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Original Title: Short Circuit Notes

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20.0 Introduction

The goal of short circuit analysis is to

identify the range of currents that will flow

in the network under faulted conditions.

The range of currents are identified by the

minimum and maximum currents that flow

under faulted conditions.

What do we mean by faulted conditions?

These are conditions that include one or

more short circuits somewhere in the

network.

Faulted conditions are highly undesirable

because the currents that flow under faulted

conditions are normally extremely high. If

uninterrupted, such currents cause very high

heating in the conductors and likely result in

damage to at least one of them.

1

Example:

Consider the very simple single phase

distribution system of Fig. 1. The per unit

impedance between the generator and bus 2

is 0.03125, between bus 2 and bus 3 is 0.10,

and between bus 3 and bus 4 is 0.025. The

load has a per unit impedance of 3.125. The

generator voltage is 1.0 per unit.

(a) Compute the normal load current in perunit.

(b)

Compute the current for a fault at bus 4

in per-unit.

Fig. 1

Solution:

(a)

The normal load current is easy to get:

1.0

I

0.3048 pu (1)

0.03125 0.1 0.025 3.125

(b) A fault at bus 4 will short the load.

Load

1.0

I

6.4 pu

(2)

0.03125 0.1 0.025

fault

magnitude is 21 times the normal load

current.

Another important observation that we can

make from this very simple example is that

the current into the fault entirely comes from

the generator.

There are two additional comments that we

can make from this observation.

Effect of load: First, this implies that no

fault current comes from the load. In fact,

the portion of the load downstream from the

fault has no influence on the fault current.

This makes complete sense if you examine

the faulted circuit, as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2

To make the previous point very clear,

consider a fault at bus 3. Then the circuit is:

Fig. 3

and the fault current calculation is:

1.0

I

7.62 pu

(3)

0.13125

We note in the previous calculation that the

only part of the circuit that was of influence

was the part between the generator and the

fault. As a result, the 0.125 part of the

impedance is not included.

fault

and the impedance between the source and

the high side of the transformer always

influence the fault current for a fault located

anywhere on the feeder.

Of course, a distribution feeder is never

actually fed by a single generator, as we

have indicated in our example. Rather, a

distribution feeder is fed by the transmission

(or subtransmission) system.

Nonetheless, we may obtain an equivalent

source between the high side of the

transformer and the remainder of the

transmission network. We will discuss some

ways to do this a bit later. For now, you

should be clear in regards to what the

equivalent source is, and what it represents.

What it is: The equivalent source on the high

side is a voltage source in series with an

impedance.

5

represents the impedance between the high

side of the transformer and all of the current

sources in the remainder of the network.

Generally, the current sources in the

equivalent network are all of the generators.

20.2 Distributed generation

The above discussion assumes there are no

generators (current sources) connected along

the distribution feeder. This is usually the

case. However, if it is not the case, one

should be very careful to model those

generation units and capture their

contribution to the overall fault current.

During the past 5-10 years, there has been

growing interest in the topic of distributed

generation (DG). DG refers to the tendency

of generation to move from large,

centralized units connected at the

transmission or subtransmission level to

6

distribution system.

Most peoples use of the term DG refers to

the following kinds of technologies, when

connected within the distribution system:

Reciprocating

(internal

combustion)

engines

Combustion turbines

Microturbines

Wind turbines

Fuel cells

Photovoltaics

One definition given for DG is utilization

of small (0 to 5 MW), modular power

generation

technologies

dispersed

throughout a utility s distribution system in

order to reduce T&D loading or load growth

and thereby defer the upgrade of T&D

facilities, reduce system losses, improve

power quality, and reliability.

7

effects, it causes major problems with

respect to distribution protection because of

the fundamental issue that its presence

causes fault currents to flow from multiple

directions. Relative to the radial, single

course configuration, design of protection is

considerably more complicated when DG is

present.

