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Bangladesh is an energy hungry country. Power infrastructure of Bangladesh is small and

insufficient but the demand is rapidly increasing. The per capita power consumption in
Bangladesh is about 136kwh which is one of the lowest in the world but for huge population
density our power sector is in enormous pressure. In Bangladesh, electricity is the major
source of power and most of the economical activities depends on electricity.
Generation of electricity
Total electric power generation (installed) capacity of Bangladesh is 5823MW [BPDP, June
2010] and only three-fourth of which is considered to be available. The present [Feb, 2011]
effective power generation capacity per day is about 4000 MW and the demand is 5000MW.
Only 40% of our total population has the access to electricity and in rural areas it is less than
that .
Bangladesh has small reserves of oil and coal, but potentially very large natural gas resources
thats why, most of the generation plant used natural gas as fuel. Some coal, diesel, furnace
oil is also used in production of electric power. About 87% of our total electric power is
produced by natural gas, 5.75 % by furnace oil, 4.29 % by coal, 3.19 % by diesel and 3.95 %
is produced from hydro electric plant.
Electricity distribution and consumption
In Bangladesh, electricity distribution system in controlled by national grid. Total electric
power, generated from the power plants is first supplied to the national grid then to the hole
counrty through national grid. The Padma-Jamuna-Meghna river divides power distribution
sytem into two zones, East and West. The East contains nearly all of the countrys electric
generating capacity, while the West, with almost no natural resources, must import power
from the East. Electricity interconnection from the East to the West was accomplished in
1982 by a new, 230-kilovolt (kV) power transmission line. The vast majority of Bangladeshs
electricity consumption takes place in the East, with the entire region west of the Jamuna
River accounting for only 22% of the total. There are many organizations to distribute electric
power in hole country. Dhaka electric supply authority (desa), Dhaka electric supply
company (desco), dhaka power development corporation (DPDC), rural electrification board
(REB), west zone power development company limited (WZPDCL) etc.
In last few years power consumption in bangladesh is increased in such a high rate that,
inspite of increasing the power generation in a considerable amount , our power system
doesnt meet the goal and still we have a large amount of power shortage.
key problems in power sector
Load shedding and voltage variation
The state-owned Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB), which controls nearly
three-fourths of the total generation capacity in Bangladesh, has resorted to load shedding as
a means to reconcile demand to the available capacity. Load shedding is a significant
constraint on growth of the economy.
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Operating Inefficiency
The power sector does not fare well in terms of operating efficiency. For example,
Bangladesh requires considerably more employees per customer served than is the case in
many countries.
System loss
System loss occurs both for technical reasons and for reasons of inefficiency and corruption
in administration. Exact figures of loss are unknown but, at approximately 30 per cent, the net
country-wide system loss is probably among the highest in the developing world. The losses
incurred differ dramatically across the various utilities.
Unadjusted tariff structures and ineffective billing procedures
Many countries have been unable to establish tariff structures and billing procedures that
enable the power sector to be financially self-supporting. The resulting losses require
subsidies from government or donor agencies that divert revenue away from other important
programmes, such as education and public health. This problem has afflicted the Bangladesh
power sector entities to varying degrees.
Bangladesh is a developing country and most serious challenges we faces is power crisis.
What ever we forecast for demand but our calculation failed because if you produce right
now 7000 megawatt, it will fulfill with in a very short time because of many development
and industries are waiting for power. If power is available, we will see many new projects,
industries will consume immediately.
In electricity, when we save power it means we produce power. If somebody save 100 watt,
another user can use that power. Therefore energy efficiency is essential in every electric
product. All the develop world even India also have energy efficiency authority to motivate
and regulating energy efficiency policy.
Now, lets see in which sector we can reduce use of energy and some policy to motivate the
Industrial Sector
Major energy use in industrial sector and there are inductive and non inductive load. In our
country, there are no major rules or not applied properly the rules for machine use. Like many
industry using motor and sometimes those motor are not efficient at all and may be it will be
recondition or old enough to be an efficient motor. Most of the inductive load do not have
soft starter. Even in general use of water pump, there are no standard efficient level for
selecting pump. Therefore people using 2500 tk water pump and that same 1 hp pump, in
good branded one will be 7500 or higher. But people choose low price one which will destroy
power and less efficient.

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Air condition
Now on days, we are used to use of these products. It is inductive load and consumed good
amount of energy. Nobody cares to reduce the temp level or efficient products. Recently, at
the same price, many manufacture offering 50% less power but same BTU because they are
using DC motor. Therefore high tax, high electricity unit price where higher then 3-5 kilo
residential load needed. But it may not be possible due to political and public emotion
purpose. But still there are no substitutes to make energy expensive then people will careful
to use of energy.
Lighting purpose
We came to new energy saving age and using cfl bulb or tube. It will save energy sure but it
cause heavy damage in environmental. Every cfl contain mercury and emit UV. UV is
harmful for our skin and mercury is highly radioactive poison. When any bulb damage in our
room, we have to keep vacant that room and open door, windows because of mercury vapor.
After that we send it outside or sale. If it is goes to river, soil it will damage the water and its
poison circle will start. It affect drinking water, fish and we take water or fish and cause
cancer, unborn child defect, etc. Some tube light THD level also too high which decrease gird
performance. we can use LED light in this purpose. It is environmental friendly, long life
(50000 Hrs where cfl is 3000 to 5000 hrs), very less energy consume even one third
comparing cfl. As it is still expensive, we can use certified cfl and rules and regulation for
recycling cfl. Another thing is still now; customs do not have HS code or tax structure for led
light, bulb or tube. Led light must have duty/ tax free access.
BTS for mobile operator
Bangladesh has rapidly expanding mobile uses and according to that base transmission
station also need. Now, 25000 over BTS running and more 7000 or more coming within 2
years. For mobile company, energy unit rate must have different category (high). Every BTS
they use 2 pc 1 ton air conditioner which run round the clock. Now, if we calculate everyday
18 hrs air condition running this means 32.4 kilo only air condition. 32.4 times 25000 =
810000 kilo everyday 810 megawatt everyday.
Future plan
In Bangladesh ,crisis in power sector becomes one of the major problems .some recent steps
and a strong and clear forecasting is needed to overcome that problems .power sector is
always been one of the major priority for Bangladesh government . To overcome the
problems, a large and clear future plan is been taken by Bangladesh government.
Bangladesh government will increase power generation to reach their goal of load shedding
free Bangladesh , for that a large number of power new plant will be installed in next 5
Power plant in Sirajgonj
Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina recently (4th april,2011) laid foundation stone
of 150 megawatt peaking power plant at Saidabad in the district. Hasina also inaugurated
expansion works of the Saidabad-Enayetpur road and reopened the much-expected Sirajganj
National Jute Mills previously known as Qaumi Jute Mills.
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Chittagong power to get Canadian help

A Canadian company has expressed its interest in generating electricity from the domestic
waste produced by the Chittagong city people every day. CEO of Canadian Company
Technology Not Theory (TNT) Steve Smith expressed the interest to the Mayor of CCC in
meeting with the mayor recently. The project is fully environment friendly and pollution free,
Smith pointed.
Power Grid Company installing substation
The Power Grid Company of Bangladesh recently signed an agreement with German
company Siemens to install a substation that would link about 30 kilometers grid
interconnection between Bangladesh and India to import 500MW electricity from 2012.
BGMEA to set up power plant
Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA), apex body of
the readymade garment (RMG) industry, will shortly begin a technical assessment on setting
up small, area-based power plants. The BGMEA move came in response to Prime
Minister (PM) Sheikh Hasinas call recently to set up such power plants to meet industry
North West power generation company to install 810 MW power plant
North-West Power Generation Company (NWPGCO), a newly formed state-owned power
company, is set to install 810 MW power project in the northwestern part of the country to
address nagging power crisis of the area.
Bangladesh and India power transmission deal
Bangladesh and India signed a power transmission agreement for electricity to be imported to
energy-starved Bangladesh.
Initially, 250 megawatts of power would be available to Bangladesh from India, with
transmission to start in 2012.
Under the deal, state-owned Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. will invest and construct
50 miles of transmission line, which it will own, operate and maintain. PGCIL will recover
the construction costs under a fixed rate over 35 years.
While the agreement is limited to importing 500 megawatts of electricity from India, stateowned Bangladesh Power Development Board Chairman Alamgir Kabir said that more
interconnections might be built in the future with Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar to ensure
greater energy security
Bangladesh and Russia deal
In May 2011, Bangladesh and Russia signed a framework agreement for Bangladeshs first
nuclear plant, expected to produce at least 2,000 megawatts of electricity by 2020.
Bangladesh aims to have nuclear energy account for 10 percent of its total power generation
by that time.

