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# Factors and Multiples

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## Write a composite number as a product of prime factors.

Express the prime factorisation of a number in index notation.

Find the Highest Common Factor (HCF) and the Lowest Common Multiple (LCM) of two
or more numbers.
Find squares, square roots, cubes and cube roots.

## ffi r".trrr""au"mpm -1.

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We can write a whole number greater than 1 as a product of two whole numbers.

E.g. 18=1x18
L8

-Zx9

18=3x6

gl.

Teaclrer's

## Nate that 18 is divisible by each of its factors.

ilu"-;;-ffiR*-2.

Factors of a number are whole numbers which multiply to give that number.

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The common factors of two numbers are the factors that the numbers har e in

J.

common.

E.g.

## Factors of 12: ,-tr , 2,

Factors of

2l:

,\$,

4,6

, 12

:i:r,U.,:,,t,Ltlitll]:.r

'{'

,,,}i',J ,21

and 3.

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t
i{ti:\=-::

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4.

## When rve multiply a number by a non-zero whole number, we

number.

2x3

-eet

multiple of the

2x5 = 10
3x5=15 f Multiplesof-i
4 x 5 -20
5 x 5 -25

-6

3x3=9
4x3 -12
5x3=15

## The multiples of 3 are 3 , 6 ,9 , 12, 15, ... and

the multiples of 5 are 5 , 10, 15 ,20 ,25 , ...

## The common multiple of two numbers is a number that is ,, ::' .. :

'=

numbers.

E.,q. Multiples of 4

are

4,

,'i2 ,

,32,36 . ..

## Multiples of 6 are 6, l? , 18 , 24 ,30 , 36 , ...

The flrst three common multiples of 4 and 6 are

12

.21 and i a

1.

1 that has

exactlr t\\

r-r

;1:--:

## factors, 1 and itself.

F..P.

5=lx5

Since 5 has no other whole number factors other than 1 and itself.

it is :, i. r, "

.-

number.

2.

The numbers 2,

3.

3,5,J,

## 11, 13,17, ... are prime numbers.

.

different factors.

E.g.

6
6

= I x 6 I) J factors

-2x3 )

-+.

## The numbers 4,6,8,9, 10 , tZ, 14, 15,16,... are con.rf' - .;

words, all whole numbers greater than 1 that are not printc .

numbers.

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5.

The table below shows all the prime and composite numbers from 1 to 100.

ii

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13

t4

15

L6

25

!il!tli:

11

t2

2t

,) r)

10

ffi

18

it#.:

20

26

2l

28

'a#

30

35

36

ffi

38

39

40

!ffi

48

51

58

ffi

24
32 33 34

4T'

42 ffi 44

4s

46

51

s2 ffi s4

ss

56

LL

r:r:li::ii,

23

,iir::iiiir:

,,iji:+r:

ni:tr::r:: :,

,j.::,j:tl:ii

ffi

72

l.f\$

81

82

ffi

64
74
84

9l

92

93

94

62
r.,,

63
.:, iii

.,

rrir,,

49 50
\$1 60

75

66 ffi
76 t7

78

85

86

81

88

,'1*,g-.

90

95

96

97

98

99

100

!!:r:;:

65

68

69

70

ji'l

:'i
':::

80

are shaded.

numbers.
6.

E.g.

1.

## The factors of 18 are 1,2,3,6,9 and 18.

The prime factors of 18 arc 2 and 3.

## The process of expressing a composite number as the product of prime factors is

called prime factorisation.

8.

We can use either the factor tree or repeated division to express a composite
number as a product of its prime factors.

Ltd

## Chapter 1: Factors and Multiples

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WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Express 180 as a product of prime factors.
SOLUTION:

## Method 1 (Using the Factor Tree)

180

Steps:

/\
,/\

2x90

/ / \
2x2x45
/ / /\
/

numbers.
Continue to factorise if any of the factors

':l

2x2 x 3 x 15

/ /

1
*

## Write the number to be factorised at the

top of the tree.
Express the number as a product of tu o

/\

2x2 x 3 x 3 x 5
180 = 2x2 x 3 x 3 x 5

".4,1t
'iiit:,,ril

-2tx32x5

is not prime.
Continue to factorise until the last rou
of the tree shows only prime factors.

Index Notation

If the factors

## appear more than once, we Can use the index rtot&tirr,,.

product.
the
to represent

E.g. 3x3x3x3x3=35
3s is read

base

3t

'-

index

## E.g. 2x2x2x5x5 =23x51

Method 2 (Using Repeated Division)
2

180

90

45

J-

15

Steps
1

## number. Here, we begin with 2.

Continue to divide using the same ,':numbers until you get a quotient ,-.

180 =

2x2 x 3 x 3 x 5

## The product of the divisors

factorisation of 180.

rl..
=/ xJ x5

;+!=*=t1,

al

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The largest common factor among the common factors of two or more numbers
is called the highest common factor (HCF) of the given numbers.

E.g.

Factors
Factors

of
of

1,2,3,4,6,and12.
18 are 1 ,2,3,6, 9 and 18.
12 are

'

thehiehestcommonfacror

## The common factors of 12 and 18 are 1,2,3 and'',5,

The highest common factor of 12 and 18 is 6.

2.

Another method to find the HCF of two or more numbers is by using prime
factorisation which is the more efflcient way.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

## Find the highest common factor of 225 and 210.

SOLUTION:

225 =
32x52
270 -2x 33x5

ll

HCF =
32x5
_45
.'. The HCF of 225 and270 is 45.

Note!

x5x5
270-2x3x3x3x5

225= 3x3

..---::=S+=<11=;jiisj

HCF= 3x3

x5

=.15

/'l

J.

We can also repeatly divide the numbers by prime factors to find the HCF.

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## Chapter 1: Factors and Multiples

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Find the highest common factor of 54,90 and 108'
SOLUTION:

5+,90, to8

3 lzl,+s,
3 | e. ls,

54

irnallest'eo
--'t\$ffie
<-- ',piyi46 by co*rnon@fuefab'io,ffit'.
'ttre

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## Divide by common Prime factor 3'

18

13.s.6

on prime factoi

HCF=2x3x3 =18
.'. The HCF of 54. 90 and 108 is 18.

%-

woRKED EXAMPLE 3:

T:A group of 120 girl guides and 150 boy scouts took part in a camping competition'
>
were divided equally into mixed groups. Each group had the same number of bor '.'.girls.

(a)
(b)

## What was the largest number of groups that could be formed?

How many boys and girls were there in each group?

SOLUTION:

(a)

## by 120 and 150 since all the .. '

'and boys were exactly divided. So the largest number of groups forrued '

## The number of groups formed must be divisible

highest common factor (HCF).
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120, 150

lil,

:.,:lrrlr:

60, l5
20, 25

't

:iit,,:rl:,::

f]::iii:i

4,5

I
I

I
HC]Fi-)
.t.

'l

TIhe

x3x5

=30

la rsest nu mber

120+30=4.
150+30=5.

(b)

## The number of girls in each group is

The number of boYs in each grouP is

1.

## The smallest common multiple among the common multiple: g' ;

numbers is called the lowest common multiple (LCM) of the

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: \

Ctr'.

.:

."

- --

.g.

## Multiples of 8: 8 , 16, 24, 32, 40 , 48, ...

Multiples of 12: 72 , 24, 36 , 48 , 60, ...
The common multiples of 8 and 12 are ,fi\$i ,48,

...

i
I

## .'. The LCM of 8 and 12 rs 24.

2.

Another method to flnd the LCM of two or more numbers is by using prime
factorisation.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Find the lowest common multiple of 24 and 90.
SOLUTION:

24 = 23 x3

90=2 x32x5

lil.

## To get the LCM, multiply the highest power of

each set of common prime factors. AIso include
any uncommon factors.

= 360

## .'. The LCM of 24 and 90 is 360.

3.

We can also flnd the LCM of two or more numbers by repeatly dividing the
numbers by their prime factors.

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Find the lowest common multiple of

## 2I, 63 and 105.

LUTION :

I zt, ez , 105

I 7 ,21, 35
3+l 1,3, l-.1fft'i

5 | 1,

1,

,-,

If u nu*b*f't'u;t*-t'\$i

r --]6;;;6,fi[,ifi'4i+

,Ht\$.r'***U*t

5- 315
63tand 105 is 315.

## chapter 1: Factors and Multiples

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WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Express 2520 as a product of prime factors in index notation'
in inder nor.liHence, find the LcM of 22 x 35 x 78 and 2520, giving your answer

(a)
(b)

SOLUTION:

(a)

2 r 2520

2520=23x32x5x1

,l*
,[:ts

2a1260

,[*
,,

,7a

'[

2'x3'

(b)

23 x32

llll

x78

x 5 x 7 ------i'g

## LCM --2'x3sx5 x78

.'. The LCM of

22

35

x 78 and 2520 is 23 x

3s

x5x

78

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
and phone booths are
On a stretch of road, bus stops are located at intervals of 315 m
first bus stop.
l0cated at intervals of 525 m.A phone booth is l0cated at the
(a) How far along the road from the first phone booth would you be able to find the
next phone booth located at a bus stop?
(b) How many phone booths and bus stops would you pass by before you find a phonc
booth at a bus stop for the second time?

SOLUTION:

Bus
'.oo

lffi

i-

fffil

f315 m

Phone f@l

booth

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315 m

l@l
525 m

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315 m

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525 m

3 1-5 nr

(a)

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## when a phone booth is next found at a bus stop, flnd the

;.

3r5,525

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105, 175

21,

7"''"'

J-,

3,
1,

:'5:.''

35
5
5

J- X 5

: boot
otth that is located at a bus stop

is

:h.

(b)

## Number of bus stops

booth S

B lsqqs-e
1.

1575

+ 315

--

When a number is multiplied by itself, the product is called the square of the
number.

E.g.
2.

5x5

- 25 or

52

= 25 *-i5ii;[r;*#'A[irr\$

J25

-5

## 22=1 and J4=2

32=9 and J9 =3
42=16 and JG=4
3.

The numbers whose square roots are whole numbers are called perfect squares.
1,4,9,16,25, ... are perfect squares.

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## Chapter 1: Factors and Multiples

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woRKED ExAMPLE 1:
using prime factorisation, find the square root of 5184.
SOLUTION:

2 I 5t84

## 5184 =26 x3o

J5184

2[;;

2ux
r-=---;= ,l(2' x 3')'

2l

Ds6

za

=2'x3'
=8x9

648

za 3M
2l 162

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rJl
3an
3f-,

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1

= (2'

gqb,{
1.

x3')'

a@1q___---

-------

## the cube of the

When a number is multiplied by itself thrice, the product is called
number.

E.g.

5x5x5

- 125 or

5i = I 25

2.

## 125 is the cube of 5 and 5 is the cube root

of 125.

E.g. Vl25 = 5

23

t3

=8

- .t1

43-64
3.

118

llil

=2
=z

1{6+ =+

cubes.
The numbers whose cube roots are whole numbers are called perfect
I , 8, 2-l , 64, 125, ... are Perfect cubes

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WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

SOLUTION

## 1728 =26 x33

imx

- ilr ,3'
"*

= il(z, x 3),
=22

x3

=4x3
_ 1a
- tL

zI nzs
zaB64

,l ou
za

216

l-

ro8

2a

s4

3l

JI

3a;
^l

.
1

1728=2ux3,-Splittheprimefactorsirrto3equa1grotrps.
= (2' x 3) x (:2'x3) x (22 x 3)
= (2. x 3),

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Tutorial
1.

Express each

## of the follorvin-e as a product of prime factors, giving your answer in inde''

notation.

1l

(a)

48

(b)

tz0

(c)

315

(d)

468

(e)

825

(f

t8e2

(e)

202s

(h)

43s6

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(a) 60 and72

(b) 36 and 78

(c)

75 and3l5

(d)

(e)

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56 and 126

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## 55, 165 and 605

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(h)

j)

(1;

(a)

18 and 42

(b)

54 and 15

(c)

98 and 140

(d)

(e)

(f)

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r.{=

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(g)

(i)

14,25 and 35

(j)

18,63 and

(k)

## 36,45 and ll7

(1)

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(a)

18 and 60

(b)

42 and 105

(c)

28,35 and 84

(d)

(e)

(f

## 126,168 and 567

Chapter

l:

Factors and

Multiples

ffi

Find the HCF and LCM of the following, giving your answers as a product of prime factors in
index notation.

## (a) 2' x 33 x7 and,23 x 32 x 5

(b)

33

x 5ttx 13 and 32 x

58

2sx3ax7x13and
24x32x5x132

(d)

22

xJ x 11, 23 x72 x

13 and

(c)

## (e) 23 x32 xJ6 and7938

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22 xJ3

(f)

32x5 x

13

113 and4725

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6.

(a) 196

(c)

t52t

(d)

te36

422s

(h)

e2t6

(f

(e)

(g)

(b) s76

seze

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:.'

bl i t'ctti

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## Using prime factorisation, flnd the cube root of the following.

(a)

1728

(b) 27 44

(c)

3315

(d) s832

(e)

9261

(f)

10 648

(h)

39 304

(e) t3 824

,..s-.
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8. (a)
(b)

notation.

## product of its prime factors, giving your answer in index

(ii)

(i) 2016
s880
Hence, find the highest common factor of 2016 and 5880.

The product of the prime factors of three numbers are given below.

96 -2s x3

112 =24 x7
504 =23 x32 x7
Find

(a)
(b)

## the highest common factor of 96, ll2 and 504,

the lowest common multiple of 96, ll2 and 504.

The HCF and LCM of 264 and P are 12 and 5544 respectively. Find the smallest possible r-alue
,rf P.

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## Find the largest prime factor of 3060.

The HCF and LCM of two numbers are 8 and 504 respectively. If one of the numbers is
56, flnd the smallest value of the other number.
Find the largest whole number that is a factor of both ll7 and675.

11. (a)
(b)
(c)

12. (a)

(b)

13

## Express 520 as a product of its prime factors.

Given that the LCM of 26 and an integer P rs 520, flnd the smallest possible value of P.

The HCF and LCM of 408 and X are 68 and 2040 respectively. Find the smallest possible value

of X.

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Mathematics Tutor 1A

l;r:

## as the product of its prime factors 5544=23 x32 x7 x 11.

Express 308 as the product of its prime factors.
If the LCM of 308 and R is 5544, flnd the smallest possible value of R.

14. Written

(a)
(b)

15.

## Written as the product of its prime factors 817 5 = 33 x 52 x 13.

(a) Write 7 65 as a product of its prime factors.
(b) Find the greatest integer that will divide both 877 5 and 7 65 exactly.
(c) Find the smallest integerp such that765p is a multiple of 8775.

## Written as the product of its prime factors:

308=22xlxIl
952=23xJx17

(a) Find the largest integer which is a factor of both 308 and 952.
(b) Find the smallest integer value of p such that 308p is a multiple of 952.

## : .,ir it'ations Pte

Ltd

Chapter

l:

Factors and

Multiples

,!st'%,',

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It.

(a)

(b)

18. (a)

(b)

19. (a)

(b)
(c)

ffi

When M is multipliedby 2016, the product is a perfect square. Find the smallest value of
M.
Find the sum of the flrst perfect square that ends with the digit 5 and the first perfect cube
that ends with the digit 7.

Find the composite numbers that are factors of both 36 and 54.
Find the smallest number which when divided by 24 and 36 leaves a remainder of 11.

## Express 3024 as a product of its prime factors.

Given that3024y is a perfect square, find the smallest possible value of y.
Find the highest common factor of 3024 and 22 x 32 x 5 .

Mathematics Tutor 1A

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20. (a)

(b)
(c)

21. (a)

(b)

(c)

22. (a)

(b)
(c)

## Given that3465=32x5x7 x ll,flndthehighestcommonfactor of 2457 and3465.

Given that2457ft is a perfect square, write down the smallest positive integer value of k.

## Express 504 as the product of its prime factors.

Written as the product of its prime factors, 624 = 2t x 3 x 13.
Find the highest common factor of 504 and 624.
Find the smallest possible value of m such that 504m is a perfect cube.

## Express 315 and 588 as a product of its prime factors.

Hence, flnd the lowest common multiple of 315 and 588.
Given that 588p is a perfect cube, write down the smallest positive integer value of p.

Ltd

.#

23. (a)

(b)
(c)

24.

## Express 2904 as a product of its prime factors.

Given that 2904p is a perfect square, write down the smallest possible integer value of p.
Given that2904q is a perfect cube, write down the smallest possible integer value of q.

The numbers P and Q, expressed as the products of its prime factors are given below.

## P=2j x5rx 11ax l3

Q=25x5x73x13r
Find the value of each of the following, giving your answer as a product of its prime factors:
(a) the HCF of P and Q,
(b) the LCM of P and Q,
(c) the smallest value of m such that Pm is a perfect square,
(d) the smallest positive value of n such that Qn is a perfect cube.

25. (a)

(b)

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## Write 7056 as a product of its prime factors.

Hence, find the value

,{ 26 S; Mathematics Tutor lA

of &056

,D,,

-lll="x3-'
-i,-'=j

-A

.&. Frnd

x)--1

:lnn

and, J2025

of

i,lnn

and JZOX

## \\rrite 9261 as a product of its prime factors.

Hence, find the value
'I

(a)
(b)

of ilg26l

of V926t

and 117.

## Express 504 as a product of its prime factors.

Hence, flnd the smallest possible integer value of x such that

29

(b)
(c)

Hence,

1"6 1t27aa

## Find the smallest possible value of m such that2744m is a multiple of 6.

30. (a) It 2352 = 2" x 3t' x J' , flnd the values of a, b and c.
(b) Gir,en that the HCF of 2352 and2't x 33 x 52 x7'is
of d and

31.

e.

288 = 25 x3',

5616-2!x3qx13'.

(a)
(b)
(c)

## Write down the values ofp, q andr.

Find the smallest possible integer x such that288x is a perfect cube.
Find the smallest possible integer y such that 288y is a multiple of 5616.

i_=.++sqiir..

,i 28 ',
ttr,sq{

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte Li..'

32.

Express 3969 as a product of prime factors, leaving your answer in index notation. Hence,

(a)

evaluate

&%9

(b)

Express 5832 as a product of prime factors,leaving your answer in index notation. Hence,

(c)

evaluate :15t32 .
Using your answers from parts (a) and (b), flnd
(i) the HCF and

(ii)

the LCM

152

of /SZ

OOO

. ,,q

## 34. It is given that

=22

x3ax 52x116,

B -33 x5xJ2xllsand
C

-23 x

3s

112.

## Find, in index notation

(a) the HCF and LCM of A, B and C,
(b) the square root of A,
(c) the cube root of 33C.

u*E\.

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35.

The numbers, A,

## of their prime factors are given below.

A=25 x32x53x I7

B-Zax33xJ2xIJ3
C -25 x3a xI72

(a)

(b)
(c)

36.

Find the value of each of the following, giving your answer as a product of prime factors
in index notation,
(i) the HCF of A, B and C,
(ii) the LCM of A, B and C.
Given that B x D is a perfect square, find the smallest value of D.
Given that C x E is a perfect cube, flnd the smallest value of F whete F =

(a)

## Jsl * l,[n x5'

(c)

ll2 x 2'

(e) .,fzr -

.J169

i*===*"'\t\

30 i,
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## (d) 53 + 182 - Goo + <hE

+'[ts' - e x {-e+

## @ Casco Publication -t P:.

40. Two

comets travelling through the galaxy passes through our solar system every 84 years and
126 years. The last time they passed our solar system together was in the year 1168. When will
they pass through our solar system together agatn?

41.

A gift shop uses 1155 boxes of chocolates, 462bottles of wine and 693 tins of cookies to make
as many gift hampers as possible. Each hamper has the same number of boxes of chocolates, the
same number of bottles of r,vine and the same number of tins of cookies.
(a) What is the greatest number of gift hampers that can be made?
(b) How many boxes of chocolates, bottles of wine and tins of cookies are there in each gift
hamper?

42.

Three security guards, A,B and C,take24 mrnttes, 36 minutes and t hour respectively to patrol
around a building using 3 different routes. Each route starts and ends at the guard house. A11 the
security guards start patrolling the building from the guard house at the same time. How long
will it take before all 3 security guards are back at the guard house agarn? Give your answer in
hours.

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Mathematics rutor

IA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

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43.

145 boys and264 girls were selected to go on a volunteer programme to visit several villages in
Thailand. Two days before the trip, one of the boys contracted chicken pox and had to withdraw
from the programme. The remaining boys and girls are to be equally divided into as many
groups as possible in order to visit as many villages.
(a) What is the largest number of groups that can be formed?
(b) How many boys and girls are there in each group?

44.

Three trucks A, B and C deliver goods to a supermarket ever\' 1 8 dar s. l-i dar s and 36 days
respectively. If all three trucks deliver goods to the supermarket todar . hou man\ dar s later u,i1l
they next meet together?

45. Along the footpath of a park, a bench can be found after every

## 60 m while a \\.ater fountain can

be found after every 168 m. A shelter can also be found where a bench and a \\ ater irruntain are
located together. These three features can flrst be found at the start of the footpath.
(a) After how many metres can the shelter, the bench and the water fountain be found together
next?

(b)

Cctsco

How many water fountains can be found between any two consecutive shelters l

,.:ffi
\?y"

46.

## The rectangular floor of a courtyard measuringT56 cm by 360 cm is to be tiled using identical

square tiles.

(a)
(b)

47.

Find the area of the largest square tile that can be used without cutting any of the tiles.
How many of these tiles are needed to completely cover the floor?

Jason has 1000 small cubes, each side measuring 1 cm. He uses these cubes
cubes with sides 2 cm,3 cm, 4 cm and so on.

ffi':2cm

(a)

to make larger

ffi:
3cm

What is the length of the side of the largest cube that he can make using all the small cubes
he has?

(b)
(c)

,ffi'

Find the length of the side of a cube that he made using 729 small cubes.
He dismantles the cube from part (b) and arranged them in the shape of a square
with no cubes left over. What is the length of the side of the square?

i{ 34 Ei Mathematics Tutor lA

'w-.

cm high

## THTNI(ING SKI LLS GORNER

A prime number is less than 100 and rhe sum
of its digits is 5.
what is the number?

If it is I

## A two-digit even number is a multiple of 11. Multiplying

the digits to-pether rvill get a perfect
cube or a perfect square. What is the number?

E:tp.'1'g55

.,

## the following as a product of prime factors,

giving your answers in index notation.

1317x78+79x6)

l\ffi

=;'-e.findtheHCFandLCMot|3(7x78+78x6)andffi,givingyour
:r'in index notation.

## Chapter 1: Factors and Multiples

i..ffi
''\=5t-='

-1.

The numbers S andT,expressed as the products of its prime factors are given below.
.S

= 2r x

5a

-2) x

32

x 11'
x 5'x lI2

If

## the HCF and LCM of S and

values of x,y and z.

32 x5a

## 11' respectively, flnd the

5.

All

6.

Palm trees are to be planted along 2 different hiking paths A and B of distance 3780 m and
4680 m respectively. A palm tree is to be planted at the beginning and at the end of each path.
The distance between any two consecutive palm trees on both paths are the same.
(a) Find the greatest possible distance between two consecutive palm trees on both paths.
(b) How many palm trees are to be planted on both paths altogether?

the pupils in the Mathematics Club were each given a box of jelly beans on Children's Day.
The girls received 923 jelly beans altogether and the boys received I15l jelly beans altogether.
How many pupils are there in the Mathematics Club altogether?
(Assume that there are the same number of jelly beans in each box.)

..-;.***qr.

:0 i; MathematicsTutor lA
t;i35**-*i.

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Real Numbers

ffi

o a a a a aa aaa

.
.
.

E)

aaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaacaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

L se negative numbers.

## Identify integers, rational numbers and real numbers.

Perform the four operations on integers. rational numbers and real numbers.

nuti.
1.

cr"..ptr

E.g.
2.

-5.

('-')

...

E.g.
a

__

.....,

## -3,-2,-I,0, 1 ,2,3,4, ... are integers.

Positive integers are whole numbers that are greater than zero.

E.g. 1,2,3,4,5,...
4.

Negative integers are whole numbers that are smaller than zero.

E.g. -t.-2.-3.-4.-5.

...

5.

6.

## A number line showing integers is shown below:

-54-3-2-1012345
Negative integers

1.

## Positive integers/Natural numbers

The arrows on both ends of the number line show that the line can be extended on
both ends.

,-

Llri

## Chapter 2: Real Numbers

Every number on the number line is greater than any number to its left.

8.

2345

-54-3-2-101
E.g. 2 is greater than -3 and is denotedby
We can also write

), (,>

9.

and

2>

-3.
-3 is smaller than2 and is denoted by -3 <2.

## > means 'is greater than'.

< means 'is smaller than'.
) means 'is greater than or equal to'.
( means 'is smaller than or equal to'.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Show the numbers 6,

## 3,-2, 0 and 5 on a nnmber

1ine.

SOLUTION:
I

-3-2-1

01134561

WoRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Draw a number line to represent each of the follorving.

(a)
(b)
(c)

## Integers > 0 but < 5.

Prime number < 14.
Composite numbers which are greater than 5 but smaller than 12.

SOLUTION:
(a)

(b)

01234561891011t213t4
5618

',L,. ::I:rtiC.

TLTIOI

lA

91011t2

Ltd

## A prime numtler is a natural number that has eractll

factors, i.e. I and itself.

ditierent

## A composite number is a natural number that has more

than

2 diff'erent factors.

1,6,8,9,

I
:
10.

## 10, 12,14,15, 16, 18, ... are composite numbers.

which is not a
than I which
In other
other words any natural number greater than
prime number is a composite number.

11.

## The numerical or absolute value of a numbet x,, denoted by

from zero on the number line.

## lrl, is its distance

Since distance can never be negative, the numerical or absolute value of a number
is always positive.

## E.g. l2l = 2,|101 = 0, l-21=

rqqfl,rll4!+try.ti9t"f Er.ryry
1.

__

## Rules for adding two integers:

Method

Sign of numbers
Both numbers have the same signs.

1.
2.

(+a)+(+b)=+(a+b)

(-a)+(-b)=-(a+b)
Both numbers have different signs.

1.

## Add the numbers while ignoring

their signs.
Write the sum using their
common sign.
E.g. (+3) + (+8) = *11 = 11
E.g. (-3) + (-8) = -(3 + 8) = -11
Subtract the numbers while

2.

## The answer has the same sign

as the number having the lar-eer
numerical value.

(+a) + (-b) = +(a (+a) + (-b) = -(b (-a) + (+b) - -(a (-a) + (+b) - +(b -

b) rf a> b
a) if b > a
b) tf a> b
a) if b > a

## E.g. 12+(-4) -12-4=8

E.g. 5 + (-11) =-(11 -5) --\$

E.g.-8+3=-(8-3)=-5
E.g. -9 + 15 = 15 -9 = 6

a
,

## ,!.:r.-,, Publiccttious Pte Ltcl

_19

2.

To subtract integers, change the sign of the integer being subtracted and add using
the addition rules for integers.

E.g.

8-

15 = 8 +

(-15)=-(15-8) --7

## - J = -tl + (-7) = -(11+7)

-6 -(-10) - -6+ 10 = 10 -6 -4
3-(-13)=3+13=16
-11

= -18

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

(a)

The hi-ehest and lou est temperatures of Town A were 3"C and -12"C respectively.
Find the ditterence betu'een these two temperatures.

(b)

The lori'est temperature in Torvn B rvas -23'C. The difference between the lowest
and highest terrperatllres u.as 12"C. Find the highest temperature in Town B.