20.3 Three-phase analysis

We have seen in Notes7, that the positive,

negative, and zero sequence networks are

decoupled under the conditions that the

phase impedance matrix for all components

of the system have:

Equal

diagonal

elements

(phase

impedances must be equal), i.e.,

Z Z Z

(4)

Equal offdiagonal elements (offdiagonal

phase impedances must be equal), i.e.,

Z Z Z

(5)

aa

bb

cc

ab

ac

bc

conditions, the 012 impedances are given by

Z Z Z Z Z Z 0

(6)

Z Z 2Z

(7)

Z Z Z Z

(8)

The resulting sequence networks are shown

in Fig. 4.

01

10

aa

02

20

12

21

ab

aa

ab

Fig. 4

We are very much aware that distribution

systems generally do not satisfy the

9

transposition is not used, that is, distribution

systems are not symmetric.

However, it is of some benefit to be aware

of the short circuit analysis procedures that

proceed from accepting the assumptions that

distribution systems are symmetric.

Since we always use the computer to obtain

an accurate answer, the reason for studying

use of the symmetrical components

approach for distribution systems is NOT

that it yields reasonably accurate answers

(although it sometimes does), but rather,

because it provide significant insight into

what happens in certain types of faulted

conditions.

The basic steps for using symmetrical

components in assessing faulted conditions

are as follows.

10

A. For positive, negative, & zero sequence:

1. Obtain the source impedance. Assume

that the voltage behind it is 1.0 per unit.

2.

Develop the sequence network for

the system under analysis.

3.

Obtain the Thevenin equivalent

looking into the network from the fault

point.

B. Connect the networks to capture the

influence of the particular fault type.

C. Compute the fault current from the

circuit resulting from step B.

D. From step C, you will also determine the

currents in all three of the networks

(positive, negative, and zero sequence

currents). This enables computation of the

phase currents Ia, Ib, and Ic from Iabc=AI012.

We discuss each one of these steps in what

follows.

11

There are several ways to do this [1], but the

easiest way is to obtain the positive,

negative, and zero-sequence Z-bus matrices

for the transmission network. The positive,

negative,

and

zero-sequence

source

impedances for the substation of interest is

the corresponding diagonal element in the

appropriate Z-bus. This is the impedance

seen from the bus looking back into the

system. These diagonal elements are also

called the driving point impedances.

If the HV bus of the distribution substation

is represented in the bus-impedance

matrices, then the diagonal elements must be

appropriately combined with the substation

transformer per-unit sequence impedances to

produce the source sequence impedances at

the low-voltage bus of the substation.

12

negative sequence source impedance equals

positive sequence source impedance.

Depending on the transformer connection,

zero sequence source impedance may not be

necessary at all.

20.5 Developing sequence network

We address loads, lines, transformers, &

generators For each of these, we may derive

expressions for the 012 sequence

impedances via the following steps:

1. Express abc voltages as a function of abc

currents and abc impedances.

2. Substitute symmetric components for

abc voltages and currents (e.g., Vabc=AV012

and Iabc=AI012).

3. Manipulate to obtain the form

V012=Z012I012.

If you refer back to Notes7, you will see

that this is the procedure we followed to

13

However, we will not go through the

analytical details but will rather just state the

results.

20.5.1 Loads

Recall from Notes7 that for a Yconnected, balanced load grounded through

a neutral impedance Zn with impedance ZY

per phase, the 012 sequence circuits are as in

Fig. 5.

14

Fig. 5

where we see the sequence impedances are:

Z0=ZY+3Zn

(9)

Z1=ZY

(10)

Z2=ZY

(11)

If the neutral is solidly grounded, then Zn=0

and eq. (9) above becomes Z0=ZY.

15

eq. (9) above becomes Z0=, i.e., the 0sequence circuit is an open circuit, implying

no 0-sequence current flows in an

ungrounded Y connection.

For a delta-connected, balanced load, we

simply convert to an equivalent Y using

ZY=Z/3 and then apply relations for an

ungrounded Y connection, resulting in

Z0=

(12)

Z1= Z/3

(13)

Z2= Z/3

(14)

Example: A delta connected balanced load

with phase impedance Z is in parallel with

a solidly grounded Y-connected load with

phase impedance ZY. Draw the sequence

networks for the entire paralleled load.

It is possible to develop the sequence

networks using the 3-step approach given

above (and I have notes that do that).

16

which suggests that we should just obtain

the sequence networks of the parallel

combination as parallel combinations of the

individual sequence networks, is right.

