
properties of varies ingredients of mix are usually measured in terms of the compressive strength.
Compressive strength is also used as a qualitative measure for other properties of hardened
concrete.
The modulus of elasticity in this case does not follow the compressive strength. The
other case where the compressive strength does not indicate the useful property of concrete is
when the concrete is subjected to freezing and thawing.
Concrete containing about 6 percent of entrained air which is relatively weaker is
strength is found to be more durable than dense and strong concrete.

The compressive strength of concrete is generally determined by testing cubes or


cylinders made in laboratory or field or cores drilled from handed concrete at site or from the nondestructive testing of the specimen or actual structures. The testing of hardened concrete is
discussed in the subsequent chapter.
Strength of concrete is its resistance to rupture. It may be measured in a number of
ways, such as, strength in compression, in tension, in shear or in flexure.

35

In order to determine the compressive strength, a total number of 144 cubes were cast.
After 24 hours of casting, the specimens were de-molded and cured under water.
At the end of curing period, the above specimens were tested in a compressive testing
machine as per: IS516-1989.
8.3 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH TEST
This is also sometimes referred as, Brazilian Test. This test was developed in Brazil
in 1943.At about the some time this was also independently developed in Japan. The test is carried
out by placing a cylindrical specimen horizontally between the loading surfaces of a compression
testing machine and the load is applied until failure of the cylinder, along the vertical diameter.
When the load is applied along the generatrix, an element on the vertical diameter of
the cylinder is subjected to a vertical compressive stress. In order to determine the split tensile
strength of various concretes test was conducted as per IS: 5816-1999.
A total number of 96 cylindrical specimens were cast and after 28 days of curing, they
were tested in a compression testing machine by loading it on the longitudinal direction.

CHAPTER-9
TEST RESULTS
The compressive strength of various percentage steel fibers added are given by the table9.1.
Sl. no
1.
2.

Mix
CC
SF1

Steel fiber (%)


0
0.25

Compressive Strength (Mpa)


At 3days
At 7 days
At 28 days
12.5
15.5
18
13.5
19
20
36

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8

SF2
SF3
SF4
SF5
SF6
SF7

0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2
2.5

14.6
14.8
16
18.5
18
17.3

20
21.4
24.2
25.3
23
22

23.5
24.5
26
29
26.3
26

Table 9.1: Compressive strength of M20 grade concrete with and without steel fiber
Where
CC Control Concrete
SF1 0.25 % steel fiber added concrete
SF2 0.5 % steel fiber added concrete
SF3 0.75 % steel fiber added concrete
SF4- 1 % steel fiber added concrete
SF5 1.5 % steel fiber added concrete
SF6 2 % steel fiber added concrete
SF7 2.5 % steel fiber added concrete

37

Figure 9.1: Graph showing the compressive strength of M20 grade concrete with and without
steel fiber

38

The compressive strength of various percentage added Polypropylene fiber added concrete as
given by the table9.2.
Mix
Sl. No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8

Polypropylene

Compressive Strength (Mpa)


At 3days
At 7 days
At 28 days

fiber (%)
CC
PPF1
PPF2
PPF3
PPF4
PPF5
PPF6
PPF7

0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2
2.5

12.5
13.5
18
17.3
17
16.6
15.3
14

15.5
18.5
21.3
20
19.2
18.6
17.9
17

18
21
25.5
24.3
23
22
21.1
20.8

Table 9.2: Compressive strength of M20 grade concrete with and without polypropylene fiber
Where
CC Control concrete
PPF1 0.25 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF2 0.5 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF3 0.75 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF4 1% polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF5 1.5 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF6 2 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF7 2.5 % polypropylene fiber added concrete

39

Figure 9.2: Graph shows the compressive strength of M20 grade concrete with and
without polypropylene fiber

The Split tensile strength of various percentage steel fiber added concrete as given by the table9.3.

40

Sl. no
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Mix
CC
SF1
SF2
SF3
SF4
SF5
SF6
SF7

Steel fiber (%)


0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2
2.5

Tensile Strength (Mpa)


At 3days
At 7 days
At 28 days
1.5
1.8
3
1.6
2.2
3.1
1.72
2.6
3.3
1.81
2.8
3.5
2
3.31
3.9
2.2
3.8
4.5
2.15
3.6
4.2
2.1
3.52
4.1

Table9.3: Split tensile strength of M20 grade concrete with and without steel fiber
Where
CC Control Concrete
SF1 0.25 % steel fiber added concrete
SF2 0.5 % steel fiber added concrete
SF3 0.75 % steel fiber added concrete
SF4- 1 % steel fiber added concrete
SF5 1.5 % steel fiber added concrete
SF6 2 % steel fiber added concrete
SF7 2.5 % steel fiber added concrete

41

Figure9.3: Graph showing the split tensile strength of M20 grade concrete with and without
steel fiber

The Split tensile strength of various percentage Polypropylene fiber added concrete as given by the
table9.4.

42

Sl. no
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Mix
CC
PPF1
PPF2
PPF3
PPF4
PPF5
PPF6
PPF7

Polypropylene
fiber (%)
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2
2.5

Tensile Strength (Mpa)


At 3days
At 7 days
At 28 days
1.5
2
2.2
2.3
3
2.8
2.72
2.61

1.8
3.8
4
4.1
4.5
4.4
4.32
4.2

3
4.2
4.23
4.5
5.2
5.1
5.02
4.8

Table9.4: Split tensile strength of M20 grade concrete with and without polypropylene fiber
Where
CC Control concrete
PPF1 0.25 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF2 0.5 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF3 0.75 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF4 1% polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF5 1.5 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF6 2 % polypropylene fiber added concrete
PPF7 2.5 % polypropylene fiber added concrete

43

Figure 9.4: Graphs shows the split tensile strength of M20 grade concrete with and without
polypropylene fiber

44

Figure 9.5: Photo views on compressive strength testing of specimens

45

Figure 9.6: Photo views on split tensile strength testing of specimens

46

Figure 9.7: Different photos views on compressive strength test

47

Figure 9.8: Different photos views on split tensile strength test

48

CHAPTER-10
CONCLUSION
The following conclusions have been drawn based on the experimental investigation
carried out on concrete mixture.
1. Higher compressive strength is obtained for 1.5 % steel fiber and 0.5% for
Polypropylene Fiber added concrete.
2. Higher split tensile strength is obtained for 1.5 % steel fiber and 1% for
Polypropylene Fiber added concrete.
3. Concrete attained maximum compressive and split tensile strength when mixing
Minimum amount of polypropylene fiber compared to steel fiber.

49

CHAPTER-11
REFERENCE
1. IS 10262:1982 Hand Book of Concrete Mix Design, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi
2. IS 383:2000, Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete, (4th
Revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
3. IS 383:1970, Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural
sources for concrete
4. IS 5816:1999 Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete Test.
5. M.S. SHETTY (2000).,Concrete Technology, S.CHAND and Company Ltd.
M.L. GAMBHIR (1998) Concrete Technology , Tata McGraw-Hill
7. ACI Committee 2111, (1994) mechanical properties
and time dependent deformation of polypropylene fiber concrete. ACI
Manual of Concrete Practice.
8.

ACI Committee 544, (1982) properties of concretes containing


polypropylene, steel and reengineered plastic shred fiber.

50