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Sang-chin Yang, Ph.D., Chung-Cheng Institute of Technology

Te-wei Lin, Chung-Cheng Institute of Technology

Key Words: age preventive maintenance, block preventive maintenance, imperfect maintenance, quasi-renewal process

SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS

This research applies quasi-renewal process to develop

imperfect preventive maintenance models for aging systems.

Due to the system failure and maintenance, the aging systems

deteriorate during their life cycle and lead to decrease of

operation time and increase of maintenance time. Thus,

after failure and/or maintenance, the system operating time,

maintenance time, maintenance cost, and environmental

factors will deteriorate. Using statistical analysis, the

deteriorating parameters can be derived to facilitate the

construction of more accurate availability and maintenance

cost models. Based on the statistical analysis of failure and

maintenance data, the failure distribution and availability

models of aging systems can be constructed. Considering the

block and age preventive maintenance policies,

separately, the maintenance cost models are developed to

minimize the maintenance cost rate. Using the numerical

analysis, the optimal block or age preventive maintenance

period can be solved. Finally, the optimal preventive

maintenance policy can be obtained via the synthesis and

analysis of different maintenance policies subject to the

constraint of availability requirements. The results of this

research can be applied to different equipment in the

operational phase of the total life cycle. Collecting the field

failure and maintenance data, the methods and procedures

developed in this research can be applied to different

equipment to analyze the preventive maintenance period for

different policies to obtain the optimal preventive maintenance

policy.

1. INTRODUCTION

Traditionally the maintenance concepts assume that a

system after repair will be restored to either an as-good-asnew or as-bad-as-it-was condition. However, most

deteriorating systems after maintenance will be restored to a

condition between as-good-as-new (perfect repair) and asbad-as-it-was (minimal repair). That is, after repair a

deteriorating system will be restored and/or retained to a

condition which is better than it before failure or maintenance,

but worse than the brand new one. This type of maintenance

model is called the imperfect maintenance. Wang and Pham

(Ref. 1,2) proposed the Quasi-Renewal Process to model the

behavior of system under imperfect maintenance that after

RAMS 2005

and environmental factors will be deteriorating. The purpose

of this paper is to develop an optimization model for imperfect

preventive maintenance (PM) policy. Two of the most

commonly used preventive maintenance policies, Agedependent and Block Preventive Maintenance (APM and

BPM), are discussed and applied the quasi-renewal process to

develop the failure distribution and availability models. Then a

framework for evaluation of imperfect PM policies will be

constructed.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Maintenance Policies

Wang (Ref. 3) provided a thorough survey and review of

the maintenance policies of deteriorating systems. He

classified the maintenance policies for single-unit systems into

six categories, Age-dependent PM (APM) policy, Block

PM (BPM) policy, Failure Limit policy, Sequential PM

policy, Repair Limit policy, and Repair Number Counting

and Reference Time policy. In this research, we focus on the

APM and BPM policies and make brief review as follows.

(1) Age-dependent PM Policy

Barlow and Hunter (Ref. 4) studied age-replacement PM,

the most common and popular maintenance policy. Under this

policy, a unit is always replaced at its age T or failure,

whichever occurs first, where T is a constant. Following the

work of Barlow and Hunter (Ref. 4), Nakagawa (Ref. 5)

extended the age replacement policy that a unit is replaced at

time T or at number N of failures, whichever occurs first, and

with minimal repair at failure between replacements. Based on

the age-replacement PM, its extensions, and the concepts of

the imperfect maintenance (Pham and Wang) (Ref. 6), the

age-dependent PM policy was established. Under this type of

policy, a unit is preventively maintained at some

predetermined age T, or repaired at failure, until a perfect

maintenance, preventive or corrective, is received.

(2) Block PM Policy (or Periodic PM Policy)

Barlow and Hunter (Ref. 4) first proposed the concepts of

Block PM that a unit is replaced at predetermined fixed time

410

independent of the units failure history. As the concepts of

imperfect maintenance became more and more established,

Block PM is extended and modified to the Periodic PM

policies with lots of variations. Nakagawa (Ref. 7) have

extended the block replacement policy by replacing a unit at

times kT (k = 1, 2, ) independent of the age of the unit and

keeping a failed unit until the next planned replacement.

the preventive maintenance optimization problem for a

deteriorating system. The formulation of spare provisioning

can be found in the paper of Yang and Kuo (Ref. 9).

operating time between the (n 1)st and nth event of the

process for n 1 . Observe a sequence of non-negative r.v.s

{X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ,...}. If X1 = Z1 , X 2 = uZ 2 , X 3 = u 2 Z 3 , ,

they are most consistent with realistic maintenance situations.

