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HangerSizing

DavidDiehl

CAESAR II
Hanger Sizing Algorithm in
CAESAR II

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Variable Supports
Why are they required?
A spring support can carry deadweight load
through some vertical travel.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Selection Procedure
1: Collect Data

Calculate the balancing load at the specified


locations
This load will remove all pipe sag due to weight
This will be the design load for the operating position
(the operating load)
(This load could also be chosen as the installed load.)

Calculate the required (vertical) travel at each


location

Determine the vertical travel to the operating position


but excluding weight sag
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Selection Procedure
1: How the Data is Collected

Calculate the balancing load at the specified


locations
Run a weight analysis with a rigid +Y restraint at each
hanger design location. [Assume up is +Y.]
The +Y restraint load is the balancing load.

Calculate the required (vertical) travel at each


location
Replace the added +Y support with vertical (up) force
equal to the balancing load. Run an operating
analysis.
Collect the vertical travel. Remove the added forces.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Selection Procedure
2: Find the Right Hanger
What hanger can
carry 600 lbf after
traveling up 1/3
inch?
Locate operating
load
Find relative spring
position
Move back to
installed position
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Selection Procedure
3: Check Load Variation
Load Variation is defined as the change in load
as a percentage of the operating load.
Oftentimes limited to 25%
Here:

Change in load is about 100 lbf


Operating load is 600 lbf
Load Variation is 16%

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Selection Procedure
4: Identify the Hanger

What hanger can


carry 600 lbf after
traveling up 1/3 inch?
Size 8
Short range spring
Spring rate =
300 lbf/in
Operating load =
600 lbf
Change = 300*1/3
Installed load = 700 lbf
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Post Selection
5: Include Selection in the Model
The program may select a rigid restraint, a
spring support or a constant effort support.
Selected supports are added to the model
for all piping system analyses

Rigid restraints are represented as a rigid vertical


restraint
Springs are represented as a flexible vertical
restraint (k=selected spring stiffness) AND a
preload (equal to the calculated installed load).
Constant effort supports are represented as an
upward force and are listed in Restraint Reports.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Its that Simple

Now, how do you get CAESAR II to do that?

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CAESAR II Hanger Input Data

There are four locations where different portions


of hanger selection data can be specified

CAESAR II Configuration Settings

Piping Input Hanger Design Control Data

Sets general control and initial setting values for the current
job

Piping Input Hanger Data (Checkbox)

Controls the current data folder in setting initial values

Sets selection parameters / specifies existing spring for the


job

Load Case Setup Load Case Options

Establishes how hangers are treated in each load case


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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

CAESAR II Hanger Input Data

There are four locations where different portions


of hanger selection data can be specified

CAESAR II Configuration Settings

Controls the current data folder in setting initial values

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Data Folder
Configuration Settings (1/3)

Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness

Default Spring Hanger Table

1E12 by default; just like rigid stiffness


We currently reference 33 tables

Hangers & Hanger CNode display


(plot colors)

Suggest using different color for hangers


with CNodes (to identify different boundary
conditions)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Data Folder
Configuration Settings (2/3)

Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness


Used to match simpler, hand calculations (ignore
stiffness and apply only hot load)
NOT RECOMMENDED

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Data Folder
Configuration Settings (3/3)

Include Spring Hanger Stiffness in Hanger OPE


Travel Cases

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Data Folder
Configuration Settings (3/3)

Include Spring Hanger Stiffness in Hanger OPE


Travel Cases
This can reduce the travel demand on the hanger
Sets Hanger Stiffness for Operating for Hanger
Travel to As Designed (instead of Ignore)

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Data Folder
Configuration Settings (3/3)

Include Spring Hanger Stiffness in Hanger OPE


Travel Cases
Renames Theoretical Cold Load as Field Installed
Load
Be careful. Confirm.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