SOLUTION:

(a)

= 3oC + 12"C

=
(b)

15oC

## Highest temperature = -23"C + 12'C

=

\,

1-:.1:.l.rii.: TLrtor I \

-1loC

.l :..'

1.

Multiplication

Examples

(+a)x(+b)-+(axb)

3x4-12

## (-a) x (-b) = +(ax b)

(+a) x (-b) = -(ax b)
(-a) x (+b) - -(ax b)

(-5)x(-6)=+(5x6)=30
8

## x (-3) = -(8 x3) = -24

(-12)x4=-(LZx4)=-43

2.

(+)x(+)=(+)

(-)x(-)=(+)

integer.

(+)x(-)=(-)
(-)x(+)=(-)

## The product of a positive and a negative integer is

negative integer.

Division

,:,r.].

(+a)+(+b)=+(a+b)

16+2-8

(-a)+(-b)=+(a+b)
(+a)+(-b)=-(a+b)
(-a)+(+b)--(a+b)

(-20) +(-5)

,:t ,,

:.

,,

(+)+(+)=(+)

(-)+(-)=(+)
(+) + (-)= (-)
(-)+(+)=(-)

## @ Ca.sco Publications Pte

Ltd

Examples

=+(20+5)-4

36+(-4)=-(36 +4)--9

(-24) + 8 = -(24 + 8) = -3

1.

## Addition and multiplication of integers obey the Commutative Law.

Commutative Law of Addition of integers:

a+b=b+a
Commutative Law of Multiplication of integers:

axb=bxa
E.g.

Fo
"'b'' )
2.

+(-10)=(-10) +2--8
x (-10) = (-10) xZ - -20

## Addition and multiplication of integers obey the Associative Law.

of integers:

E.g.

+(-5)] +8 =3 + [(-5)+ 8] =6
t3 x(-5)l x8 =3x t(-5)x 8l = -120

[3

8.e.2
3.

## Multiplication of integers is distributive over

(a) addition,

(b) subtraction.
Distributive Law of Multiplication oyer Addition of integers:

ax(b+c)-(axb)+(axc)
Distributive Law of Multiplication oyer Subtraction of integers:

=-'#.*.flir
E.g.

,.l',,{.a

x b} - (a x c)

## 8.g.2 -2x (-8 - 6) =-2 x (-8) - (-T x 6 = lS

1.

The order of operations on integers is the sanre a: those for whole numlrer.

Order of operations

1.
2.

ft,

\0,;,,

## Simplify expressions within the brackets flrst.

Working from left to right. perform rnultiplication or division betore
addition or subtraction.

Mathematics Tutor I A

## @ Casco Publicatiorts Pte

Ltd

'%*

woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Evaluate each of the following.
25 - 36 + (-4) + (-11)

(a)
(b) (-10) - (-6) + (-e) + 3
(c) (3-s)'x4+ t(-18) +(-2)l+(-z)'
(d) {-1s - tls + (-9)l'} + (-3)
SOLUTION:

(a)

25

= 25

(-4) + (-11)
(-9) + (-11)

36 +

-25+9-ll
-23

(b)

## (-10) - (-6) + (-e) +

= (-10) - (-6) + (-3)

=-10

.---

, rr,i .,:;:,l

.r'1

:r'.,1

i' :i:",'

rr -'

.l:i:r:.:'

r'i

I'

1.

,'

:,f

rr

rrl:

: ,r:

i:

+6-3

1,

(c)

## 5)' x 4 +t(-18) + (-2)l + (-Z)'

= (-2)' x 4 + (-18 - 2) + (-2)'
(3

=(-2)'x4+(-20)+(-Z)'
=

.t

8it*

= -32 + (-5)

--32-5
- -3J

(d)

## {-1s - t1s + (-9)l'} + (-3)

= t-15 - (15 - g)'z] + (-:)
= (-15 - 6') + (-3)
= (-15 -36) + (-3)
= (-51) + (-3)
_ 11
tt
-

Rational Numbers
1.

A rational number is any number that can be written as a ratio of two integers. In
other words, a number is a rational number if it can be written as a fraction where
both the numerator and denominator are integers.
integers

E.g.

. -,,,

3 I 5 .2
-5'z'3"3

t_

Chapter

).

All

E.g.

3.

n,can be written

and

-6

utTn
]

-6

I
I

E.g.

*10

and

a.r

?)

l0

Recall:

51
r02
I

]10unO I2

factors.

32 16 nl
l0 5 --5

*5

I

3:5

## whole nurnber and a proper fraction.

A proper fraction

## has its numerator smaller than its

denominator.

l3
E.s.-.-and
q are proper fracl"ions.
5

,... .,

## aaaitir" r"a sqp1rg.tir"

"r

n"tir"rl

,. ,., . ..

:i

To add or subtract rational numbers, express the rational numbers as equivalent fractions

## in the same denominators flrst.

\lathematics Tr-rtor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

%.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

## Find the value

ott) * r+ . (-r*)

SOLUTION:

,* *r* * (r*)
=t) *r+ -z[
=(7

+3-2).(+.+-+)
\2 3 6)

=8+

(-=)

=8+

.\:r%u\

is 6.

_8!6
=

<--

## Reduce to lorvest terms.

8;J

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Evaluate

## (b) [-'i) . [-?] .l-i)

SOLUTION:

l___,we

use,i

'u ur*

*.

f , I _ 3')
(a) e!64- 21 =(5_z) + [tao)

(t

:)

=3+[a-2.]
=3+
=3+

.5

t2

--12

_.. ,.-r,.,71irrii\

ptt Lttl

+-l

(b)

=-['].+.i)
*'
= -(s * I*+. +)

'

s una

""o''

- 5+48+lo)
=-[)+n )

=-('.#)
=-[s.r*)
=

-20
-81

1.

## To multiply two rational numbers:

(a) Convert all mixed numbers to improper fractions flrst.
(b) Simplify the fractions first by crossing out the common factors

(c)
(d)

of

the

## numerators and denominators'

Multiply the numerators, then the denominators.
Reduce answer to its simplest form'
0

where

d*0'

2.

## To divide a rational number by another rational number:

(a) Convert al1 mixed numbers to improper fractions flrst'
(b) Invert the second fraction by interchanging its numerator and denominator'

(c)Multiplythenumerators,thenthedenominators.

o c
bdbc

,''

"

u .Ll

ax

bxc'

where

a,b, c and d

## are integers and

b*0.c+0andd*0.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Evaluate

## (a) (-';) * ,+'

2)-r_ro)
,^\
(c) ([-rr,
= n)
[-

&

{+oi

\g

N{athematics Tutor 1A

(-12),

SOLUTION:

(a)

(.i) x:!

.u

5'

"v

16

/\

2t

5l

-_e

+ (-1 21 --

8r

\,/l-

-s "[
2

Clrange

'to 'x'

o*.

## by inverting the seconcl fraction.

-t)
-12=-::

t )

12.)
lnvertinc

j_t2gives -i l

l-5

(c)

(
[-

z\
=

".,J

=-3t.1.1

=-5

<

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Evaluate

(i - i)

( r X z)
--

+ I

[ 4 e)'
|

SOLUTION:

(l__-___r x_l_
z') (:-s) ( r)
=
\\-./,4

rs ,

[-r8]

r)
-2.(
=
15

2
r{
'"

l.- 18,
,.6

18
1

.5

## Chapter 2: Real Nurrbers

47

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Er aluate

a (-;-1) .[-+-t-;)]

s '-t1.)'*[-ri']l
,[_-o))= (-';)
b, IL_r;+[_,2/
SOLUTION:

## (a) (-+-1) =[-]-( *)l

(_t_z\
=[ o *(_l*l)
,=[-4-6)

(-t+z\

lCI)

[-r)
\ t2)

5.
6,

I rz')
[- ,

=10

(b)

.[-,;)] . (-,;)
[-,;.(-' i)'
. (-,;)
=
[-z **r]-z;)

( s\

-l-r+2-l+(-:)*f-1]
-L
[-aJ + +)*[-';)*

simplirvexpresslons

withinbracketsfirst.

=[-:.!l+ry] .(-,;)
.
. (-,:)
[-, (-3 )]
= (--*) . (-,;)

_-JJ :
8
,3

JJ
84

(_

rt

o]

(, o')
.

xl\.

11,

9
4

_.1
-4

^J+8

I.I:

Ltd

n.uN"*n.*
1.

A11

## rational numbers can be expressed as a decimal by dividing the numerator by

the denominator.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

Write

as a decimal.

SOLUTION:

I =5*g
tt
-

0.625
8 I5^ooo

0.625

-48
20

_16
40

-40

## A terminating decimal contains a finite number of digits. In

other words, there is an end to the division process.

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Express each of the following as a decimal.

(a) ;1

,..
(b)

(c)

SOLUTION:

(a) ;5
1

0.333

=l+3

3llooo
-9

= 0.333...

= 0.3

rL

10
The dot above 3 shows

is

-9
10

-9
1

l..ffi

(b)

0.1818

_M

rl

)2.0000

-11

= 0.1818...

90

= 0.i8'------

-88

I
I

20

## The two dots above 1 and 8 indicate the

beginning and end of the set of digits that
is repeated.

1l
90

-88
2

(c)

0.5833

l
i=t+

t2

-60

= 0.5833...

l70ooo

12

100

0.583

.11
t2

-96

1.583

-36
40

-36

## repeating decimal has one or more digits that are repeated

in{rnitely. In other rvords.'rvhen you divide, you can keep on going
forever!
If there are three or more repeating digits, place the dot over the
first and the last repeating digits.
Fo

z7

= o.i g5
2

0.285
1 =

11 285 714...

= 0.285I 14

## r Some decimals continue without end, but do not have a repeating

:_pattern.
These decimals are called non-repeating. non-terminating
I
decimals.

E.g.

## The ratio between the circumference of a circle and its

diameter is tt = 3 .141 592 6 ..,

two integers.
11

The numbers

a1

## .3.1,1.3.1-ll are rational numbers that are used

of
as

approximations for z

^gl0

l''1,:

t::tt.rlti. Tittor iA

on11'.

## Casco Pnbliccttiorts Pte Ltcl

r --

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:

I9

(a)

(b)

and

SOLUTION:

(a)

58

+= -13
13
9

.t

=^/1

-x92
13
18

(b)

0.7222

1* =13+18

0.7222...

0.12

Il3

0ooo

-t26

40

-36
40

-36
40

-36
4

2.

## Real numbers consist of all the numbers on the number line.

Real numbers

r5

E.e.-2. o. S.7.

Rational numbers
(Terminating or
repeating decimals)

E.g.-2,0.

5"

15
;. ;

*.

Irrational numbers
(Non-terminating
and non-repeating
decimals)

E.g.tt,

tlT,

ZnE

Integers
E.g.

Whole numbers
(Zero and positive

-2,0,5

Negative Integers
Fo

-)

--l

integers)

E.g. o,5

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chittrr1.'1'I Rl-,1

\.. r', .
,-"

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
.\ruan_ee the

-i. -3 +

## following in ascending order.

-"./lo- .

T .o, ,ffi

SOLUTION:
3Jrl

-^lo = -3.t62...

t-

t-3

2a

=3

=z.slt...

J
1

Il=

1
J,

"5
-ll=-ll
The numbers zuranged in ascending order are:

## -3 + , *..il-o- , -3, :,m , o,

WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
Consider the numbers:

?,0.6,
9',

## Ji,s, 8,9, 13, rzr

Write down
(a) the prime numbers,
(b) the square numbers,
(c) the irrational numbers.
SOLUTION:

(a)
(b)

Prime numbers: 5,

13

## Square numbers: 9, 121

tttf

32

(c)

Irrational numbers:

Ji

,o

,5l

"

1

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

woRKED ExAMpLE 6:
Use a calculator to evaluate each of the following, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal
places.

(a)

ze

## + K-2.6q3 - (e.ss +3.45)zl

2392

(b)

0.36

(c)

5.433

- (-2.39)

SOLUTION:

(a) ,6;t

+ l(2.64)3

- (e.ss + 3.45)2)

= 10.509 218l
= 10.51 (conect to 2 decimal places)
2392

(b)

5.433

- 69.597 r89 49
- 69.60 (correct 2 decimal places)

,^\
\-./

fu6-e:;l1
,

-.:

\i ['3

## = 0.064 996 236

= 0.06 (correct to 2 decrmal places)

.'

r,it ! i t-

Lttl

Chapter 2: Real

Numbers

ffi

Tutorial
1.

## Draw a number rine to represent each of

the following:
(a) integers > _3 bur < 3
(b) natural numbers > _Z but < 4
(c) positive integers < 5
(d) prime numbers > 60 but < 75

(e)

2.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

## Draw a number rine to represent the numbers

5. 15. 25. ..., 55.
Draw a number rine to show the point
s 2. -4. 0. 3 and _r.
Draw a number line to represent all composite
numbers that

36.

## Draw a number line to represent all prime

numbers that is a factor

MathematicsTutor 1A

of

24

and,

21.

Ltd

## Fill in the boxes with ), = or (.

(a)
(c)
(e)
(e)

a[l+
o[l-z
-s l-l:
o

(b)
(d)
+

f r-------, f
t_ttt_
,\t o
!sl

(0

-rzf-]-o

[-l -:
1m [:] -ls
.r4

(h) -J:n

E-to

Write True (T) or False (F) for each of the following statements.

(a)
(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)

## A rational number is always an integer.

A fraction is not a rational number.

## If the product of two real numbers is positive, then both

the numbers must be positive.

5.

(0
(g)

(h)
(i)

t1

## (b) -J+,x. n.3.2s.-V-s

(c) I ;)r-Jj
,-8, V5 ,0.375, J-4
)') r= ft I ,,
4,;,-7,r.2
(d) ;,,1

(e) fi,26,-

(0 #,#

,,

l,,o.za,#

Jj ,-0.383,0

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

## Evaluate each of the following without the use of a calculator'

6.

:^

(a) -3 - (-e)

(b) 8+(-12)-6

(c) -6 + (-15) + a

(e)

(f)

18 +

(-8)

- (-1s)

lA

s-(-10)

-a+(7)

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(g) -16-(-20)-5+(-6)

(h)

(i)

-13

(k)

[-3 + (-17)

[-1 + (-1s)]

10]

24

Chapter 2: Real

Numbers

'O=

(a)

(-8) x (-4)

(b)

(c)

-68 + 4

## (d) -72 + (-8)

(e)

0 + (-9)

(f) -t2+(-4)x(-7)

a
a

10

x (-18)

## (h) (-7) x (-2) x 4

(1) (J)xtr8)x0x6x(-5)

Mathematics Tutor 1A

t2+3x(-16)

(k)

(1)

(-24) x 2 + (-8)

## (m) -108 + (-3)' + (-2)

8.

(n)

-56 + (-7) x t2

(-288)+(-8) + (-3)

(a)

15

(c)

-5 + (-3) x

x (-2) + (-11) x

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

L2 +

(-4)

(b) 32+8-l-zsx(-4)l

(d)

l-28 + (-14)

- 4l x (-20)

Chapter 2: Real

Numbers

=,..S

(e)

(f)

x (-8) x 5 + (-6)

(h) 36-(t4-41)+3x(-5)

(i)

{tl8

(j)

(-7)' + (-z)'

## + (-3)l x 3 + (-1s)} + [-6

xZ + (-3)]

- lezq + 4o - :{A

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x (-e)l

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9.

(a)

-t+.

(c) (,

(e)

(b) + -( ?)

i) . (- *)

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(n)

[3)'- (,*-],;)

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+ (-i)l. [+.(-*)]

rLl)

(q)*

(p)

,rr

-i " ti

## Casco Pwblications Pte Ltd

(r)

( +) .(-T).(j) *x
6

lrr-rzl*i

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10.

## Fill in the boxes with ), = or (.

(a) -8 + (-6) x e [--l 15 x (-5)

(b)

- (-rl)x

5+8

[-l

- t-6 + (-7)]

(c)

11.

(-2)

(a)

x([-l

answer.

+ 5) = (-2) x

(-r4) + (-2)x

5=

[l

(b)
(c)

(
t2.

## Express each of the following as a fraction in its lowest terms.

(a)

(c)

11

#"(-'i)'
-J4.

Jzs

ffi,i

[-

' )
J6-ffi - \. Jt44

Jt44

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Ltd

(a)

(c) i2

e --

(g)

## E Casco Publications Pte Ltd

(b) -2fi

rdr ;

rl

L.
L-

Chapter 2: Real

Numbers

ffi

(1)

l1

(k) *

(j)

3+

(1)

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r3

(m)

r.

(n)

(o)

-tfi

(p)

Mathematics Tutor 1A

2s

98
99

uL

Ltd

*
:

## F,nd the sum

of 4.13

and 3.5i

Find the decimal number which is exactly halfway between 8.7 and 9.0.

16.

(a)

(b)

17.

'

(i)
(ii)

1 ""0 1

(a)

(b)

Express

15.

urra

7
1

## Publicorirtrt: Pre Lrd

-2i

an +!

as a recurring decimal.

## Chapter 2: Real Numbers

,.:.*,

18.

Mark down clearly on the number line all the prime numbers between 20 and 40.

30

20

19. (a)

20.

2,-3

-3

-4

(b)

ers

:)

, 1.5,

40

-2

## (a) ) ,o.sz, -1, +, (-;)'

(b)
-V-8
') .-+ , el .z)',0, -G
a

(c)

2I.

,+,; , -1.5 ,

_1.57

J1
2

## Write down all the rational numbers in descending order.

(Ji)',o3,nJi,#,(,..8

Mathematics Tutor 1A

)0,

Jl+

r,-3

,#,-.2+

## @ Casco Publications Pte

l:

Write down the following numbers in order of size, starting from the greatest.

-0

23.

.52 , -2 .6

,0, -0.14, -3

24.

0.696,4.699,

## Study the numbers below.

;.0.

-,
-

2../3 , 3.14,

-3,

in ascending order.
\\-rite dou'n all the rational numbers.
-\rran_qe the numbers

Chapter 2: Real

.,-**',

Numbers i{ 69 S
-1-'r>-=-=<:=-ss-=-=ll

26.

0.54

(a)
(b)

21

-n, Ji,-J',1,

## Arrange all the numbers in descending order.

Write down
(i) the prime number(s),
(ii) the irrational number(s).

## Study the numbers below to answer the questions.

3

64,-5,i,rr,o, J2.g
(a) Write down the perfect cube(s).
(b) Write down the natural number(s).
(c) Write down the irrational number(s).

28.

(a)
(b)
(c)

## the negative numbers,

the irrational numbers,
the perfect squares.

,:*:

70
Mathematics Tutor IA
.{
'*+*sr ,i.

## Cmskler the numbers:

*-o-8.-3.6.25,3+sJ-2,

l, * ,n,036

Srite down

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

30.

the
the
the
the

recurring decimal(s),
irrational number(s).

## State which of the following numbers are irrational.

7T,5J1

31.

natural number(s),
perfect squares(s),

,,?,J8

",

## Consider the following numbers.

{/E- ,

(a)
(b)

(-t)0,0,- Ji , {n

,,

## List all the prime numbers.

Represent the rational numbers on a number line.

Chapter 2: Real

Numbers

ffi

## Er aluate each of the follorvin-e rvithout the use of a calculator.

ra) \-l)+l-2+(-3)rx2l
.
(b)

I 5 *,j-l
I =g

33.

34.

,.

(a)

Evaluate

(b)

(i)
(ii)

2.962

n;;^,

Evaluate

2.

,.,

x75.65'
94.37
=ZT.t
^,

## Give your answer to part (b)(i) correct to

Mathematics Tutor 1A

decimal place.

Ltd

-'

36.

E'. aluate

t t '+: +

/ll
\3/

## tEG . giving your answer correct

to

decrmal places.

Evaluate each of the following, giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places.
(0.3s +4.26)s
(a)

-115

5.23

(b)

37

E(sY
-t-al

t/rz

Ltd

@..f1
-\49:\-n

## Chapter 2: Real Numbers

i.ffi

Use a calculator to evaluate each of the following, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal
places.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

ti)

s\' x(:-rc)*
iET +3x
[- ,.]

( +)

## (,fi)' . Jos4 -(-6.s)* Vr.X

+ (4.234) x

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Ltd

r-r-:C- a

LaIL
'-ulator

## to evaluate each of the following, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal

p-aces.

5.87

89.6

(tt.52 + 8.03)4.64

i
:

(")

(,i)' -(,+)'

,8.[-f

4l

o.ozo'

(h) tvHS -

(-3)'

(r r -

3e2D)

V+

,<

05

*- t-8.9 rl

-5

(f)

'

.56 + 3.2

0.45

(-,'-+)'

(e)

- 5'

. (-'i)'

6.2'

*21)

" rZ)

- eD'

## Chapter 2: Real Numbers

ffi

Use a calculator to evaluate each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal
places.

815
27'. lg
I-

ta, --

.,
s)-

nt3- r
[- s]

J:,s-:lb

(c)

-7t +

(e)

(f)

{(+)'

(d)

rel

*-[(,*-,)'

-,*^( i)]

-t
)_l

G *('Z)'

## E" [-,8-(-0""']] x l-2.3 + (-n)l

(-z)3-(-s)2x(-s)2
13, +101

..s-.

ZO },
'{..,N,

<lnse - zg
(b) 80ffi04

MathematicsTutor

lA

- ( +)

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

+1.

The table shorvs the highest and lowest temperatures one day in London and Singapore.

(a)
(b)

Highest

Lowest

London

7"C

-20c

Singapore

32"C

25"C

Find the difference between the highest and lowest temperatures in London.
Find the difference between the highest temperature in Singapore and the lowest
temperature in London.

42.

The lowest temperature on a certain day in City A was -15oC. The difference between the
lowest and highest temperatures was 8oC. Find the highest temperature on that day.

43.

The hi-ehest and lowest temperatures of Town X were 4oC and -18"C respectively.
(a) Find the difference between these two temperatures.
(b) The lowest temperature recorded in Town I was lz"C higher than -18'C. Find the
lor,vest temperature recorded in Town I.

''i..*l

-+r.

15.

## The temperature at the bottom of a mountain was 6"C. The temperature

t-lltrttntain rvas -18'C. Find the difference between these two temperatures.

The temperatures of Town X taken at 5 a.m. every morning for a week were:
1.5oC,

## Find the difference between the highest and lowest temperatures.

46.

The temperature in London at 5 a.m. is -6"C. The temperature at 11 a.m. was 12"C.
(a) Find the difference between these two temperatures.
(b) Assuming that the temperature rises at a steady rate, flnd
(i) the temperature at9 a.m.,
(ii) the time when the temperature is 10.5.C.

\ l-,:i,:nt.r:ic

>

TLittrr' 1-\

## @ Casco Publiccttiotts Pte

Ltd

The temperature at Ciry Xat2p.m. was 11.8 "C and at l0 p.m- rvas -2.6 "C.
(a) Find the difference in temperature between 2 p.m. and 10 p.m.
(b) If the temperature drops uniformly between} p.m. to 10 p.m., estimate the temperature
at 5 p.m.

_ig,

The table below shows the temperatures in a number of cities at noon on a particular day.

(a)
(b)

(c)

49.

(a)

(b)

Singapore

Moscow

Beijing

Helsinki

32"C

-6'C

0"c

-2.5'C

## Which is the coldest city?

Find the difference in temperature between:

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

## Moscow and Helsinki,

Moscow and Beijing.
The temperature in Hong Kong is exactly midway between the temperatures in
Singapore and Moscow. What is the temperature in Hong Kong?

Jonathan is scuba diving 12 m below the surface of a iake s.hile Edu'ard is on a cliff
29 mabove the lake. What is the vertical distance benveen Jonathan and Edu ard?
A rescue plane 85 m above sea level spots a sunken ship 18 m belori. sea level. Horv far
apart are the rescue plane and the sunken ship?

;;;'*i;''

Ltd

50.

## Two Chemicals X and Y are stored rn afreezer in a laboratory at -6"C.

(a) In an experiment, ChemicalX is heated until its temperature rises by 15"C. Find the new
temperature of Chemical X.
(b) In another experiment, Chemical Iis cooled until its temperature falls by I}'C. Find the
new temperature of Chemtcal Y.
(c) Calculate the difference between the final temperatures of Chemical X and Chemical I.

51.

## Esther is searching for the telephone number of an electrician in a telephone directory.

She started at page 260. She flipped forward 150 pages, back 53 pages and forward again
183 pages. She finally located the telephone number after flipping back another 32 pages.
(a) What page can the telephone number of the electrician be found?
(b) If she then wanted to find the telephone number of a plumber which was at page 388,
how many more pages forward or back must she flip?

,ft,

i.Uy,

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

## THINI(ING S](ILLS GORNER

If the product of five numbers is positive, then,

1.

## at most, how many of the flve numbers could

be negative?

2.

Give an example of two different numbers a and b that are not rational, where
number

3.

andb*0.

36*5-1

0.6

Evaluate

is a rational

## Add bracke ts to each of the following to make it correct.

(a) l-+5 = - '< 5 - 18 + 2l - l0

(b)

+.

=6-3x2=60

('i-'i)
,f -tq
\-'z7

/&
w'

5.

F*.1 -(,?-')";]

-8

ln
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(c)

-r-ffi
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,*2-(-,+)

-t25

## (d) (-2) t -( 8) + -3(-20)-(-e)+(-5)

1-r
2

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## ,i:br= Approximation and

J S Estimation
tq::::S
aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoooaaaaaaoaaaaaaaoaaoaoaoaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Targets
.
.
.
.

## Round off numbers to a required number of decimal places.

Round off numbers to a required number of significant flgures.
Estimate the results of computation.
Understand concepts of rounding and truncation errors.

' 5fr

Approximation
mathematics problem, approximating the answer first serves as a check as
to r,vhether your actual answer is correct or not. We use rounding off to obtain an
approximation to the actual value.
When solving

## Rules for rounding off

To round off a number to a specifled place:

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Round off the following:
(a) 2836 to the nearest 10
(b) 9741to the nearest 100

(c)

SOLUTION:
More than

(a)

283

## 6 - 2840 (correct to the nearest 10)

Add

,&r

84 Sj
i{tw

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Ltd

Less than 5

I
(b)

97 :'4'

It

7 remains

Equal to 5

(c)

I
30 5 28 - 31

000

nr""ai"g"nrx"-n.

ffi

## To round off a decimal to a specifled place:

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Round off 9.6358
(a) to 3 decimal places,

(b)
(c)
(d)

to 2 decrmal places,
to 1 decimal place,
to the nearest whole number.

SOLUTION:

(a)

9.636

9.635 '\$'', =

More than

(b)

9.63'',5'8 =

9.64

(correct to

dectmal places)

t
Equal to 5

(c)

9.6'T,,58 =

9.6

10

t
Less than 5

(d)

9..6',358 =

More than

5
,*;';-B-q'-

## Chapter 3: Approximation and Estimation

SS Sr
,t'l\=.===s'

{f--.-__a

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Round off the following:
(a) 2.326 cm to the nearest 0.1 cm
(b) 5.28 cm to the nearest cm
(c) 36.45 kg to the nearest 0.1 kg
(d) 85.69 kg to the nearest kg
SOLUTION:

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

re

## cm (correct to the nearest 0.1 cm)

cm (correct to the nearest cm)
36.45 kg = 36.5 kg (correct to the nearest 0.1 kg)
85.69 kg = 86 kg (correct to the nearest kg)

2.326 cm = 2.3

5.28 cm = 5

Significant Figures
The number of digits used to denote an exact value to a specified degree of accuracy are

## called significant figures.

The table below shows some numbers expressed to a specified number of signiflcant
flgures.