Imperfect maintenance models include perfect and minimal

maintenance as two extreme cases. Pham and Wang (Ref. 6)

provided a thorough survey and review of the imperfect

maintenance models. In this research, we focus on the quasirenewal models in the application of the imperfect

maintenance.

Renewal theory provides a fundamental tool for

constructing simple maintenance models. The simplicity

comes from the i.i.d. assumption of the time between

successive events. Thus, after maintenance, the equipment is

assumed to be as-good-as-new. However, in practice, after

maintenance the lifetime of equipment will usually become

shorter while requiring longer repair times for its next

maintenance. Wang and Pham (Ref. 1, 2) defined a nonhomogenous process, called quasi-renewal process, where the

i.i.d. assumption is reduced to assume only that the successive

inter-arrival times are independent. A quasi-renewal process

models a system deteriorating or improving behavior by a

parameter taking values from the interval [0, 1) or (1,),

respectively. The quasi-renewal model is also called the (, )

model that after each maintenance the operating time will be

reduced to a fraction ( > 1) and the next repair time will

be increased to a multiple ( > 1) of the immediate

preceding operating and repair time, respectively. After the

nth quasi-renewal, the pdf of the operating time of a system

will remain in the same category as its original initial

operating time. Rehmert (Ref. 8) continued to construct quasirenewal models and derived the numerical results for the

corresponding point availability function.

2.3 Maintenance Optimization Models

The purpose of maintenance is to improve the availability

and operational readiness, reduce the failure rate, and shorten

the maintenance down time of a system. However, the more

maintenance tasks, the more cost of maintenance and supply

support will be accumulated that will lead to the increase of

total life-cycle cost. Therefore, the optimal maintenance policy

of a system must consider the maintenance cost and the

system availability simultaneously.

For a deteriorating system with imperfect maintenance,

their model seems to be unrealistic and inaccurate in

maintenance optimization as well as spares provisioning. This

can be tackled and solved by incorporated with the quasirenewal process in the problem formulation. Following the

idea, this research applied the quasi-renewal theory proposed

RAMS 2005

3. QUASI-RENEWAL THEORY

3.1 Quasi-Renewal Process

process with parameter u and the first inter-arrival time X 1 .

(Ref. 1, 2) For a quasi-renewal process, the Cdf and pdf of the

subsequent operating times can be expressed, respectively, by

the Cdf and pdf of the first operating time as:

FX n (t ) = FX 1 u ( n 1)t

and

f X n (t ) =

f X 1 u ( n 1)t

u

n 1

).

(1)

n

n

i

i =1

equivalently the expected number of quasi-renewal E[N(t)],

can be expressed in terms of the n-fold convolution of F (t )

as follows:

Q(t ) = E[N(t )] =

n(F(n) (t ) F(n+1) (t )) =

n =1

F (t )

( n)

(2)

n =1

Laplace transformation to derive the following:

F( n )* (s ) =

1 *

1 ( n )*

*

*

n 1

f (s ) = f X (s ) f X (us )... f X (u s ) .

s

s

1

(3)

substituting eq (3) into eq (2), then the quasi-renewal function

of a deteriorating system can be expressed as:

1 *

*

*

*

*

Q* (s) = L F(n) (t ) = f X1 (s ) + f X1 (s ) f X 2 (s ) f X 3 (s )... f X n (s ) (4)

n 1=1

n =1

s

f X*n (s) = f X*1 un1s = f X*1 un2us = f X*2 un3us = " = f X* j 1 (us) (5)

Q * ( s) =

1 *

f X (s ) + f X* (s )q * (us )

s

1

1

(6)

411

f X*1 (s) =

Q ( s)

sQ* (s) , or equivalently *

FX1 (s) =

*

1

+

sQ* (us)

1 + sQ (us)

(7)