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Government to set up coal based power plant

According to Power System Master Plan (PSMP) the government has planned to set up eight
new power plants with 4,000MW capacity by the year 2015. The government has primarily
identified 13 places to install coal based power plants and now trying to install four plants at
Khulna, Mongla, Meghnaghat and Chittagong areas, Taking into consideration the fastgrowing demand of power consumption amid scanty supply, the PSMP has also taken up a
mega-plan for producing about 20500MW additional electricity in 20 years from 2005 to
2025 by setting up 30 new plants. Bangladesh government needs US dollar six billion to
implement coal power projects to meet the increased demand of electricity in the country. Of
the plants, eight or more will be installed in the countrys north and northeastern regions
where demand for electricity is increasing at a galloping rate of seven percent, in order to
achieve this goal the development of Barapukuria and Phulbari should be more intensive.
Natural Gas
Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and
steam turbines. Most grid peaking power plants and some off-grid engine-generators use
natural gas. Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fuels, such as oil and coal, and
produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat,
burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon-dioxide than burning petroleum and
about 45% less than burning coal.
In Bangladesh natural gas is most important indigenous source of energy that accounts for
75% of the commercial energy of the country. About 89% of the electricity generated in the
country comes from gas fired power plants. Installed capacity of Electricity generation by gas
is steam-2638 MW (45.31%), Gas turbines-1466 MW (25.18%), combined cycle-1263 MW
(21.69%). So far in Bangladesh 23 gas fields have been discovered with the rate of success
ratio is 3.1:1 of which two of the gas fields are located in offshore area. Gas is produced from
17 gas fields (79 gas wells). To reduce the dependency on natural gas, alternative energy
resource must be explored. Average daily gas production capacity is about 2000 mmcfd of
which International Oil Companies (IOC) produce 1040 mmcfd and State Owned Companies
(SOC) produce 960 mmcfd. At present the daily approximate projected gas demand
throughout the country is 2500 MMCFD. The demand is increasing day by day. Energy and
Mineral Resources Division (EMRD) has already undertaken an array of short, medium, fast
track and long term plans to increase gas production to overcome prevailing gas shortage.
After completion of these plans production capacity is expected to increase to about 2353
MMCFD gas by December 2015. To increase the gas production more programs will be taken
in near future.
Oil is another source of electricity generation. Bangladesh is not a oil enriched country.
Diesel, Furnace oil (HFO) are generally used in Bangladesh to produce electricity. Here 226
MW (3.87%) electricity generates from Diesel. To meet the total demand of commercial
energy, Bangladesh imports annually about 1.3 million metric Tons of crude oil. In addition
to this, another 2.7 million metric Tons (approx) of refined petroleum products per annum is
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imported. Condensate is mixed with crude oil. Major consumer of liquid fuel is transport
sector followed by agriculture, industry and commercial sector which is mostly met by
imported liquid fuel. Eastern Refinery Limited (ERL), a subsidiary company of Bangladesh
Petroleum Corporation (BPC), is capable of processing 1.3 million metric Tons of crude oil
per year.
Oil was tested in two of the gas fields (Sylhet and Kailashtila). Crude oil, the liquid form of
hydrocarbon, has been discovered in commercial quantity only in the Haripur oil field in
Sylhet. The oil field has an estimated in-place oil reserve of about 10 million barrels, with a
recoverable reserve of about 6 million barrels. The oil field produced 0.56 million barrels of
oil in six years. Khulna Power Company Limited is one of the main oil based power station
of Bangladesh. Furnace oil is its main fuel.
Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is the energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind,
rain, tides, water, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008,
about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from
traditional Biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New
renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuels) accounted
for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewable in electricity
generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and
3% from new renewable.
Karnafuli Hydro Power Station the only hydropower plant in the country is located at kaptai,
about 50 km from the port city of chittagong. This plant was constructed in 1962 as part of
the Karnafuli Multipurpose Project, and is one of the biggest water resources development
project of Bangladesh. After being commissioned in 1962, the plant could feed the national
grid with 80 MW of electricity. In later years, the generation capacity was increased in two
phases to a total of 230 MW which is 3.95% of total generated electricity. The plant not only
plays an important role in meeting the power demand of the country but is also vital as a
flood management installation for the areas downstream. In future hydroelectricity will be a
probable sector of power generation of Bangladesh. Possibility of installing mini and micro
level hydro-electric power plant in the hilly areas of Bangladesh would be explored.
Solar Energy
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Potential
of solar energy is good in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a poor country and its a huge cost to
established a power plant. Consequently, the only option that is open to Bangladesh at the
moment is renewable energy such as solar and hydro-electric. Particularly solar energy is
sufficiently abundant in Bangladesh and can fruitfully be harnessed. But due to its higher cost
of equipment it has to go a long way to become commercially viable. However, in remote
areas of Bangladesh it is gradually becoming popular and government has undertaken lot of
scheme to subsidize on it. Presently there are about 2, 64,000 solar panels installed
throughout the country.
Now, more than 3 lakh houses (.3m) of 465 upazilla of all the districts and 16 islands are
getting the light of solar energy. The beneficiaries of this system are about 30 lacks (3m). 44
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megawatt electricity is produced everyday from the solar projects in Bangladesh. In future
Bangladesh Government wants to produce 20% of electricity from the solar energy.
Biogas may be the most promising renewable energy resource. Presently there are about
50,000 households and village-level biogas plants in place throughout the country. There is a
huge potential for expansion in rural areas.
There is prospect of producing 1,000MW electricity from Biogas and if the opportunity is
utilized the growing shortage of electricity could be solved in this power-starved country. The
government agency Infrastructure Development Company Limited sources said Bangladesh
has 215,000 poultry farms and 15,000 cattle farms. Establishing biogas plants in these farms,
electricity could be generated. So far 35,000 biogas plants have been established across the
country and these plants are producing gas, which is being used for cooking purposes in the
rural areas. At present 33 lack squire feet biogas is being produced in the country daily. The
Government agency said they got eight core tons of cow dung in 2004.With this cow dung,
30 lack biogas plants could be run. Government has a target to establishing 60,000 biogas
plants by 2012.
Wind Power
Wind power harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. 31 At the
end of 2009, worldwide wind farm capacity was 157,900 MW, representing an increase of
percent during the year. Germany, Spain, Denmark, Portugal, United States are leading wind
power producer country.
Bangladesh generates a very small amount of electricity from this sector. Windmills are with
capacity of 2 MW in operation in the coastal area of Bangladesh. The possibly of this type of
power generation is low.
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear power station use nuclear fission to generate energy by the reaction of uranium-235
inside a nuclear reactor. Now a day its one of the major sources of electricity. At present in
Bangladesh electricity generates from nuclear energy is 0%. Recently we signed an
agreement with Russia to install our first nuclear plant at Rooppur in Pabna. The construction
cost is initially being put at between US$1.5 billion and $2 billion in the final agreement The
Rooppur nuclear power plant (RNPP) will eventually generate around 2,000 megawatts
(MW) of electricity, with each of two proposed reactors having a capacity to generate 1,000
Coal as a source of energy
Coal is a valuable and plentiful natural global resource. Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest
source of energy for the generation of electricity, worldwide. Coal plays a vital role in
electricity generation worldwide. Coal-fired power plants currently fuel 41% of global
Besides natural gas, Bangladesh has significant coal reserve. Coal reserves of about 3.3
billion tons comprising 5 deposits at depths of 118-1158 meters have been discovered so far
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in the north-western part of Bangladesh. The name of these deposits are-Barapukuria,