## One significant figure

Trvo significant figures

1.

J.

0.003
0.071

20 800

E.g.
4.

360
48.5

6000
2t00 42 000
8.03 0.900
500

E.g.
a

12.
2t6

20

E.g.
2.

## 0.003 (1 sig. flg.),0.071 (2 sig. flg.)

Zeros following a non-zero digit after the decimal point are significant.

E.g.

## 0.900 (3 sig. f,g.), 8.700 (a sig. flg.)

,,:-:=::..

'.*-=;'lr

.{- SO

Mathematics Turor

lA

Ltd

5.

(2 sig. flg.)

t2

595

## - 12 600 (4 sig. fig.)

j

Zero issigniticant

t--

## ffi.+l.h nr""amg rn " N"*n*

To round off a number to the required number of significant figures:

1.

Count the given number of signiflcant f,gures from left to ri_eht. startin-e rvith the
first non-zero digit. Include one extra di-eit for consideratron.

2.

## If the extra digit is less than 5,

(a)

drop the extra digit and all the other di,eits to its right, or

E.g.

1.5 2 63 =

1.5

## (comect to 2 sig. fl-s.)

Less than 5

(b)

replace the extra digit and all the di-eits to its right by zeros to keep the place
value.

t
Less than 5
a

J.

If

## the extra digit is 5 or more,

(a) add 1 to the previous digit before dropping the extra digit, or
E.g. 2.3 '5 8l - 2.4 (correct to 2 sig. flg.)
t
Equal to 5

(b)

replace the extra digit and all other digits to its right with zeros to keep the
place value.

E.g.

62

15 = 63

000

More than

## Chapter 3:Approximation and Estimation

i.,ffi=

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Erpress

correct to

(a) s831
(c) 0.000 859 3
(i) 2 significant figures,
(ii) 3 signiflcant flgures.

(b) 6.04s
(d) 8s 04e

SOLUTION:
Less than 5

(a) (i)
(ii)

I
58 ,3 7 =

5800

583 ?, =

5840

t
More than

(b) (i)
(ii)

6.045 =
6.045 =

(c) (i)
(ii)

## 0.000 859 3 = 0.000

0.000 859 3 = 0.000

6.0

86

## (correct to 2 sig. fig.)

859 (comect to 3 sig. flg.)

Less than 5

(d) (i)
(ii)

850

4 9 = 85 000
t

Less than 5

fUlertm"tm"

__

1.

## Estimation is a way of predicting the answer to a question. Estimation allows us a

quick check as to whether an answer is roughly in the right range without having
to work it out exactly.

2.

## To estimate a calculation, round off each number to the number of signiflcant

flgures as necessary and estimate from there.

gi

Teacher's

Tip
iH!:*;eiii;i#;;;;i:l;i;i5;;;*l

## To estimate to 1 significant {igure, estimate to 2 significant flgures

in the working and then round off to I significant figure in the final
answer.
To estimatetoZ significant figures, estimate to 3 signiflcant figures

## in the working and then round off to 2 signiflcant flgures in

the

final answer.
Remember to work to one signiflcant figure more than required in
the final answer.

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Estimate the following, giving your answers correct to 1 significant figure.

(a)

34.867

(c)

44.89

- t9 .425

(b)

t82.3 x 0 .2036

1.53

SOLUTION:
Remember to estimate each number

=16
=

(b)

182.3

20

-36
=

40 (correct to

sig. flg.)

45
(c) 44.89
1.53= -1.5
_ 450
15

## = 30 (correct to 1 sig. fig.)

The symbol '='represents approximation. It is read as

## 'is approxirnatellr equal to'.

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Estimate the value of

.'lit4 ],lnt
"
J4.st

## , givin-g your ans\\,er correct

to I significant flgure.

SOLUTION:

hr4 , ihn

--:-=={

J:o

llt2s

J36

V1a5 =

G=

=15
20 (correct to 1 sig. flg.)

,
:

Here, we
llvlrv:
wL, l(lr.lrrLr
round \[l
35 .4 4tltt.+.JI
perfect squal-ts,
off JJ.a
and 4.51 to
tu the
LrItr ll(]illti5t
nearest lrEr"rEU[
square,
i.e. 36 = 6r and 4 22 so that we can find the values of their

sQUirre

i.e.125 =

Ltd

cube,

':#

## Rounding and Truncation Error

Calculators do not alr,vays give the exact answers. This happens because the number
of di-sits stored and used for calculation depends on the capacity of the calculator.

1.

## These tr pe of errors are called rounding and truncation errors.

s. \\'hen we use a calculator to evalu ate 2 + 3, we get either 0 .666...667 (rounding)

2.

or 0.666...66 (truncation).

Teacherts
Tip

you should

## r,vorkings in your calcurator, or

significant figures in your written

worktngs.

## to 3 sig. fig., either

store the intermediate n'orkin-qs on the calculator or round

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

{ rectan_qular

tank of height 19.86 cm, has a square base of sides 21.54 cm is half-filled
oil in the rectangular tank can flll up a cubical tank completely.

Find

)
rb r
r

it

## the r,olume of oil in the rectangular tank,

the length of the side of the cubical tank.

## Lear e )'ollr answers correct to 3 signiflcant fl,eures.

SOLUTION:

(a)

tank
Lc,'|r\
:: -', "'".;::,:sr19.86<=' x21.54x21.54x
,
'
= 4610 cm3 (correct to 3 sig. fig.)
Volume of oil in rectangular

tb

:,,:;:.*,,::::,,

I2 x2r.54x21.54x

19.86

## = 4607 '237 988i

Store in catculator.

=

## Use the vallre stored in the calculator

from part (a) or use {/4697 .

.'**F*-=-Ni

90 .+j MathematicsTutor lA
it'i\E-.'

Ltd

Tutorial
1.

## Round off the following:

(a) 32.0195 cm to 1 decimal place
(b) 105.6 kg to the nearest kg
(c) 1826 m to the nearest 10 m
(d) 833 g to the nearest 100 g

2.

## Round off the following:

(a) 6.37 cm to the nearest cm
(b) 298 g to the nearest 10 g

3.

(c)
(d)

## \$325.60 to the nearest \$10

76.498 to the nearest whole number

(a)
(b)

## Express 496 mm in cm, giving your answer to the nearest cm.

Express 20.5 kg i, g, giving your answer to the nearest g.

## Chapter 3:Approximation and Estimation

,:-S\.
R91S

-_-

l.

\\-1te each of the following numbers correct to the number of decimal places (d.p.) as stated in
the brackets.

)
)
(e )
a

1482 51 (3 d.p.)

(c

3.0548 (2 d.p.)
0.008 070 (3 d.p.)

5.

## (b) ee.s008 (2 d.p.)

(d) s68.0e6s (2 d.p.)

## (f) 0.0e8 76s (t d.p.)

Express each of the following numbers, correct to the number of significant flgures (sig. fig.)
as stated in the brackets.
(b) 0.003 198 (3 sig. fig.)
(a) 0 .0254 (2 sig. flg.)
(d) 2.893 14 (4 sig. fig.)
(c) 826 940 (3 sig. f,g.)
(f) 9.086 (2 sig. flg.)
(e) 249.s37 (1 sig. fig.)
(h) 0.000 10204 (2 sig. flg.)
(e) 73 382 (3 sig. fig.)
(i) 300 94s (3 sig. flg.)
0) 0.s30 46 (3 sig. fig.)
(1) 3.iS (4 sig. flg.)
(k) 0.0s0 98 (3 sig. fig.)

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Ltd

6.

(a)
(c)

(b)

2.0036
0.045

7.

## Write down the value of 18.049 correct to

(a) 1 signiflcant figure,
(b) 1 decimal place,
(c) 2 significant flgures.

8.

## Express 0.008 285 correct to

(a)
(b)
(c)

9.

0.000 60s 0

(d) s201.30

1 signiflcant flgure,

2 dectmal places,
3 significant figures.

## Round off 678 .5045 correct to

(a) 2 decrmal places,

(b)
(c)
(d)

3 signiflcant figures,
3 decimal places,
the nearest hundred.

Ltd

,ffi
93

ig

Bl

10. (a)
(b)

## Express 0.071 548 correct to 3 signiflcant flgures.

Express 0.071 548 correct to 5 decimal places.

11.

## Express 84.049 56 correct to

(a) 3 signiflcant flgures,
(b) 3 decimal places,
(c) the nearest hundredth.

12.

Round

13.

i.@

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

off

169.56 to

## the nearest whole number,

1 decimal place,
2 significant figures.
the nearest perfect square.

Express

(a)
(b)

## 0.080 203 m, correct to 2 signiflcant figures,

0.005 09 cm, correct to 4 significant flgures.

Mathematics Tutor

tA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

t4.

Express 207.049
(a) correct to 1 decimal place,
(b) correct to 2 signiflcant figures,

15.

## Express 3548.3003 correct to

(a) 3 signiflcant figures,

(b)

3 decimal places.

(a) 8s46

(b) 2.es1
(c)

17.

0.040 49

Express

## (a) 0.000 516 8 corect to 3 signiflcant fl-eures,

(b) 3.149 correct to 1 decimal place.
(c) 408 corect to 2 significant flgures.

## Chapter 3: Approximation and

Estimation

,.G,i

18.

Erpress
(a) +5.2509 correct to 3 signiflcant figures,
ibt 8.986 correct to 2 signiflcant figures,
(c ) 9.199 correct to the nearest whole number.

t9.

(a)

Express 328.998 correct to 4 significant figures. State the number of decimal places in

(b)

your answer.
Express 0.000 684 7 correct to 5 decimal places. State the number of significant figures
in your answer.

20.

{ffi'

'ed

## Estimate the values of the following.

(a) J:e8

(b) J8238

(c)

(d)

.,/i20.gs

(e) v?865

(0 J6rw

(g)

:l2s

(h) :,lnr%

(i)

:h.Bee

0)

:h44 s

(k),ffi

(l)

511.11

Mathematics Tutor

tA

J 2/+.09

,@

## Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Estimate the value of each of the following, giving your answer correct to 1 signiflcant flgure.

(a)

53.957 13

(c)

61.2 x 0.5045

(b)

0.0123 x 3040

(d)

(f)

75.21 +2.53

(g) 337s841
s

(h)

(u

5.02

84.95

z4.gg

38.437 05

88.3

0.0218

.99

25.01

r-9%

Ltd

## Chapter 3: Approximation and

rffi.

Estimation ifl qZ

w,

\$j

## rk) (15.996-6.001)3 x J8205

(m)

95.989

0.6023 x 9.997

(o)

Jz4% x 19.98
o.o2o32 * Vq.tt

(p)

(q)

z.otg, - 1,1%.tt3
Jsr;olz -

(r)

zrw

119.975 + 19.899

(n)

Mathemarics Tutor 1A

- 8.98
3t.99 - 2.0t1
13.203

,,D% +

5.0102

s.999

24.979

- 8.010 x1.996

3.977 + 0.995

3/78.051+ 89.998
5t.965 - 45.99

of

5.02 x..85.gs

22.

23.

24.

25.

figure.

Crzscrr

9.98

8.0496

* ^,lu.g06

9.957

of

s.sgs

"

## Jaos giving your

answer correct to 1 signiflcant flgure.
,

41.86 + 3.003

t'==SS..

I 99 S
*::=:

26.

2l

of

x25.4,givin-u
.a
S
Vzs.o:

(a)

20 .03

19

.99

68.03

719.86 x 0.50012
\v7,

--;

t--

<126.95 + 1.996

28.

29.

## Estimate. r,vithout the use of calculators. the value of

correct to 1 si_enificant flgure.

r&

({tOO}]

Mathematics Tutor 1A

63.96

x 9.03

T97S

3.of

" Jns+
giving your answer
+ t.e7 ,

:l\$.%

ltd

x
of J4L%

t9.91

30.

## Estimate the value

31.

(a)

Express each of the foliolvrn-e numbers, giving your answer correct to 2 signiflcant

(b)

figures.
0.062 s24
8e.s76
Hence, estimate the value of 89.576 x0.062 524,cortect to 1 significant figure.

(a)

32.

(b)

(i)

(i)
(ii)

V909 x o.o2o-ll

(ii)

8r8.24s
s.043

## Hence estimate, correct to 1 signiflcant figure, the value of

(i) 818.245 x 5.043,

(11) 8r8.245
to43 '

= rl

;-'

,1R..

i\$:

33.

(a)

o1 3
64

fraction.

34.

445.82t

(b)

## Estimate the value of

1.97822 x
flgure.

(a)

Express. correct to

(i)
(ii)
(b)

,,G

0.2033

, leaving

your answer as a

## , giving your answer correct to 1 signiflcant

si,enificant fl_Eures:

35-+.639

0.025 189

## Hence estimate. correct to 1 si_uniflcant figure, the value of

Mathematics Tutor 1A

354.639
0^0x 189 '

Ltd

35.

(a)

35s.6e8
8.04es

(b)

(c)

36.

(i)
(ii)
(iii) t.9s0l

## Use a calculator to find the r-alue

3 significant flgures.

of

19'96

of

of

355'6?8- 19'-0495'?

1.9507'

355'699 I-9r0a95'z
, giving your answer correct to

'9507

(a)

(b)

## Use your answer from part (a) to estimate the r alue o1

3.98

19'96-l-0'503
.

398

_=+.
Casco Publiccttiotts Pte Ltd

## Chapter 3: Approximation and Estimation rUO3Sl

-:-]

(o)

E*

{+r"
101.16 +

l(-9.2)'-

(p)

Jsffi6 -

fi0il81

36.258'- r4.oozxog28

(8.15 + 3.4)')x4.21

(r)#

,&.

## Chapter 3: Approximation and Estimation i

105Ef
.'h#s'

38.

Evaluate

39.

Use a calculator to evaluate the follorving expression, giving your answer correct to 2 signiflcant

++-=
It.t2 - v9.6

\
2
flgures.
-sivinq olrr ans\\ er corect to signiflcant

figures.

o1)'-rl-l
ffi^l(
"L(-zl
't )
0543',

40.

## Use a calculator to evaluate

0.328

, | -.(r1)'
(a)' 7' \' 2 ),, correct to 4 significant figures,

.\'
- '',l
[-'-,?'
0.362. comect to 3 decimal places.
{z.ozs - +.
(

(b)

4r

ire
Evaluate,fri?,
1

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(
(.s)'
g) - 1)'
\- t )
m,
-\is1 :!-rx

J2.

Evaluate

-E-.

43.

Evaluate

<lT2s.s6 - 3 +12'
, giving your answer correct to 5 significant flgures.
4.926 x 5.05 r

44.

(a)

6'953

_pir-ine \

( -z\

['r.,]

## (b) llTn + 1l'871

i.24 ffi

e Criicr, Pttblictttiorts

Pte Ltd

'

## chapter 3: Approximation and Estimation

...'@'

45.

7.9

(a)

(b)

46.

Evaluate .u6gl--,

-5

## Evaluate each of the tollow'ing correct to 4 significant flgures.

(7.36+2.72)3
(a)

(b)

----.

23-

-2!'3

1.152

t8

47.(a)Evaluatetheva1ue\$#,showingthefirst7digitsonthecalcu1atordisplay.

(b)

## Round off your answer in part (a) correct to 3 signiflcant f,gures.

Mathematics Tutor

tA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

48.Evaluate#fr,givingyour2nSwercoffectto3significantfigures.

+9'(a)Evaluateffi.rrrttiilg.].,,,.'tlthefirst8digitsonyourcalcu1atordisp1ai,

(b)

## Write your answer to pafi (a | .-r,rr.--t iir

significant flgures.

50.Eva1uateffi,givingyouranS\\er,--r]rTeu-ttolsigniflcantflgures.

sl.

(a)

(b)

Evaluate

3[;

#L*

z.+s,

## giving your answer correct to

tJe'-ima1 places.

## Chapter 3: Approximation and

Estimation

.l...@

52.

The mass of a bag of cherries is 83 -srams, correct to the nearest gram. Write dorvn the least
possible mass of the bag of cherries.

53.

The mass ot

(at
(b

54.

ffi,
\H'

11

bl>ket

,-rf

## durians is 35 .9478 kg. Round off this mass to

I rrin.li.rn: iglrfes.

## A rectangular wooden board measures 11 .14 m by 8.06 m.

(a) Find the area of the board, giving your answer correct to 3 significant figures.
(b) The wooden board is to be painted. The cost of paint is \$24.50 per square metre. Find
the cost of painting correct to the nearest dollar.

Ilathematics Tr-rtor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

55.

(a)

(b)

56. (a)
(b)

A nervspaper company sold an average of 1 548 975 copies a day during the month of
January. Express the average number of copies sold correct to the nearest million.
A rival company sold an average of 849 752 copies a day during the same period.
Estimate the difference in the number of copies of newspapers sold between these two
companies. giving your answer correct to 1 significant flgure.

Joshua buys 3 pens at49(, each and 5 flles at Si.99 each at the school bookshop. The

shopkeeper asks for \$12.42. Shor,v by usin,e estimation that the shopkeeper has made a
mistake.
A rectangle with an area of I 17.06 cmr has a breadth measurin g 7 .49 cm. Estimate its
length, giving your answer correct to I significant figure.

## Chapter 3:Approximation and Estimation

.*F.

tiUS

O
v
1o,
H E THINI(ING S](ILLS GORNER
A number is approximated to 3 signiflcant flgures and its value is given as 81 300.
(a) What is the smallest number it could have been?
(b) If the number is an integer, what is the largest number it could have been?

2.

(a)
(b)

3.

In the number 906 A45, A is a prime number. If its value, correct to 3 slgnificant flgures
is 906 000, find the maximum value of A.
The number357 800 is estimated correct to n signiflcant figures. Write down the possible
values of n.

Using each of the digits 2,3,5, 0 and 9, write down all integers (without repetition of digits)
which will give 3000 when corrected to 2 signiflcant figures. Give your answers in ascending
order.

,@

Mathematics Tutor

tA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

4.

5.

Estimate the value of each of the following, giving your answer correct to

(li3:

{a)

rr

rbr

\r1.i1l1x Mx9.99t2

(,1.993

12.9951

significant figure.

r/soo.os x 4e.5e

-(\,r*.Se

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

+z ioi'is

3.ee8'. )

signiflcant figure.

## Chapter 3: Approximation and Estimat

=
tli
!t

k#ry

wffi
Il-5'

:-"'-.re.%

.
.
.

(1)

Revision Er<ercise

## Chapter 1: Factors and Multiples

Chapter 2: Real Numbers
Chapter 3: Approximation and Estimation

1.

(a)
(b)
(c)

## Draw a number line to represent all natural numbers < 6.

Evaluate {t9-(-11)l x 3 - 1-a)} + r-8).
Using prime factorisation, find the square root of 7056.

2.

(a)
(b)

## Express 1960 as a product of its prime factors.

Given that 2548 = 22 x J2 x L3, find the lorvest common multiple
leaving your answer as a product of its prime factors.

(a)
(b)

## Find the HCF and LCM of 56 and 84.

Given that the HCF and LCM of 364 and M arc 52 and 728 respectively, find the smallest
possible value of M.

3.

Mathematics Tutor 1A

of 1960

and 2548,

4.

## (a) \\tite 756 as a product of its prime factors.

(b) Gir-en that 1548 rvritten as a product of its prime factors is
158-+

(c)

5.

(a)
(b)

=2tx32x11,

find the greatest integer that will divide both 756 and 1548 exactly.
Find the smallest integer k such that756k is a multiple of 1584.

## Express 5096 as a product of its prime factors.

Given that 5096p is a perfect square, write down the smallest possible integer value
of p.

6.

(a)
(b)
(c)

@ Casco

## Express 4896 as a product of its prime factors.

Given that7344 = 2o x33 x 17 ,flnd the LCM of 4896 and7344, giving your answer as
a product of its prime factors.
Find the smallest possible integer x such that 4896x is a perfect cube.

## Rer isiitn Er.-:.-

..

1.

The numbers A and B. expressed as a product of its prime factors are given below'

A=21 x

3s

11

B=2ax3x72xLl3
Express each of the follorvin-e as a product of its prime factors in index notation.
(a) Highest common factor of A and B
(b) Lowest common multiple of A and B

(c)

8.

.lA

"

V=25x32xJ
W=33xJ2x13

9.

(a)
(b)
(c)

## Find the smallest possible value of X such thatW is a perfect square,

Find the smallest possible value of I such thatWY is a perfect cube'
Find the _ereatest number that rvill divide both v and I4l exactly.

(a)
(b)
(c)

## Write 3969 as a product of its prime factors.

of J3%9 .
Find the LCM of J3g6g and 3 x 52 x

11 ,

## leaving your answer as a product of its prime

factors.

'.\sf'
'f-tft1

Mathematics Tutor

lA

10.

11.

12.

(a)

(b)

(c)

)
rb I
{c )
tdr

## Erpress 8281 as a product of its prime factors.

(a)
(b)

of l,ll7n

of ihl2f

and 23

x 32 x 7 .

of J828t
Given that9261 = 33 x7',find the value of 1,[g26t
Hence find the HCF and LCM of J828r and .,19261
Hence. find the value

## Find the value

of V587

Express I22 - I 8 and 13 + 17 as a product of prime factors in index notation. Hence, find
the HCF and LCM of 122 - 18 and 73 + 17 .

e Casco Publicatiorts

Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise

, iG

13.

A shopkeeper wants to pack 180 pencils,200 rulers and240 erasers for sale. He packed all the
items into bags rvith the same number of each type of item. Find the maximum number of bags
that he can -eet.

1-+.

Three coloured bulbs P, Q and R are set to light up after every 36 seconds, 1 minute and
1 minute 30 seconds respectively. If all three bulbs f,rst lighted up together at09 45, when will
all three bulbs next light up together again?

Mathemarics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(2)
15.

Real Numbers
Studl the numbers below to ansrver the questions.

3

16.

(a)
(b)

## Write down the perfect square( s ).

Write down the irrational nun-rber( s ).

(a)

Exoress

(b)

## Arrange the follor,vin-e in ascending order.

'6 1l

u, a recurine decimal,

rl

0.25-'.-+.0.25
a .ln
(c)

17.

in part

(b ).

## Consider the numbers below.

-3,2.,6,0, X,t.6
Write down the

(a)
(b)
(c)

integers,

rational numbers,
irrational numbers.

,@

2 -3
7and1.

18.

19.

-2+

anaZ]_.

rb

II.

eualuate

## fr * ^1r, giving your answer correct to

3

2 decimal places.

## Find the value of the following without the use of a calculator.

'3r,3-7)x(-4)+(-84)+6
f , 1.1 + 3.8 x 0.5

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

22.

23.

(a)

Eva,uate

ft)

Express

## 4i- [(_+ _ :) - (_i)]

8

fr

(_+)

as a recurring decimal.

## Study the numbers below:

I.9.-1.5,0, O,-,r+

(a)
(b)

24.

(,i)' - ,

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exer.-1.:

(3)
25.

## Approximation and Estimation

Use a calculator to evaluate each of the following. Give your answer correct to 2 decimal
places.

,o; - (,+)'
(a)

(' u, -"1)
(b)

(-3)'

- s'

7T

26.

l-.

(a) 0.030 45

(b)
(c)

2.4986

(a)
(b)
tc )

8s 487

## Estimate the value of 3989.43 + 4.9995 correct to 2 significant flgures.

Write down the value of 17.049 correct to
(i) one significant flgure,

(ii;

MathemarirxTutor

lA

28.

(a)

## Arrange the following numbers in ascending order.

-0.3g,-0.3g3, -0.38
(b)

30.

(a)

. -0.:s3

h?

29.

'. -E
11

x 149.9096
49.567

.899

(b)

## Write 0.039 56 correctto 2 decimal places.

Express 81 645 correct to 4 significant figures.

(c)

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

nt

of

2.043

* JtS.Ot x9.95

30162

-24.96x4.02

3 996 x 25 '03
correct to the nearest inte_eer.
2.499 x 2.01t

Revision Exercise

(al

Erpress

(i)

(ii)
(b)

32.

-:

-:

295.13

o.ozs 43

## correct to 2 signiflcant flgures.

Hence, estimate the value of 295.13 x 0.025 43,corcect to 1 significant flgure.

The average mass of 6 pupils is 54.0196 kg. Express this average mass correct to
(a) 2 decrmal places,
(b) 2 signiflcant figures,
(c) the nearest integer.

MxrmairxTutor

of

1A

Jz4.B% x 3.0472
{26.os

34.

35.

(a)

36. (a)
(b)

.
fi01r 1 x 4.967

in_q )

## Estimate the following correct to 2 significant fisures.

(ii)
(iii)
(b)

of

2.4967
4s 438

Hence,estimatethevalue

## Estimate the value

of

ot

"t

*'L:?;!u'.eivine)ourans\\-ercorrectto 1signiflcant

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

of

., -tLr.-r

0,198.

Revision Exercise

, l,*;51

^il)
--l - ,i.o)*
,;
Vrzr g
3r

31

flgures.

38.

0.8162

0.075

## giving your answer correct to 2 si-enificant

9'22 +

'611 ' showing all the digits ot'fl you. calculator display'
23.36-ffi

(a)

Evaluate

(b)

39.

(b)

7,63

^tL4
(c)

x 4J2

(-0.2s)

.l
,Z

="

[-i)'.(-,,i)

'.*.'-"fiGB'

''

':J

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

.Fot

lntroduction to Algebra

--

ffi

oaaaaoooaoaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaoaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

i .

numbers.

i .
i '
i

## Evaluate algebraic expression and formula.

i :_::"::::"_::::':i::l:1'::_Y1.1':t:1
_

Fffi

urmg

1.

1t-'::11:-:::::::1:"::

r.tt.rr t" n.

E.g.

-=

a bag.

## If there are 5 bags, then the total number of apples is 5 x n.

5 x n can be any whole number value.
It can be 5, 10, 15, .... depending on the value of n. t.e. n = I,2,3, ....
Here, n is called the variable and 5 x n is called the algebraic expression.

2.

## A variable is a letter that is used to represent some unknown numbers/quantity.

E.g. x,!, Z, a,b, P, Q,... are variables.

3.

## An algebraic expression is a collection of terms connected by the signs '+',

'x'or'+'.
E.g. 3x + y, a2 - ab and 2x2 + 3x - 4 are algebraic

expressions.

ie,aIgebraicexpressiondoesnothaveanequalsign(=).

i
,

## An algebraic expression is different frorn an algebraic equation.

An equation is a mathematical statement that says that two
E.g. A

lb is an equation.
l

I4il}
128;j

Algebraic Notations

Ltd

2.

## The examples below show how we rewrite mathematical statements as algebraic

expressions.

Words

Algebraic expression

Add a to b.

Sum

-a+b

=b+a
Difference-d-c

Subtract c from d

Note:

- e x.f

Multiple eby f.

Product

Divide S by h.

Quotient-g+h

(h+0)

=-h
pq+3

and q.

Cost of x books

## and y magazines if each

book cost \$4 and each

=\$4xx

## magazine costs \$5.

= \$4x
Cost of y magazines

=\$5xY

Total cost

i
3.

d-c*c-d

=\$sY

## In Algebra, we use the same index notation as in Arithmetic.

Index notation
Recall: 5 x 5 x 5 =

i'*lnder
+
I

Base
-l
is read as '5 to the Dower of 3'.
5'
I

In Algebra,
a

## a x a = a' (Read as'o squared'.)

a x a x a =a'' (Read as'o cubed'.)
a x ax a x a x a = a5 (Read as'a to the power of 5'.)
1

:i:i,ilrii:ti::+;:ru:i':liirl:lii:

ii':l,i

. ij,,:i,,:i:il,

r'.