4. MODEL DEVELOPMENT

Based on the results of the availability models proposed

by Rehmert (Ref. 8), we constructed the point availability

models for exponential, normal, and Gamma distributions. Let

random variables X j and Y j denote the jth operating time and

maintenance times, respectively, for j = 1, 2, , n. X j are

that H () is the convolution of F () and G () . The system

point availability is:

A(t ) = F (t ) +

F (t x )dM (x )

t

(8)

derivative mH (x ) then eq (8) can be expressed as:

t

process, then its point availability can be expressed as:

1

F (t u )h (u )du

n =1

X n +1

(10)

d

H (u ) .

du

Taking Laplace transform on both sides of eq (10), we derive

(11)

A * (s ) = (1 f X* (s )) + (1 f X* (s ))h * (s )

s

n =1

,

where h (u ) =

j

*

n

where h

(s ) =

*

n

n +1

(s )g (s ) .

*

n

C (t p ) =

Expected cycle length

expressed as:

Expected length of the interval

C p + C f N (t p )

tp

(13)

(14)

(16)

replacement probability the system survies to the planned

replacement age + cost of failure replacement probability of

equipment failure before t P :

C p R (t p ) + C f 1 R (t p )

(17)

probability of a preventive cycle + expected length of a failure

cycle probability of a failure cycle:

t p R(t p ) + tf (t )dt

tp

(18)

C R (t ) + C f [1 R (t p )]

C (t p ) = p P

t

t p R (t p ) + tf (t )dt

p

(19)

factors to modify the expected maintenance cost per unit time

C R (T ) + C f [1 R (T )]

in eq (19) and obtain C (T ) = p

(20)

T

T R (T ) + tf (t )dt

where f (t ) = L

replacement policy. Under this policy, only two types of

maintenance actions are performed. One is the preventive

replacement occurring at fixed intervals of times. The other is

the failure replacement occurring upon failure. The total

expected replacement cost per unit time, C (t p ) , can be

RAMS 2005

proposed its maintenance cost rate model. Under this policy, a

system will be preventively replaced at age t P ; or replaced

when it failed before the planned replacement age. The

expected maintenance cost per unit time is:

Thus, C (t p ) =

exponential distributed. At time t, the Lapalce transform of

system point availability is:

n

1

1 (u ) n

(12)

A* (s ) =

+

n

i 1

i 1

+ s n =1 + u s i =1 ( + u s )( + s )

C (t p ) =

per unit time in eq (14) and obtain:

C p + C f Q (T )

(15)

C (T ) =

T

where Q(T ) is the quasi-renewal function with deteriorating

factor u.

(9)

A(t ) = F X (t ) +

the expected number of replacements (or renewals) during the

interval (0, t p ] . For imperfect maintenance, we consider the

( f (s )) = L ( f (u s )) and

1

*

Xn

R (T ) = P (T > t ) =

*

X1

n 1

L1 f X* (s ) du .

n

5. CASE STUDY

In recent years the Taiwan Air Force has completed

introducing the new line of jet fighters: F-16A/BMLU, Mirage

2000-5, and IDF. In a certain squadron, a certain planes

engine with an ABNC (after burner nozzle control) that had

been used for a long time. It was discovered during routine

flying training that the engine issued a fault code signal which

caused the after burner nozzle to be disenabled. When this

failure occurred, it caused the maximum thrust to suddenly die

off or otherwise influenced operation, but the engine could

still maintain thrust and normal operation. Therefore from a

safety standpoint this failure presented no immediate

412

significant risk. The only loss was that of cost, because the

problem prevented the execution of routine training. However,

if this failure had occurred during combat and resulted in a

failed mission, human life could have been lost. There was a

vast discrepancy between the actual failure occurrence timing

and that predicted in the technical guidelines. The failure

necessitated corrective maintenance, adversely affected

squadron availability rate, and raised the cost of continued

operation. When consulted, the supplier conducted a failure

investigation and offered an engineering change plan.

However, the changes called for would demand great

expenditure of money and time and involve risk. We collect

the failure data of ABNC from January 1st 1998 to December

31st 2003 with 528 observations. We solve the optimal PM

policy problem by the following procedure.