Phulbari and Dighipara coal field in Dinajpur district, Khalashpir in Rangpur district and
Jamalganj in Joypurhat district. Out of which 4 deposits (118-509 meters) are extractable at
present. As an alternative fuel to natural gas, coal can be extensively used. The depth of
Jamalganj coal deposit is 640-1158 meter with 1053 Million Tones in-situ coal reserve where
production may not be viable by present days technology due to the depth of the deposits.
Possibilities of extraction of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) need to be explored from this coal
deposits. Government is actively reviewing law to be applicable for Exploration and
Production of Coal Bed Methane. So far, only Barapukuria coal field is under production.
Dinajpur Barapukuria coal fired power plant is our first coal based power plant which
capacity is 250MW. Then some small power plant was made. Bangladesh has a bright future
in coal based power generation if we remove the obstacle of this sector.
Coal fields of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is sleeping on coal mine bed located in the northern districts of Rangpur and
Dinajpur, while facing a mounting energy crisis and relies on natural gas as the main source
of energy, which is depleting at geometrical progression. In contrast, Bangladesh has proven
reserve of 3.0 billion tonnes of low sulphur, low ash, high caloric value bituminous coal in
five discovered coal mines Phulbari, Barapukuria, Jamalganj, Dighipara and Khalsapir.
Bangladesh has 15 tcf (trillion cubic feet) of proven reserve of natural gas; the remaining 6
tcf reserve of natural gas may run out by 2015, if no discovery is made soon. As against this,
the coal reserves in five fields of Bangladesh are estimated at 3.0 billion tonnes equivalent to
67 tcf of gas, which can conveniently serve the energy needs of Bangladesh for 50 years.
The depth of the discovered fields ranges between 119 506 metres and 150 240 metres in
Barapukuria and Phulbari respectively. The depth of the largest field at Jamalganj ranges
from 900 1000 metres. The area covered by coal fields is rather limited and is about 70
80 square kilometres. A total of 1.73 million tonnes of coal has been extracted by
underground method from Barapukuria up to December 2008. The present value of coal per
tonne in international market is for steam coal US$ 65-115, coking coal US$ 250, metallurgic
coke coal US$ 525. The total value of coal will be more than US$ 500 billion.
Barapukuria Coal Field
The Barapukuria coalfield is located at the Parbatipur Upazila of Dinajpur district, at a
distance of about 50 km southeast of Dinajpur town. The coalfield has a proved area of about
The government decided to establish an underground coal mine at Barapukuria. In 1993, the
government entered into a contract with the Chinese government for technical and financial
assistances for establishing the mine. The mine construction by the Chinese contractor started
in 1996 and was originally scheduled to be completed by 2001. But this was delayed and
finally commercial production started from September 2005.
However, the underground mining operation in Barapukuria has been facing many difficulties
from the beginning of its development stage. In 1998, a sudden water inrush flooded the mine
and forced to suspend mine development works for two years. The revised mine design
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reduced both mineable reserve and mine life. In fact, the existing geologic setup: the thick
overlying water bearing Upper Dupi Tila sequence, high jointed thick coal seam (36m) with
numerous faults and joints made the situation difficult for smooth economic operation of the
mine. The unfavorable underground mining environment with high temperature, very high
humidity, and unidentified sources of hot water, spontaneous combustion and lethal gas
emission made the situation dangerous and unhygienic for the mine workers. An incident of
spontaneous combustion and emission of poisonous carbon monoxide gas led to suspend
operation and sealing off a mining face with one of its longwall systems.
Phulbari Coal Field
The Phulbari coalfield was discovered in 1997 by BHP Minerals. The Phulbari coalfield is
located about 10 km south of the Barapukuria coal field and in the vicinity of Phulbari
township. The coalfield is conveniently located close to the new dual gauge rail line.
Subsequent to the discovery of Phulbari coalfield, BHP Minerals decided to withdraw from
Bangladesh and transferred its Contract and existing licenses to another mining company
Asia Energy Corporation (Bangladesh) Pty Ltd with the approval of the Government. In this
regard, an Assignment Agreement was signed on 11 February 1998. The pre feasibility study
carried out in 2000 confirmed the economic viability of large scale open pit mine in Phulbari
Basin. Asia Energy had undertaken a detailed feasibility study including extensive geological,
hydro geological, environmental and social studies during the period 2004-05 and established
an internationally accepted (JORC Standard) resource of 572 Mt of high quality thermal and
metallurgical coal.
The mining area in the Phulbari Basin covers an area of eight kilometers (north-south) by
three kilometers (east-west) with coal seam(s) varying between 15-70 meters thick at some
150-270 meters beneath the surface, with average combined thickness of 38 meters. The
Phulbari coal is high volatile bituminous coal. It has low ash (average 15%) and low sulfur
content (<1%) and therefore suitable for both power generation and for producing semi-soft
coking coal.
Asia Energy submitted Scheme of Development on October 2005 to the Government with a
plan to develop the Phulbari coal deposit by the open cut mining method. In 5 years three
governments failed to either approve the scheme or reject it with technical justifications. Coal
resources of Phulbari remains unexplored.
The mine is estimated to produce 15 million tonnes of coal per year over 35 years of mine
life. Asia Energy has also submitted proposal to setup up to 1000 MW mine mouth coal-fired
power plant based on Phulbari coal. In addition to coal, the open pit mining method will
allow economic extraction of other co-products like kaolin, clay, glass sand rock and
aggregate, which are in high demand.
Jamalganj Coal Field
The Jamalganj coalfield is located in Joypurhat district in the vicinity of Jamalganj town and
to the west of the north-south broad-gauge railway line. The coalfield was discovered in 1962
by the Geological Survey (of the then Pakistan) under the UN sponsored coal exploration
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program. Under the program 10 wells were drilled in the Jamaganj-Paharpur area of
Joypurhat district. Coal seams were encountered in 9 wells within depth range of 640 to 1158
meter below the surface in Permian Gondwana rocks. The 9 bore holes that penetrated the
coal seams are spread over an area having a maximum east-west distance of 12.5 km and a
north-south distance of 4.8 km. The coal field has an estimated resource of 1053 Mt
bituminous coal.
Following the discovery of the coalfield, several international consultants, were invited to
conduct mine feasibility study. These include Fried Krupp Rohstoff (1966), Polwell Daffryn
Technical Services (1969) and Robertson Research International (1976). Although rated
technically feasible, the economic feasibility of mining Jamalganj coal could not be shown
because of the unfavorable depth of coal seams. Eventually, the idea of mining coal from
Jamalganj field was abandoned when a large coal deposit was discovered at much shallower
depth of about 120 meter below the surface at Barapukuria basin in Dinajpur district.
However, developing coal bed methane (CBM) in the Jamalganj coalfield has since been
considered a potentially viable option.
Khalashpir Coal Field
Khalashpir coalfield is located in Pirganj Upazila of Rangpur district, about 13 km west of
Pirganj town. Khalashpir coalfield was discovered in 1989 by the Geological Survey of
Bangladesh. The coalfield was delineated and defined on the basis of the four drill holes done
during 1989-90. The coal was encountered at depths ranging from 257 to 482 meter below
the surface in a Gondwana basin. Occurrence of coal has been proved in an area of about 2.52
sq km and a further extension of the basin is estimated. The Khalashpir coalfield has an
estimated resource varying from 143-450 Mt.
4.1.5 Dighipara Coal Field Dighipara coalfield is located in Dighupara Upazila of Rangpur
district, Dighipara coalfield was discovered in 1995 by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh.
The coalfield was delineated and defined on the basis of the five drill holes. The coal was
encountered at depths is 327meter below the surface. The Dighipara coalfield has an
estimated resource of 200 Mt.
Coal mining methods
However, we failed to explore and exploit the natural resources to utilize these for economic
development. We have miserably failed to cope up with the increasing energy demand of the
country. We have age-old mining policy, mining act and mining regulations. We do not have
any exploration and utilization strategy of gas reserve. We are yet to have a coal policy
finalized. The Bureau of Mineral Development issued a license to BHP(Broken Hill
Proprietary Company), Australia in 1994 for exploration of Phulbari Mine. The license was
transferred to Asia Energy in 1997. Bangladesh media quoting responsible sources stated that
Asia Energy is yet to obtain mining license. However, the mining could not proceed due to
alleged lack of transparency in award of the license and unrest in the area triggered by a
motivated group of left leaning intellectuals. The agitations lead to death of 6 protesters in
police and paramilitary troops firing.Coal mining at Phulbari and other coal fields now hinges
on the Coal Policy under consideration of the government. The Coal Policy is pending for
quite some time due to disagreements on some issues, namely,

