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destinations for South Africans – i.e. the UK and the US – staying with friends and family is the primary choice of accommodation. Over one half (56%) of South Africans stayed with relatives and friends while on holiday in the UK in 2002-2005. This means that marketing to ethnic groups such as Africans or Asians in the UK or US is just as important as marketing to families directly. As family and friends also influence the actions that their house guests participate in.

1.6.5 Experience New Cultures

Many of the emerging markets possess a distinctive culture from western society and therefore many travellers from these markets are curious to learn about and experience other cultures that are different from their own.

Traditionally, mature markets have travelled from North to South in search of warmer climates. However the new emerging markets are predominantly travelling from east to west in search of new cultural experiences.

Travel Flows

Traditional Markets

Emerging Markets

North to South

East to West

To visit a destination

To experience a destination

1.6.6 Visa Requirements

The visa requirements of emerging markets are rather strict compared to traditional markets. Travellers from traditional markets like USA, UK, Germany, France, Spain do not require visas to visit many destinations. Europeans have free mobility to other European destinations. And even when a visa is required, there is little or no hassle involved in obtaining one.

Visa restrictions limit travel flows, particularly to the US

The picture is different for emerging markets. Many are deemed to be developing countries and issues of illegal immigration, poverty and crime

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make it difficult for many developed countries to freely open their doors to these travellers. To add insult to injury, even source countries impose restrictions on their residents and citizens. This is so for China. Chinese leisure tourists are officially allowed to travel (minimum group size of five) to countries that have been granted Approved Destination Status (ADS). Visas are required for nearly all countries, but these are usually procured via the tour company. In the case of those European countries that have implemented the Schengen Agreement, a visa for one country is valid for all of them. As a result, most tours to Europe tend to stay within the Schengen region to avoid the problem of obtaining a second visa. This puts non-Schengen countries, such as the UK and Ireland (for which additional visas are required) at a disadvantage.

Obtaining visa for travel abroad continues to be a disincentive for travel to many destinations. The Government of India for instance, has bilateral agreement with 41 countries for which no visa is required for a period ranging from 30 to 90 days. However this facility is confined only to diplomatic and official passport holders.

Eastern Europeans are fortunate, as are Brazilians, who do not require visas to visit many destinations (except the USA). The easing of visa requirements will certainly help to increase travel flows from emerging markets.

1.6.7 Keen for Green?

Travellers from emerging markets are relatively new to the travel and tourism scene and, as such there are no clearly identified and anchored trends. However, there are a number of issues that tourism suppliers need to consider. Are emerging-market travellers “new tourists” or are they “old tourists” that ascribe to mass tourism? Is sustainability and responsible tourism on their minds? Do they even care about their impact on the environment or the other cultures and communities they come in contact with? These

Travel and Tourism’s Top Ten Emerging Markets

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and other questions need to be critically addressed in order to understand the psyche of these travellers. This is important for marketing plans and creating brands that are tailored to the needs of these emerging travellers.

Emerging markets are not associated with 'ethicals', or consumers demanding the greening of brands. This is a 'privilege' of developed economy consumers, satiated by consumption levels, and guilt driven to spend on greener products. Significantly, with the environment being in the forefront of globalisation, growing consumer concerns now embedded in the greener business plans of multinationals, are cascading onto emerging market turfs. This promises to open up possibilities for these consumers. Also, in emerging markets, it is the new 'affluentials' that show the most 'green potential'. It is these new 'affluentials' who are driving travel and tourism demand.

Moreover, as these travellers move around the globe they will encounter new cultures and ideologies. The green culture can therefore be learnt and even adopted by these travellers, which will then overflow onto friends and family members when they return home.

With developing countries poorer than developed ones, greener consumers and even greener companies may not be the priority for now. This will not be the case for too long though, as global warming and the degradation of the environment are gaining awareness in many emerging markets. There were Live Earth concerts in Shanghai and Rio (watched by 37% of all Brazilian households).

Stirrings rather than waves characterise the green consciousness of developing-market consumers. As in the West, where hyper consumerism is passé, wealthier, globally-networked emerging market consumers are becoming more concerned about the consequences of their own and global consumption.

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The Times of India, in a September 2007 article,

'How green is my wardrobe?' reports that eco- friendly fashion is no longer considered dull and boring among Indian consumers, but has made the leap from hippy to hip. “Buyers are willing to spend big bucks on these ranges. Most people wouldn't mind the difference in price because they'd feel they are saving the environment in some way. Organic fashion designer Deepika Govind sees sensitivity towards the environment

as a fashionable trend in itself. And one in every

two Indian managers consider greening factors to

be crucial, significantly higher than their Chinese

counterparts (26%), according to the Harris Interactive poll, 2007. This mentality is bound to

spill over into the travel and tourism industry.

A snapshot of the key characteristics of the top

emerging travel and tourism markets is illustrated

in the table overleaf.

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Snapshot – Emerging Markets Outbound Travel Profile

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Accommodation

Hotels 58%

Family/Friends 32%

Hotel 58%

Family/Friends 25%

     

Hotel 22%

Family/Friends 34%

Hotel 30% * Family/Friends 26%

   

Hotel 21% * Family/Friends 54%

 

Travel Decisions

1 week – 5% wk – 1 month – 18% – 3 months – 40% 3 months – 37%

<

>

1

1

1 week – 6% wk – 1 month – 20% – 3 months – 46% 3 months – 28%

>

<

1

1

       

< 1 week – 14% wk – 1 month – 14% – 3 months – 34%

1

1

3 months – 38%

>

 

< 1 week – 16% wk – 1 month – 23% – 3 months – 30%

1

1

Seasonality

July-Sep 30%

Jan-Mar 29%

Jul-Sep 38%

Jan-Mar 21%

Oct-Dec 23%

   

Jul-Dec 54.8%

 

Jul-Sep 39% *

 

Jul-Sep 37% *

Length of

Stay

15.4 days for leisure

 

4-7 nights (34%)

     

1-3 nights (51%)

1-3 nights 48% *

6-7 nights

1-3 nights (38%) 4-15 nights (38%) *

Travel party

Alone – 49% Group – 27%

 

Alone – 40% Group – 45%

       

Alone 52%

Group 32%

Alone 49%

Group 17%

 

Alone 49% * Group 38%

 

Internet

 

million

210 million

   

5.5 million

2.2 million

million

million

 

million

 

million

42.6

5.1

3.0

0.729

11.4

Purpose of

Visit

Holiday – 63% Business – 33% VFR – 4%

 

Holiday – 53% Business – 12% VFR – 23%

       

Holiday – 21% Business – 43% VFR – 24%

Holiday –73.3%

Business-10.3%

Other – 16.4%

Holiday –89.7%

Business-4.7%

Other – 5.6%

Holiday –44%

Business-19%

Other – 23%

Age

28-45 yrs: 48%

35-44 yrs -32%

     

25-34 yrs: 43%

25-34 yrs *

 

35-44 men

16-24 women

Country

Brazil

China

Eastern Europe

Belarus

Bulgaria

Czech Rep.

Hungary

Moldova

Poland