(1) Fitting general distributions to the ith operating times

{X i } and the ith repair times {Yi } to estimate the scale

1

(21)

f X* (s ) = L{f X (t )} =

1

0.0035

0.0035 + s

(22)

0.0035

0.0035 + 0.6235 n1 s

(23)

f X* (s ) = f X* (u n 1 s ) =

1

and the quasi-renewal functions. The Laplace transform

of quasi-renewal function can be derived:

n

n

0.0035

Q* (s ) = 1 i 1 = 1

(24)

s n =1 i =1 + u s s n =1 i =1 0.0035 + 0.6235n 1 s

The point availability function can be obtained:

n

1

1 (u ) n

A* =

+

n

i 1

+ s n =1 + u s i =1 ( + u s )

1

0.0035 + s

observations, there are 326 first failures with failure rate

1 = 0.0035 , 166 second failures with failure rate

2 = 0.0058 , and 36 third failures with 3 = 0.0081 .

Applying the reliability analysis software, Weibull++, we

obtain the reliability functions of ABNC for the first,

second, and third failures as shown in Figure 1.

parameters of

n

0.6235 0.0035

(

)

+

n

n =1 0.0035 + 0.6235 s

i =1

(25)

0.0035 + 0.6235 s

i 1

the system point availability numerically and derive the

results as shown in Figure 2.

A

Rel i abi l i ty vs T i m e

1. 00

Mult i-Plot

D ata 1

E1 R R X - SR M M ED

0.8

F =326 / S =0

D ata 2

0. 80

E1 R R X - SR M M ED

F =166 / S =0

D ata 3

0.6

E1 R R X - SR M M ED

F =36 / S =0

0.4

Reliability, R(t)=1-F(t)

0. 60

0.2

0. 40

T

500

1000

1500

2000

0. 20

( = 0.0035u = 0.6235)

S A N G-C H I N Y A N G

C C IT

2004/ 08/ 12 20: 12

0

0

400. 00

800. 00

1200. 00

Tim e, (t )

1600. 00

2000. 00

1 =0 .0 0 3 5 , =0 .7 8 8 2

2 =0 .0 0 5 8 , =0 .8 3 2 7

3 =0 .0 0 8 1 , =0 .8 5 4 0

Time)

(2) Determine the deterioration parameters, ui and vi , for

the system operating and repair times, respectively. We

calculate the deterioration parameter between the first

and second failures, u1 = 1 2 = 0.60344 ; and the

deterioration parameter between the second and third

failures, u 2 = 2 3 = 0.71605 . The weighted average

deterioration factor can be obtained:

166 0.60344 + 36 0.71605

u=

= 0.62350 .

166 + 36

RAMS 2005

( An+1 An 0.001 ) to determine the value of n, the

number of convolution. The calculation of point

availability for different values of convolution, n, at

different times are ahown in Table 1 with = 0.0035 and

u = 0.6235. From Table 1, we can see that when

convultion number n = 12 all the errors at different times

are less than 0.001.

(6) Substitue the value of n into eq. (15) to derive the minimal

maintenance cost rate, optimal CM number, optimal PM

replacement time, and the corresponding system point

availability of the BPM policy. The cost of PM, C p ,

includes the cost of the materials, labor and equipment

used by the squadron and the depot in repairing the

ABNC.

413

T = 200

n

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

An

0.78007

0.90050

0.94993

0.97126

0.98120

0.98619

0.98887

0.99037

An+1-An

0.12043

0.04942

0.02133

0.00993

0.00499

0.00267

0.00150

0.00087

T = 300

An

0.62205

0.77483

0.85472

0.89688

0.91989

0.93291

0.9405

0.94502

0.94776

0.94944

0.95047

An+1-An

0.15278

0.07989

0.04215

0.02300

0.01301

0.00758

0.00452

0.00274

0.00167

0.00103

0.00063

T = 500

An

0.19665

0.29044

0.35861

0.40471

0.43479

0.45404

0.46623

0.47390

0.47872

0.48173

0.48361

0.48478

An+1-An

0.09379

0.06816

0.04610

0.03007

0.01925

0.01219

0.00767

0.00481

0.00301

0.00188

0.00117

0.00073

optimal maintenance cycle at 176 cycles and with

minimal maintenance cost rate for 4247.78 NT/cycle.