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(a) Open pit versus underground mining

(b) Social environmental impact management
(c) Royalty etc. Government engaged committee having line professionals
Selection of mining methods depend on several things geology of mine area, terrain
condition, topography, soil condition and nature, depth, thickness and nature of coal seam,
surface and subsurface soil condition.
One of the major challenges the energy sector is facing is to find out ways how to
economically exploit its substantial high quality coal reserve .The predominantly mono fuel
Natural Gas dependent power generation is in limbo. The proven gas resource is widely
believed to be exhausted in not too distant future. For confusion and panic set in by
inexperienced ill motivated theoreticians and absence of strong political commitment
government could not take decision of appropriate mining strategy to economically exploit
coal resource. The deficit is widening. The ensuing summer will witness massive load
The just installed democratic government will face serious embarrassment for failures of
incompetent last political and immediately past Care Taker Government. Of the 5 discovered
ca coal mines the Jamalgonj coal is at greater depth which cannot be mined in traditional
mining methods. Coal at Khalaspeer and Dighipara are also at relatively greater depth.
Barapukuria and Phulbari coal are at relative shallower depth. The geology makes these ideal
for open pit surface mining which is in practice in the following countries now.
Bangladesh which has limited capacity to purchase petroleum products from volatile world
oil market cannot continue to keep its fortune buried underground forever. It cannot also
remain confused triggered from myths and ill motivated propaganda of a vested group. The
disadvantage is most of our innocent people as well as policy makers do not have much
knowledge of mining. There is no scope of learning mining technology in Bangladesh also.
During Pakistan days sons of well to do persons who could not get admissions in
Ahshanullah Engineering College used to go to Lahore to study mining. This group of mining
engineers worked in Gas sector in absence of mining activities in Bangladesh. They could
neither become good miners nor good gas engineers. Rather for their control other
professionals got frustrated and many left gas sectors. Many mining engineers created
controversy in Gas Sector also. There were few outstanding mining engineers as well. But no
all of them retired. But unfortunately none of them were included in drafting coal policy.
Bangladesh let a Chinese company start underground mining at Barapukuria. Many mining
experts felt the existing geology can never make underground mining technically viable or
economically feasible there. Still a vested group of BNP government from 1991-96 allowed
to start Barapukuria mining under suppliers credit. Experts now feel that there were several
juggleries in the project approval process. It now appears that proper risk assessments of
Bapaukuria mining were not done. The possible and probable subsidence impacts were not
anticipated and no actions were foreseen to address those impacts. Now after a more that one
and a half decade of trouble tone mining with several major set backs at various stage mine
subsidence impacts are now visible which may puts future of mining uncertain.
BHP Billiton, the leading Mining Company of the world was given mining lease at Phulabri
where very thick seam bituminous coal is lying at shallow depth. At some stage of survey and
assessment it transferred lease to Asia Energy Corporation. (AEC) UK.AEC carried out
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extensive survey, carried out some exploratory drillings, completed extensive Environment
Impact Assessment studies. Then it submitted a comprehensive study to Government of
Bangladesh in January 2005 after meeting all the contractual requirements. The development
plan included surface mining methods. It included proper relocation and rehabilitation plan of
the affected people. Bangladesh was due to approve to reject the development plan within the
contractual time frame.
He engaged a so called Energy Expert to review the Phulbari mining matters. This
gentleman stepped out of his assigned responsibility and agitated the people of Phulbari over
AEC proposed open pit mining.BNP government should have done community consultations
to pacify the situation. But a very arrogant Mahmud let situation go out of control .The local
agitation led to unfortunate situation when some innocent misguided local people were killed.
The local situation was to be controlled by signing a compromise agreement by Mayor
Rajshahi and MP. This irrelevant piece of paper was signed with a legally unrecognizable
organisation. Now based on this the agitators are demanding to scrap AEC contract , banning
open pit mining etc, etc & etc. Any sensible person will realize that such an agreement has no
legal bearing in dealing with a contract signed between a sovereign government and an
international company.
Any contract includes a termination clause. It requires one party to establish default of the
other party with evidences. It also requires the party notifying default of the other party to
give them to defend its position. If Bangladesh ventures to terminate the AEC contract then
this will obviously go to arbitration. Bangladesh will invariably loose and will have to pay
huge compensation.
Open pit mining
Open pit mining as defined in open encyclopaedia states, Open pit mining, also known as
opencast mining, open cut mining, and strip mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or
minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. Open pit mines are
used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rock are found near the surfaces, that
is where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or
the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunneling .For minerals that occur deep
below the surface where overburden is thick or minerals occurs as veins in hard rock
underground mining methods extract the valuable material.
Open pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resources are exhausted, or an
increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs,
the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes.
However some form of water control is usually required to keep the mine pit from becoming
a lake.
Open Cut mines are dug on benches, which describe vertical levels of the hole. These
benches are usually on four meter to sixty meter intervals, depending on the size of the
machinery that is being used. Many quarries do not use benches, as they are usually shallow.
Most walls of the pit are generally dug on an angle less than vertical, to prevent and minimize
damage and danger from rock falls. This depends on how weathered the rocks are, and the

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type of rock, and also how many structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a
fault, shears, joints or foliations.
The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, and the flat part
of the step is known as the bench or perm. The steps in the walls help prevent rock falls
continuing down the entire face of the wall. In some instances additional ground support is
required and rock bolts, cable bolts and concrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to
relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, which is often enough to cause
failures in the wall by itself.A haul road is situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up
which trucks can drive, carrying ore and waste rock.
Waste rock is piled up at the surface, near the edge of the open cut. This is known as the
waste dump. The waste dump is also tiered and stepped, to minimize degradation. Ore which
has been processed is known as tailings, and is generally a slurry. This is pumped to a tailings
dam or settling pond, where the water evaporates. Tailings dams can often be toxic due to the
presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, and
often cyanide which is used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process.
After mining finishes, the mine area must undergo rehabilitation. Waste dumps are contoured
to flatten them out, to further stabilize them. If the ore contains sulfides it is usually covered
with a layer of clay to prevent access of rain and oxygen from the air, which can oxidize the
sulfides to produce sulfuric acid, a phenomenon known as acid mine drainage. This is then
generally covered with soil, and vegetation is planted to help consolidate the material.
Eventually this layer will erode, but it is generally hoped that the rate of leaching or acid will
be slowed by the cover such that the environment can handle the load of acid and associated
heavy metals. There are no long term studies on the success of these covers due to the
relatively short time in which large scale open pit mining has existed. It may take hundreds to
thousands of years for some waste dumps to become acid neutral and stop leaching to the
environment. The dumps are usually fenced off to prevent livestock denuding them of
vegetation. The open pit is then surrounded with a fence, to prevent access, and it generally
eventually fills up with ground water. In arid areas it may not fill due to the deep groundwater
Environmentalists in all countries oppose mining; oppose burning of coal. But nowhere they
can ride over policy makers to keep mining suspended for years when the energy security is
compromised by not adopting economic mining method as is the case in Bangladesh. In this
context it will not be out of place to discuss almost a similar situation in Malaysia a country
having almost similar geographical, geological and environmental situation like Bangladesh.
Underground Coal mining
Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an industrial process, which converts coal into
product gas. UCG is an in-situ gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using
injection of oxidants, and bringing the product gas to surface through production wells drilled
from the surface. The product gas could to be used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for
power generation. The technique can be applied to resources that are otherwise unprofitable
or technically complicated to extract by traditional mining methods and it also offers an
alternative to conventional coal mining methods for some resources.