CAESAR II Hanger Input Data

There are four locations where different portions


of hanger selection data can be specified

CAESAR II Configuration Settings

Controls the current data folder in setting initial values

Piping Input Hanger Design Control Data

Sets general control and initial setting values for the current
job

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Piping Input Specific


Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

Specific Settings found only here:


Number of Hanger
Design Operating
Load Cases
Multiple Load Case
Design Options
Calculate Actual
Cold Loads

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input Specific


Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

Number of Hanger Design Operating Load


Cases
Specifies the number of load cases to be considered
when designing spring hangers. This value may be
between 1 and 9 and corresponds to the number of
thermal load cases to be used in hanger design. If
more than one operating case is to be considered in
the hanger design then you must also select the
Multiple Load Case Design Option to use.
This entry will control the number of analyses
required to select the hangers.

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Piping Input Specific


Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

Multiple Load Case Design Options


Whenever more than one thermal load case is used
in the hanger sizing algorithm, CAESAR II must know
how you want to weigh the results from the different
cases.
As thermal strain can affect support loads, both the
hangers operating load and deflection can change.
A two-pump installation where only one pump
operates at a time is a good application for multiple
load case hanger design.
This option can be (re)set as part of the individual
hanger specification

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input Specific


Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

Multiple Load Case Design Options (13 in all)


Design based on a single Load Case (#1 - #9)
Design for the maximum operating load
Design for maximum travel
Design for the average load and the average travel
Design for the maximum load and the maximum
travel

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Piping Input Specific


Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

For example:
Operating Case 1 (LC1)

Operating Case 2 (LC2)

Design
for LC1
Design
for LC2

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input Specific


Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

Here, set the Hanger


Design Control Data:
Number of Hanger Design
Operating Load Cases = 2
Multiple Load Case
Design Options =
Operating Case 1
In model input, reset the
right spring:
Multiple Load Case
Design Option =
Operating Case 2

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Piping Input Specific


Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

Calculate Actual Cold Loads


Indicates that CAESAR II makes one additional
analysis after hanger selection is complete and the
supports are included in the model. This analysis will
determine the actual installed loads that should be
used when the hangers are first activated (unblocked).
This calculation tends to be important in the following
situations:

The stiffness of the piping system is small.


The stiffness of the hanger selected is high.
The hanger travel is large. This is usually more important in
smaller diameter piping systems that are spring supported
away from equipment nozzles.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input General


Hanger Design Control Data (2/2)

Default settings for new entries AND unspecified


settings for existing hanger locations. Entries
here do not replace existing data.

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Piping Input General


Hanger Design Control Data (2/2)

Allow Short Range Springs

Turn this switch off if you do not wish to select short


range springs

Allowable Load Variation (%)


Load Variation is defined as the change in hanger
load divided by the hot load.
Load Variation should not exceed 25% by
specification (B31.1 & MSS SP-69)
Reduce load variation near sensitive equipment (e.g.
constant effort hangers have a load variation of less
than 6%)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input General


Hanger Design Control Data (2/2)

Rigid Support Displacement Criteria

If the vertical growth at the hanger location is less


than this value, CAESAR II will select a rigid rod (a Y
restraint)

Maximum Allowed Travel Limit

If operating deflection exceeds this value, CAESAR II


will select a constant effort support

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Piping Input General


Hanger Design Control Data (2/2)

Hanger Table

Select one of the 33 manufacturers data sets

Check boxes (more later)


Extended Range go beyond the recommended
range
Cold Load size spring to balance the cold load;
useful in aligning equipment
Hot Load Centered try to select a better spring

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

CAESAR II Hanger Input Data

There are four locations where different portions


of hanger selection data can be specified

CAESAR II Configuration Settings

Piping Input Hanger Design Control Data

Controls the current data folder in setting initial values


Sets general control and initial setting values for the current
job

Piping Input Hanger Data (Checkbox)

Sets selection parameters / specifies existing spring for the


job

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Piping Input
Hanger Data
Locating a hanger

Selecting a hanger

Specifying a hanger

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Node Data (1/3)

Node / CNode
Node: You define where the support should be
located.
CNode: Think of the CNode as the other end of the
hanger (which may have vertical growth to be
included in the selection).