Figure 6 shows the result.

Fig. 6

17

20.5.2 Lines

In Notes7, the work we did to answer the

question of What if the load (or line, or load

and line) is not symmetric? led to another

question, which was: So what are the

conditions for the off-diagonal elements of

Z012 to be 0?

We have already reviewed the answer to this

question in section 20.3 above, which was:

Equal

diagonal

elements

(phase

impedances must be equal), i.e.,

Z Z Z

(4)

Equal offdiagonal elements (offdiagonal

phase impedances must be equal), i.e.,

Z Z Z

(5)

In this case, the 012 sequence impedances

are:

Z Z Z Z Z Z 0

(6)

Z Z 2Z

(7)

Z Z Z Z

(8)

Equation (6) simply says that all offdiagonal elements on the 012 sequence

aa

bb

cc

ab

ac

bc

01

10

aa

02

20

12

21

ab

aa

ab

18

and (8) provide the actual expressions that

we need for the 0, positive, and negative

sequence impedances.

The sequence networks are given in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7

It is interesting to compare eqs. (7) and (8)

for a symmetric line (or cable), and note that

19

is larger than the positive and negative

sequence quantities by 3Zab.

A typical overhead line has Zab(2/5)Zaa. In

this case, it is easy to show that Z 0=3Z1,

suggesting that finding zero sequence

impedance 3 times as large as positive

sequence impedance, is quite typical.

20.5.3 Transformers

There are five different types of transformer

connections to assess. These are:

1. Grounded Y to grounded Y.

2. Grounded Y to Y or Y to grounded Y.

3. -

4. Grounded Y to or to grounded Y

5. Y- or -Y.

As before, we can perform our 3-step

procedure given at the beginning of Section

20

substitute in symmetrical components, and

then obtain the decoupled equations. Here,

however, we must repeat this for both sides

of the transformer and then relate the two

sets of equations.

We will not perform this tedious work but

will instead simply observe some general

guidelines for drawing appropriate sequence

circuits. In forming these guidelines, we

assume:

Exciting current is negligible so shunt path

is infinite impedance and we only have the

series Z (winding resistance and leakage

reactance) in our transformer abc model.

Transformers in -Y or Y- configuration

are always connected so that positive

sequence voltages on the high side lead

positive sequence voltages on the low side

by 30 (per industry convention).

General guidelines for transformer 012

sequence circuits:

21

1. Positive

and

negative

sequence

impedances are equal, i.e.,

Z1=Z2=Zseries

where Zseries is the transformer winding

resistance and leakage reactance.

2. For connection types 4 and 5 in the

above list, the phase shift is included from

low side to high side as

+30 for positive sequence

-30 for negative sequence

3. For zero-sequence network,

a.We will get a complete open circuit

(I0=0) if there is an ungrounded Y on one

or both sides.

b. We will get isolation of primary from

secondary if there is a on one or both

sides. This means that connection

prevents pass-through of zero-sequence

currents. However, we may still get

zero-sequence current flowing if the

other side is grounded Y or .

c.We get no isolation if both sides are

grounded-Y.

22

d. Z0=Zseries+3Znp+3Zns where:

Znp: neutral impedance on primary

Zns: neutral impedance on secondary

A couple of concepts that are important here

in understanding the points under (3) above

are:

There must be a connection to ground on

the high-side for zero-sequence current to

flow from the transmission system into the

high side of the transformer.

If zero-sequence currents cannot flow

on primary (secondary) side of the

transformer, then because currents on the

secondary (primary) side of the

transformer can only arise through

induction of currents on the primary

(secondary) side of the transformer, zerosequence currents also cannot flow on

the secondary (primary) side of the

transformer.

23

various transformer connections.

1. Grounded Y to grounded Y.

Fig. 8

24

2. Grounded Y to Y or Y to grounded Y.

Fig. 9

Here, there is no place for zero-sequence

currents to flow on the Y side (since there is

no neutral and sum of phase currents, which

equals I0, must be 0). Therefore, there can be

no zero-sequence currents flowing on the

other side either. So I0=0 for this connection.

Y to grounded Y is the same.