T = 700

An

0.10322

0.15839

0.20060

0.23017

0.24991

0.26274

0.27095

0.27615

0.27942

0.28147

0.28275

An+1-An

0.05516

0.04220

0.02956

0.01974

0.01283

0.00820

0.00519

0.00327

0.00205

0.00128

0.00080

T = 80 ~ 240

T

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

(n) at different times

RAMS 2005

CT

7109.94

6549.32

6231.81

6064.73

6002.55

6019.72

6099.88

6231.13

6403.84

T = 140 ~ 180

T

140

145

150

155

160

165

170

175

180

QT

0.59736

0.62502

0.65336

0.68240

0.71218

0.74272

0.77405

0.86019

0.83916

T = 161 ~ 169

CT

6064.73

6040.57

6022.42

6009.86

6002.55

6000.15

6002.38

6008.98

6019.72

T

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

QT

0.71823

0.72403

0.73041

0.73655

0.74272

0.74982

0.75515

0.76142

0.76772

CT

6001.68

6001.01

6000.53

6000.25

6000.15

6000.23

6000.5

6000.95

6001.57

(A) Equipment:

The devices, testing stands, and

peripheral equipment used in maintenance were

purchased for 52,259,000NT. If we assume that the

life of this equipment is 20 years and that every year

120 repairs will be conducted, then the consumable

equipment cost of repairing the ABNC was

21,775NT.

(B) Materials: Bearings (1 set of 4) and the disposable

materials used in their repair required cost a total of

206,080NT.

(C) Labor: The time consumed by the squadrons part

change operation was 72.5 hrs./person. As the per

hour cost of one technicians service is 578NT

(monthly salary of 40,785 x 14.5 = 591,382NT

divided by the annual standard work time of 1024

hours), the cost of the operation was 72.5 x 578 =

41,905NT.

Thus, PM Maintenance Cost = (A) + (B) + (C) =

269,760NT. Failure correction maintenance cost C f

refers to the cost loss incurred because flight training

could not be performed plus the cost of PM. Each mission

flown by the aircraft in question costs a total of

700,000NT (including the flight and ground crew salaries,

fuel and ammunition cost). Therefore, the cost of

corrective maintenance was 969,760NT. The numerical

results of BPM are shown in Table 2 for renewal numbers

and maintenance cost rates at different times. The

minimal BPM cost rate is at T = 165 cycles with

maintenance cost rate C(T) = 6000.15 NT. Thus, the

optimal BPM policy is to preventively replace the ABNC

upon reaching every 165 cycles. The numerical results are

shown in Table 1.