:,,

,;;5GH

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra i{.129S
"..\.=-,.

G\
--=&\ WORKED EXAMPLE

1:

(a) 3xx4y+62
(b) 2ax3bxa
(c) 5p+L)q+7sx2
SOLUTION:

(a)

3xx4y+62

=3xxx4xy+62
=3x4xxxy+62
-12ry+62
*y
-',ti
-r

,,6'

_2*

* (6o)'
6a2=6xaxct
6a2

(b)

(6a)'=(6a)x(6a')
= 36a2

2ax3bxa

=2x3xax axb
- 6azb

## Perform division and multiplication

(c) 5p+l)q+'/sx2
=

befbre addition.

5p

loq + l4s
p.1

= ^/.q + t4s

'

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Write an algebraic expression for each of the following statements.
(a) Subtract 3 from the sum of 5a and 4b.
(b) Add the product of c and d to the cube of e.
(c) Multiply 2 to the quotient of/divided by g.

SOLUTION:

(a)
(b)

Sum of 5a and 4b
Required expression

Productofcand d

5a + 4b
5a + 4b

-3

=cxd
=cd

Cube of

=exexe
=e'

Required expression = cd +

Mathematics Tutor 1A

e3

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(c)

Quotient of/divided by
Required expression = 2

I - T6o
t
x

_,f6

1.

'

## To evaluate an algebraic expression, we substitute a number for the variable and

carry out the computation.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Evaluate
(a) 3a + 2b - 4c,
(b) a(Zb - c) - 3b2,

(c)

a a*b
-r--t
DAC

SOLUT!ON:

(a)

## When a=4,b =2andc - -3,

3a + 2b - 4c = 3(a) + 2(2) - 4(-3)

-t2+4+12
-28
(b)

a=4,b-2andc--3,
a(z b - c) - 3 (z)'
When

"'

==y!i)t
(c)

When

a=4,b =2

- -3,
4+2

and c

a a+b

4
b- * =r- 4J\
-) -f-!-)
\-t2 )
_1

=r*,

_nl

## Cusco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

,,ffi

2.

## E.g. e= *2 bh rsthe formula to flnd the area of a triangle where

Area. b = base

and h = height.

woRKED EXAMPLE2:
Given the formula S =

n(a

--t
2

l),

## flnd the value of S whe n n = 18, a

- -6 and l=

15.

SOLUTION:

o_n(a*l)
2

When n - 18, a
c_
-r-

l8l(-6)+

=-6

and I

= 15,

15l

.2

='_lt2l
= 8l

ffi

rtr"ttrtt"gst*pt.
.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Write an algebraic expression for each of the following.
(a) The price of a pen is \$3 and the price of a flle is \$5. Find the total price of x pens
and y files.
(b) Bobby had \$500. He bought a camera and 2 badminton rackets. The camera cost Sp
and the rackets cost \$q each. How much money had he left?

SOLUTION:

(a)

Cost of x pens = \$3 x x
= \$3x
Cost of y flles = \$5 x y

= \$5y
Total cost = \$(3x + 5y)
(b)

=\$p
Always'plaee.*umb,ir'ih.frontt.Cost of 2 rackets = \$q x 2
- \$2q
-,'
Amount of money left = \$(500 - p - 2q)

il

\lathernatics Tutor 1A

Ltd

## WORKED EXAM PLE 2:

The mass of Mr Tan is 5x kg.
(a) He is 8 kg lighter than Mr Kamal. What is Mr Kamal's mass?
(b) Mr Tan is 4 kg heavier than his wife. What is his wife's mass?
(c) Mr Tan is twice as heavy as his daughter and five times as heavy as his son. What
is the total mass of his daughter and his son?

SOLUTION:

(a)
(b)
(c)

## Mr Kamal's mass - (5x + 8) kg

Wife's mass - (5x - 4) kg
Daughter's mass = 5x + 2

= 5x,
r*g
-

2.5x kg

Son's mass = 5x + 5
5x
5

-xkg
Total mass of daughter and son

=25x+x
= 3.5x kg
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Lisa bought 3 bags of apples. There were p apples in each bag.
(a) Write down an expression in terms of p for the number of apples she bought.
(b) Her family ate q apples. She then placed the rest of the apples equally into 5 bowls.
Write down an expression in terms of p and q for the number of apples in each
bowl.

SOLUTION:

(a)

-3p

(b)

-3p -

=3P-q
5

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

ffi

Tutorial
1.

## Write an algebraic expression for each of the following statements.

Algebraic Expressions

Statements

(b)

(c)

v.

(d)

(e)

32.

)z

(0

and

y from

)z
2\t.

## Subtract the quotient of x divided by y

from the square of z.

## Thrice the value of x divided bY the

sum of 2y and 32.

i,r+

\{athematics Tutor 1A

Ltd

t.

## Write an algebraic expression for each of the following statements.

(a) Find the total cost of m cups and n plates if each cup costs \$3 and each plate costs \$4.

(b)

Find the total cost of 7 bars of wafers at p cents each and q packets of sweets at \$1 per
packet.

(c)

John has \$100. He bought n comic books at \$9 each. How much money had he left?

(d)

The cost 3 caps is \$x. Find the cost of 5 caps. Each cap costs the same.

(e)

Find the sum of three consecutive odd integers rvhere x is the greatest integer.

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

iffii

(f)

Janet is x years old. Sarah is 3 times as old as Janet. Ronald is 2 years younger than
Sarah. How old is Ronald?

(g)

## Benjamin soldp durians at \$q each. How much did he get altogether?

(h)

Abox has mbig cans andn small cans. There are 6 peaches in a small can and 8 peaches
in a big can. How many peaches are there in the box altogether?

(i)

Pauline has \$2000 now. She saves \$20 each month. How much
time?

(j)

## The average mass of 3 boxes is x kg.

total mass of the 4 boxes?

Mathematics Tutor 1A

will

(k)

## Find the area of a rectangle of length 8 cm and breadth y cm.

(1)

Maria ts m years old. Jiali is twice as old as Maria. How old was JtaliT years ago?

(m)

A car salesman received a f,xed salary of \$500 each month. He gets a commission of
\$150 for each car he sells. In a certain month he sells n cars.How much is his salary that
month?

(n)

## Jonathan had \$200. He bought some T-shirts at \$10 each.

T-shirts did he buy?

(o)

A shopkeeper packed n packets of jam tarts into each box. There are
packet. How many jam tarts are there in m boxes?

Ltd

If

15

## jam tarts in each

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

ffi

(a) 6xaxb

(b) 7 xpxpxp

(c)

## (d) (-3) x (-sq)

9x x 4y

(e) 5x+y

(0

(g)

(h) 2dxex4d

1lr + 1ls

(-3a)xZb x (-5c)

Mathematics Tutor 1A

?9m) + 3n

Zpqx 3r x

Ltd

## (k) (-2ab) x 3b x (-s)

\mx5n+l)p

(1) axZb

(n)

-,
l-'Lm)- x 5n x3m

3x

+c

8x2

(-3p)'xZp + q + 4s

## (q) (,-Za) x (-3a) x (-o)'

(r)

2p + (-3q) + (-r)

(s)

(0

(3ab)2

## A Casco Publications Pte Ltd

4a + (-Zb)

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

tffi

1.

,,@

Given

## each of the following.

(c) 2a2-3a+4

(4b)'

(a)

2a3

(d)

3-c

(g)

(a + l)2

(h)

(2b

U),c3 +2c

(k)

(c + 2)2

Mathematics Tutor 1A

(b)

(0

7b + (-2a)

(r)

._y

T3

6b

Ltd

5.

6.

(a) a+2b+3c

(b)

(c) c(a-

(d) b'-ac+c'

Given that x

b)

2, y

6x+32

4, evaluate,.

(d)

## @ Casco Publicatiorts Pte

and z

(b) xy - yz

(a) x-2y

(c)

- -8

a'bc

Ltd

..F

*/

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

ffi

## It a = 3. b = 5 and c = -2, evaluate:

7.

8.

(a)

abc

(c)

2a2

(a-b)3 + c3

a2c

3bc

T2
rfp- ,,q=
3

andr=

i (a) pqr
!

(c)

141

5c2

p
q

Mathematics Tutor 1A

, evaluate:

(b) p+r-q

(d) p(8 -

6q)

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

9.

Given

thata- -2,b -3

and c = 6, evaluate:

(a)

b(Za + 3) + Za(c

- 3b)

(o

(c) "h"'b'

10.

Given that x

(a)

- b)'

5a-l3b-(2c+7b-a)+acl

+ (xyz)'

xz-y-2n 2x+32
3- - -2.

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(b)

2(5xy

yz + xz)

+Zy(xz+32')

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

,ffir,

11

## Find the value of y in each of the following.

(a) !=a(3a-4);
Given: a =

(c) y=:U;

Given:

22

.
m -n
(e/
y = *:-;
mn
Given'.nt=8,n=2

(g) )=

F-----

V12ab,;
Given: a=3,b=-2

ffi

Mathematics Turor 1A

(b) y-(x+p)(Zx-p-I);
Given: x=6,p=4

b--3

(d)

,=ffi;

Given:

e=2

(f) y-!*!*L,
pqpq
Given:

p=2,q= !
4

(h) y=(x-p)u*';
Given: x=2,p=_I

Ltd

n(n +

l)

12.

13.

t4.

## The formula for the volume V of a cone of radius

Calculate the value of V

15.

,findthevalueof vwhen

if r -

6 cm, h

and height

14 cm and z =

Ltd

22

7'

## @ Casco Publications Pte

..
hrsV= ,I ftr'- lt

and r =

-1.

.,1&r
tfu14s\$j
\]:i!s#1

16.

## Write an algebraic expression for each of the statements below.

(a) Add 3x to the product of 5x and 4y.
(b) Divide the sum of the square of p and 7 q by 8r.

t7.

(a) 4ab xJazbc
(b) 2Ode2 + 5def
(c)

18.

g'h'

.,'

gk4

th

3k3

a
(a) 2b*

--)
5a-b
8

## (b) (-+ ra) x ?rpr) x (-6qr)

(c)

.@

4m'no

3mn (m \'

+; "lz^)

Mathematics rutor 14

Ltd

19.

Given that x

20.

Given that x

3,y = 4

and z =

z).

2x-9yz

,\
(a)6,
(b)

2I.

y(32

If a= 3.5,b -

x3 )

## = 1,d =2 and e= 3, find the values of

-?,c
3

(a) 2a - be - cd,
(b) 3at2c
,t -b'

22.

(b)

-5 and c - -2,

evaluate

ab

D_C

(br)' - a'.

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

ffi

a1

,/-3.

- 2,! - 1
,ry
(a) - +
.,-. ): 3(x+y)_z
ro/
.
Gir en that x

and z

-3,evaluate

l/

" -

^ x
lz.+

x- -3, y = 18 and z =

24.

Given that

25.

## Given that p = 4, e - -3, r = -2,s = 1 and

(a) pq(Zq - 3r - rst),

(b)

26.

1+8

tP

*'

),nnathe

t-

value

,, +!-

-1, evaluate

## Given that p = 4, e = 2 and r

Mathematics Tutor 1A

I)'

Ltd

)7.

28.

## Given that a - -3, b -

29.

Given that a = 1, b

(c)

-T

t:
D+C

y3 when -r =

-3. J = -1 and :

3b2

-2

^) - &(5 - c).- -)
(a) 2a.
u-b
a
\u,

30.

(xz)'-

and c = 3, evaluate

- l.

a3

Jzc-a

and c = 3, evaluate

*nbtx3ac+6bi.
5

Given thatp

.lL*L

(a)

Vq 4q'

(b)

(p

-3q)o*'

## @ Casco Publicariorts Pte

Lt,l

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

,i.FF\

',il4\$
'=S::-:-

31.

(a)

(b)
(c)
(d)

32.

,.1

JJ.

- -3,b --2
a'-zb'+4c,

Given thal a

and c

= 1.5, evaluate

(3a-b+2c)2,
a-f 8c

b'
1 t+,
b

3b\.

## String A is 10 cm shorter than String B.

(a) If the length of String A is h cm, express the length of String B in terms of ft .
(b) If the length of String B is k cm, write down a formula connecting h and k.

## Jack is 6 years older than Annie. Sam is twice as old as Jack.

Let Annie's age be r years old. Express in terms of x,

(a)
(b)

(i)
(ii)

Jack's age,
Sam's age.
Paula's age is half the total age of Jack, Annie and Sam. Let Paula's age be y years old.

## Write down a formula connectin g x and y .

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

34.

The cost of x doughnuts and y cupcakes are \$p and \$q respectively. Express in terms of
andlor q,
(a) the cost of 1 doughnut,
(b) the cost of 1 cuPcake,
(c) the total cost of 10 doughnuts and 15 cupcakes.

x,y,P

35. A ticket for an adult visiting an art -eallery costs x dollars. A ticket for a child ii--rStS
5 dollars less than an adult's ticket.

(a)
(b)

36.

## Write down in terms of x the cost of a child's ticket.

MrTan took his three children to the art gallery. Find, as simply as possib'le.lhe t,rlil
cost, in dollars, of the four tickets.

Timothy is -r years old. His sister, Pamela, is 3 years younger than him. His mother is
three times as old as he is. His father is 19 years older than Pamela. Write dorvn an expression
for

(a)
(b)
(c)

Pamela's age,
his father's age,
his parent's age.

## @ Casco Publicatiotts Pte

Ltd

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

ffi

37

## Jacqueline bought x doughnuts and 9 more tarts than doughnuts.

(a) Write down in terms of x an expression for the number of tarts that she bought.
(b) Each doughnut cost 500 and each tart cost 309. Find as simply as possible, in terms
x, an expression for the total cost of the doughnuts and tarts she bought.

38.

At a grocery

39.

## Linda is x years old. She is 5 years older than Daisy.

(a) Write down an expression in terms of x for Daisy's age.
(b) Find the average age of both girls.

,ffi.
ffi;

of

store, a packet of flour cost \$x and 5 pears cost \$y. A loaf of bread cost 80p
more than a packet of flour. Express in terms of x andlor y,
(a) the cost of a pear,
(b) the cost of a loaf of bread,
(c) the total cost of 10 packets of flours, 20 pears and 5 loaves of bread.

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

40.

shop sold a raincoat for \$15 and an umbrella for \$20. In January the shop sold
3x raincoats and (2x + 7) umbrellas. Write down and simplify an algebraic expression
in terms of r. for the amount, in dollars, the shop received from the sale of raincoats and

umbrellas in January.

4t.

r
(br
(a

42.

## of eggs. There were n eggs in each carton.

\\-rlte dorvn an expression in terms of n for the number of eggs she bought.
\\-ncn the cartons were opened, she found that m eggs were broken. She shared the
unlroken eggs equally between 50 baskets. Write down in term of n and m,Ihe number
-'. es-ss in each basket.

## paper files. Each box

in
terms
of n for each of the
expression
-t
paper
an
packets
files.
Write
down
of
contains

follou-ing.

(a)
(b)
(c)

@ Casct, F.,:'

## The number of packets of paper files bought by the office.

The number of packets of paper flles each department received if 9 departments in the
office shared the packets of paper files equally.
The number of paper f,1es each department received if theie were 50 pieces of paper
files in each packet.

Chapter 4: Introduction to

Algebra

-s*\.
''\-,..

i{tS:-==i:

:
:

## ro THINI(ING S](ILLS GORNER

1.

Peter pfip marbles into q bottles. Each bottle contains the same number of marbles, with three
marbles remaining. Write down an expression in terms of p and q for the number of marbles
there are in each bottle.

2.

The total cost, \$C, of placing an advertisement in a magazine consists of a fixed charge of \$5
and an additional charge of 20 cents per word used. John wants to place an advertisement in
the magazine.If it contains n words, write down a formula connecting C and n.

3.

## The recipe for making chicken stew is given below.

'Boil for half an hour for each 250 g of chicken and simmer for an additional 20 minutes.'
How long do you need to cook a chicken that has a mass of x kg? Give your answer in minutes.

'r@

Mathematics rutor 1A

Lttl

## .t hP .Jb" Algebraic Manipulation

a aa aa....

! r.

...

..

. a a a a r r a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

+fi

Targets
Lt.y
\./
.

---- : - .

.-::- ,-.:;lli1;

e\DfeSSlOnS.
I

- -:ll-: - J\.ilie\SiOIlS.

o*n
1.

iuo

--

--

'x' or '+'.

I
E--e. 2

si-ens

'+-- --

E-g.

2.

## The algebraic expression9p + 7 has 2 terms: 9p andT

In the term 3x, the numerical part 3 is called the coefficient of x. In ofrerr,uds.
the constant that is attached in front of a variable or a group of variables is calH
the coefficient.

E.g.

## tn the term 4y, 4 is the coefflcient of y.

In the term x, 1 is the coefficient of r.
a2
In the term -7p',-7 is the coefficient orp

I ob,

l,thetrrrm ,
E.g

3.

## - 4xy has 2 terms.

(-4xY)
+
=
l.rr and -lxy are the two terms.
The coefflcient of x2 is 2.
The coefflcient of xv is -4.
t.rt

J-r1'

2x2

The algebraic term that does not have a variable attached to it is called the constznr

term.
E.g. I

E.9.2

## In the expression 6y - l, the constant term is - 1 .

Mathematics Tutor 1A

,=i

In short:
term

term

9x'

tl'

I
I

9 is the
coeflicient

term

nv

of

-1 is the
coeflicient
of

-r.

-11 is the
constant term.

-v.

4.

Algebraic terms that have the same variables where each variable has the same
power are called like terms. They may differ in their coefflcients.

5.

If two terms

6.

Examples of some like terms and unlike ter?ns are shown below.

are not like terms, then they are called unlike terms.

Like terms
x,

-2x

and

-x
J
a

Unlike terms
5x and

4x2

6x and 9y

6x2,9t

and -2x2

{-..

3x2 and 6x

7x2 and 8y
2x2 and 6xy

xy,-Zxy and

-l*'y,

lxY

5,3,-Z a"a

All constants

2x2y and 3ry2

-l

and a

## are like terms.

1.

To simplify an algebraic expression, we collect all the like terms together. Only
like terms can be added or subtracted.

8.

E.g.

3a+5a=8a

## E.g.2 9y' - 3y' = 6y'

E.g.3 4ax-7ax+Sax=2ax
e Ctsco Publications

Pte Ltd

Chapter

5:

Algebraic Manipulation

'ffi

="%

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

Simplify

(a)
(b)

2x+3y+5x+7Y,
Lay

+ 4y +

t + laY - 5Y -7.

SOLUTION:

(a)

2x+3Y+5x+7Y

- 2x + 5x + 3y + 7y
'We
- 7x + 10y

(b)

## 'Heru since 7x + 10y .un r*i.b,e @inaa

,any'fUrrher, ?x and 107,are unlike.terms;' '"'' ' I '

+rr + |2 ay - 5Y -7
-8ay*;oy+4y -5y+ ll-7
8ay

+ 4y

.L

.vi+ +

_2-"r
=8iay-\,+4

ffi
.%,

ec,t!! ,1e

-:,,,
a\!
#;.r1,;;,1,

## raamr" r"o s"nt.

Recall that only like terms can be added or subtracted.

WoRKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify
(a) (3x + 7y) + (9x - 4y),
(b) (8p - s) - (3p - 6).
SOLUTION:

f-i8

(a)

(3x

(b)

(8p

## - 4y) -- Remove brackets'

=3x+ly+9x-4y
i,togeth0n,= 3x + 9x + 7y - 4y *--.:eol li&,,te
-lZx+3y
+

7y) + (9x

## - 5) - (3p - 6) '-8p-5-3p+6 <-- 8p - 3p - 5 + 6

=5P+l

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Ra.mo+e'uiackati

## Collect like terms'1oge1!+.'

r'to:\$e.ther;

, 1. If the sign before the brackets is o+', then the signs remain the
same when the brackets are removed.
,
,
E.g. 1+(2c*3b)=l+2a-3b
:

...2.IfthesignbeforethebracketsiS.*'thenthesignsneedtobe

removed

## E.g. p-(5q -s)= l-5q+s

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:

(a)
(b)
(c)

## F'ind the sum of 3x - 4y , 5x + 6y and 9y - 2x.

Subtract p - 4q - 7r from 8p - 5q + r.
Subtract -m-3nfromthe sum of 4m-IIn + 6 and

2m-9n-5.

SOLUTION:

(a)

Sum

## - aD + (5x + 6y) + (9y - 2x) <-- Remove brackets.

=3x-4y+5x+6y+9y-2x
- 3x + 5x - 2x - 4y + 6y + 9y <- Collect like terms together.

(3x

=6x-lly
(b)

Difference = (8p

(c)

## Sum- (4m- lln + 6) + (2m-9n-5)

Removebrackets.
- 5q + r) - @ - aq _ 1r)
-Bp-5q+r-p+4q+7r
= 8p - p - 5q + 4q + r + 7r <-,Collectlike terms together'
-Jp-q+8r

=4m-lln+6+2m-9n-5
= 4m + 2m - Iln - 9n + 6 - 5
-6m-20n+l
Difference - (6m - 20n + 1) - (-m - 3n)
=6m-20n + 1 + m+3n

=6m+m-20n+3n+l

='7m*lln+l
q

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
The length of the sides of a triangle are (3x + y + 1) cm,(2x
(a) Find the perimeter of the triangle in terms of x and y.
(b) Find the perimeter when x = 3 and y - -1.

SOLUTION:

(a)

L ,i

Perimetev

## -(3x+y +l)+(2x-3) + (5y+ 8)

-3x +y+ l+2x-3+5y+8
=3x+2x+y+5y+1*3+8
-(5x+6y+6)cm
Chapter 5: Algebraic Manipulation

ffi
.'-/

(b) Whenx=3andY--1,
Perimeter = 5(3) + 6(-1) + 6

= 15 -6+6
=15cm

W,

1.

E.g. 8x - llx

## - 3(2x- 1)l = 8x - (2x - 6xr

3)

=8x-(-4x+3)
=8x+4x-3

=lZx-3
are glven

2.

.-d(tr,+-r)

a(x-Y)=ax-aY
a,(x+y+z)-ax+a))+az

-a(x-))= -ax+aY

;''; - *
E.g. t 4(a - 5)
- 4(a) - 4(s)
=4a-20
-.ts'"'_*.*_s

8.g.2

,;'; 'r,;,d;

a(x+Y)=ax+at-

f.*

'k

Multiply

bY
J

4'

'&

3(2i + 5y - 4z)
= 3(2x) + 3(5y)

- 3(42)

-6x+l5y-l2z
,.+iif-"-^-r'.

E.g.

Zp(q - irl
= Zp(q) - 2p(3r)

= Zpe

- 6p,

## is multiplied b1' a numbe: -:

a variable, multiply each term inside the brackets br. the nuil:'-:
or the variable when the brackets are removed. The plt'rCi': '

## removing brackets and writing out the result term

called expansion of algebraic expressions'

160

Mathematics Tutor 1A

br lil:-.

-:

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Expand the following.
-3(6x - 7y + 3z)

(a)
(b)

8x

- 4(-2x + 8)

SOLUTION:
*-..*s:T.--__:-

fl-*8\

(a)

-3(6x - 7y + 3z)
= -3(6x) - (-3)(7y) + (-3)(32)
= -18x + Zly - 9z

(b)

8x - 4(-2x + 8)
= 8x - a?Zx) - 4(8)

.,*G*^-k

=8x+8x-32

=l6x-32
fl=
--__.rj,==
\

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:

Simplify
(a) 5x +3(x +2) -(2x - 5) - 9,
(b) 8p - 3{aq - Zlq - s(p - q)l}.
SOLUTION:

(a)

- (2x - 5) - 9
=5x+3x+6-2x+5-9
5x + 3(x + 2)

-5x+3x-2x+6+5-9

-6x+2
(b)

8p-3{4q-Zlq-s(p-d|}
- 8p - 3l4q - 2(q - 5p + 5q)1
- 8p - 3l4q - 2(6q - sp)l
- 8p - 3(4q - IZq + 10p)
- 8p - 3(-8q + t}p)
-8p+24q-30p
= -22p + 24q

3.

fractions.

Ltd

3'g

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Manipulation

ffi

%s.

woRKED EXAMPLE 3:
1o-

Simplifv 1'---

?,

x-2

t,

LJ)

SOLUTION:

3(2x - 3)
=-- 15

5(x

2)

15

3(2x-3)+5(x-2)
15

6x-9+5x-10
15

llx - t9
_-----=I5

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:

Simplify 1 -

_ 2(3x - t)

SOLUTION:

r-!

_ 2(3x - t)
a

x
66
6-x-aQx-l)

_ 4(3x-1) *--,'TheLeM,'of

,6.and 3

iS6,

6-x-l2x+4
10

13x

,ffij

Mathematics rutor 1A

## @iiCasco Publications Pte

IJd

WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
Express

2x-l
_+

x*2
a-

a single fraction.
-as
4

SOLUTION:

2x-1.

x*2

3 - 6 -4

- 4(x.!2)
t2 -

2(21- 1)

12 * *12

## TheLCMof 3.6 andlis

12.

_ 4(x+2)-2(2x-l)+3x
t2

4x*8-4x+2+3x
t2
3x+10

=-

12

1.

factors.

2.

## We factorise by extracting common factors.

,ax+qlia: +I)'''

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Factorise the following.
(a) 3x - 12
(b) 5y + 202
(c) 4ax - I6ay
(d) pq + Zpr - ps

SOLUTION:

(a)

terms

3r - 1 z
= 3(.r) - 3(4)

## <-| Write each term as a product of the common

J\'\y - /_\
-t-i*1"#-.fil"JilffiJ?:T:li:th
- ?(
; - factor 3 and its remaining factor.
I

Factorise.

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 5: Algebraic

Manipulation i{.163S
.r...-._l

(b)

5y + 2Oz

.--.fhe,'eCI

faotor is 5.

= 5(y) + 5(42)
= 5(y + 4z)
(c)

4ax

l6ay

<-The

comm*

ri+iart 'i

- 4a(x) - aa(aY)
= 4a(x - ay)
Remember to factor out all cornmon factors'
4ax

(d)

16ay
" = 4(ax

## pq + Zpr - ps --- p(q) + p(Zr) - P(s)

to be factorised
4ay) .-.---._* This needs
turther' It is not complete'

ThE cot.rrrnon,faeffi

irB,

=p(q+Zr-s)

%,

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Factorise each of the following'
3a(2x - 5) - aQx - 5)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

8p(4Y

- 1) - @Y - r)

6q(5x - 4) - 5x + 4
Zx(a + 2b - c) 5Y(a + 2b

c)

SOLUTION:

(a)3a(2x_5)_a(2x_5)<_-Thecommonfactoris2x-5.

- (2x - 5)Ga - a)

(b)

## - @y - t) <-- 8p(4y - 1) - (l)(ay - 1)

gp( y-

= (4y

(c)

The commo,

1)

- 1X8p - 1)

*ffiart,1]",''
,,,,,

d+v';:\$as',(tft+v";4

-''

6q(5x-4)-5x+4
=\$q(5x_4)_(1X5x_41.--Thecommonfactoris5x_4.
= (5x - 0(6q - l)
Zx(a + 2b

- (a + 2b -

Mathematics Tutor 1A

c)

c)(Zx

5y(a + 2b

c)

---

- c'

5Y)

## @ Casco PubLications Pte

li

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:

(a)
(b)

Factorise mx + my.
Hence, evaluate 62

8765 + 38

8765.