25

3. -

Fig. 10

Here, zero sequence currents cannot enter or

leave either winding, although it is

possible for them to circulate within the

windings.

26

4. Grounded Y to or to grounded Y

27

sequence currents can flow out of the

grounded Y side, which means they also

must be able to flow within but not out of

the .

We also observe that

-30 phase shift occurs from low side to

high side for positive sequence quantities

(which implies high side leads low side by

30 for positive sequence, in conformance

with industry convention)

30 phase shift occurs from low side to

high side for negative sequence quantities

(which implies high side quantities lag low

side by 30 for negative sequence, in

conformance with industry convention).

28

5.

Y- or -Y.

Fig. 13: Y to

29

Fig. 14: to Y

Observe that Figs. 13 and 14 are exactly like

Figs. 11 and 12 in the positive and negative

sequence circuits. The only difference in the

zero-sequence circuit, where we see that, in

Figs. 13 and 14, not only can zero-sequence

currents not pass through (which is the case

in Figs. 11 and 12) but they cannot flow at

all.

20.5.4 Generators

30

distributed generation, so that all current

sources are upstream from the distribution

substation, the generation sequence circuits

are captured within the Z-bus, and so in such

cases, there is no real reason for distribution

analysis to deal with generation sequence

modeling.

But of course, if there is distributed

generation connected at the distribution

level, then we must deal with generation

sequence modeling.

We will assume for the sake of time that we

have no distributed generation modeled on

our distribution feeder, and so we will skip

discussion of quantities to use for generator

zero, positive, and negative sequence

impedances. (This subject, made interesting

by the fact that, unlike transformers and

lines, generators are rotating devices and

therefore positive sequence and negative

sequence quantities are different, is

31

analysis textbooks).

One issue, however, is that because

generators produce balanced positive

sequence voltages, generators produce no

negative or zero sequence voltages.

Therefore, we only model a voltage source

in the positive sequence circuit.

zero sequence circuits using our Z-bus

driving point impedances corresponding to

the transmission side of the distribution bus.

The positive and negative sequence

impedances are assumed equal, implying we

assume non-rotating devices (transformers

and lines) negative sequence impedance

dominates that of the rotating devices.

32

the transmission network are given in Fig.

15.

When working in per-unit (as we have been

assuming throughout this discussion), the

positive sequence source voltage is typically

assumed to be Ean=1.0. Although it actually

may be something a little different than 1.0,

the influence on final short circuit currents

calculated is negligible.

33

Fig. 15

20.6 Obtaining Thevenin equivalent

The first thing to do is to draw all three

sequence networks of the system to be

analyzed, using information from the oneline diagram together with the component

sequence models provided in Figs. 5-15.

Then identify the fault location in each of

the three sequence networks.

Then, for each of the three sequence

networks,

determine

the

Thevenin

equivalent of the upstream portion of the

network as seen from the fault location.

Recall we

Obtain the Thevenin impedance by idling

all sources (short constant voltage sources

and open constant current sources) and

34

network from the desired location, and

Obtain the Thevenin voltage by computing

the voltage at the open-circuited terminals

for the desired location.

Example:

Consider the substation of Fig. 16.

Fig. 16

The transformer is -Y grounded with rated

line-to-line ratio of 69 kV/12.47 kV and

power rating of 5 MVA. The transformer

35

its own base. The source reactance is 7.935

. Determine the positive, negative, and

zero-sequence Thevenin equivalents as seen

from Bus 2, on a 1 MVA base.

Solution:

The high-side impedance base is

ZB

69000 2

1E 6

4761

impedance is

X S1

7.935

0.0017

4761

source reactance is the same.

The transformer reactance is 0.065 pu but it

is on a 5 MVA base. We need it on a 1 MVA

base. Therefore:

X T 1 0.065

1

0.0013

5

drawn on the left-hand side of Fig. 17. Note

we have omitted the phase shifts for the -Y

transformer because we are only analyzing

36

currents on the high side, we would need to

account for phase shifts in the positive and

negative sequence networks.

is where we want to find the Thevenin

equivalents looking upstream (and so the

downstream network will not affect it).

