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Jamie Jones

Work Book 2
Substance
Mixture
Elements

Compounds
Atom

Molecule
Nucleus
Electron
Atomic
Number or Z
Number
Radioactive
Decay
Radiation
Isotope
Ion
Electron
Binding
Energy
Octet Rule
Radioactivity
Half life
Atomic Mass
Number

Is a material that has a definite and constant composition


Is formed when two or more substances are combined
Are known as simple substances. Each element has its own
specific number of nuclear protons, which distinguishes one
element from another.
Are known as complex substances
Is the smallest particle of an element that still possesses the
chemical properties of that element. Two or more atoms united
chemically form a molecule. Atoms have three basic subatomic
particles protons (p+), neutrons(n0), and electrons(e-).
Is the smallest particle of a compound that still possesses the
chemical properties of the compound.
Is the small dense center of the Atom it contains two of the
three particles of the atom protons and neutrons.
Is the third basic particle of the atom and is located outside of
the nucleus
Is the number of nuclear protons in atoms; the periodic table
lists the elements according to their atomic number; hydrogen
has one proton and an atomic number of one lead has an
atomic number of 82 and 82 protons in the atom of the nucleus
Is the naturally occurring process of atoms of one element
changing to atoms of another element over long periods of
time.
Happens when energy is emitted and transferred through
matter
If an atom gains or loses a neutron it is called an isotope
When an atom gains or losses an electron it is called an Ion.
Is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from
the atom

The outermost shell never contains more than eight electrons


Happens when unstable isotopes decay over time.
Is the time it takes on average for half of the atoms in a sample
element to decay.
The mass of an atom symbolized by the letter A

K-shell
Mass
Weight
Valence

Ionic Bond

Convalent
Bond

Is the orbital shell closest to the nucleus


Is the quantity of matter contained in an object.
Is the force an object exerts under the influence of gravity.
The chemical combining characteristic (valence of the element)
is determined by the number of electrons in the outermost shell
of an atom; an element with one electron in the outermost shell
would have a valence of +1; this element will give up this
electron to bind with another to form a compound
An element of +1 valence will combine with an element of -1
valence for a stable octet configuration this a known as an ionic
bond
An element of +1 valence combines with an element of
-2valence to form a convalent bond example hydrogen +1 and
oxygen -2
(1)