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Underground coal gasification converts coal to gas while still in the coal seam (in-situ). Gas
is produced and extracted through wells drilled into the un-mined coal seam. Injection wells
are used to supply the oxidants (air, oxygen, or steam) to ignite and fuel the underground
combustion process. Separate production wells are used to bring the product gas to surface.
The high pressure combustion is conducted at temperature of 700900 C (1,2901,650 F),
but it may reach up to 1,500 C (2,730 F). The process decomposes coal and generates
carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (), carbon monoxide (CO) and small quantities of methane
(CH4) and hydrogen sulfide(H2S). As the coal face burns and the immediate area is depleted,
the oxidants injected are controlled by the operator As coal varies considerably in its
resistance to flow, depending on its age, composition and geological history, the natural
permeability of the coal to transport the gas is generally not adequate. For high pressure
break-up of the coal, hydro-fracturing, electric-linkage, and reverse combustion may be used
in varying degrees.
Two methods are commercially available. One uses vertical wells and a method of reverse
combustion to open internal pathways in the coal. The process was used in the Soviet Union
and was later modified by Ergo Energy. It was tested in Chinchilla site in 19982003.
Livermore developed another method that creates dedicated inseam boreholes, using drilling
and completion technology adapted from oil and gas production. It has a movable injection
point known as CRIP (controlled retraction injection point) and generally uses oxygen or
enriched air for gasification.
According to the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation the
following coal seam characteristics are most suitable for the underground coal gasification:
Depth of 100600 meters (3302,000 ft)
Thickness more than 5 meters (16 ft)
Ash content less than 60%
Minimal discontinuities
There are a number of site specific technical factors which are important to the process. Coals
with wide range of properties can be utilized, items of significance include
The geology of the coal seam must be continuous and preferably thicker than three meters.
The overburden should be more than 100m thick, relatively impermeable and with reasonable
strength above the coal seam.
The water table preferably should be within 20m or from the ground surface to provide cavity
water pressure to balance the oxidant injection pressure and limit product gas leak
While each of the above each of the above item is individually important, it is over an
appraisal of many technical aspects of the site that govern sits suitability for development.
Commercial matters like size of coal reserve and the market for the produced gas are also
critical for the development of a project at a particular site.
Bangladeshi policy makers may carry out some research on UCG .It is not very difficult to
locate the real pioneers of UCG. Whether or not UCG can be applicable in any Bangladesh
coalmine is subjected to extensive feasibility study by truly professional company of proven
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track record. It is too early to comment on suitability of Bangladeshi coal mines for UCG. Let
Government find the most appropriate company from among handful companies involved in
UCG in Australia, South Africa and Pakistan. Let there be authentic feasibility study. Minor
companies can tell stories but they can do nothing practically. UCG is a highly sophisticated
and sensitive technology. One of the early generation UCG pioneer Russian Canadian Mr
Blinderman is now living in Canada. Bangladesh must not try amateur attempt to extract
UCG from its mines as they did with Barapukuria coalmine pursuing inappropriate
underground mining. If any of our mine qualify for UCG that must be established by experts
of proven technology. But this must not bring any impediments to mining of coal from
reserves which are suitable for traditional mining.
Professionals already mentioned time and again about applicability of Strip Mining [Open
Pit] at Barapukuria and Phulbari. Many thinks a combination of Open pit and underground
mining can work in Khalaspeer and Dighipara. Unfortunately detail feasibility study could
only be carried out at Phulbari by internationally accredited consultants. . Even then policy
makers could not take decision on Phulbari after 5 years of receipt of professional mining
proposal. The in appropriate mining at Barapukuria has triggered disaster. The most suitable
mine for strip mining is an opportunity lost. Barapukuria is proved to be a failed project yet
triggered massive subsidence at very early stage of mining. It experienced all impacts of an
failed underground long wall mining .Luckily there has been not many causalities so far.
For example:
The existence of the open-pit mine, in Mukah have proven to be a blessing to the Iban
They benefitted directly from the land compensation given by the said mining company for
rights to mine on their land. Evidence can be seen from the fact that many of the long houses
locating on the Mukah Coalfield have utilised the money to upgrade their longhouses and to
purchase other necessities to enjoy comfort of modern living.Through employment received
from the said mining company , the community can supplement their shifting cultivation
income by the more consistent monthly wages earned working as mining crew. A As they are
expose to the usage of modern equipment , they are able to accelerate their assimilation into
modern world of 21st century and this will augur well for the Iban community in general
specially for the younger generation. The open cut mining project in Mukah have brought
substantial benefits to the local community and the State of Srawak, through such
contribution as Royalties to the sate for extraction of coal, a better standard of living for the
local community through direct and indirect employment and a general increase in business
for the local businesses in Mukah Division. There seems to be lot of similarities of Mukah
region of Malaysia with our Phulbari, Barapukuria region. We can definitely try to learn
lessons and try to replicate the good works. Malaysia is not very far from Bangladesh.
Government can organize sending its officials, mining professionals, environmentalists to eye
witness the mining activities, and management of social and environmental impacts of open
pit mining. It is not a rocket science. We talk about digital Bangladesh. We still do not know
what open pit mining is. Silly and ridiculous to keep our fortune buried while nation
continues to suffer from serious energy crisis

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Modern life is unimaginable without electricity. It lights houses, buildings, streets, provides
domestic and industrial heat, and powers most equipment used in homes, offices and
machinery in factories. Improving access to electricity worldwide is critical to alleviating
How is Coal Converted to Electricity
Steam coal also known as thermal coal is used in power stations to generate electricity.
Coal is first milled to a fine powder which increases the surface area and allows it to burn
more quickly. In these pulverized coal combustion (PCC) systems the powdered coal is
blown into the combustion chamber of a boiler where it is burnt at high temperature (see
diagram below). The hot gases and heat energy produced converts water in tubes lining the
boiler into steam.
The high pressure steam is passed into a turbine containing thousands of propeller-like
blades. The steam pushes these blades causing the turbine shaft to rotate at high speed. A
generator is mounted at one end of the turbine shaft and consists of carefully wound wire
coils. Electricity is generated when these are rapidly rotated in a strong magnetic field. After
passing through the turbine the steam is condensed and returned to the boiler to be heated
once again. The electricity generated is transformed into the higher voltages (up to 400,000
volts) used for economic efficient transmission via power line grids. When it nears the point
of consumption, such as our homes the electricity is transformed down to the safer 100-250
voltage systems used in the domestic market.
Electricity sector in Bangladesh
Bangladeshs energy infrastructure is quite small insufficient and poorly managed. The per
capita energy consumption in Bangladesh is one of the lowest (136 kWH) in the world.
Noncommercial energy sources such as wood, animal wastes, and crop residues are estimated
to account for over half of the countrys energy consumption. Bangladesh has small reserves
of oil and coal but very large natural gas resources. Commercial energy consumption is
mostly natural gas (around 66%) followed by oil, hydropower and coal.
Electricity is the major source of power for countrys most of the economic activities.
Bangladeshs installed electric generation capacity was 4.7 GW in 2009 only three-fourth of
which is considered to be available. Only 40% of the population has access to electricity
with a per capita availability of 136 kWh per annum. Problems in the Bangladeshs electric
power sector include corruption in administration, high system losses, delays in completion
of new plants, low plant efficiencies, erratic power supply, electricity theft, blackouts, and
shortages of funds for power plant maintenance. Overall the countrys generation plants have
been unable to meet system demand over the past decade. In generating and distributing
electricity the failure to adequately manage the load leads to extensive load shedding which
results in severe disruption in the industrial production and other economic activities. A
recent survey reveals that power outages result in a loss of industrial output worth $1 billion a
year which reduces the GDP growth by about half a percentage point in Bangladesh. A major
hurdle in efficiently delivering power is caused by the inefficient distribution system. It is
estimated that the total transmission and distribution losses in Bangladesh amount to onethird of the total generation the value of which is equal to US $247 million per year.