The Thevenin equivalents, pictured on the

right of Fig. 17, are very easy to obtain,

which is typical for distribution networks.

37

Fig. 17

We will develop connections between the

sequence networks for each fault type and

apply them to our example.

20.7.1 Three-phase fault

38

connected to each other and to ground. It is a

symmetrical one; even with the fault, the

network is still symmetric.

To analyze it, we denote fault currents in

phases a, b, and c as Iaf/_0, Iaf/_-120,

Iaf/_120. Then the 012 currents are

computed as

1

I 012 A I abc

1 1

1

1 a

3

1 a 2

1 1

1

1 a

3

1 a 2

1 Ia

a 2 I b

a I c

1 I af 0

0

2

a I af 120 I af

0

a I af 120

initially. Only positive sequence currents

flow for a 3-phase (symmetric) fault!

So we use only positive-sequence network

to analyze this fault. Fig. 18 shows the

network corresponding to a 3-phase fault.

39

Fig. 18

From Figure 18, we compute:

I 1fa

1.0

68.03 pu

0.0147

And of course,

I 0fa I 2fa 0

I fa

I 0fa

1 1

2

I fb A I 1 a

I fc

I

1 a

68.03

68.03 120

68.03120

1

fa

2

fa

1 0

a 68.03

a 2 0

To get this in amperes, obtain the current

base on the low side of the transformer:

Ib

Sb 3

3VLLb

1E 6

3 (12.47 E 3)

46.3

Conclusion: Analysis of a 3-phase fault

involves shorting the associated positive

sequence Thevenin network and computing

associated positive sequence current.

40

A single phase fault has one phase

connected to ground. It is also called a

single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault.

To analyze a SLG fault, denote fault currents

in phases a, b, and c as Iaf, 0, and 0. Then the

012 currents are computed as

1

I 012 A I abc

1 1

1

1 a

3

2

1 a

1 1

1

1 a

3

1 a 2

1 Ia

a 2 I b

a I c

I af

1 I af

1

2

a 0 I af

3

I af

a 0

in all three sequence networks! The circuit

connection for which this is true is a series

connection of the positive, negative, and

zero-sequence circuits.

We show the connected sequence circuits for

our example in Fig. 19.

41

Fig. 19

From Figure 19, we compute:

I 1fa I 2fa I 0fa

1.0

23.58 pu

0.0147 0.0147 0.013

I fa

I 0fa

1 1

2

I fb A I 1 a

I fc

I

1 a

70.74

0

0

1

fa

2

fa

1 23.58

a 23.58

a 2 23.58

Recalling that the base current on the

secondary side is 46.3A, the a-phase current

for a SLG fault at bus 2 is

70.74(46.3)=3275.3A.

42

A line-to-line fault has one phase connected

to another. Assuming phase b is connected to

phase c, we will have Iaf=0, Icf=- Ibf.

To analyze a SLG fault, denote fault currents

in phases a, b, and c as Iaf, 0, and 0. Then the

012 currents are computed as

1

I 012 A I abc

1 1

1

1 a

3

1 a 2

1 1

1

1 a

3

1 a 2

1

a 2

a

1

a 2

Ia

I

b

a I c

0

0

1

I bf

3 I bf 90

3

3 I bf 90

I bf

dead, but positive and negative sequence

currents are equal in magnitude but opposite

in dissection! The circuit connection for

which this is true is one where the positive

sequence terminals are directly connected to

the negative sequence terminals.

43

our example in Fig. 20.

Fig. 19

From Figure 19, we compute:

I 1fa I 2fa

1.0

34.01 pu

0.0147 0.0147

I fa

I 0fa 1 1

1

2

I fb A I fa 1 a

I fc

I 2fa 1 a

3 ( 34.01)90

3 ( 34.01) 90

1

a

a 2

0

34.01

34.01

0

58.91

58.91

Recalling that the base current on the

secondary side is 46.3A, the a-phase current

for a SLG fault at bus 2 is

58.91(46.3)=2727.5A.

44

References

[1] McGraw-Edison Power Systems,

Distribution system protection manual.

[2] T. Short, Electric power distribution

handbook, CRC press, 2004.

[3] T. Gonen, Electric Power Distribution

System Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1986.

45

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