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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

Hanger Table
CAESAR II provides 33 hanger manufacturer catalogues
All have 3 spring sizes (e.g. short, mid & long range)
Some have a fourth (extra long) size

Hanger Manufacturers in CAESAR II


Anvil

Bergen
Power

Power Piping

NPS Industries

Lisega

Fronek

Piping
Technology

Capitol

Piping Services

Basic Engineers

Inoflex

E. Myatt

SINOPEC

BHEL

Flexider

Carpenter &
Paterson

Pipe Supports Ltd.

Witzenmann

Sarathi

Myricks

China Power

Pipe Supports USA

Quality Pipe
Supports

PiHASA

PSSI GmbH

Seonghwa

Mitsubishi

Binder

Gradior

NHK

Yamashita

Sanwa Tekki

Techno
Industrie

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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

Three check boxes can be used in combination


Extended Range
Historically, manufacturers assume the calculated
weights are incorrect. Accordingly, they design away
from the top and bottom of travel to allow proper field
adjustment. CAESAR II will permit design based on total
available hanger travel.
Cold Load
This switch will select a spring which balances the dead
load in the installed (rather than operating) position.
Useful in aligning equipment.
Hot Load Centered
If the next size larger spring operates closer to the center
of total travel, it a more dependable spring will be
selected .

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

Available Space
Specifies the amount of room above or below the pipe where
you can install the hanger or can. If the value is negative,
then CAESAR II assumes that a can is to be installed.
CAESAR II will select the spring only if its basic hanger/can
length is below the entered value.
No space provided for hardware.

CAESAR II
CAESAR II
value for
cans

CAESAR II
value for
hangers

true

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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

Allowable Load Variation

Rigid Support Displacement Criteria

The general default value (specified in general Hanger


Control Data) can be modified here; as near pumps
Often used on flexible, horizontal runs away from risers, this
setting will select a rigid rod if the vertical growth at the
hanger node is less than the entered value

Max. Allowed Travel Limit

CAESAR II will select a constant effort support if no spring


can be properly sized. This switch will force a constant
support selection if the vertical growth at the hanger node
exceeds the entered value

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

No. Hangers at Location


Specify where a single hanger is not practical, e.g. on risers
where two or more hangers would be required
Note that CAESAR II will divide the total design load to be
carried between this count

Allow Short Range Springs

A local switch for controlling use of (more expensive or less


available) short range springs

Operating Load (Total at Location)

Usually specified after reviewing initial results, this entry


overrides the calculated design (typically, operating) load for
the hanger. Useful in fine tuning supports around sensitive
equipment
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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

Hanger Hardware Weight


Hardware weight between the pipe and spring (e.g. long rods
on light springs) may alter the installed and operating spring
loads
The entered value will be added to the design load but it will
not appear in the programs restraint listings

Multiple Load Case Design Option


Discussed earlier, use this option when the piping must
operate at more than one operating condition.
Specify a specific operating case (e.g. Operating Case #1),
or use average/maximum values for travel/load based on the
number of hanger design operating load cases.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

Free Restraint at Node (2 entries allowed)


The initial weight analysis will distribute load to each boundary
condition based on system stiffness
The purpose of selecting a spring may be to unload a system
boundary. For example, a support at the top of a riser off a
pump should carry most of the riser weight with little load on
the pump below.
Restraints for this initial weight analysis can be excluded for
this load case only to relocate load to the hangers
Displacement sets are treated as restraints here.

Free Code (used with Free Restraint at Node, above)


Indicate the direction of freedom (up, up & X, up & other
horizontal, all translation, all 6 DOF).
Up is suggested and only when hanger is above this restraint.