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Developing Thar Coal In Bangladesh

Coal is the cheapest source of energy consumed the world over playing a pivotal role in the
generation of power for the smooth operation of industries. Thar coal is said to be one of the
largest coal reserves in the world situated in Tharparkar Sindh. Coal is the most important
source used for generating electricity in most of the developed and developing countries.
The authentic statistics of the World Coal Institute, London published in 2006 say that the
share of the coal in the production of power in the United States is about 52.2 per cent while
China produces 77.5 per cent of its total electricity by using coal.
The share of coal in the production of electricity is 92.2 per cent in South Africa. Our closest
neighbor (India) meets approximately 70 per cent of its power needs through coal whereas we
are using just five per cent of our coal for energy production.
Several MoUs were signed between the past government of the PPP and multinational
exploration companies which even invested and began working on the infrastructural
development of the area but after the removal of the PPP government Mian Nawaz Sharif
scrapped those coal development projects on political grounds.
During the Musharraf regime a Chinese company was invited to invest in the project aimed at
generating 600 MW of electricity but due to unfriendly attitude of Wapda and Nepra the
Chinese company had to quit.
Now when we are facing the worst-ever energy crisis we must start developing Thar
coalfields. The Sindh Coal and Energy Board has been established under the chairmanship of
the Sindh Chief Minister which has still to show its performance. To end the energy crisis
once for all development of Thar coal is the most feasible option available.
Power Generation In Bangladesh
In November 2010 Reuters reported that the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB)
had announced the aim of generate 9,000 megawatts of electricity by 2015. The country
currently produces approximately 4,000 MW of electricity a day against peak hourly
demand of over 6,000 MW.
The BPDB called for tender bids on a number of new power plants including two coal-fired
plants. One is a 300MW coal plant to be built near Chittagong port. The tender closes at the
end of January 2011. The board has also sought tenders for a 650MW coal plant to be built
near Mawa. Both projects are proposed to be constructed on a build own and operate basis for
25 years. Reuters reported that BPDB officials stated that in the near future thwy would call
for bids for 10 new power plants to add another 4,000 megawatts of electricity to the national
Local coal for power generation
THE Power Development Board (PDB) has reportedly proposed last week to form a public
limited company to install coal-based power plants in future. According to PDB sources four
mega coal-based power plants having capacity of producing 500 megawatt of electricity each
would be established under the supervision of the proposed company by 2014. Several
companies have already expressed interest to establish the plants under Public Private
The country suffers from a serious shortage of electricity. According to sources the total
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generation comes to 3,200mw of electricity against the demand for 4,600mw. The crisis has
reached a point of seriously hampering production in mills and factories. Several power
plants are reportedly producing electricity less than their capacities. Some others have
stopped production due to short supply of gas that fuels 80 percent of power generation.
According to a projection, the country will need about 10,000mw and 14,000mw electricity
by 2015 and 2020 respectively. But except for limited reserves of gas there is only coal to
fuel power plants. So the proposal for installation of coal-based power plants is a step in the
right direction. It has been reported that PDB would use imported coal to run the proposed
plants. Bangladesh has a proven reserve of 2,086 million tons of high quality coal. According
to experts this coal is enough to generate 5,000mw of electricity for up to 90 years. It will
also save about US$500 million that the country spends annually to import coal. Petrobangla
had in June even proposed to export two lakh tons of coal from Barapukuria due to storage
problem. Then what is the reason behind the idea of using imported coal instead of the local
coal. The country should go for early extraction of its own coal resource.
New company to be set up to increase coal-based power generation
The government will form a new company styled Bangladesh Coal Power Company to set
up the planned coal-fired power plants and increase the countrys electricity generation by
using the mineral officials. The power ministry has already decided to create the company
after enlisting it with the Registrar of the Joint Stock Companies and Firms (RJSCF).
The proposed new company will boost electricity generation from coal which is abundant in
northern Bangladesh. Immediately after formation of the company it will be engaged to
facilitate setting up four coal-fired power plants to generate 2,000 megawatts (mw) of
electricity each having generation capacity of 500 mw. The power ministry has taken up the
program for installing four coal-fired power plants under the new concept of the private
public partnership (PPP) where the government will own only a fraction of its shares for
offering land and infrastructure. It will require around US$ 3.0 billion (Tk 210 billion) for
setting up these coal plants. When contacted Chairman of Bangladesh Power Development
Board (BPDB) ASM Alamgir Kabir said the board is now working on the formation of the
new company to augment electricity generation from the coal-fired power plants.
The company will be constituted with the efficient people where some BPDB officials will
also get appointment. The BPDB has already initiated the groundbreaking work and is now
selecting sites for setting up the plants. It has primarily selected Karnaphuli river bank in
Chittagong near Mongla seaport in Khulna, Jazira on the bank of Padma and at Meghnaghat
on the bank of Meghna for setting up the plants for smooth transportation of coal.
Initially the planned power plants will be run with the imported coal from the global markets
including the key exporting countries like Indonesia, Australia and India. The existing
infrastructure like drafting in waterways and expansion of railway tracks will be required for
efficient coal transportation, said a power ministry official. All the four proposed coal-fired
power plants along with some independent power producer (IPP) projects will be put on offer
during the road shows in three key important locations New York, London and Singapore
in December next. The major task of the proposed company will be to arrange finance
necessary coal supply and develop required infrastructure. Despite having enormous coal
reserves of around 3.0 billion tones in five different mines the countrys coal-fired power
generation is limited to only one plant at Barapukuria having the generation capacity of 250
mw. Even the Barapukuria plant is struggling to generate electricity to half of its installed
capacity. The country is waiting for adoption of a national coal policy to start coal extraction
from the mineral-rich northern region. The countrys overall electricity generation is now
hovering around 3,800mw against the peak hour demand for over 5,500mw.

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Bangladesh seeks bids for 300 MW coal-fired plant

Bangladesh has invited bids for a 300-megawatt coal-fired power plant to be set up on a
build, own and operate basis (BOO) for 25 years. The tender for the plant to be built near the
countrys main Chittagong port 300 km (188 miles) southeast of the capital will close on Jan.
31, next year. The bids have been invited as part of a government initiative to generate 9,000
MW of electricity by 2015.The BPDB is the regulator for power generation and distribution
in the country where the gap between demand and generation has been growing.
Bids for a short-list of viable firms have also been invited for another 650 MW coal-fired
plant to be set up at Mawa 50 km (31 miles) east of the capital, Dhaka also on a BOO basis
and for 25 years. The bids for the short-list will close on Dec. 30.Energy-starved Bangladesh
which faces a deficit of 2,000 MW of power aims to set up a number of power plants to cover
the shortfall as quick as possible. BPDB awarded a $114 deal to a Chinese firm China
National Machinery Import and Export Corporation to set up a 150 MW power plant in
northern Sirajganj by May 2012. BPDB in the recent months signed deals with several
foreign and local firms to set up plants or to buy electricity from their rental plants. Britains
Aggreko PLC and seven other local firms were given deals to supply some 870 megawatts of
power to the national grid for five years starting later this year. Aggreko has already started
generating 200 MW from two fuel oil-fired rented generator from August at $0.21 per
kilowatt-hour. The British firm also won another deal last month to supply more 150 MW to
the Bangladesh national grid from its two small gas-fired plant from February for three years
at $0.07 per kilowatt-hour. Bangladesh will soon seek bids for 10 new power plants to add
another 4,000 megawatts of electricity to the national grid.
US firms keen to invest in coal sector
American companies are keen to invest in Bangladeshs coal sector. The US envoy apprised
him that American energy companies are interested to help Bangladesh in developing energy
sector. They particularly want to invest in coal mining after finalization of the coal policy by
Moriarty noted that the United States would provide necessary assistance for the victims if
Bangladesh side seek any help.A number of US companies including oil major Chevron have
been operating in the countrys energy and power sector. But this is the first time it was
learned that US energy companies are also interested in the coal mines.
Bangladesh has about five coal mines in the countrys northern region, having a total coal
deposit of 2.5 billion tons.
Coal In Electrical Power System
World coal fired power plant capacity will grow from 1,759,000 MW in 2010 to 2,384,000
MW in 2020.Some 80,000 MW will be replaced.So there will be 705,000 MW of new coal
fired boilers sales will average 70,000 MW. Coal fired power plants generate approximately
56% of the U.S electricity.A healthy economy requires the effective utilization of the existing
infrastructure as new technologies are introduced.Coal plays a vital role in electricity
generation worldwide.Coal fired power plant currently fuel 41% of global electricity.In some
countries coal fuels a higher percentage of electricity.Germany is one of the major nation who
converts coal in electricity generation.In 2008 the gross electric power generation in
Germany totalled 639 billion KWH.A major proportion of the electricity supply is based on