SOLUTION:

(a) mx+my=m(x+y)
(b)

x 8765 + 38 x 8765
8765(62
+ 38)
= 8765(100)
= 876 500
62

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Factorise completely

(a)
(b)
,\
(c)

- 2Oa2b2c3 + 5abc,
- + 9x(x - 2),
I z ^
zyz-.
,r'-z -

75a2bc

3(x

2)2

SOLUTION:

(a)

I\azbc

(b)

ZOa'b'c3 + 5abc

5abc(3a

- 4abc2 + 1)

= 3(x

2)l4x

2)

--

## The common factor

oris
:. :.:,:.,. ,:.::,, ii iij,,,,:i:.

i:

Sabc.

3(r-2)

,,:,

continueJlfactllise
il'

'i:';r:' :l;'r'r;r'rnlii:'rliiri1ilf:

-6(X-2)(2X-l)rirql

is

l,
- )W(l -

## e'Casco Publications Pte Ltd

4z)

--

The:cornmon factor

ir |'w.

Chapter 5: Algebraic

Manipulation

,F%.,

'W*\$

Tutorial
1.

Write down the coefficient of x and the constant term in each of the following.

Algebraic expression

Coefficient of x

Constant term

(a) 3x'+5x-4
(b) 8x-9x2 +7
(c) -2f+ll-x
(d) 8ry-+x-,
I

t .,1
Simplify each of the following.

2.

,:-.f"tR=i:'

i\$,166

(a) 8x+5y-3x-4y

(b) -3a-6b+8a+8b

(c) 5u-9v-6w-v

(d) 7p+3q-5r-7q+3P

## "i. Mathematics Tutor lA

"F'+o**qo.'

@ Casco

Pulrlir,,t,,',' '

-9+5pq-9pq+16

(g)

(k)

9ab

5cd + 12cd

- 3ab

6x-8y+3x-5y-1

(h) -3+mn-4mn-Zmn-ll

2l^l
3x- rPr-zx+ 4P*

6h-4sh-

## l.5m + 3.6n-2.5m + 6.ln

15
t2
3*+ 6!-5x- ,v + 5*

Ltd

!n*

lsn

,&'

## Simplify each of the following.

.a

(a) (3x -

4y)

- (5x + 2Y)

(c)

(-6p -7q)

(e)

Add 8x - 5y - 3z
to -6x + 7y - 42.

(g)

- (-3P + 4q)

(d) (, -

(f)

Subtract 2x

- 5Y + 9

Mathematics Tutor 1A

i.

rr) * (z* -

## Find the sum of 9x

- 4Y,

6y+7zandLx-lTz.

(h)
fromx+8y-7.

ffi

(b) 2x-(4x-5y+z)

Subtract 3x

- 7Y from the

sumof5x-8Y +7zand

6y-4x-32.

@ Casco

Publicrtr:"'' :-- -

4.

(a) 3a x (-5b)

(b)

-+""(.1)

(c) 15 + (-5y)

(e) :)px8q

(f) -Zpqx3rx(-6)

(g)

2a x 5a x (-4b)

## C Casco Pttblications Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Algebraic

Manipulation

ffi

(i)

(k)

2a x 3ab x (-7 c)

;. #

u) t;,)

(l)

"(-6v)x(-32)2

## (-z7p) + (-e) x (-Zq)

(n) :t-udb'

(o) .M"^b'

r;+J:nr\i.

.i

tZO

i;

'h**f;'

Mathematics Tutor I A

(p) {rsFf

O Crt.sr,, Ptri'

(a)

3(2x

(c)

5(4x + 3y)

(e)

-e(-Zh

(b)

5)

(d) (6k -

ax)

1)(-3)

(f) 5(3a-b+2c)

3)

2Q

iG)

## (8x- t2i.+ 2ot(-r)

\ 4)

Chapter 5: Algebraic

';1F';AEi;i

Manipulation i{ tZl.i:
'il5-\r-l:1..!

6.

(a)

8p-3(2p+4)

## (c) tZt - 5(t - 3)

(b) 2r - 3(s - r)

## (d) 3(x + 4) + 5(2x - t)

,ffi

'W

i 172 \$l

(e) 7(2x-3y)-4(x-5Y)

(f)

## (g) 2m - 3n - 5(m - 4n)

(h) 5(c+2d-e)+3c-4e

p(Zx -7)

- 3p(-x + 5)

@ Casco

Prti,lit,,

'

## Simplify the following.

(a) 3(2a-b)+5(a-4b)

(e)

2(2a + 3b)

(fl

3(x

2y)

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

3(a

2(3y

O) (5x-zy)(-Z)+(2x+y-3X3)

(d)

2b)

2x)

4(2a

2(3x

5y + 1z)

- 4(x -

5z)

2b)

- (2x - 5y)

ffi

## Simplify the following expressions.

,i

l74jr

'{\***+I;

(a)

315(a + b)

(c)

2p

(e)

t1x

- 4(2a -

3q + 5l2p + (3q

3{2y - 3l7x

Mathematics Tutor lA

(b) 8x+215y-@-ay))

b)]

- Dl

2(4x

- y)l}

(d)

3(m

2n) + lZ(n

- 5m) + 3nl

(r) *. * ], - +(+..

ir)

Ltd

9.

(a)

3x+l

(b)"*A

x-3

(d)

3y+4
a

2x

x-l

1'+

2x+l

x*2

63

**J
,FttcB'

''Y.:f'

10.

## Express each of the following as a single fraction'

(b)

2(x-t\ 3(2x-3)
3nu-

- 2x+l + 3(x-l)
t+
6
3

,&'.
rzoBi
'W

{fl

Mathematics Tutor 1A

T-T

(d)w

x x-3
(f)
\/ 2 * 4

5(3x +

1)

2x

-l

@ Casco Ptblicctti,-''.-'

.r

(-e)

x+5 2x-3

,:\
1'r'/2-4-8

3("r+1)

2(x-1) _ 5x+3

312

l.

(h)

(j)

, x-3
-26

(1)

T-er-r)-+

7214

5(2x-l)

ffi

(a) 2x + 18

(b)

(c) 8-8y

## (d) 6y- 10xy

(e)

(f)

8ab + lZac

(g)

''''.]ffi

lZx + 8y - 4z

Mathematics rutor 1A

25x

-xy

(h)

- 9xyz

9px

lSqx

9x

## : (i) -l4b + 6abc * 8ab

U)

Zpq*

- pq

- 8px

i
i

i:

(k) 8a - 8ab - 8c

(m) 2*y -

gmtx'

8y2

+ yz

i 0)

(n)

3ab

9ac + 3ad

-lOtrrh + 4ny2

36mx3
\$

i
E

iE
tt

--,,

## :o Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Algebraic

Manipulation

i!.i.l79=\$j
'.lt:_=:1.::',."i

(q)

Zlp2qr

(s) z*'+

(u)

10

-7pq',

(r)

)*

## (t) I"'u + 3ab2

- 8(b - 2c)

(w) (-zm)(p -

,.=*ts,%,,,

3q) + 8mq

iil80 jr MathematicsTutor lA
"\$15r

6ry'

lLxzyz

(v)

15(x

(x)

d(Zx + y)

Zxy

y)z + 20

- 5d(3x - l)

@ Casco Public'tttt,

' ,r',

(a)

7(x + 2y)

(c)

4p(3x

(e)

(4x

(b) t5a(5y -

- n(x + 2y)

- 8y) + 5q(3x -

- 3y) - 2h(3y -

## -- Casco Publications Pte Ltd

- (sy -

1)

Lx(a-2b)+3y(2b-a)

8y)

4x)

1)

(f)

(2x

(h)

9m(2x+y - z) - 5n(2x + y - z)

- y)(p + q) *

(3y + z)(p + q)

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Manipulation

tffi

13.

14.

Simplify

(a) 2s+5h-39-4h+3,
(b) 3m x (-2n) x (-5P)'
(c) t5x - 312(t - x) - 4(3 - 2x))'

SimplifY

## (a) 2a+3b-4( 5b - a),

(b) r[. * etn - !rts m-zD1
4L'

15.

t6.

3'

l'

## Simplify the following expressions'

(a) 3(m + 2n) - 5(m - 3n)
(b) 8p - 2l1P - (P - 4)l
(c) 4q' - llq - 3q(q - 5)

## Simplify the following expressions'

(a)

(b)

{ffi

- 2q) - a@ 4m (n\'
,-, " [zJ

3(p

Mathematics Tutor 1A

2P)

O Crt.st'rr Ptrl,,

.'

Simplify
lgpq'

(a)
(b)

,J

3pq

16x'yo

x 3q,

*v\

[-7,

## Simplify the following expressions.

(a) (-3p)' x 4q
(b) (-2r)' + 6r'
(c) (-7)x(-as)-6x5s

## Expand and simplify the following.

?aa) x (-2b) + 5ab + 3b(-2a)

(a)
\ r7 t. \
(b) (t r *,)-u[;.+1a
-e)
[;.-;'t

Ir

t.

Simplify

p+3q _3p-2q
(b)
\-/
2
3

## e Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Algebraic

Manipulation

,;ii,r%
S:;il

.\$rt

, r..,.. -i,]

## Simplify the following expressions.

(a) 8a + (-3o)' + (-a) x 4

21.

2b+c b-c
(b)6-4

(c)

a.)
/-/-

Irr,

-3f)

- ]t

ou- 8/)

## Simplify the following expressions.

(a) (3x + 2y) - (4x - 3z) + \$Y - az)

(b) -* i.' * ,
(c)

23.

v*2
3-

v-l
g

## Simplify the following expressions'

(a) (2m-Jn-5P) -(6m-7n + 6P)

(b)

rl

4Qs -

h)

,@

- 3h)

r-l
(c) r*3
z- 5

iffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

::.

ta) 8r-+t+s-

3t

## .,\ | z ( ,'\ (z )'

(b)
,u__ [_e )_ \,, )
(c) 5x - 2l3y - (4x - 7y)l

15.

(a)

(b)
(c)

26.

7m-l5m-3(2m

- 1)l

ry"+.r#
s
,-

s-2 3-2s
8 -

## Simplify each of the following.

(a) 8a - 3lb - 5(b -Za)l -7b

Ltd

"ffij

21

- 5(a - 3b).

(a)

(b)

3(2x+3y-l)

-x+ 4y-l

28.

Express

29.

## Simplify the following expressions.

6-

as a single fraction

x-l
t2

## in its simplest form.

3x+1 x-2
(b)
,\
(c)

ffi

-#

5x

x-3 2x-1 *; x
J
6
2I 2(x-l) 2x+l
3+ g -

Mathematics Tutor 1A

@ Casco Publicatiorts

Pt, L

(a) x 2x+1

*I

73-----

,:

1.

(b)

5(3x-1) _2(x-3)

(c)

x-2y

't 'l

32

J--_

2x-v

(a)

Simplify 3p

(b)

Factorise 2m(3

32. (a)
(b)

JJ.

93

(a)
(b)

4x+y

\
;@p

2n)

t0).

- (3 - 2n).

## Simplify the expression 3x(l - x) + 4(2x2 - x + 7).

Write down the coefficient of x for your answer in part (a).

## Find the sum of x + 3y - z,5y - 2z an:d 4z - x.

Simplify 6m(3m + 2n) - 4n(3m - 5r).

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Manipulation

,ffi

34.

Write down and simplify the algebraic expressions for the following statements.

(a)

Add

(b)

; 6x -y) to ,

(+

-*

35.

Add (3a2

36.

37

. (a)
(b)

im
'=tud,.,

*r)

Subtract 3x'

2x + 7 from

5x + 3.
subtract

## AddZf -6x-Itogx2 -4.Then

Mathematics Tutor

lA

andZq.

-x+

8x2

-7q

-4x+7?

4x'+3x-Zfromthe

result.

## @ Casco Publications Pte Ltcl

j,

Factorise completely
i
r

&)
b)

rc)

.,J

- l\abc,
- r2pr2 + 9p2qr,
5(x+ ai-22(x+4y).
10ab

3pqt,

Factorise completely

(a) 1-l2pq-8r,
(b) 3a2 + lZab - 6a,
(c) Zh(x - y) + 5k(y - x).

lij.

(a)
(b)

+1.

## Factorise the following expressions.

(a) 2(x + 2)' + 4x(x + 2)

## Expand and simplity 5(a + 3)

Factorise 4be - 20ce + 12de.

4(a

5)

12.

Ltd

,:ffi
tW'

42.

(a)
(b)

43. (a)
(b)

6a'b

- 20ab3

2h(3d

- 1) - 3k(G - 3a

Factorise 18xy

Simplify

- 42xz + 6x.

+ - T,

44.

## Factorise the following expressions.

3of - 9o'f + 6af
(p + 3)' - 5(p + 3)

45,

Factorisecompletely

(a)
(b)

\4
(a) aJr")'
* ,*| +z
,-,
(b) m(3h - k) - 4n(k -

'BES'

3h).

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Factorise ct + ay.
Hence er-aluate 47

-,,

- . rtiSe xy

x 962 + 53 x 962.

xZ.

..:rr,-e evaluate

6l x3L82 - 5l x3182

## without the use of a calculator.

,rr
br

1a

a/

(a)
(b)

FactoriseTx+7y.
Hence, without using a calculator, evaluateJ x 3.885 +J x 1.115.

## Factorise x' - xy.

Use the result in part (a) to find the value of 1982

198

x 98.

r::*SR
@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 5: Algebraic

Manipulation

q
it- f f "-i
'1t *-*.1'i

50.

## if the smallest integer is x. Give your

answer in terms

of x.

)
51.

Find the sum of 3 consecutive odd integers if the greatest odd integer rs 2x. Give your answer
in terms of x.

52.

## The perimeter of a rectangle is (10x + 4y - 8) cm and its breadth is (2x + y) cm.

(a) Find the length of the rectangle in terms of x and y.
(b) lf x = 6 and y = -2, find the area of the rectangle.

,,ffi,
Wf

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

## ight of p men is r cm and the average hei-qht of q women is s cm.

of all the w'orkers in the factory.
he

: Sratue A is 9 kg more

## than the mass of Statue B. The mass of Statue C is thrice

* :-.rss of Statue A and Statue B.It the mass of Statue A is 6m kg, r,vrite dorvn an
-:
I : : - :, ln tefms Of m, fOf
- ". - :rass of Statue C,

,
I

## : .:; f,\ erage mass of the 3 statues.

)).

A fruiterer bought 35 apples at p cents each and 56 pears at q cents each. He packs them into
bags which contain 5 apples and 8 pears and sells the bags at (8p + 9q) cents each.
Write down in terms of p and e,&rr expression for
(a) the amount of money he spent on the fruits,
(b) the total amount of money for which he sold all the bags of fruits,
(c) the amount he earned from selling all the fruits.

Ltd

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Manipulation

't:ffi

56.

In an inter-school

57.

Amanda is x years old. Her brother Andrew is 6 years younger than her. Her father is 5 times
as old as Amanda. Write down an algebraic expression in terms of x for

## athletics track competition, each school team will consist of three

athletes for the 100 m event, x athletes for the 200 m event and y athletes for the
400 m event. Write down in terms of x and !, zrr expression for
(a) the number of track athletes in each school team,
(b) the total distance, in kilometres, to be covered by the track athletes of each school team.

(a)
(b)

58.

,:ffit

lffi,

## Andrew's age in7 years'time,

the total age of Amanda, Andrew and their father now.

A bookshop owner boughtp novels. x of them cost \$16 each, 2x of them cost
rest of them cost \$5 each. Write down an expression in terms of p andx for
(a) the number of novels he bought which cost \$5 each,
(b) the total amount he spent on the novels.

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

(3r -

l)

## tri rectattgle ABCD

cm

i
I

T:e ciagram is nlade up of two identical rectangles and a square. The length and breadth of
,he r,-.-rapgle are J' cm and n cm respectively. The length of the square is half the breadth of the

## rectangle. \\'rite dorvn, in terms of x and

(a) the perimeter,
(b) the area,
of the diagram.

'

## :rlications Pte Ltd

!,an

expression for

ycm

Chapter 5: Algebraic

=JR'

Manipulation
i{tOS"-B;
.
..\e*S

1.

(a) t, -

{-r

/ ^

12

(b) (!9\

\5b)

i !
su*

64ao

t#

(c)

al;

a-i

(e)

-t+_x*l
x-!
_
x+l
__
I
x-7

2.

71

6.i - x+r

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Simple Equations in
One Variable
aaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoaoaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaa
-s<

ff|.SE

A*sS
=w Targets

.
.
.

## Solve linear equations in one variable.

Solve simple fractional equations.
Form linear equations in one variable to solve problems.

Basic Concepts
1.

E.g.
2.

3x

-2=

## r.r- 8 are t\\'o equations.

When we solve equations. ri e hnd the value of the variable in the equation.

E.g. x=
a

5 and 6.r + 1 =

## 8 is the solution to the

equationx- 3 = 5.

## E.g. 2x+3 = 11 and 3"r = 12 are equivalentequations asr=

i; tlie solution to

both equations.
4.

5 = 9 is a linearequation.
The highest power of the variable x is

1.

,
I

E.g. 3x+

EZ

1.

1.

## To solve a linear equation, we need to flnd the value of the variable.

2.

The solution or root of an equation is the value of the variable that will make the
equation true.

.:uo**ot.

,i

198

"",'.*,*{l

l;

Mathematics Tutor

lA

J.

## Rules for solving linear equations:

(a) If you add or subtract the same algebraic expression to or from each side of
the equation, the resulting equation is equivalent to the original equation.

lfa=b,then

If a - b,then

a-c=b-c
(b)

## an equation by the same non-zero

,rlgebraic expression, the resulting equation is equivalent to the original

luation.

lfa=b.then

llfa=b.then
i
ac=bc
l*--

ICC

wherec*O

(c) If

## an equation contains brackets, remove all brackets by applying the

distributive law of multiplication over addition or subtraction.

WC.II(ED EXAMPLE 1:

SoLl

(a) x-6=5
(c) ' =4
5
(e) -6x - L0
-2
(g) 5-;.r=
ll
J

(b) x*3=8
(d) 4x - tZ
(f) 2x-3 -9
(h) 0.2x+7 -12

SOLUTION:

(a)

x-6-5

6-+'6t = 5 i#\$t.

x=7I

(b)

t;lA

-'i6dd,e1*tt

x+3=8

x+3;"3 =8 *,3 *
x-5

'

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One Variable

ffir

'wj

* -4
5

(c)
x

X# =4i*i5ii._-iu

x=20
(d)

4x -12

4x
44

*-r'*i#ri

12

d'i\$d.#

x =3

(e)

-6x
-6x
-6
1-

...

(0

10
10

'--ii\$,,.1iid\$iardtfi

'4

.,

_;5

1r_{

x=41

2x-3 -9
2x-3
'= 9'
2x-12

2x

+-i'

12

i\$;-

x=6

(e)

s- ir= 11
-2
5-;x
-5 = ll

,t 5,

+-,

-5x=0
-?3^* x
^\ f -1)
z) - 6.^\ f -*)
z)
x=-9
(h)

0.2x+7 -12
0.2x+7 -7 =12 -7
0.2x

## Murtipry both sides

o, f-:J

\ Ll

SubtracrTfrombothsides.

0.2x 5
-m, = !fi#, '-'r\$l*iae'iudifi'
x -25

.ffi
iflZOOli Mathematics Turor lA

WI

## @ Casco Publicatiotts Pte Lrri

qi-

V/ORKED EXAMPLE 2:
following equations.

S,-'lr e the

.1r 8r-12=0
(c)
(e)

(e)

)r'-Q

)
_ _

- tt

63
8-y'=o

o;

-6

(b)

T_r

(d)

x'=9

(f)

Ji

(h)

tr[5*q -z

--z

SOLUTION:

8x-12
+ lZ

(a)
gx

12

8x

-0

_0+

lZ

._.i+:daii.tjtd.d*t

-12

8x
88

12

<-

## Divide both sidesby

v-_

^-

rd
x - -1

"'

3x-2

(b)
2,u
J^

-8

--t

-) 2

3x-2 -40
-X)=6X)
3x

2 _ 40 + 2 <-ri*dflrei;d,\$difi
3x =42

2+

3x

42

=x=14

JJ
^a

2x-9

(c)

?a
J

22
;*;
JJ

2x-9

-0
=0+

i5

-_u ''

'ffi

2x-9 :2

63
2x-9 to=
6

6 --------------]r#utd\$iiifirt\$6

2x-9=4

Zx _ 9 + 9 = 4 +

-_1.666rrit6i\$ot

2x-13

2x
22
"x

Ltd

13

-1
O;
./.

r&

.W'

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One Variable iflZOtH

I
(d)

x2

=9

J *' = t J9 .-',',

x=+3

x+3,o.r,*3. . i"
32 =9,(-3)r = 9.

8-y'=o

(e)
8

-)'' -

\$=0

)'=

- 8

Subtract8fromboth

sides.

= VS

-._a
)-L

(D

eliq tii+odi.dtuotU'uae*-

-''

^ly =z
(.,F )' = (3)'
.r-Q
v)

(g)

Jzx-r -6
1

'l2r - 1)t = 6t

## Square both sides.

2x-l =36
2x- l*l =36+l <-- Addltobothsides.
2x -37
Divi 'bath'sides'by 2'
2 - ;
-i
x

-rc+

(h) {s*-t

--z

11t5--7;3=(2)3
5x-7 =8
5x-l *'7 =8+l

5x-15

5x
55

15

x=3

r:;Fi..''Br;a.

'i,202;,
'i.5*.r"t-1-

Mathematics Tutor

lA

@ Casco Publicatiori,r

P:. -'

(r- -L

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
S -,1r

e the

following equations.

, 2(7x-3)=5
,c-) 8(.r+2)-3(2x+1)

(b)
(d)

-1

3(4-x)=8
3x-4(x-2)=13-3(4+x)

SOLUTION:
(a)

2(7x-3)=5

l4x-6-5
l4x-6 "6=5+6
14x

l4x
t4

11

1l
14
11

t4
(b)

3(4-x) =8
12-3x -8
12-3x-12 -8-12
-3x = -4

-3.r= -4
-3 --3
-l

v-l-

.,Divide,both.si&s

by'(

);,,

(c)

8(.r + 2)

8x+

3(2-t +

7) <-

8x+ 16 -6x+21
16

-6x -6x+21-6x

2x+16 -21

2x+16-16-21 -16*-rs,
2x

-5
2x5
22

, -2!
2

(d)

2x+8 -l
2x +

8-

- 1- 8

## S-ub t B fromboth sides.,:

)u --1

-,
2x -l *''Divide'h
=
;
z
.l
)
1-

-_1_

h sides bY 2'

J.

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One Variable

,-;itr'*q\

+]Sj'

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Solve the following equations.
(a)

(b)
(c)

x+l
2x-5 __35
x - x-3
2'
7
2x x*l

_A
_-t

T-s

-t

2x
^15 -l

SOLUTION:

x*l

2x-5

(a)

1s

r2'=
)
\J/

=lsr'll)
\) )

*-.il

raAd;\$j

- 5) =3(x+1)
- 25 -3x+3
llx - 3x =3 +25

5(2x
10x

7x =28
28
7

(b)

.'.

x =4

,o(;)

a-?

hJt

=4

+r+(f)

=14(4)

7x+2(x-3)
7x+2x-6
9x-6

Iv,Iultlpl\$1e'aeh

:terrn

,1

,, thE :L.CFtr'of

2 and

7'

= 56

- 56

= 56

9x= 56+6
62
A_

l-

62
9

-8
b-9

ffi

Mathematics Tutor

lA

@ Casco Publicatiotts

Prt' t ...

2x x*l
^- 5
3

" 2x-l
rs

## -,'(+) =,'t,)- ls(?f)

,'(?)

- 3(x+ l) = 15 - (2x - I)
10x-3x-3 =15-Zx+1
lx-3 -16-2x

5(2x)

7x+2x =16+3
9x =79
t9
9

_.1
-9

C "--

WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
If A

- *I t, * blh,findthe

value of b when

A= 35,a = 8 and h -

5.

SOLUTION:

A= *@+b)h
2

A-35,a=8andh-5,
35=|tr*bX5)
;
35=:(g+b)

When

x3s -8+b
14=8+b
b=6

WORKED EXAMPLE 6:

3x-4v

ff "_
-; = ),findthe
value of
/.x-ry
5

x
v

SOLUTION:
3x

2x

- 4y*'E'-*4
- 3t,'\
-5

5(3x-aD=4(2x-3y)
l5x-20y=8x-12y
7x=gy

{, .---,.,
7y = 'ln,- v
x8
y7
-l

.,1

Divjdo hoth,sroe,bt

ir\t" ,

_t

,,i;-t:i[i,ii,

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One Variable ,,{205:,

'-i1.-.-.*, -

-t-

1.

EIu.tlAlt E-qq-4lo"!-

S'A,p!g

@_qqly,"g

3 , 1r,;*,
x
Z.

"%

--

= 9 and

+=*

a term.

## To solve a fractional equation, we need to transform it into a linear equation.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Solve the following equations.

(a)

l8

(b)

-x =3

2x+3

-4

(c)^^ 5x+2
-3
1Y-,/
SOLUTION:
l8

(a)

-3

(rs\
\//-

xl

18

= 3(x)

-3x
18

x
.'. x

-6
5

(b)

2x+3 =4

/\\
(2x+:lIrr*3 )=Qx+3X4)
5

-4(2x+3)
5=8x+12

8x-5-12
--1
'7I

(c)

?'J]-3
3x-2

(3x

(sx+z\

,:
- 2\ltffi
)=(3x-2)(3)
5x+2 -3(3x-Z)
5x+2 =9x-6
8 =4x

,=

' v -)

,ffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

@ Casco

Pttblicut:,

' I-

WORKED EXAMpLE 2:
Solve the following equations.
I^\

36

'

x*l
4x-l
t2
(b) l- ' -x-2
3
SOLUTION:

36
x+l' 4x-l
3(4x-1)=6(x+1)

llx-3-6x+6
lZx-6x-6+3
6-r

=9

.._

.'.-r=11
2

lLL
t-

(b)

x-2

.2r

'- 3 - xJ
I * *l
t-

2'''-\3
? -,'-1

x =5

-qqltreple*lelylqsrurn Alsary

--

1.

## We can represent real-life situations by using linear equations. By solving these

linear equations, we can find the solutions to the real-life problems.

2.

In other words, to solve word problems, we translate them to linear equations and
then solve the resulting equations

3.

Steps

--

,4

## Write expressions for other quantities in terms of x.

Form an equation using the information given.

## Write down the answer to the problem.

--)

P _ r.itl 1 s617i61rs

Pte Ltd

Variable

;F*\
iffi,

1.

## Always check whether the solution obtained satisfies the

original problem.

E.g.
2.

## If the problemrequires apositive integer,remember

to reject the negative integers in your answers.

## Remember to set only one variable. i.e. -r and express

the other unknown quantities in terms of x. If not, there
will be too many variables in the equation to be solved.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
The sum of 3 consecutive odd integers is

171 .

## Find the integers.

SOLUTION:
We need to find the 3 integers.
Identify the
unknown quantity.

## Let x be the smallest integer.

Represent the

unknown by x.

Themiddleinteger=x+2
Write expressions
for other quantities.

## Sum of integers = 171

Form an equation.

## Solve the equation.

x+(x+2)+(x+4) -17l
x+(x+2)+(x+4)=17L
3x+6 =17l
3x - 165

x -55

55

,57

and 59.

to the problem.

## practice to check your answer. You can do this

mentally or by writing it down.