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Piping Input
Predefined Hanger Data (3/3)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Predefined Hanger Data (3/3)

Used to specify an existing support

Spring Rate AND Theoretical Cold (Installation) Load

A calculated value, Theoretical Cold Load =


operating load + (pipe growth times)*(spring stiffness)

-or Constant Effort Support Load

Unlike an applied load (e.g. F1), this support load is treated


as a sustained load component and included in the restraint
table output.

Note that if a Theoretical Cold Load is not entered,


CAESAR II will select a new spring but first attempt to
use the existing spring with recalculated loads
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Hanger Display
Whether entered explicitly or specified for
design, CAESAR II shows these hangers in the
plot.
If Available Space is negative, a different
symbol will be displayed.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Required Analyses
for Hanger Sizing

With hanger selection indicated, CAESAR II will


display a note during error check stating the load
cases required for Hanger Selection:

Note the extra case if


Actual Installed Loads
are requested
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CAESAR II Hanger Input Data

There are four locations where different portions


of hanger selection data can be specified

CAESAR II Configuration Settings

Piping Input Hanger Design Control Data

Sets general control and initial setting values for the current
job

Piping Input Hanger Data (Checkbox)

Controls the current data folder in setting initial values

Sets selection parameters / specifies existing spring for the


job

Load Case Setup Load Case Options

Establishes how hangers are treated in each load case


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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Load Case Setup


Load Case Editor

Note
StressType

Recommended Load Cases


Estimate hanger operating load L1
Estimate hanger travel L2
Select supports and preloads from a catalog
Calculate actual installed loads (if requested) L3
Run additional load cases with selected supports and
preloads L4+
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Load Case Setup


Load Case Options

Output Status
General results for Load Cases with Stress Type of
HGR are suppressed
As these results do not include the selected hangers,
it is unwise to activate their display (i.e. Keep)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Load Case Setup


Load Case Options

Hanger Stiffness (Rigid, Ignore, As Designed)


The initial weight case includes rigid +Y restraints.
The operating travel for the spring (L2) has no
stiffness for the hangers. Deadweight sag is
eliminated by including the calculated (up) force from
L1.

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Load Case Setup


Multiple Hanger Design Cases

Similar action when there are multiple operating


cases for hanger sizing. Here, two operating
cases are defined:
Error Check:

Load Case Editor:

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

CAESAR II Hanger Output

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CAESAR II Hanger Results

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

CAESAR II Hanger Results

Hanger Table:

Hanger Table
with Text:

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Output (1/3)

Hanger Table or Hanger Table W/ Text


4. Back-calculated
installed load = Hot Load
+ (k*vertical move.)

1. Calculated in initial
weight analysis
5. A single Anvil
Figure 82 (short)
size 7 spring
selected at node 68.

3. Heres the spring


rate that works

2. Calculated in initial
operating analysis

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Output (1/3)

Hanger Table or Hanger Table W/ Text

8. Check horizontal
displacement for rod
swing

7. The actual installed


load was not calculated

6. Load
Variation shows the
change in load as a
percentage of the
design load

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Output (3/3)

Hanger Table with Text

Identifies other useful data:

9. Spring size

10. Minimum &


Maximum Spring Loads
are used to check
spring position

11. Clearance
required for
hanger/can body
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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Verify Programs Selection

You must confirm the spring selection

Hanger Report:

Is the spring working near its load limits?

Restraint (Summary) Report:


Is the spring carrying a proper load near equipment?
What is the overall maximum & minimum load? (CAESAR II
does not bottom out or lift off, automatically.)

Displacement Report:

Is there too much horizontal deflection?

Perhaps you can do better.


Dont say CAESAR II told me to buy that spring

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Verify Programs Selection

Is the spring doing its job? Input:

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Verify Programs Selection

Is the spring doing its job? Results:

No, a bigger spring would pull more load off the pump!