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lignite (23.5%), nuclear energy (23.3%) and hard coal (20.1%).Natural gas has a share of
13% renewables (wind,water,biomass) account for 15.1%.
Coal In Electricity Generation Outside Bangladesh
Name Of The Country

Total Generation

South Africa 93%

Australia 77%

USA 49%

India 69%

Germany 46%

Kogan creek power station of Australia has a capacity of 7636 MW and it produces 2.46% of
electricity.Hassyan power station of Arab Emirates has a capacity of 9000 MW and it
produces 1.35% of electricity.Altbach power station of Germany has a capacity of 1200 MW
and it produces 0.18% of electricity.Cottam power station of United Kingdom has a capacity
of 2000 MW and it produces 3.5% of electricity.
Improvements continue to be made in conventional power station design and new combustion
technologies are being developed.These allow more electricity to be produced from less coal
known as improving the thermal efficiency of the electrical power station.Coal will continue
to be a valued resource with over 100 GW of new coal plants projected by 2020.Advanced
technology is required to meet economic and environmental goals.It also maintaining
diversity manufacturing capabilities also mention environmental goals as its security concern.
Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors For Coal Across The World
Coal is an important source of energy across the world and the whole world depends on this
fossil fuel for electricity generation is growing.The combustion of coal also adds a significant
amount of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere per unit of heat energy.In modern days a
growing concern over the possible consequences of global warming which may be caused in
part by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (a major greenhouse gas) and also because of
the need for accurate estimates of carbon dioxide emissions .The Energy Information
Administration (EIA) has a developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide
emitted as a result of coal consumption. EIAs emission factors will improve the accuracy of
estimates of carbon dioxide emissions because they reflect the difference in the ratio of
carbon to heat content by rank of coal and state of origin.
Two types of carbon dioxide emission factors have been developed. First are basic emission
factors covering the various coal ranks by State of origin. These basic emission factors are
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considered as fixed for the foreseeable future until better data become available. Second are
emission factors for use in estimating carbon dioxide emissions from coal consumption by
State with consuming-sector detail. These emission factors are based on the mix of coal
consumed and the basic emission factors by coal rank and State of origin. These emission
factors are subject to change over time, reflecting changes in the mix of coal consumed.
EIAs emission factors will not only enable coal-generated carbon dioxide emissions to be
estimated more accurately than before but they will also provide consistency in estimates.
Energy and environmental analysts will find EIAs emission factors useful for analyzing and
monitoring carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion, whether they are estimated by
the State of origin of the coal, consuming State, or consuming sector.
West of the Mississippi River the emission factors for bituminous coal range from more than
201 pounds of carbon dioxide per million Btu in Missouri, Iowa, and Nevada to more than
209 in Arizona, Arkansas, and Montana. About 16 percent of the 1992 coal output west of the
Mississippi was bituminous coal with production chiefly from Utah, Arizona, Colorado and
New Mexico.
Sub bituminous coal is the predominant rank of coal produced west of the Mississippi River
accounting for 62 percent of the regions total coal output in 1992. Sub bituminous coal in
Wyomings Powder River Basin the principal source of this rank of coal, has an emission
factor of 212.7 pounds of carbon dioxide per million Btu. This is the same as for sub
bituminous coal in Colorado, but slightly below that in Montana. The lowest emission factor
for sub bituminous coal is in Utah (207.1) and the highest is in Alaska (214.0).
Coal Costs
On the heels of President Obamas speech supporting clean coal it doesnt seem that this
energy source is leaving anytime soon. But while advocates often tout the inexpensiveness of
coal a new study reveals that the substance may be costing the U.S. up to $500 billion per
year. Harvard professor and Huffington Post contributor Paul Epstein( M.D., M.P.H.) has just
announced the release of a new study in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
entitled Full Cost Accounting For the Life Cycle Of Coal. According to Tree Hugger
Epsteins study is considered one of the first to examine the costs of coal in its entirety from
extraction to combustion. So how did Epstein reach the astronomical number of $500
billion/yr. First, public health costs. In Appalachian communities alone health care, deaths,
and injuries from coal mining and transporting cost $74 billion per year. Beyond Appalachia,
the health costs of cancer, lung disease, and respiratory illnesses related to pollutant
emissions totals $187.5 billion per year. According to Climate Progress, processing coal
releases heavy metal toxins and carcinogens which in turn may lead to long-term health
problems. The American Lung Association reports on a study finding that coal-powered
electricity caused over 13,000 premature deaths in 2010. Beyond health problems add the
cost of coals effect on land use energy consumption and food prices plus the cost of toxic
waste spills and cleanup $500 billion. The public is unfairly paying for the impacts of coal
use. Accounting for these hidden costs doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal
per kWh, making wind, solar, and other renewable very economically competitive.
According to Epstein, we must focus more on green city planning. Most importantly, We
need to phase out coal rapidly.
Tapping Coal For Clean And Low-cost electricity In Bangladesh

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Australian firm proposes to generate 400MW power from Bangladeshs unmineable coal by
2015. An Australian company with expertise in underground coal gasification (UCG)
technology has proposed to produce 400 megawatts of clean coal power from Bangladeshs
unmineable coal within five years at a very low cost.
Making a presentation to Petrobangla Mitchell Group of Australia said it could undertake a
pilot project at its own cost in the deeper part of Barapukuria coal mine or in Jamalganj.
The first phase delivery of 10 to 40 MW power from the pilot project is possible within two
years 2011-12. By 2015, the company will be able to deliver 400 MW power.
Sources present at the presentation said it is very lucrative as power generated from such a
plant will be as cheap as that produced by using gas. A part of Barapukuria is presently
unmineable by using open pit or underground mining methods as coal rests at a depth of 500
On the other hand the coal deposit in Jamalganj is by far the biggest one discovered in the
country. Jamalganj has more than one billion tones of coal. Unfortunately the deposit rests
between 600 and 1,100 metres below the surface making it inaccessible using conventional
mining methods.
The Costs of Generating Electricity
Coal plant
Pulverized fuel (PF) steam plant.
Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) plant.
Integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant.
Gas plant.
Open-cycle gas turbine (OCGT) plant.
Combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant.
Nuclear fission plant.
Biomass (poultry litter)
Bubbling fluidized-bed combustion (BFBC) plant;
Wind turbines
The cost of generating electricity, as defined within the scope of this study, is expressed in
terms of a unit cost (pence per kWh) delivered at the boundary of the power station site. This
cost value, therefore, includes the capital cost1 of the generating plant and equipment; the
cost of fuel burned (if applicable); and the cost of operating and maintaining the plant in
keeping with UK best practices. Within the study, however, the cost of generating electricity
is deemed to refer to that of providing a dependable (or firm) supply. For intermittent2
sources of generation, such as wind, an additional amount has been included for the provision
of adequate standby generation.
Hydroelectric is the most cost effective at $0.03 per kWh. Hydroelectric production is
naturally limited by the number of feasible geographic locations and the huge environmental
infringement caused by the construction of a dam. Nuclear and coal are tied at $0.04 per
kWh. This comes as a bit of a surprise because coal is typically regarded as the cheapest form
of energy production. Another surprise is that wind power ($0.08 per kWh) came in slightly
cheaper than natural gas ($0.10 per kWh). Solar power was by far the most expensive at
$0.22 per kWhand that only represents construction costs because I could not find reliable
data on production costs. Also, there is a higher degree of uncertainty in cost with wind and
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data regarding the useful life of the facilities and their capacity factors. For this analysis the
average of the data points are used in the calculations.
Extrapolation of Results