It is a good

Check.55 +

{ffi

Mathematics rutor 1A

5l + 59 = l7l ,/
@ Casco Publications Pre

li

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Afather ts2'7 years older than his son.In 12years'time, he will be twice as old as his son.
(a) If his son is x years old now, write down an expression in terms of x for the father's
present age.

(b)
(c)

## Write down an expression in terms of x for the son's age in 12years'time.

Hence form an equation in x and flnd their present ages.

SOLUTION:

(a)

## At present, the son is x years old.

.'. The father's age is (x + 21) years.

(b)

(c)

=x+27 +L2

(x + 39) years

x+39 =2(x+12)
x+39 =2x+24
x = 15 (son's

age)

## x + 27 = 15 + 2'7 - 42 (father's age)

.'. The son is now 15 years old and his father ts 42 years old.
Check: 42 + 12

54

2(15 + LZ)

-54 ,/

WORKED EXAMpLE 3:
A travel agent is planning an outing for x people. He enquires about costs from two coach
flrms, Daily Express and United Travel.
(a) Daily Express charges \$15 for each person. Write down an expression, in terms of
x, for the total amount that Daily Express would charge for the outing.
(b) United Travel charges a flxed amount of \$84 and an extra \$12 surcharge for each
person. Write down an expression, in terms of x, for the total amount that United
Travel would charge for the outing.
(c) The travel agent flnds that the total amount is the same for each flrm. Find the
number of people going on the outing.

SOLUTION:

(a)

= \$15"r

(b)

= \$(84 + lZx)

(c)

l5x = 84 + 12x

3x-84

*=

Y-J

-28

e

Variable

ffi

Tutorial
1.

## Solve the following equations.

(a) 9x+2-29

(b) 3x-1-tJ

(c) 7 -2x-13

(d) -4x+6--14

(e) 5x+4-18-2x

(f) l-3x-x+13

(g) l5x-8-4+9x

(h) 7-3x-Zx+12

,'i,;s'*\.

ti;210
't.&,.."J-''i. Mathematics Tutor

lA

@ Casco Publiccrtit,tT-,

F-, -'

(,)

' _'7
_l

5x

- -20

.3
I
(k)
_
\--l =x+1=15-2

(1) s-?x=5

(m) 2-0.6x-x

(n) 2x-0.2x+5.4

(o)

A.2x + 0.8

= 1.8 - 0.3r

Ltd

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One

Variable

,ffi'

ik\$.;

(q)

(r)

=36

(s) 2f

= 2J

o'=21

= 50

(u) Ji5

a3

=4

(w) J5 - 4x = 1.2

(v) ifiya -3

(x)

f*,

--"z

.a\$*"*\s:'

## ;,i212'\', Mathematics Tutor I A

\l\e+i"'

@ Casco

Publiccttioi:' .:'

3 the

{a) 2(3x+4)-26

(b) 3(4x - 9) = 81

tc) 3(2-x)=-14

(d)

(e) 2(x-5)=3x-18

(0 6-3x=4(x+2)

2x

following equations.

-7(x -

3) = 26

## C,r-ico Publications Pte Ltd

2(s

2x)

(h) (3x+2)-(2x-5)=0

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One

Variable

,@,
{k\$i

(i)

3(x

2.5)

0)

(k) 9-2.4x-2(0.3x-3)

(r)

(m)

(n)

,u.-

8) = 5(x

2.5)

0.15 = 0.05(1 + x)

Z ru,-

e) =

tzx-zr=,(1,.,)

## (o) * ro-- 5) + 2x - 3.2(x + 2) - 3.82

ffi\
(W

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## S i,, e the following equations.

:i 5(.r+2)-3(x-1)=12

(b)

4(3

## (c) 3(1 - 2x) - 2(5 - x) -

(d)

2x + 3(x + 1)

(e) 5x+4-3(2x -

1) =

12

8-(7x

1)

- x) + 3(5x + 2) -

-23 -

4s

(4x

-7)

+x

(0 2x-19-3(4x-7)l-26

Ltd

ifftf
'fue'\$

## Solve the following equations.

(b)

v# -2 -0

2x x+l
(c) T=
4

(d)

2x-I

2
(e) I_
aQx-2)=;

(0;

(a)

2x

-I
3 =)

(g) 2x+3
s

,m.
W

Mathematics Tutor

3x-4
l

lA

2(3x

x+2

r)

4l

## '@ Casco Publications Pte

lN,

.,,

e the

following equations.

.T

i1

, +3=

3x
..-

(b) **;

rc) x-1={+5

(d)

)

(f) 5+ )-:

(g) 3x+5-,x

(h)

?_ r

@ Casco

=12

=0

+ - t =rI

?o-)

=x

T*#=,

{ffi

6.

(a) +v * x-2
g

## (b) l.* * I* * !x=27

u

=5

(d)

x*8
(e) r-l, * x-12
=
s
15

{ffi

Mathematics rutor 1A

(r)

5(x-1)
2x-l
2-3

4#-;.-2-+

@ Casco

Publicatit":'

--

"

Srrlr.e the

following equations.

(a) -8-=)
x

(c)

2
-=5x

(b) ? =3
x5

--4

3t
4x-2

(st
'D/

_ 5
2r -l

- {

(d)

(fl

3
x*3 =4

(h)

,h

-3=0

-:

=0

'';*5i6i*"-i*

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One Variable l{219n1:

'i:..,*-.,-.-1.

U) - +x z

(i) *-5=1

(k)

#=,

(l)

,ffi

s3

--u
x+J = -x

(n)

(o)

3-4x - 7x-l

x*l
'.l--=-,3x+2

Mathematics Tutor

lA

@ Casco Publicatiruts

-: r
_ L=

W+X

lr

flnd the

valueofXwhenE=

20

Iti

andX

anO

16,

W=25.

+4

lfu=

v2

(a)
(b)

## flnd the value of z when v = 6,

find the values of v when u = 17 .

Given thaty =

Given thatp

l-i-

*,

-2(q-3r

m= 6andy *2.5.

andq-

6.

ri 'r

SE
E

a)
+, A

I
Ft

2a

,\u
v

12.

13.

Given that

14. rfp-q
r

15.

ffi,

=I

and v = 5.

r

I f,
q+s

## flnd the value of s when p

=3,ll = -5

andr =2.

* - llb, find
(a) thevalues ofywhen a='/,b=-l und* - !4'
(b) the value of xwhen a=4,b=-3 andy - -6.

Given that y2 -

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Lttl

## l.',en thatb=6,c=9and d--Z,findthepossiblevalues of aif 4a2=bc -5d

d-

*3 nr',find
:r] thevalue of V when r=J,

G1r en the

br

thevalueof rwhen

Tlkezr

i
r'_ I

formula V =

V-33L.
2l

=".\
7')

v1,

(
|
Ta.\
^J
rI
-.------;
t'_t - _rr = -qfindthevalueof
.)

zwhen

x=-2andy-4.

Theformulausedtocalculatethefocallength(/)of alensisgiventv

1+ 1,*here,
1.l uv

is the distance of the object from the lens and v is the distance of the image from the lens. Find
the value of/when w = 3 and v = 5, giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms.

.'r-==\
1t.?23r1:
'..'1rgf.::r

- ?);
20. rf ?'
4x-51 -

21.

Given that

-i! -

", ;

ZZ.

Given that'

23. ff #h

ffi

'w/

5y

3*-y =
x

## - 1 ,f,nd the value or ?b

Mathematics Tutor 1A

,\$Casco Publicatiou

Given that

3P

- 2q

p+2q

.t ,4x-3y
[r1\efl that

2x-y

of

6p
q

ii;

t'

x*2 7
' 4 -2

r_-_

## Solve the following equations.

(a) 3(x-4)=1-(5-x)
.
2x+l
(b)
' ----'-'-'Jx*5 =3
(c)

5x+3=-2-x

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One

..ri.@.
Variable {{ZZS-};

'h*.s"

- U - 4(x - 2)l = 6.

28.

29.

(a)

(b)

xl x+l
53
3y+2
8

(c)

30.

)z -

_A
-+
5z - )

## Solve the following equations.

(a) 4x+ 3(8 - 5x)- 12-2(x+3)

5.
x-3
(b) ;(x-r)-i=

,,ffi

"W

Mathematics Tutor

lA

@ Casco

Pttblit,it, ' :

## Solr e the following equations.

;r) 5-2(x+3)=4x-l
83
lrr

1.-

2r'-l = l+y

(a)

(b)
(c)

x2xx3

3 5-2 '10
Zx+l x-3 x
234
-_J-_

l*

2x

-1 =Jx

,,;;FGb,

34.

(a)
(b)

## Find three consecutive integers whose sum is 84.

Find three consecutive even integers whose sum is 66.

35.

(a)

Find two consecutive odd integers such that the sum of the smaller integer and twice the
greater integer is 85.
The sum of three integers is 40. The second integer is three times the first and the third
integer exceeds the second by 5. Find the tlyee integers.

(b)

36. I am thinking of a number. If I add 4 to the number and then multiply the result by 3, the
answer is the same as subtracting 5 from the number and then multiplying the result by 2.
(a) Letting x be the number, write down an equation in terms of x.
(b) Solve the equation and flnd the number that I am thinking of.

31

When a number is halved and 8 is added to the result, the answer is 54. Letting the number be
x + 3, form an equation in x. Hence, flnd the value of r.

Mathematics Tutor 1A
',,.

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

_i8.

(a)

(b)

Jonathan is 15 years older than his brother Jeremy. Six years ago, Jonathan was six
times as old as Jeremy. Find their present ages.
Ben is twice as old as Belinda. Five years ago, the sum of their ages was 92. Ftnd
Belinda's present age.

(a)

Jack's brother is 14 years older than him. In six years'time, Jack's brother
as old as him. How old is Jack now?

(b)

Mary is

t-

Z)

will

be twice

be

of

-+

The numerator of

Ltd

If

fraction.

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One Variable

42. Marc's mother is 5 years older than twice his age. Let Marc's age now be x years old'
(a) Express his mother's age in terms of x'
(b) Marc will be as old as his mother now in 27 years' time. write down an equation

in x

43

## bought -x more stamps, Jane

Nancy had 30 stamps and Jane had 154 stamps. After each of them
of x. Hence, solve it to find the
had thrice as many stamps as Nancy. Form an equation in terms
value of x.

44.

'ffi

## and ll61egs. Let x be the number

A farmer had some cows and chickens. He counted 70 heads
of chickens on the farm.
(a) Express, in terms of x, the number of cows on the farm.
(b) Form an equation in x andsolve it to find the number of chickens on the farm'

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

-:

Tim has (2x + 1) marbles. Peter has 3 more marbles than Tim. James has half

as many marbles

as Peter.

(a)

(b)

(i)
(ii)

Peter has,
James has.

it

(a)
(b)

-:-"

## Write down an expression in terms of x, for

(i) the total number of books,
(ii) the total cost, in dollars, for the books.
Find the total number of books she bought if she paid \$275 for all the books.

## Matthew buys x pens and two more pencils than pens.

(a) Write down, in terms of x, an expression for the number of pencils that he buys.
(b) Each pen costs 60 cents and each pencil costs 20 cents. Find as simply as possible, in
terms of r, an expression for the total cost of the pens and pencils Matthew buys.
(c) If he spends \$10 altogether, flnd the number of pencils he buys.

Variable

{drm
'%._d,

4g.

## also bought |Q fs* ei r:

A fruit seller bought -r pears and twice as many mangoes. He
i

'

is made up rrf

'

## cents while each peach cost

than pears. Each pear cost 40 cents, each mango cost 50
If the fruit seller paid \$102 altogether, flnd
(a) the value of x,
(b) the amount, in dollars, that he spent on the peaches'

49. A saresman selling vacuum cleaners is paid \$A per week. The amount

120 plus \$ 15 for each of the vacuum cleaners that he sells '
expression cot::"In a particular week, he sold n vacuum cleaners. write down an
A and n for the total amount of money the salesman received that week'
if he sells 8 vacuulll cle-' ' -'Calculate the amount of money he would earn in a week

wage of

(a)
(b)
(c)

50.

If

'

## cleaners did he sell'l

he earned \$375 in a certain week, how many vacuum

## is given by B = 35x + 16y'

The buffet cost, \$8, for x adults and y children at a hotel
(a) Calculate the buffet cost fot 2 adults and 3 children'
(b) write down what the coefficients of x and y represent'
(c) The buffet cost for 5 adults and y children is \$319. Find the value of y'

,4ffi:\

i{rrr}i
..w-

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## Apieceof wireof length.rcm and2piecesof wireof lengthycmeacharecutfromapieceof

wire of length 100 cm.
(a) Find the length of the remaining wire in terms of x and y.
(b) The remaining wire is bent to form a square. Find the length of one side of the square in
terms of x and y.

(c)

51.

If x - 18 and ! =

## of the square formed.

A piece of wire is cut into 3 equal pieces. The flrst piece is bent to form a rectangle of breadth
(x + 2) cm. Its length is thrice its breadth. The second piece is bent to form a triangle with sides
(3x + 5) cm, 3x cm and (4x + 3) cm. The third piece is bent to form a square.
(a) Express and simplify in terms of x,

(i)
(ii)

(b)

## the perimeter of the triangle.

Hence, find the length of a side of the square.

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One

Variable

,.ri*\.

t.t

53.

The diagram below shows arectangle ABCD. Find the values of x and y.
A

(2y+x-3)cm

/zx+s)

[,

J'*
23 cm

54.

## ABCD is arectangle andEis apoint onBC.AB -(6x+ 5) cm, BE

perimeter of the rectangle is (18x - 2) cm'
(a) Find, in terms of x, an expression for
(i) the length of AD,
(ii) the length of CE.
(b)
Given that the length of CE is twice the length of BE, flnd
(i) an equation in terms of x,
(ii) the value of x by solving the equation from (b)(i),
(iii) the area of the rectangle ABCD.

- (6-x)

cmandthe

(6x + 5) cm

,ffi.
'.w'

-'

## A and B are shown below.

Write down and simplify an expression in terms of x for the perimeter of
(i) Rectangle A,

Tr,vo rectangles

(a)

(ii)

(b)

Rectangle B.

fr

n
!
(x-6)cm

(x+2)cm

(x+1)cm

(x-1)cm

.':"*\,

## THINI(TNG S](ILLS GORNER

If x(1 - 2 - 3 - 4) - (-L)(-ZX-3X--4), find the value of x'

1.

2 "+-+=+

J.

Given the y

4.

Given

-.++

i:

*"u'-.{

tnutffi =-

r(\,

't\'"=1:\$

lA

-3 and c = -1.

5x-2y-lz
8y

3"t

Given that

==5y ,

*6a-'rb2
lb-

3*
Solve the

].

equation

-4 -t

a
b

-r-2

## Karen's present mass is 8 kg less than her mass a year ago.

her present mass, what is her present mass?

Ltd

## Chapter 6: Simple Equations in One

was

Variable

7or
6

,;0\$*\
1i,,.?37",,ii

peter has three times as many game cards as Philip. If Peter gives Philip 9 game card-s ' Pr..
rvill be left with 6 more game cards than Philip. Find the total number of game cards the '

9.

boys have.

10.

same job
Working alone, pauline can complete a job in 2 hours, while Anne can do the
job together?
3 hours. How long does it take the two women to complete the

11.

is -r m
Rectangle ABCD has dimensions 12 mby 8 m. The length of rectangle PQRS
breadth is half its length. The area of the shaded part

ir *

rrtri

'

## of the area of the unshaded p''-

Form an equation in terms of x and solve it to flnd the dimensions of rectan gle PQRS

72m
JM

.rffil

"'%.'

L-

## @ Casco Publications Pte

li

kFFt

&4
"--=,.--.

Revision E><ercise 2

G%

lntroduction to Algebra
Algebraic Manipulation
Simple Equations in One Variable

Chapter
Chapter
Chapter

(1)

Introduction to Algebra
le
;-

given that x

## - 2 andy -)-3, find the value of e.

1.

In the formula e =

2.

(a)
(b)

J.

5s'

(2h)3

8^
(h +

- -1 and r -

3.

r)'

(a)

a,

- 4r

Evaluate
5a + b-- ab

(b)

2y

when a --

- {i * l3

## C Casco Publiccttions Pte

Ltd

rr'when

and,

b- -1,

-3.d =9

ande

=-).

Revision Exercise

-:ffi

4.

## Find the HCF and LCM of x'yz' and xyt z' .

5.

The cost of m files and n notebooks are \$x and \$y respectively. Find the total cost of 3 flles anc
7 notebooks.

6.

Given that x =

(a) 3x-4y+z

^-(b)
(c) y'=-;
- xz
(d) tO(xyz)z

,r&,

## ig240Bi Mathematics Tutor I A

'W'

@ Casco Publications

Ptr'

John is 3 years older than Marc. Lisa is twice as old as John. Let Marc's age be x years old.
Express in terms of x,
(a) John's age,

(b)
(c)

Lisa's age,
the average age of the 3 children.

A fruit seller bought 50 crates of peaches. There were m peaches in each crate.
(a) Write down an expression in terms of m for the number of peaches he bought.
(b) He sold n peaches and packed the rest equally into 80 bags. Write down an expression

## 3 bowls and7 plates cost \$p and \$14q respectively.

Write down an algebraic expression in terms of p or q

(a)

fot

(i)
(ii)

(b)

## the cost of I bowl,

the cost of 1 plate.
Rebecca had some money. She bought 12 bowls and 10 plates and had \$9 left. Write
down in terms of p and q for the amount of money Rebecca had at first.

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise 2

,'ffi

(2)

Algebraic Manipulation

10.

## Simplify each of the following.

(a) -t8a + (-3b) x (-2c)
(b) 5(p + 3) - 4(t - 3p)

11.

Factorise completely.
(a) 4pq - l0p2r + Zpr
(b) Strrh + 18rcf

12.

13.

Subtract (2*'

5xy

(11x2

4x

2x+3

.'1,,i++i+++t-|;

"}==*s

Ltd

(a)
(b)

## Simplify Ja +3(b -2c)-(4a-b +3c).

Factorise 14xy - lyz.

## Express each of the following as a single fraction.

x+v 2x-y
ra) --4
(D)

'-6.

'-

,-

4(2:.- I) _ 3(z+2)
l
5

## Factorise the following expressions completely.

(a) 8ab + ab2
(b) Zd(d - 3e) + 6e(3e - fi

## Simplify the following algebraic expressions.

(a) (2p)'x 6q - 5p'q

(b) Srif

!.

*,

## Cctsco Publications Pte

+ (-4xY)

Ltd

Revision Exercise

{ffi

18.

t1 *

(a)

t'actorrse

(b)

a*

l!.
1

;J

x 8.375

+-J
1

x 0.625 .

19.

(a)

5(x

5x

T*

3y _

1)l

x-y

20.

Simplify

2t.

## Factorise the following expressions.

(a)
(b)

42

- Zcde
3m(p - q) + 5n(p - q)
LSabc

.'=-"q-l:.
,

.244

'.1==.-

i,

Mathematics Tutor I A

Ltd

Simplify
(a) 3lm + 2n

:i

2(5m

- n)),

(b)

ry_lrr,_y).

(a)
(b)

## Simplify 5(2x - y) + 4(x - 3Y).

Factorise completely -36pq + l4q.

Factorise completely
(a) 20ab - 4b,
(b) 6x + LSxy - 30x2,

_+.

(c)

25.

5pr' -

2Op2v'.

+x'-

## 3x+ I to get 3-4x+f +x'?

Revision Exercise

,ffi."\$,,

26,

27.

28.

(a)
(b)

, \ -r-l
(a)-4*6'

5(3r-l)

(b)

t2 + 5y -

(a)

Evaluate

(c)

il#i

of

12342

1234

x 234.

Simplify

(b)

29.

## Factorise m' - *n.

Use rhe result in part (a) to find the value

r+

## - 2p,siven thatp = 3, x Simplify 2(3x - 5y) - 3(y - 3x).

2x 4(3x - 2\ as a single fraction.
Express
-

-.2,! = -3

and

r=

## Factorise each of the following.

(a) Zp(x - 5y) - (x - 5y)
(b) (x + 1)(x - 2) + (2 - x)(3 - x)

Mathematics rutor 1A

3t
.

## Simple Equations in One Variable

Solve the following equations.

(a) 2(x+5)-5(3x-l)=6
.43
/b\
3-2x =-2x+l

1)m\'-

-1i.

Given that E

32.

(a) 4x-l
3
5
(b) ,;.3

33.

3x

T=t
+ l=3

(a)

Zo(x- 3) =

t(z**
7)
\.. rl)

5.r-7 _ 3.r+5
(b)
\/
1l
2

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Revision Exercise,

.ffi

34.

x-2
ia) 3x+l
3 - 6

2'

-15

x*4

35.

36.

-1,

(a)

(b)

*(2s)'

if p_
J
2

Given that

5'+ 9) J
llx - 3v =-5

-qrs
4s2

+I

## find the ratio of x : y.

.'s,.

,iZ+S]t
...S=-=-

Mathematics Tutor I A

Ltd

37.

(a) Jx-3(x-4)-6
(b) sy-I-11+Y

38.

## Solve the following equations'

(a) 8(x + 5) -7(2x + 1) = 0

(b) , -

-3Y) = 4(2

-y)

5(3x + 2) = -20

39.

(a)

(b)

-(_).

aG

4x+7

ffi=i

ry-(2x-1)- +36'

(a)

Simpliry

(b)
(c)

## Solve the equation 3x - 5(4 - x) =

If 7(3x - 4) - 5(x -Z) = O''find the value of 8x + 9'

## Cc/-r.o Publications Pte

Ltd

Revision Exercise

;,*;Gb
':,2491'
, u_n,o*r.Fi,'

1t.

## Solve the following equations.

(a) 3(p-Z)+4-t2-5p

(b)
')q 9

=3

27
(c') 3r+l=-4,

42.

43.

44.

(a)

## Factorise each of the following.

(i) -6 - lSxy + 30x
(ii) 9p(m - 4n) + 45q(m - 4n)

(b)

## Solve the equatisn

*-I- - ,:t-L-r
+"x-l

(a)

Simplify 8x - 3l5x

- 7 (2x -

(b)

## Solve the equatro"

(c)

lf

4|

3)l

-T

5x+3v ?
.r
I5 ,find the value of y''

-. , -+x+
ty =
^

Find two consecutive even integers such that the sum of the greater integer and three times the
smaller integer is 50.

.-'=!::.s-.
.s
E':

\+,sj

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

. ,:

-.:ht a trrtf,l of 20 hardcover books and paperbacks. Each hardcover book cost twice as
..- ;.r:h Lraperl-rack. The cost of each paperback was \$8. How many hardcover books did
. , .: i.e speirt a total of \$264?

,-'

## \ larc bou_eht p kites for \$48.

i-r) Write dor,vn an expression in terms of p for the cost of each kite. (Assume that all the
r

## kites cost the same.)

He also bought 8 yo-yos. Each yo-yo cost half as much as a kite. If he paid
for the kites and the yo-yos, flnd the value of p.

total of \$64

The denominator of a fraction is 5 more than the numerator. When 3 is subtracted from
the numerator and 4 is subtracted from the denomintor. the fraction becomes

] . nino,t.

original fraction.
ill

-i.

its breadth.

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise

===tft'
2 ,i25lt,
',5

49.

In the diagram, ABCE is a square and ADF is an isosceles triangle. The length of a side of
the square is (3x +

2)

of DEr* f *)
\x+l/

Jr*) "-

(3x + 2) cm

50.

## The diagrams below show Rectangle A and Square B.

(a) Write down and simplify an expression in terms of x for the perimeter
(i) Rectangle A,
(ii) Square B.

(b) (i)

Giventhattheperimeterof SquareBis

lf

of

"ftheperimeterofRectangleA,form

(ii)

## Solve the equation in (b) (i) to flnd the value of x.

(3x

1) cm

(4x + 3) cm

,S

,{252\$ MathematicsTutor lA

''. d/

(2x

- I) cm

Ltd

## Angles and Parallel Lines

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

t
.
.
.

_*L_

## Identify right, acute, obtuse and reflex angles.

Learn the properties of:

## adjacent angles on a straight line

angles at a point

## Learn the properties of angles formed by parallel lines and transversals:

- corresponding angles
- alternate angles
- interior angles

r
t:

""..]

L
\$

E.

## Draw angle bisectors and perpendicular bisectors.

L___

nmtu.n"mr*
1.

A point has a position but not size and shape. All geometric figures are made up
of points. A dot ' o' or a cross 'x' is used to mark the position of a point.

E.g. .

AB

2.

_
x

## A line is a straight path of points that has no endpoints.

The arrowheads indicate that the line continues indeflnitely in both directions.
A line has no width and it can be determined by two points.
t;i;;H.\+
@ Casco Pwblications Pte

Ltd

Lines 1{ZS:-};
'i\*o*''""*

E.g.

Lrne AB

Line /

3.

E.g.

,4 and
4.

## B are called the endpoints.

A ra1- is a line segment that is extended indefinitely in one direction. A ray ha.
one endpoint.

E.g.

5.

Ray AB

## -\ plane is a collection of points that forms a flat surface. It has no thickness.

E.-s. Plane ABC

!D.,q.rrgt.t
1.

An angle is formed by two rays with a common endpoint, called the vertex. Thc
rays are called the sides of the angle.

angle

/-

veftex
-.:is<\
,S:
E\

,i2543;
.'S*-i'

Mathematics Tutor

lA

2.

Fo

LABC

oT

LCBA

LB

as:

or
or

^
Teacher's

## In the diagram below, LABC and I*CBD

should not be denoted as LB. It can be
named as

3.

/-x,

and

/-rr.

in degrees.
4.

## To measure the size of LABC:

to'

eo

I"''
%'/,_
-z
\ %_-

.za,

'a\/

\:

-^to

Steps:

'r'1

Place the protractor such that the centre of the base line is at the vertex

of LABC.

',Zl

Align the base line of the protractor with one arm of the angle (side
BC).

'3,r
n'

Choose the inner scale and read off the number where the other arm
of the angle (side AB) cuts this scale.

.';+i''G\

Ltd

:.255 i:
'

.,r-".,r.:.1

TYpes of Angles
1.

2.

Type of angle
Acute angle

Description

Examples

L
Right angle

t_
Obtuse angle

An-9les

-qreater

than 90"

## but less than 180".

I
I
I

\\l

___\

-----WStraight angle

## Angles equal to 180o

900

ffiA
Angles greater than
180" but less than 360".

1.

## A complete rotation about a point is

360" G360'

2.

")

.*,

Mathematics Tutor 1A

o..o

80'

## e Ccltt'r, Pirl'!tr':tl;,,,;' P-. i

To measure reflex

LpeR:

ffi1iiiIiirf4/
/,t:i./*j.;,r-\
,n
./ ,:,-/,::.:..,.;\

"': /:::.:;:/.'77
.\y vo,/
':\
.
._Z -,-\

'\ / /"\

,"\u12
b--,:':\
z\

i e \ ---t
--:"a
+t
1I o--'-:---.
---r:il
loJ-m'-:--r:

## obtuse LPQR = 130" (Measure the obtuse LpeRflrst.)

Renex LPQR
130" (Ls ata point)

=rr:3:3.

## Two lines that form right angles when they intersect

are called perpendicular

lines.

## The symbol I represents .is perpendicular to,.

X is called the foot of the perpendicular from G

Ltd

as

to

AB

GH.

AB.

## Chapter 7: Angles and parallel Lines

ffi;
w'

E}

cgryptqq-"tqry n4 9qpp1.ry911ry4\$rq
1.

La+ I-b=90"

E.g.

Fo
)
"'b''

are

2.