Spring:
Anvil Fig. 82
Size 6
Hot Load=390
k=168

Hanger
load

Pump load
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Verify Programs Selection

Is the spring doing its job? Fix:

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Verify Programs Selection

Is the spring doing its job? Results:

Much better!

Spring:
Anvil Fig. 82
Size 7
Hot Load=558
k=224

Hanger
load

Pump load
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Verify Programs Selection

Is the spring doing its job? Fine Tuning:


Pump load
ranges from
+41 (cold) to
-124 (hot)
If spring carries
an additional
42, pump is
+83 (cold) to

-82 (hot)
New hot spring
load = 558+42

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Verify Programs Selection

Is the spring doing its job? Results:

Specified
HGR Load

Same spring, different set load


Balanced
Pump Load

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Odds & Ends

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Zero Load

Review hanger
locations when
CAESAR II notes
that hangers are
not carrying
weight.

During Solution

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Zero Load

Review hanger
locations when
CAESAR II notes
that hangers are
not carrying
weight.
In the Solver
In the Hanger
Table

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Zero Load

Investigate by replicating the weight case

10/11

20

30

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Hot Load Centered


Many designers prefer that the hot load be as
close as possible to the middle of the spring
table. This provides as much variability as
possible in both directions.
The CAESAR II design algorithm will move to a
higher size spring if the design load is closer to
the middle of the larger spring's range.
CAESAR II attempts to move the hot load to the
next higher spring (of the same type) when it is
within 10% of the maximum travel range for the
spring.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Hot Load Centered

Hot Load Centered Inactive

Hot Load
within 10%

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Hot Load Centered

Hot Load = 653 lbf; Vertical Growth = -0.35 in

548

653

574

10%

653

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Hot Load Centered

Hot Load Centered Active

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Two springs

Read the number!

If a single, large spring is too big to fit in the


available space, CAESAR II may select two
smaller springs.
(Also a hanger selection specification.)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Actual Cold Load

Why calculate Actual Cold Load?


A hanger designed to balance the operating load is
out of balance in the installed position. Using the
Theoretical Cold Load as the installed spring set
point may prevent easy removal of blocks to place the
hanger in service.
Field adjustments to set hanger cold position to this
Theoretical Cold Load may move the pipe rather
than compress the spring so operating load will be
off.
Better to provide Hot Load and Actual Cold Load
when ordering the spring.

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Actual Cold Load

Variation between Theoretical Cold Load &


Actual Cold Load is caused by:
Relative stiffness between piping system and the
spring
Large load variation with a flexible line
Available dead load when springs are unblocked (e.g.
adjusting a spring to carry fluid weight while the pipe
is empty)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Actual Cold Load

At times, accounting for this difference (between


actual and theoretical) cold load may reduce the
required spring travel.
Perhaps allowing the use of a shorter range spring
Try using the Include Spring Hanger Stiffness in
Hanger OPE Travel Cases switch or set the Load
Case Option.

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Actual Cold Load

Default
selection

Include spring
stiffness in
initial
operating
analysis

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Actual Cold Load

Groups of springs can cause additional issues

Here there many hangers selected for a flexible


run. The combined load differential (installed v.
operating) along with the added spring stiffness
pulls the line more than necessary. And the
selected hangers show this.
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Actual Cold Load


Default Selection

Include Stiffness
Same (Total) Loads

Different Springs!

Different Travels
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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Springs Loads Change as Pipe


Moves Vertically

One balance position with springs


Thats our design load
Default is operating (hot) but can be set to installed
(Cold Load Design)

Other positions are out of balance


Limited by Load Variation (default limit is 25%)
Usually this is acceptable

You will see this out of balance by (minor) spring


deflection in the installed (SUS) analysis

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Hanger Sizing Algorithm


in CAESAR II

Questions? Comments?

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Hanger Sizing Algorithm in


CAESAR II
Thank You

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