Energy Source % of Total Cost per kWh Weighted Avg Cost

Nuclear 19.7% $0.04 $0.008

Hydro 6.1% $0.03 $0.002

Coal 48.7% $0.04 $0.022

Natural Gas 21.4% $0.10 $0.022

Petroleum 1.1% $0.10 $0.001

Other Renewables 3.0% $0.15 $0.005

100% $0.059

Least-Cost Analysis of Bangladesh

About 85% of electricity in Bangladesh is produced from gas-based power plants. Coal,
Hydropower, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel are the other sources of energy for power
generation. Inadequate investment in upstream gas field development in recent years has
resulted in a shortage of gas for the industrial sector and for electricity generation. This has
constrained power generation with electricity utilities resorting to load shedding while
industrial consumers have been using captive generation facilities that require diesel. As an
immediate measure to reduce gas shortage the government has decided not to provide assured
gas supply to a number of new power projects and has asked promoters to develop these
projects on a dual fuel model (to be run on diesel or HFO).
Indicates the cost of power generation using various fuels in Bangladesh:
Fuel Source Economic Generation Cost Per Unit Tk/kWh
Gas 4.2
Coal (local) 3.7
Coal (Imported) 5.4
HFO 12.1
Diesel 25.2
Hydropower 1.4
Bangladesh has sizable coal reserves in the north-west region, currently only one coal-based
power plant is operating and it has been facing fuel shortages given constraints in coal
production. The development of domestic coalfields will take time and will require
significant investment. Imported coal-based power generally costs about Tk 5.4/kwh ($0.077)
at current coal prices. In the current situation, power imports fromIndia3 are expected to be
the most feasible least-cost way of overcoming existing power shortages in Bangladesh.
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Cost of Barapukuria Coal Mine Project

Total Cost : US$ 197million
US$: 172 million in F.C.
US$: 25 million in L.C.
Expected annual production: 1.2 million tons
Market price: US$ 90 million
Annual production cost: US$ 40.8 million
Foreign currency worth: US$ 45 million will be saved per annum
64 years will be required to extract 300 million tons of coal at the above rate
The discovery of such huge deposits of coal and hard rock is a blessing for Bangladesh and
proper development of these resources will open a new era for the country to enter the
industrial world. In the modern world the sustainable economic conditions of any nation
depend on how developed that countrys industrial is especially in the field of mineral
resources. So minerals based industries are an important factor for accelerating the economic
growth of a country. Now Bangladesh has an opportunity to build up mineral-based industries
as she has sufficient mineral resources on which industries can develop. Full-capacity
exploitation of these resources will create thousands of new jobs at the mine sites and later on
at industrial sites which will help to alleviate the countrys poverty by providing jobs. All
these together will accelerate the countrys economic development. It may be concluded that
proper development and utilization of these resources will help us to save a considerable
amount of foreign currency and will contribute a great deal to the national economy and
reshape our socio-economic infrastructure.
Merits of coal fired power plant
1. Coal is a stable energy source
2. Coal is a key source of power generation
3. High efficiency
4. Low cost
5. Low maintenance
Looking at other countries, coal makes up 50% of power generation in the USA, the largest
consumer of energy, and 80% in China, where rapid growth in energy consumption is
forecast. As coal accounts for 41% of the worlds power generation, it will continue to play a
major role for the foreseeable future.
Emissions to air
The principal emissions from burning coal are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2),
oxides of nitrogen (NOX), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and particulates (dust). Our generating
units have all been retrofitted with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) equipment which
removes at least 90% of SO2 and HCl emissions before the flue gas is released via the
chimney into the atmosphere. We maintain investment in our emissions abatement equipment
and consider this to be a high priority. Our FGD plant already complies with known future
SO2 emissions limits to 2016. In 2008 we completed a programme to retrofit all units with
low NOX technology Boosted Over Fire Air systems in order to ensure compliance with

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the NOX requirements of the Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD) which were
strengthened in 2008.
6.1.2 Discharges to water
Procedures are in place to ensure that all discharges and drainage to water are monitored and
treated where necessary to meet our discharge consent limits. There are a number of sources
of discharge and drainage as part of the electricity generation process, including the cooling
water used to cool the condensers, which as part of the steam cycle condense steam to water
after it leaves the turbines and before returning to the boilers. Cooling water is abstracted
mainly from the River Ouse and boiler feed water originates from two boreholes on site.
Approximately half of the water is returned to the River Ouse at a few degrees warmer than
the river water. The FGD process produces effluent water which is treated in a specially
designed plant before it is discharged to the river, and there is also drainage from the main
plant, coal plant and roads.
Disposals to land
When coal is burnt, ash is left as a residue. The finer particles of ash, pulverised fuel ash
(PFA,) are collected from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators; the heavier ash, furnace
bottom ash (FBA) falls to the bottom of the boiler. The majority of ash is sold to the
construction industry with the remainder sent for landfill at the power stations adjacent
Barlow Mound ash disposal site, which over time has been developed into farmland,
woodland and wetland features providing a haven to many species of wildlife and birdlife.
We pay landfill tax on the PFA disposed of to the Barlow Mound. Through the Landfill Tax
Credit Scheme, we are able to claim a tax credit against our donations to recognised
Environmental Bodies. We have worked with Groundwork Selby since 2001 on projects
designed to help mitigate the effects of landfill upon our local community.
Environmental impacts of coal power
Burning coal is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxics. In an
average year, a typical coal plant generates:
3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary human cause of global warmingas
much carbon dioxide as cutting down 161 million trees.
10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), which causes acid rain that damages forests, lakes, and
buildings, and forms small airborne particles that can penetrate deep into lungs.
500 tons of small airborne particles, which can cause chronic bronchitis, aggravated asthma,
and premature death, as well as haze obstructing visibility.
10,200 tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx), as much as would be emitted by half a million latemodel cars. NOx leads to formation of ozone (smog) which inflames the lungs, burning
through lung tissue making people more susceptible to respiratory illness.
5. 720 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), which causes headaches and place additional stress on
people with heart disease.
6. 220 tons of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC), which form ozone.
7. 170 pounds of mercury, where just 1/70th of a teaspoon deposited on a 25-acre lake can
make the fish unsafe to eat.
8. 225 pounds of arsenic, which will cause cancer in one out of 100 people who drink water

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Power Crisis has been a long clamor in Bangladesh and this seems to persist for the coming
decade or so. Beyond optimistic illusions, facts and realities are too fierce to be accepted.
Energy infrastructure of Bangladesh is quite small and insufficient but the demand is very
high. The per capita energy consumption in Bangladesh is one of the lowest (136 kWH) in
the world. Electricity is the major source of power for countrys most of the economic
activities. In our country, only 40% of the population has access to electricity because of the
shortage of our power generation and this lacking can be filled by using some coal based
power plant. From the research we have seen that the environment and transportation system
of Bangladesh is positive to establish a coal based power plant. In our country we have few
coal pits and the quality of our coal is quite rich and it can be used easily to produce
Electricity. In a coal based power plant the Major equipments are 3 units of steam generator,
3 units of steam turbine generator and other associated systems in line with specific tender
document taken as reference and as per the scope of work. Besides, fuel details, water
arrangements, layout, pollution standards, logistics planning, power evacuation arrangements,
water requirements, plant layout, pollution, logistics arrangements and land are required.
Now if we focus on our transportation system we will find that most of our transportation
route is on plain land. So if any electric power company doesnt have their own coal
manufacture plant then it can easily be transported by road, rail or water transport. Though
this transportation costs are a little expensive. Proposals have been made to build a few coal
based power plants in our country. Because of some difficulties yet it is not implemented.
Growing economies always need a proportional need for power. Considering the recent
condition of our country it may be seen that the lack of electricity has been increased day by
day. Country like Bangladesh has a required growth in power sector close to 15 %. In order to
match the accelerated need of country, there is urgent need to take the challenge to squeeze
the time and cost required to complete a coal based power project. It would be a great relief
to fund hungry power projects.

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"Key Statistics". Bangladesh Power Development Board. Retrieved 2014-11-03.
"Nasrul: Lack in electricity management caused blackout - Dhaka Tribune". Retrieved 21 September 2015.
"Nationwide blackout in Bangladesh ends - LA Times". Los Angeles Times. 2014-11-02.
Retrieved 2014-11-03.
Sunny 2011, p. 136
Randeep Ramesh, "Six killed in protests over UK mining firm in Bangladesh", The
Guardian, 29 August 2006, accessed 25 March 2013
"WikiLeaks cables: US pushed for reopening of Bangladesh coal mine", The Guardian,
21 December 2010
"Massive protest in London", BanglaNews24, 10 December 2010, accessed 25 March
Faisal Mahmud (August 20, 2011). "Experts for microgrids to ease power woes". The
Independent. Retrieved 2008-03-31.

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