/-a+/-b=L80"

E.g.

a /
7

## if their sum is 180'.

E.g.2

Ln..
//
zz'a\-\ot"
___,,tilk _
J2" and 108" are
supplementary angles.

## 115" and 65" are

supplementary angles,

Angle Properties
The sum of adjacent angles on a straight line is equal to 180"

La + /-b + Zc =

180o

Lx

and

,&\

## E.g. Find x".

2x" + 105" + xo = 180' (adj. Ls on a str. line)

3xo=180"-105"
-A

1<o
tJ

J5"
I

- ,<o
2.

(Ls

360"

at a point)

9x"+762"=360"

9xo=360'-162'
=

198"

^ lgg"
9
- ))"
1

J.

La - /-c
Lb = Lcl

## Lc are called vertically opposite

Lb and /-d are called vertically opposite
/-a

and

angles.
angles.

## LFGE - xo (vert. opp. Zs)

36" + LFGE + 42" = 180" (adj. Ls on a str. line)
36'+ x" + 42o = 180o
B
@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Jro=180'-36" _ L02

420

## Chapter 7: Angles and Parallel Lines

,'ffi,
izssli

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

7o

SOLUTION:

xo = 88o

520

=36
y" + 52 = 90o

)o=90o-52
= 38o
88o + z"

## +y" = 180o (adj. Zs on a str. line)

88"+zo+38o=180o

..
t"
,,

: ;;3.

- 88' - 3g'

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:

## Find the value of x".

SOLUTION:
3x" + 4x" + (2xo + 10") + 26 = 360"

9x"

(Ls at a point)

+36=

360'
9xo= 360"
9xo = 324'

-36

3240
9

Mathematics Tutor 1A

36o

## ffil.ffi pututtd ri".t

1.

u"d

quqlglq4t

Parallel lines are two or more straight lines that never cross because they
always at the same distance apart. They have no points in common.

are

CD.

C.

2.

and

## ruler as shown in Diagram

1.

,2' Slide the set square along the length of ruler as shown in Diagram
Step ,3' Draw the line PQ which is parallel to line AB.
Step

Diagram

3.

A transversal is

2.

Diagram 2

## line that intersects two or more lines. When

transversal intersects

two lines, it forms eight angles. The angles formed at the intersections are named
in pairs according to their positions.

Ltd

,.;:,*\..

+*'ss:

E.g.

## / is the transversal of lines AB and CD.

illctb!

/-a

and

Le, Lb

and

Lf, Ld

and

Lh, Lc

and

/-g

are pilir': , a

corresponding angles.

## ''.F*\-'.' Mathematics Tutor lA

tr262?';
\-]r.5..g.+--'

@ Cascct Publicatiorts

Pr,

-'

a
J.

4.

Lb

and

Le, Lc

and

angles.

5.

## When two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, /

(a) the corresponding angles are equal.

La = Lb

(b)

ll

CD)

Lc=Ld

(c)

(corr. Ls, AB

the

(alt. Ls, AB

ll cD)

'Le

+'1f= l80o

"'l'Itit'-'

Ltd

## Chapter 7: Angles and Parallel

'
Lines t{*70:3
:;11=y,1.:?

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

xo ,

yo and zo .

(a)

SOLUTION:

(a)

68" (corr.

Ls,l, ll l)

ao

b"

bo = 180-132'
_ 1go

12

ll

h)

xo=ao+b"
= 68o + 48o

(b)

116o

(y' + 19') +

## = 180' (tnt. Ls,lL ll

)o = 180o - 118'- 190

118o

Zo =

.i&r
iwj

lo

(corr.

lz)

430

Ls,l, ll

12)

43"

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Ro*

woRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Find the value of xo.

SOLUTION:

(Ls at a point)

a' + b'
ao = xo (alt.

: ?33"

Ls, L ll

-zss"

lz)

ao

(x")

bo

ll
b"=180o-3x"+25"

205"

12

b"

3xo

h)
3x"

25o

- 3x"

ao + bo = 105o
(205"
x" +
-3xo) = 105o

-2x"+205"=105o
Zxo = 100'
,.o _
-4-

100"
2

= 50o

Ltd

ffi

## Perpendicular Bisectors and Angle Bisectors

A perpendicular bisector of a line

## segment forms a right angle

segment and divides the line segment into two equal parts.

E.g.

## PQ is called the perpendicular bisector of AB. Any point on the perpendicular

bisector PQ is equidistant from A and B.
llj,iii:ii

ii:+
rl:{.
1;l1r

## Any point on the perpendicular bisector of

two end points of the line segment.
2.

lxii

## To construct the perpendicular bisector of a given line segment AB:

Set your compasses to more than half the length of AB. With
centre A,mark arcs above and below AB as shown.

'

*]i"--"*-\

'i266,'',
'-';\.*-.+*?

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Repeat the process with B as centre and the same radius such
that the arcs cut each other at P and Q as shown below.

## Draw a line joining P and Q. The hne PQ rs called the

perpendicular bisector of AB.

3.

An angle bisector is a ray that divides an angle into two equal angles.
E.g.

angles such

that LABX

## - LCBX, then BX is the angle

bisector of LABC.

## Property of Angle Bisector (1 bisector)

Any point on the angle bisector is equidistant from the two sides of the angle.

,'ffif

\rer

4.

## Using a pair of compasses and with B as centre, draw an arc to

ctt AB at X and BC at Y.

## With X and ts as centres and with equal radii (may be different

from Step I ), draw two arcs to intersecl at Z.

## Draw a line joining B and Z.Thehne BZ is the angle bisector of

LABC.

.;-t"t\.
:i.268,'
''l:\\$.iii\$'

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

%,

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

(a)
(b)

## Draw a line AB of length 6 cm. Construct the perpendicular bisector of AB.

Draw an angle PQR of 55". Construct the angle bisector of LPQR.

SOLUT!ON:
(a)

## Draw a horizontal line

and mark the point A
on the left endpoint
of the line.

*'i

## Set the legs of the

compasses on a ruler
so that the distance

## between its tips is

equal to 6 cm.

With A as centre
and radius 6 cm,'
draw an arc to cut
the line segment at
the point B.

(b)

a
@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Lines ffi-}.}
'*'"*'-':i

Tutorial
(1)
1.

## Angles and Parallel Lines

Calculate the value of xo in each of the following flgures.

(c)

.:='*\.
i-ZlO
Mathematics Tutor
''\.=*:-'',1,,

lA

Ltd

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ltd

Lines

,ffi

## Calculate the values of xo, yo and zo rn the following flgures.

(c)

(d)

(f)

ffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Ltd

(a)

(d)

(f)

Ltd

ffiud,

(d)

(f)

(e)

,m\

lA

Ltd

(a)

(d)

(f)

Ltd

Lines

ffi
i::,,.r.:{"'

## Calculate the value of the unknowns in the following f,gures.

(a)

)
(d)

(c)

(e)

.R,
,tV119j-. Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

ffi

9.

## In the diagram, AB is parallel to CD and PS is parallel to QR. Given that LPTS

LDPO = 47o and LQRS = 116o, find

68o,

(a) LPST,
(b) L\PQ,
(c) LPQR.

10.

In the diagram, PQ, RS and TU are parallel . Given that LLNM = 115o and LM bisects LPMN,
flnd

(a)
(b)
(c)

,ffi

LLMN,
LMLR,
LLKU.

Mathematics rutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

11.

In the diagram, CDE rs a straight line. LCDF - 31o and reflex LBAD =
(a) Calculate LADF.
(b) Given thaI" LCAD ts 3 times LADF , calculate LACD .

12.

## In the diagram, PQ, RS and TU arc parallel, PV, RU and SQ

LRSW = 54o. Calculate
V
(a) LPWV,

are

30Zo

(b) LvsQ,
(c) reflex LTUR.

Ltd

## Chapter 7: Angles and Parallel Lines

ffi

13.

In the diagram below, AOB is a straight line. Find the values of xo and yo.

14.

In the diagram, AB ll DE and BD ll FE. LABD = 43" and LBCE = 125o. Find

(a)
(b)

LCED,
reflex LDEF.

.''.ae' '!+_:;,-

,i 280
'-11,*-.-_=s

-:

Mathematics Tutor IA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

15.

In the diagram, AB ll CD and EFGH is a straight line. Find the values of xo and yo.

16.

(a) xo,
(b) lo ,
(c) zo.

## Chapter 7:Angles and Parallel Lines

ffi

17

In the diagram, AB, DE and FG are parallel. Find the values of xo and yo.

18.

In the diagram below, CDFG is a parallelogram. AB is parallel to CD , HBCK, JCG and CDE
are straight lines. Find the values of xo ,y" and z" .

,:.**\i
|\282,i:
\i"*-*-.,*+'

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

t9.

## In the diagram, AG, EF

LBCD = 46 and LAGE

20.

In the diagram, BC ll ED
(a) LCDE,
(b) LABC.

Ltd

## and CD are parallel. AB and ED arc parallel.

- 63" . Find the values of r" , y" and 7" .

and AE

ll

LABC

90o,

A

i.:#-B

21.

(a)
(b)
(c)

22.

xo,

lo,
zo.

## In the diagram, AC ll DF andBG ll HE.Frnd the values of xo andyo.

'iffiri

Mathematics rutor 1A

Ltd

23.

245"

24.

## In the diagram, AB, CE and FG are parallel. AC, BF and EG

line. Find the values of po , eo, ro and s".

are parallel.

ADG is a straight

,uF.\

Ltd

.h3u=.'l1

25.

## Inthediagram, ABC isparalleltoFDandBGisparalleltoCDE. LABG-43",LGFD=78"

and LBDC =J2". Find the values of x" ,y" and 2".

26.

## In the diagram, AB ll DH andcD llBF. Find the values of xo andyo.

";"t*\.

,,'.-rj6.t

Mathematics Tutor IA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

27.

In the diagram, AC, DE and FH are parallel. DG ll KE, LBAG = 47o and LDEB =
Find the values of po , eo,, ro and so.

28.

In the diagram, AB
(a) LADG,
(b) LAHC,
(c) LDAE,
(d) LHAC.

113o

ll CD and AC ll BE.Find

313'

Ltd

't*;**";;"

## Chapter 7:Angles and Parallel Lines iq.287_;il

..,1_., r" ,r.,..

(2)

29.

## Draw the perpendicular bisectors of each of the following lines.

,'ffi'

,.W,

Mathematics Tutor

lA

@ Casco Publicatiorts

P:, .'

(c)

(d)

Ltd

30.

(a)

(b)

(a)

(a)

iffi,

.qy

## (i) LABC = 48o

(ii) LDEF = 65o
Construct the angle bisector of each of the above angles.
(i)

(ii)

Mathematics Turor

lA

Ltd

31.

## Construct on the same diagram,

(a) a line through R, parallelto PQ,
(b) a line from R, perpendicular to the hne PQ,
(c) a line perpendicular to PQ and passing through B.

32.

(a)

(b)

## Construct on the same diagram,

(i) a line perpendicular to AB,passing through A,
(ii) LABC such that LABC = 38o.
Given that the perpendicular line to AB, through A meets BC at C, measure

(i)
(ii)

LACB.

Ltd

Lines

'ffii

/)a

JJ.

## The diagram shows the lines pe and eR.

On the diagram, construct
(a) the perpendicular bisector of pe,

(b)

peR.

..i;***'.+
;'i

._ -i*_-..+

_.1"'

Ltd

35.

## Construct on the diagram below,

(a) the angle bisector of LPQR,
(b) a line parallel to the angle bisector of LPQR that passes through the point R.

36.

## Construct on the diagram below,

(a) the angle bisector of LABC and produce it to cut AC at X. Measure the size of LAXB.
(b) the perpendicular bisector of AB and produce it to cut BC at I. Measure the length of
BY.

'ffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

The diagram shows triangle ABC. Construct the perpendicular bisector of AB such that it cuts
AC at X. Measure and write down the length of BX.

@ Casco

## Chaprer 7: Angles and

paralel Lines

,,;J-t*\

q{,:.S

38.

(a)

(b)

Draw a hne AB of length 11 cm. Using a protractor, draw LABC = 55' and
LBAC = 48o. Write down
(i) the size of LACB,,
(ii) the lengths of AC and BC.
On the same diagram, construct the angle bisectors of LBAC and LABC. The two angle
bisectors meet at 7. Measure the length of CT.

39.

Draw a line PQwith length 8 cm. Construct line /, through R, the midpoint of PQ which is
perpendicular to the hne PQ. Draw line lr,,parallel to PQ which is 3 cm away from PQ.Mark
the point S, the point of intersection of lines l, and lr.

<-@-

40.

## The diagram shows the lines P8, QR and RS.

(a) Construct the angle bisectors of LQRS and LRQP.
(b) The angle bisectors in part (a) intersect at the point M.Measure and write down the size

of LRMQ.

Ltd

41.

## The diagram shows the lines AB, BC and CD.

(a) Construct the perpendicular bisectors of AB and CD.
(b) The perpendicular bisectors in part (a) intersect at the point X. Mark and label the point

(c)

X.
The perpendicular bisector of AB cuts AB at P. The perpendicular bisector of CD cuts
CD at Q. Measure and write down the size of LPXQ.

,",

it298

'&q**oT-l'"E;

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

42.

## The dia-eram shor,vs the lines AB, BC and DE.

(a) On the same diagram, construct
(i) the an-ele bisector of LABC,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of DE.
(b) The an_ele bisector of LABC intersects the perpendicular bisector "rt the point X.

\lark

,s*%',

i,ffiJi

1.

## In the diagram, /, is parallel to l,rand /, is parallel to

/0. Express yo

in terms of x".

Lt4

2.

In the diagram, /, is parallel to /r. Express xo in terms of p" , q" artd r" .

3.

## Calculate the value of xo in the diagram.

,1ffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Lrti

## Triangles and Polygons

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaoaaoaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

@- Tarsets
re
.
.
.
.
.

Jr)

## Learn the properties of triangles and special quadrilaterals.

Classify special quadrilaterals based on their properties.
Solve problems involving the sum of the interior angles of an n-sided polygon.
Solve problems involving the sum of the exterior angles of an ru-sided polygon.

rrirrgtgl
1.

## A triangle is a plane figure having 3 straight sides.

It has 3 angles and 3 vertices.
angle
C
side

2.

## To name a triangle, use the vertices in a clockwise or anticlockwise order.

E.g.

4
The triangle is called LABC

J.

I
i

or LACB.

## A triangle can be grouped according to the number of equal sides it contains

shown in the table below.
Equilateral triangle

Isosceles triangle

## Three equal sides

(A11 angles equal to

## Two equal sides

(Two base angles

60o, ao = bo = co

## are equal , ao = bo.)

= 60o.)

as

Scalene triangle

No equal sides
(Al1 angles are
different in size.)
.r'j.r..-

Ltd

,11,.:15l:.\$

4.

as

## shown in the table below.

Acute-angled triangle

Right-angled

All

One right

## three angles are

trianek

Obtuse-angled triangle

N
angle

acute.
Fo

E.g.

\
\*\
\\

5.

## The angle sum of a trian_ele is

La + Lb + Lc = 180"

1-rt-t
Yl___

1ii(-)'

(-

:Lul,,-,i

## E.g. Find the value of xo.

2x"+xo+

105"
3xo + 105"
3.r"

,r"

= 180'
= 180o
= 180"
_ 7<o
- tJ
75o

(Z

sum of

A)

105'

a
.'1

_')<o

qtlF

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte L...'

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

A

/ q'\
B

/
/

\52'

p"/
E

SOLUTION:

Po =180" -122'

ll

DF)

,/r"\
/ (70"\ \

= 58o

## q" + 52 * po = 180" (Z sum of A)

q" + 52" + 58'= 180"

n
LBED

- s2 -

(180" =+rr:
- 52") + 2

(L

s8o

sum of

A)

./v,"
/\/\
/\
/\
/\
\52' ,t64" fi

{58"1

o. )

- 640
r" = LBED (AIt. LS, BC II DF)

= 64o

6.

The exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles.

La=Lb+Lc

(ext.

of A)

## An exterior angle of a triangle is formed when one of the sides is

extended. The exterior angle is the angle between the extended
side and the adjacent side of the triangle.

## Find the value of ro.

62 + 85" (ext. L of L)
141"

Ct7-rco

i;;'-;a;*

.i:\.-1.:4t

E.g.

xo+

l2l"

= 140' (ext.

L of L)

## xo= L40' - L2l'

19"

iR**__94tu,

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:

\'2

n)z

/t

,/<-'\

.(r"

74"

H'

SOLUTION:

LPRQ

180o

(Z

sum of

"l;33'-14-36
yo =

=
{t-,*
___:=d&t

## 35' + 74" (ext.

L of L)

109o

A)

Y-",Y

.K
A \i"

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:

## Find the value of xo.

i;=ii'*'*.E

i{:O+p
'i.}"t*.**;,I

Mathematics Tutor 14

Ltd

SOLUTION:

## LDBE = /-BAE + LAEB (ext. L of A)

= .tro + (x" + 6")
=2x" +6o

LCBE+LBEC+LBCE = 180o (Z
2x" +6o +3x" +27" +57o = 180o
5xo + 90o
5xo

=
=

sum of

A)

180o

180o

90o

= 90o
900
5

=
7.

18o

In a triangle, the longest side is opposite the largest angle and the shortest side is
opposite the smallest angle.
largest angle
shortest side

smallest angle

Quadrilaterals
A quadrilateral is a plane figure having 4 straight sides and 4 angles.
Examples of quadrilaterals are shown below.

L.l
['''''"1
Square

Parallelogram

Rectangle

Rhombus

1\
\/

Trapezium

e Casco

V
Kite

2.

A diagonal

is

Diagonals

3.

## We name the quadrilateral in a clockwise or an anticlockwise order, The above

quadrilateral can be named as ABCD or ADCB.

4.

La + Lb + Lc +

E.g.

Zxo+122'+118'
5xo + 240'
5x"

## 360' (Z sum of quad.)

360'
360" - 240"
L20"

xo

1200

).

240

5.

Some quadrilaterals have special traits and they are called special names. The
properties of these special quadrilaterals are given in the table below.
Name

trapezium

Description

Example

opposite sides.

Trapezium

Isosceles

ffi

## Non-parallel sides are equal

sides.

in length.

{ffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Ltd

Parallelogram

.
.

.
.

Rectangle

sides.

length.

## Two pairs of paralle!

opposite sides.
Opposite sides are equal in

All four

AX=XC
BX=XD

length.
angles are right

angles.(90')

Rhombus

.
.

.
.
.
.

length.

## Two pairs of parallel

opposite sides.
Four equal sides.
Opposite angles are equal.
Diagonals bisect each
other at right angles.
Diagonals bisect the

interior angles.

.
.
.

LABD = LCBD
LBAC _ LDAC
Two pairs of parallel
opposite sides.
Four equal sides.

## All four angles are

right angles. (90.)

titt()n.\. Pte

Ltd

l_t

!---.+-tr

.
.

## Diagonals are equal in length.

Diagonals bisect each other

## Diagonals bisect the interior

at right angles.
angles.

++
It
tr-+---n

M
,/\I

chapter 8: Triangle,
; and Polygons

ti";'6*%'
i--

f.\$\$

Description

Name

Kite

Example

No parallel sides.
Two pairs of equal
adjacent sides.
One pair of equal opposite
angles.

Diagonals intersect at

right angles.
One diagonal bisects the
interior angles.

t
LBAC = LDAC
LBCA = LDCA

,
,
:

## A rectangle with 4 equal sides is a square.

A parallelogram with 4 right an-ples is a rectangle.
A parallelogram rvith 4 equal sides is a rhombus.

Arhombuswith4equalanglesisasquare

",

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

SOLUTION:

LBCD
xo

## - LBAD (opp. Ls of a parallelogram)

=

110o

xo + yo + 46 = 180" (Z sum of A)
110"+y"+46=180o
yo=180"-110"-46"
_ aAo
-L+

'So*"J'

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
PQRS is a rectangle. Find the values of xo and yo.

63"

)o

SOLUTION:

## LPSR = 90o (Zs of rectangle)

x" + 63"= 90o

xo

63"

xo=90" -63"

xT

- )70

y"
63"

SI = RZ (diagonals of rectangle)
LTRS - LTSR (base Zs of isos. A)

63"

In AISR,
!" = LTSR + LTRS (ext.
- 63" + 63o

L of A)

_ 126"

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:

yo

Polygons

..tffi
';;;;+G;':t:

SOLUTION:

## LBDC = LABD (AIt. LS, AB II DC)

x" = 35"
CD (sides of rhombus)
LCBD - LCDB (base Ls of isos. A)

CB

= 35"
yo + 35o +

35'=
vo =

180o

(Z

sum of

A)

ii3.-3so-3s"

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
PQRS is a kite. Find the values of xo and yo

,P

,u\
0

#S

xoA

Voz'
R

SOLUTION:
P

## PQ = PS (Equal adjacent sides of a kite.)

xo = (180"

- 76) + 2 (L sum of A)
O

52o

## LQSR= LSRZ (alt. Ls,

QS

ll R4

= 62"

,/zo.\
xx
/*\
---r---->_----{+s

\r

\2'

ur"/

\ v'l

Voz'
R

## RQ = RS (Equal adjacent sides of a kite.)

LSQR = LQSR (base Ls of isos. A)

= 62"

## y" + 62" + 62" = 180o (Z sum of A)

Yo = 180'- 62o - 62
= 56o

-ffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Polygons

1.

## A polygon is a closed plane figure with three or more straight sides.

E.g.

3 sides

Triangle

2.

4 sides
Quadrilateral

5 sides
Pentagon

In a convex polygon, none of its interior angles is a reflex angle. In other words,
each of the interior angles is less than 180o. In a concave polygon, one or more
interior angles are reflex angles. We will only be studying the properties of convex
polygons in this chapter.
E.g.

f,,-

convex polygon

-r

J.

Polygons are named according to the number of sides they have. The following
table shows some examples of polygons.

Number of sides

concave polygon

Ltd

Name of polygon

3 sides

Triangle

4 sides

Quadrilateral

5 sides

Pentagon

6 sides

Hexagon

7 sides

Heptagon

,ffi

Name of polygon

Number of sides
8 sides

Octagon

9 sides

Nonagon

10 sides

Decagon

.T'ea.o,herrs

E

4.

E.g.

Equilateral
triangle

5.

ffi

Regular

Square

pentagon

## For an n-sided polygon,

,',sumtof.iht*ri6i"afig
E.g.

;;

:;2}'x-,180*.',

(L

sum of polygon)

-(\-2)x180"
- \J

=3x180'

- 540"

.'.

n=5.

Interior angles

## Sum of the interior angles of a 15-gon

= (15 - 2) x 180"

= 13 x 180"
= 2340"

6,

## For a regular n-sided polygon,

each'inierior angle' _

'!"m
i\=uf1

Mathematics Tutor 1A

(n

-_

2) x 180"
n

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Q-*_

woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Calculate the size of each interior angle of a regular octagon.
SOLUTION:
Size of each interior angle of a regular octagon

t8-llxl80o

S.i& of eaeh,inf.7- 6f
(n *2) x 180'

135o

n sjded,pclygon
r,,lt

l:t

i,i:,::

'
''',

sreglll

,btta,go,r,l'Ua\$r, -,g:i

65-'-'',"'
ir-':':-rflr'
* gr,.r'

i:

i i:: r

:iii.ri:'

WORKED EXAMpLE 2:

(a)

The sum of the interior angles of an n-sided polygon is 3240". Find the value of
n.

(b)

Calculate the number of sides of a regular polygon with each interior angle equal
to 150'.

SOLUTION:

(a)

## Sum of interior angles

(n - 2)

3240o

x 180' = 3240" (Z
3240"

## n-2 = 1g0" <n-2 = 18

n-18+2

sum of polygon)
Divide both sides by I80'.

-20

(b)

## Each interior angle

(n-2)x180"
n

150o

150o

= l50ll <180n-750n=360
l80n

360

- 360
n-360
-12
30

30n

## The polygon has 12 sides.

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:

ABCDEF is a hexagon.
Find the value of x".

125"

150'

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

,:.,'

''''t"i.

fui..f.

SOLUTION:
Sum of interior angles of a hexagon = (6

:.

xo

2)

180" = 120"

## + 130' + Zxo + 105" + 125" + 150' = J20"

3x" + 510" = J20o
3x" = 210"
xo

210"

=.- J

='70"
1.

'su of,e*

## The exterior angles are formed

when the sides of the PolYgon
are produced.

Exterior angles

E.g.

Two of the exterior angles of a pentagon arc 82" and 65' and the rest of
the angles are each equal to x". Find the value of xo.

## 3x"+82o+65o = 360o <- A pentagon has 5 exterior angles.

3x" = 360o - 82" - 65'
= 213"
xo

8.g.2

2130
J
_
; 110
lL

## Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular octagon.

Sum of exterior angles = 360o (ext. Zsum of polygon)
Size of each exterior angle

45"

'-

## An octagon has 8 sides'

8.

;;**.'t,

i314
'i1::.:*""

i;

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:

SOLUTION:
g-

## x" + l25o = 180" (adj. Zs on a str. line)

xo=I80"-125'

Teacher's

t...***.*,H.**;***.-*,

= 55o
lnterior angle + Exterior angle

## 6J" + 90'+yo + 118o +xo = 360o (ext. L sum of polygon)

6J"+90"+y"+118"+55" = 360o
yo + 330' = 360o
y" = 360o - 330"
= 30"

WoRKED EXAMPLE 5:

(a)
(b)

The exterior angle of a regular polygon is 20o. How many sides does it have?
The interior angle of a regular n-gon is 165". Find the value of n.

SOLUTION:
(

a)

20" x n

360" (ext.

sum of polygon)

"=#
=18
.'. The polygon has 18 sides.

:'

., ).,' i t'

## cttiotls Pte Ltd

.:fJ;G't
Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

StL
i{':f
t'13t-*.'slt:t

(b)

## Method L: (The easier method)

Interior angle = 165"
Exterior angle:
- 165" (adj. Zs on a str. line)

i:3'

tt,

sum of polygon)

360"

- -ry
-24

Method 2:

(n-2)x180"
n

165"

(n

180n-360=165n

## Multiply both sides bY

ru.

180n-165n=360
l5n - 360

,r- 360
15
-)a

%*

woRKED EXAMPLE 6:

## The diagram shows a regular octagon

ABCDEFGH and a regular hexagon
ABWXYZ which are drawn with AB as the
common line. Calculate

(a)
(b)
(c)

LBAH,
LBAZ,
LAHZ.

SOLUTION:

(a)

LBAH =

(8

135"

.l-:*.\,
i.3 l6 .ij
1**=..i'

Mathematics Tutor I A

2) x

180' <_

_ (n * 2) x 180'

t1

.'. ll = 8.

Ltd

(b) LBAZ =

(6-2)x180o

_ (n-2)x 180'
120"

.'. tt = 6.

,C)

105o

LAHZ = (180"
= 3J.5"

share

Teacher's

## Always draw a rough sketch and write down the given

information before constructing the actual figure.

To construct a triangle given the lengths of all its three sides, use a ruler and
a pair

Q-*

of compasses.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Construct LABC in which AB
,,
ABC,

## - lZ cm, BC = 8 cm and AC = 9 cm. Measure the size of

SOLUTION:
Steps

for construction:

i
2

## With B as centre and radius 8 cm, draw

an arc to cut the first arc at C.

## With A as centre, draw an arc of radius 9 cm using

a pair of compasses.
---.

c",'

12 cm

lTcm

,,_;FG:-

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

tZli
fu
'+\E*S'Y

To construct a triangle given the lengths of two sides and an included angle,
use a pair of compasses, a protractor and a ruler.