(7) Substitute the value of n into eq. (20) to derive the

minimal maintenance cost rate, optimal CM number,

optimal PM replacement time, and the corresponding

system point availability of the APM policy. Based on eq

(20), the numerical analysis of the maintenance cost rate

for APM is shown in Table 3. The minimal APM cost

rate is at T = 176 cycles with maintenance cost rate

C(T)=4247.78 NT. Thus, the optimal APM policy is to

preventively replace the ABNC upon reaching the age of

176 cycles. Compare the results of the BPM and APM

policies to obtain the optimal PM policy. The comparison

results are summarized in Table 4. The APM policy is

better than BPM policy for PM cycle at 165 or 176. In

QT

0.30836

0.39718

0.49296

0.59736

0.71218

0.83916

0.97984

1.13542

1.30667

T = 100 ~ 260

T

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

QT

0.39718

0.49296

0.59736

0.71218

0.83916

0.97984

1.13542

1.30667

1.49393

CT

4911.1

4568.11

4369.08

4270.04

4249.29

4296.8

4409.4

4588.57

4839.29

T = 160 ~ 200

T

160

165

170

175

180

185

190

195

200

QT

0.71218

0.74272

0.77405

0.80619

0.83916

0.87299

0.90770

0.94331

0.97984

T = 171 ~ 179

CT

4270.04

4258.05

4250.71

4247.83

4249.29

4254.99

4264.84

4278.79

4296.8

T

171

172

173

174

175

176

177

178

179

QT

0.78041

0.78680

0.79323

0.79969

0.80619

0.81271

0.81927

0.82587

0.83250

CT

4249.78

4249.03

4248.45

4248.06

4247.83

4247.78

4247.9

4248.2

4248.66

T

165

176

BPM

Point

Maintenance

Availability

Cost Rate

99.5582

6000.15

99.3925

6010.8

APM

Point

Maintenance

Availability

Cost Rate

99.5582

4258.05

99.3925

4247.78

BPM

6. CONCLUSIONS

This research applies quasi-renewal process to develop

the optimal preventive maintenance policy for imperfect

preventive maintenance models. Due to the system failure and

maintenance, the aging systems deteriorate during their life

cycle and lead to decrease of operation time and increase of

maintenance time. Thus, after failure and/or maintenance, the

system operating time, maintenance time, maintenance cost,

and environmental factors will deteriorate. Based on the

statistical analysis of failure and maintenance data, the failure

distribution and availability models of aging systems can be

constructed. Considering the block and age preventive

maintenance policies, separately, the maintenance cost models

are developed to minimize the maintenance cost rate. Using

the numerical analysis, the optimal block or age

preventive maintenance period can be solved. Finally, the

optimal preventive maintenance policy can be obtained via the

synthesis and analysis of different maintenance policies

subject to the constraint of availability requirements. In the

ABNC case study, without considering the imperfect

maintenance, the budget for maintenance cost will be under

estimate and cause insufficient resource for spare parts

provisioning. Using imperfect maintenance theory, the

deteriorating parameters can be derived to facilitate the

414

cost models. The results of this research can be applied to

obtain optimal preventive maintenance policy for different

equipment in the operational phase of the total life cycle.

Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, 2004, pp.

577-585.

10. H. E. Elsayed, Reliability Engineering, 1996, Addison

Wesley, pp. 527-540.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

BIOGRAPHIES

We are pleased to thank the National Science Council of

Taiwan for partially support under grant No: NSC 92-2213-E014 -006. We are extremely grateful to Dr. Suprasad V. Amari

and Dr. Joel A. Nachlas for their extraordinary care and

patience in reviewing and improving earlier versions of our

manuscript.

Department of Information Science

Chung-Cheng Institute of Technology

National Defense University

190 San-Yuan 1st Street

Ta-Hsi, Tao-Yuan 33509, TAIWAN

REFERENCES

e-mail: scyang@ccit.edu.tw

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4.

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applications in imperfect maintenance, Intl. J. Systems

Science, Vol. 27, No. 10, 1996, pp. 1055-1062.

H. Wang and H. Pham, Changes to: 'A quasi-renewal

process and its applications in imperfect maintenance',

Intl. J. Systems Science, Vol.28, No. 12, 1997, pp. 1329.

H. Z. Wang, A Survey of Maintenance Policies of

Deteriorating Systems, European Journal of Operational

Research, 139, 2002, pp. 469-489.

R.E. Barlow and L.C. Hunter, Optimum Preventive

Maintenance Policies, Operations Research, 8, 1960, pp.

90-100.

T. Nakagawa, Optimal Policy of Continuous and

Discrete Replacement with Minimal Repair at Failure,

Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 31(4) , 1984, pp.

543-550.

H. Pham and H. Z. Wang, Imperfect Maintenance,

European Journal of Operational Research, 94, 1996, pp.

425-438.

T. Nakagawa, A summary of imperfect maintenance

policies with minimal repair, RAIRO: Recherche

Operationnelle, Vol. 14, 1980, pp. 249-255.

I. J. Rehmert, Availability Analysis for the Quasi-Renewal

Process; 2000, Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic

Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

S.C. Yang and S.L. Kuo, Quasi-Renewal Approach to

Spares Provisioning for Deteriorating Systems under

RAMS 2005

Information Science and Director of Logistics Support

Education Center at Chung Cheng Institute of Technology

(CCIT), National Defense University (NDU), Taiwan, where

he has served on the faculty since 1988. He received his B.S.

in civil engineering from CCIT in 1988, his M.S. in systems

engineering in 1994ineering in 1999, both from Virginia

Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dr. Yang is a

Member of IEEE. His research interests include reliability

theory, maintenance policies, and integrated logistics support.

Te-wei Lin

Graduate School of Weapon System Engineering

Chung Cheng Institute of Technology

National Defense University

190 San-Yuan 1st Street,

Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 33509 TAIWAN

e-mail: g931701@yahoo.com.tw

Te-wei Lin is a graduate student of Weapon System

Engineering Department at CCIT, NDU, Taiwan. He is a

research assistant of the Integrated Logistics Education Center.

He received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from CCIT in

1994. His research interests include logistics engineering and

systems engineering.

415

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