'%"

woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
Construct LXYZ in which XY - 7.6 cm, LXYZ
size of LXZY and the length of XZ.

## = 135" and YZ = 5.6 cm. Measure the

SOLUTION:
Steps

1
2

for construction:
Draw a line segment XY 7.6 cm long.
Using a protractor, draw a ray with
and LXYZ

as endpoint

=
With Ias centre, draw an arc of radius 5.6 cm to

3,

135o.

## cut the ray at Z.

Jorn

l-6cm

XZ to obtain LXYZ.

1.6 cm

## By measurement, the size of LXZY ts 26 and the length of XZ rs 12.2 cm.

To construct a triangle given two angles and an included length, use a pair
compasses, a protractor and a ruler.

,%

of

WoRKED EXAMPLE 3:
Construct LPQR such that PQ = 10 cm, LPQR = 65o and LQPR = 46. Measure the
lengths of PR and QR.
SOLUTION:
Steps

for construction:

it+
#i

Sketch:

## Using a protractor, draw a ruy with endpoint at P

and

LRPQ = 46.

10cm

,i-!'"'*'-*U.

ii,318

j'

'.11==gr",'

Mathematics Tutor I A

Ltd

3
4

## Using a protractor, draw a ray with endpoint at Q and LRQP = 65o

Produce the two rays to meet at R to obtain LPQR.

## By measurement, the lengths of PR is 9.7 cm and QR is 7 .7 cm.

8Djg.{ruction

of Quadrilaterals

## To construct a quadrilateral, use a pair of compasses, a ruler and a protractor.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Construct a parallelogram ABCD such that AB
Measure the length of AC.

='7

cm, AD

## 5.4 cm and LBAD = 58o

SOLUTION:
Steps

1
2
3
.t
5

for construction:
Draw a line AB 7 cm long.

Sketch:

## Draw a ray starting at A with LBAD = 58o.

With A as centre and radius 5.4 cm, draw an arc
to cut the produced arm of A at D.
With B as centre and radius 5.4 cm, draw an arc.
With D as centre and radius 7 cm, draw an arc to
cut the arc at (4) at C. Join BC, CD and AD to
obtain parallelogram ABCD.

,,ffi,

## By measurement, the length of AC is 10.9 cm.

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:

720o

## = 5 cm, AD = 6.5 cm, CD = 8.5 cm,

SOLUTION:
Steps

for construction:

iiii
#}
.#

## Draw line segment AB 5 cm long.

Draw a ruy beginnin g at A with LBAD = 95" '
With centre A and radius 6.5 cm, draw an arc to
cut the ray at D.
Draw a ruy beginnin g at B with LABC = 720" .
With centre D and radius 8.5 cm, draw an arc to
cut the ray at (4) at C.
Join C to D to obtain quadrilateral ABCD.

'ffi,i

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Sketch:

D---L5.*

\
6.s cm\

---7c
/

w:w

A 5cm

Ltd

Tutorial
t

l)

l.

## Properties of T[iangles and Quadrilaterals

Calculate the unknown values.

*"

* 11"

3x"

55o

4",

(d)

2xo

+ Iio

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

ffi

(e)

W- gs"
\
,/

ro.,

---x-

"4\

.H

0)

.,:i-"s*\..,

',i322i:
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Mathematics Tutor

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+#

B/fu+2"
\c
/\
\G'
*\)
O

{ffii
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2.

## Calculate the values of xo and yo.

(b)

(a)

BC

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)G

'/v

-"(r.\o f

,,%/

L7 r-)<xo +25o

-..'-:,,.:,ts!!,-Bni:

"j::.r:::{f

Ltd

-- ., , - u

## late the values of xo and yo in the following rectangles.

(a)

(b)

A
160

x-

,I

25"
.yo

lCt

(d)

-'.'"--.--.-- !q'

J2"

xo + 2y"

E
C

(e)

3y"

(f)A

5x" + 20"
E
C

4.

Zo

## tn the following parallelograms.

(b)
/

3xo +

5J-"
5o

(d)
A

CD

".ffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Ltd

(a)

i(b)

(c)
3xo

i(d)

+24"
7o

yo

5x"

12".

z;,\
A

\
"-"r,

x"l%
C

. -

ffi
'h#,

6.

## Calculate the values of xo and y" in the following kites.

(b)

(a)

\
*\
D

,"(

580

yo

(d)

(c)

h
Vv"

x'N

\
C

(e)

(f)

2y"
B

/.

E
yo

5/

150'

,/

D
D

i.,ffi

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Ltd

## Chapter 8: Triangles and polygons

iffi

m..
iw)

Mathematics Tutor 1A

-:

## the diagram, PQis parallel to 7S and ftP

-:ruight line. Calculate
-; .i QPR,

:
:

,,,,

RQ. LPRQ =

80o ,

## LPSR = 52" and QRS is

RP.S,

./ PST.

In the diagram , AD
LFGJ - 63". Calculate
(a) LJFG,
{b) LCJG,
(c) LBFC,
(d) LGKL.

:-.'

--tttiotts Pte

Ltd

is parallel

= 105'

, LBCF

65' and
D

10.

## is parallel FE' AGE, BGD and cGF arc

In the diagram, AB is paralrer to cDE and BGD
_
30o and CD DG. Find
straight lines. Reflex LBAG = 302" ,, LCGD =
(a) LCDG,

(b)
(c)

11

LAEF,,

LFGE.

Find
AB ll cD,, LBPT = 43" and LTSD = 24" '
In the diagram, pRTis a right-angred triangle.
(a) reflex < PTR,

(b)
(c)

LPRT,,

LCQR.

+J*c***

i. :lZ}:

"fu*'fi

MathematicsTutor

lA

CEF -'72". Find

## -.. the diagram, CA

* .d

:.
r

LACB,
LFGH.

in the diagram, AB
L1) LCDG,
LDEF,
br
. ) LCED.

and

LCGH =

108o. Find

.'ii;;a;n

Ltd

'{,::a -,

14.

(a)
(b)

15.

,!o

EC ,

LBCD,
LBAC.

xo

ll

## ll2" , LBGF = 50o and LEFH = 96. Find

the values

and zo .

KA

',ffi

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Irr the diagram, ABCD is a rhombus and DEGH is a parallelogram . KA is parallel to JF.
- 128" and LCDE - 120". Find

-KBC

a)
r
c)
b

LHDE,
/-DHF,
LJHG.

l., tlte dia-eram, ABCD is a square and CDE is an isosceles triangle. ADE and CEF are straight
.res. Find LDEF.

_i;tons Pte

Ltd

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

ffi

18.

LDHF =
In the diagram, BC = HC = HD = HF '
AE. Find

(a)
(b)
(c)

t9.

46

to
and LFDE = 37" . GE \s PerPendicular

LHFG,
/-HCB,
LABH.

LGAB= 31o
In the diagram, AC ll DF and GD ll CH '

and

/-GDF =

57" '

## Find the values of

yo and zo.

-tro

'

rf.)f

I
lu"
'

2."

Mathematics Tutor 1A

l-=

## @ Casco Publiccttions Pte

Ltd

In the diagram, ABCD and CPQR are two rhombuses. TBCP, ARDQ and BSD are straight
lines . LABT = 98o and LDQP = 110o. Find
(A) LADB,
DO
(b) LARC,
( c)
LRSD.

FE,
In the diagram, ABC is an equilateral triangle and ACF is an isosceles triangle. AC II
' BAF = ll2" , LCDE = 100' and LDEF = 90o. Find the values of x" , yo and z" '

.ii';Gil:
B Cosco Publications Pte Ltd

...'it.:l_.*,4,
"t1:Zii

22.

23.

ffi

## In the diagram, ABCD rs a parallelogram. PR is parallel to SU. LDBC

and LBAD = I17'. Find
(a) LQRB,
(b) LTUD.

## In the diagram, AC ll ED and BF ll CD.

(a) Find the values of xo ,Yo and z" .
(b) State, showing your reasons whether BD is parallel to FE.

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(2)
24.

25.

Polygons
Calculate the sum of the interior angles of a polygon with:

(a)

10 sides

(c)

24 sides

(b)

15 sides

32 sides

(a) 6 sides

(b)

(c)

(d) 30 sides

20 sides

Ltd

18 sides

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

/ffi
W

Calculate the size of each exterior angle of the following regular polygons.

21

(a)

pentagon

(b)

hexagon

(c)

octagon

(d)

r}-gon

## Calculate the number of sides of a regular polygon

(a)

",ffi
_

135'

(b)

(c) 156'

(d)

Mathematics Tutor 1A

1

is:

50"

170"

Ltd

28.

29.

if each exterior

(a)

15"

(b)

24o

(c)

36

(d)

45"

angle is:

(b)

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

#S

-(c)

(e)

100o
Zx"

'r"ffi

x" + 25"

+20"

Mathematics Tutor 1A

3x"

Ltd

(b)

## is 1080", how many sides does it have?

Three of the interior angles of a nonagon are each x" and the remaining interior angles
are each I14". Find the value of xo.
l

(c)

In a pentagon, two of the interior angles are t20" and 138" and the remaining interior
angles are equal. Find one of these equal angles.

(d)

angle.

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

{iffi

(e)

The sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon is six times that of a pentagon. Find
the number of sides of the PolYgon.

(0

Three of the exterior angles of an n-sided polygon are 30o ,40" and 50o. The remaining
(n - 3)exterior angles are each equal to 16o. Find the value of n'

(e)

(h)

.''-**G\;,

3441':
tl\**..si'

Each exterior angle of a regular polygon is 120o less than each of its interior angle' How
many sides does the PolYgon have?

Each exterior angle of a regular polygon with 20 sides is 12o less than each exterior
angle of another regular PolYgon with n sides. Calculate the value of n.

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(i)

Apol,v,son has n sides. Four of its exterior angles are 15",25o,40o and 30o while the
remaining an-eles are each equal to 50". Find the value of n.

0)

The interior angle of a regular polygon is five times its exterior angle. Find the size of
the exterior angle.

31.

Aregular polygon has n sides. The size of each interior angle is seven times the size of each
exterior size.
(a) Find the size of each exterior angle.
(b) Calculate the value of n.

32.

(a)
(b)
(c)

LABC,
LBAD,
LDAE.

Ltd

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons l'\$1;;=

'\e*\$fl'

33

In the diagram, ABCDE is a regular pentag on. ABP , PCDR, BCQ, EDQ and AER are straight
lines.

(a)
(b)
(c)

34.

.+&.

Find

(i)
(ii)

LBCD,
LBPC.

Find LCPQ.

## ABCDEF is a regular hexagon and ABPQR is a regular pentagon. Calculate

(a)
(b)
(c)

iffif.]

LABC,
LABP,
LBCP.

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte Ltc[

The diagram below is not drawn to scale. It shows 3 sides of a regular n-sided polygon
PQRS.... Given that LQPR = 10o, flnd
(a) the size of each interior angle of the regular polygon,
(b) the value of n,
(c) LPRS.

-'

The diagram shows part of a regular nonagon, PQRSTU . QR and 7S produced meet at
Calculate

(a)
(b)
(c)

LVRS,
LRQS,

LQTU.

ffi

3l

pentagons. Find
(a) LQRS,

(b)

38.

the value of n.

## of a regular polygon. Calculate

the number of sides of the polygon,
LACD,

## are the sides

(a)
(b)
(c) LADE.

,,;#t\
'i348;1,
'ilr=*.**'.P'

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

41.

## ABCDE... is part of a regular polygon. LCBX =

(a)
(b)
(c)

AC at

I.

Calculate

LBAC,
LCBE,,

LCYE.

The diagram shows a regular pentagon PQRST and part of a regular n-gon PQCD... AB.
Given that LABP = 156", calculate
A
(a) the value of n,
(b) LBPT,
(c) LTPC.

42.

f*'

24o . BE rntersects

i{350\$j

"-kd/

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

+3.

The diagram below is not drawn to scale. It shows a regular octagon ABCDEFGH andpart
a regular n-sided polygon PHGQ....If LFGQ = 69", find

(a)
(b)

++.

of

LHGF,
the value of n.

PQR... is part of a polygon. Reflex LPQR ts 212 and the size of the remaining exterior angles
are equal to 41" each. Find the number of sides of this polygon.

Ltd

ffi

45.

## In the diagram, PQRSTU... is part of a regular 12-sided polygon. QR produced meets ZS

produced at M.

(a)
(b)
(c)

46.

Find

(i)
(ii)

LQRS,

LRMS.
State why MQ = MT.
Find LOTU.

In the diagram, ABCDE is a regular hexagon, CGHD and DJKE are squares and DHJ rs a
triangle.
(a) Find

(i)
(ii)

(b)

,ffi

'Wf}j

LCDE,
LHDJ.

## Write down the name of the special triangle DHJ.

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

(3)
11

## Construction of Triangles and Quadrilaterals

Construct LABC such thatAB ='7 cm,AC = 8 cm andBC = 6 cm. Measure and write down
the size of the largest angle.

.18. Construct LXYZ such thatXY = 6.5 cm, LXW = 48o and LYXZ ='73o. Measure

and write

ffi

49.

(a)

## Construct LABC in which AB

write down the length of AC.

(b)

On the same diagram, construct the angle bisector of LBAC. The angle bisector meets
BC at X. Mark X clearly on your diagram. Hence measure the length of BX.

50. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

{ffi

LM=

8.5 cm,

## LLMN = 80o andLN =

10.5 cm.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the angle bisector of LMLN,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of LM.
Mark and label the point X where the angle bisector of LMLN meets the perpendicular
bisector of LM.
Hence, measure and write down the length of LX.

Mathematics rutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(a)

Given the line AB, construct LABC such that BC = 11 cm and AC = 9 cm. Measure and
write down the size of LACB.

(b)

## On the same diagram, construct

(i) the perpendicular bisector of AC,
(ii) the angle bisector of LACB.
The perpendicular bisector of AC cuts BC at P. Mark and label the point P.
The angle bisector of LACB cuts AB at Q. Mark and label the point Q.
Measure and write down the length CP.

(c)
(d)
(e)

',ffi

52.

(a)

(b)

## Construct triangle PQR where eR - 9 cm and pR 10 cm.

PQhas been drawn below.
=
Measure and write down the size of LepR.
On the same diagram, construct

(i)
(ii)

## the angle bisector of

pe,

LpeR.

,:iFRi
r{.356"Ei Mathematics

'ts***'j?

Tutor 1A

@ Casco Publications

pte Ltd

(a)

(b)

## The diagram shows a triangle XYZ. On the diagram, construct

(i) the angle bisector of LXYZ,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of YZ.
Mark and label the point Mwherc the perpendicular bisector of YZ meets
and write down the size of LMZY.

XI.

Measure

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

rffi

54.

(a)

On LXYZ, construct

(i)
(ii)

(b)

ffi

## the angle bisector of LXYZ,

the perpendicular bisector of XZ.
The angle bisector intersects the perpendicular bisector at the point M. Measure and
write down the shortest distance from M to thehne XZ.

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

56.

Construct APQR in which PQ = 9 cm, LRPO = 110o and PR = 7 cm. Measure and
write down the length of QR.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the angle bisector of LPRQ,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of PQ.
Mark and label the point of intersection of the constructed lines in part (b) (i) and (ii) as 7.
Measure and write down the shortest distance from 7to the line PQ.

Construct arectangle whose sides are 6.8 cm and 4.3 cm. Measure and write down the length
of the diagonal.

,,ffi

57.

(a)

(b)

58.

,ffir

'w

## Construct a parallelogram ABCD in which AB = 4.8 cffi, BC = 5.5 cm and

LBAD = 68o. Measure and write down the length of AC .
On the same diagram, construct the perpendicular bisector of the line AB which cuts
CD at E. Measure and write down the length of AE.

Construct a rhombus PQRS in which PQ = 5 cm and LPQR = 110". Measure and write down
the length of each diagonal.

Ltd

59-

60.

## Construct a trapezitm ABCD in which AB is parallel to DC, AB = 8 cm, LBAD

AD = 6.2 cm and CD - 3 .6 cm. Measure and write down the length of BD.

= 53o,

## Constructaquadrilateral ABCDinwhich AB-3.5cm, AC=7.2cm,AD=6cm, BC=5.'l cm

and cD = 4.8 cm. Measure and write down the size of LABC.

,tffi

61. (a)
(b)

62. (a)
(b)

## Construct a quadrilateral PQRS

in which PQ = 9 cm, 8R

## LSPQ = 80o and LPQR = 70o.

On the same diagram, draw a line parallel to QR and passing through S to cut PQ atX.
Measure and write down the length of PX.

Construct a quadrilateral PQRS in which base PQ = 6.5 cm, LQPS = 80o, P,S = 5 .4 cm,
LPQR = 106o and LPSR = 88o. Measure and write down the length of PrR.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the perpendicular bisector of the hne PQ,

(ii)

## the angle bisector of LQRS.

Mark the point 7, where these two lines meet. Measure and write down the length
PT.

ffir
t

Mathematics Tutor

lA

of

Ltd

-:

rlr)
r
lc )

64.

## Construct the quadrilateral ABCD where AB is parallel to DC. AB - BC = 7 cm,

" -\BC = 90o and /-DAB = 110o.
\{easure and r,vrite down the perimeter of ABCD.
On the same diagram, construct the angle bisector of LADC. The angle bisector meets
BC atX. Measure and write down the size of LADX.

= 8 cm, LQRS

= 118o, RS

= 7.5 cm,

(a)

## Construct a quadrilateral QRST such that QR

QT = 10 cm and diagonal RI = 12 cm.

(b)

## On the same diagram, construct

(i) the angle bisector of LTQR,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of RS.
Mark and label the point of intersection of the constructed lines in (b) (i) and
the letter V. Measure and write down the length of QV.

(c)

Ltd

(ii) with

## Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

t:ffi

65. (a)
(b)
(c)

66. (a)

Construct a quadrilateral ABCD such that AB = 6.5 cm, BC = 8 cm, CD = 8.5 cm,
AD - 7 cm and AC = 9 cm. Measure and write down the size of LABC .
On the same diagram, construct the perpendicular bisector of CD.
The perpendicular bisector of CD cuts AC at X and CD at I. Measure and write down
the length of Xf.

56o and

LBAD-LBCD=135o.

(b)
(c)

'*i\$\r

,i*9_1il

## Measure and write down the length of AC.

Write down the name of the special quadrilateral ABCD.

Mathematics rutor

lA

Ltd

## Constmct a quadrilateral PORS where PQ = 8.5 cm, 8R

ailt SPQ = 70" .
\lea-sure and rvrite down the sizes of LQRS and LRSP.
S rite dosu the special name for the quadrilateral PQRS.
On tre same diagram, construct
til the angle bisector of LRSP,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of PQ.

(a)

(b)

PS = 9 cm, LPQR

110"

## Construct a parallelogram ABCD such that AB = 8 cm, BC = 6.5 cm and AC - 12 cm.

Measure and write down the size of LABC.
On the same diagram, construct the angle bisector of LABC. The angle bisector cuts
CD at X. Measure and write down the length of BX.

i
ti:is
'il=,.,'.-tl

69

. (a)
(b)
(c)

70.

(a)

(b)

## Construct a rhombus ABCD such that AB = J cm and LABC = 60o.

On the same diagram, construct
(i) the perpendicular bisector of AB,
(ii) the angle bisector of LADC.
The perpendicular bisector of AB intersects the angle bisector of LADC at the point X.
Measure and write down the length of BX.

## Construct the quadrilateral ABCD in which AB - 7 cm, BC = 10 cm, CD = 8 cm,

AD - 9 cm and LBAD - 70o .
On your diagram, construct
(i) the line which is equidistant from BA and BC,
(ii) the line which is equidistant from the two points B and C.

Ir

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2.

3.

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4.

## Find the value of LQPR in the figure.

i
I

5.

'ffi

A closed ring is made using identical regular pentagons. Part of the ring is as shown below.
How many regular pentagons are needed to form the ring?

Mathematics Tutor 1A

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## Chapter 7: Angles and Parallel Lines

Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons

(a)

(b)

## PQR and SQT are straight lines.

(c)

,ft.
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370

Mathematics Tutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(d)

109"

(e)

(f)

Ar
PQRS is a rectangle.

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Revision Exercise

fffi

2.

Find

(a)
(b)

.|

J.

4.

,'ft,

lffi

and

L GEF -32

LBGE,
LAED.

(a) LBCD,
(b) reflex LDEF.

(a) LCEF,

(b)
(c)

- 40

## CDE = 60o. Find

BC

"78. Find
A

LFBD,
LBDC.

Mathematics Tutor

130o and

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

5.

In this diagram, PQRST is a straight line. UR cuts LQRV into half. QU llRVand UR
Find the values of xo ,yo and 7o .

6.

xo

ll

VS.

,y" andzo

BC

7.

A

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise

r 'i':I,il
'fu.=*'*

8.

(a) LCDE,
(b) LACG,
(c) LABF.

and

## line. Find the values of xo, yo and

.G

Mathemarics Tutor 1A

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Ltd

10.

## In the diagram, AB, CE and FH are parallel. DC = DG

values of xo ,yo and 7o .

11.

(a) LABG,
(b) LDGB.

r! :i

and

- 325o . Find
B

,'ffi\

## Revision Exercise 3 ifl37s

Fi

W,

I2.

In the diagram, ABCD is a trapezitm,, ABE is an isosceles triangle and BCE is a right-angled
triangle. LABE = 35o and LCDE = 100o. Find
(a) LEBC,,
(b) LDCE.

13.

F

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Ltd

A

(l7x-7)"

15.

l-

(a) LDEF,
(b) LBAC,
(c) LBCE.

## Cctsco Publications Pte

Ltd

I42 . Find
B

Revision Exercise

":"j*it*n..i*

Llt'377'ii

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16.

In the diagram, ABCD is a kite. LADB = 40o and /-BCA=25o. Find the values of xo and yo.

40"

Vl''

25"
C

17.

(a) /-AEC,
(b) LADB,
(c) LCBD.

=23o. Find

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'

## {BCD is a parallelogram. F'ind the value of xo.

295"

19

In the diagram, ABC is an isosceles triangle. BF ll CE,rcflex LBFC = 264" and LECD = 38o
BCD is a straight line. Find the values of xo ,yo and zo .

2x"

## e Cusco Publications Pte Ltd

yo + 6o

Revision Exercise

7-u,.\$Eii1

i{379l*:
til*n-r

20.

2r.

## In the diagram, ABCD is

(a)
(b)

a parallelogram .

## LABC = 50" and LCDE = 22o. Find

LBCD,
LADE.

In the diagram, AE ll BC and BE ll CD. LAEB = 6J" , LBCE = 86o and LCDE
(a) LEBC,
A
(b) LCED.

105". Find
E

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'w,,

## @ Casco Publiccttions Pte

Ltd

The diagram shows a cardboard PQR in the shape of an equilateral triangle. It is folded along
tlie line QX.If LPYQ - 102", flnd LRQX.

In the diagram, AC ll DF and GE II CH. LCBG _ 1050, LBCE LCHE = 90o. Find
B
(a) LGEH,
A
(b) LECH,

(c)

79"

C

LBGE.

## f.i-.r o Publications Pte Ltd

,F'j;QL,

Revision Exercise

: 't:St i;
'15***"':'j

24.

25.

In the diagram,

## WXYZ is a rhombus. WY intersects XZ at the point P. PY

LXWP = 58o. Find
W
(a) LXPY,
(b) LQPY,
(c) LPQZ.

PQ and

oz

In the diagram, ADE is a triangle. BC ll DE,BD = BE, LACB = 100" and LDBE
=94". Find

## the values of po , q" arrd r" .

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## The diagram below is not drawn to scale . ABCD is a parallelogram and AF

(a)
ft)

LGEC,
LBCE.

ll

EC . Find

AE

In the diagram, JA ts parallel to CE, JF ts parallel to CH, LBEC = 82o, LDCH = 43o and
AB - BE. Calculate

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

'- ,; i,- o

LAJB,
LBAJ,
LFEG,
LGEC.

## Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise

,:&

r{ 383,Tj

'b*d;'

28.

In the diagram, PD is parallel to FH and PQ is parallel to RS. PGQ, REFS and FGH are
straight lines. Given that LPER= 64", LPFG = 90o and LHQG = 50o, calculate the values of
(a) wo,
(b) xo,
D
(c) lo,
H
(d) zo.
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500,

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29.

(a) LEFG,
(b) LAGH,
(c) LAEH.

## I04" , LAGC = 70" and AH

- HG. Find

,u*=\t

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Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

In the diagram, AB

-:1.

ll CD and BC llED.

B

r- 17-s.o

## Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise

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if"f"S.i,

/..

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(a)

The ratio of the size of each interior angle to the size of each exterior angle of a regular
polygon with n sides is 7 : 2. Find the value of n.

(b)

If

one of the interior angles of a polygon is 120" and the remaining interior angles are
each 168o, flnd the number of sides of the polygon.

(c)

The size of three interior angles of a lO-sided polygon are I 15o, 97" and 143" respectively.
The size of each of the remaining angles is equal to xo. Find the value of xo .

(d)

Apolygon has n sides. Three of its exterior angles are 60o , 15o and 45' while the remaining
exterior angles are each equal to 30o. Find the value of n.

Mathematics rutor 1A

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

3-1.

(a)

Two interior angles of a pentagon are 135' and 147" while the remaining angles are each
equal to 2x". Find the value of xo.

(b)

A regular polygon has 12 sides. Calculate the size of each exterior angle.

(c)

When six sides of a hexagon are produced in order, four of the exterior angles formed
are each xo and the remaining exterior angles are each (xo + 60").Find the value of xo.

In the diagram, ABCDEF is a regular hexagon and AFGHJKLM is a regular octagon. Find
(a) LBAF,
(b) LMAF,
(c) LABM.

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise

,ffi
, iffi

35'

The diagram shows part of a regular polygon with n sides. Each interior angle
is 156". Find
(a) the value of n,

(b)

36'

LPRS.

In the diagram, PQRST... is part of an n-sided irregular polygon. Reflex L7RS Z44o and
=
the size of each of the remaining interior angles is equal to I43". How many sides does
the

polygon have?

.Ut.p-j

Mathematics Tutor

lA

Ltd

37

38.

(a) LQRS,
(b) LXRS,
(c) LXST.

## regular 1S-gon. QRXY is a square. Calculate

The diagram below is not drawn to scale. It shows a regular pentagon ABCDE and part of a
regular polygon FEDGH... Given that LDGC = 46.5", flnd

(a)
(b)

LCDE,
the number of sides of the regular polygon FEDGH...

## r-,;rco Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise

,:,ot=t*'

.389,'

39.

In the diagram, ABRQ is a square, BRSDC is a regular pentagon and PQRST... is part of
regular polygon with n sides. Find

(a)
(b)

40.

LQRS,
the value of n.

In the diagram, ABCDE rs a regular pentagon, ABQP and BCSR are squares and BRQ ts a
triangle. Find

(a)
(b)
(c)

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LABC,
LARB,
LPBS.

Mathematics Tutor

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41.

(a)

## Construct a triangle in which AB

write down the size of LACB.

(b)

On the same diagram, construct the angle bisector of LCAB. The angle bisector meets
BC at X. Measure and write down the length of BX.

41. (a)
(b)
(c)

. -,r'io

and

## Construct LABC such that AB = 10.5 cm, BC = 9 cm and AC = 8.5 cm.

On the same diagram, construct the angle bisector of LACB.
The angle bisector of LACB meets AB at the point X. Measure and write down the
length of CX.

## Publications Pte Ltd

Revision

Exercise,

43.

(a)

On AABC, construct

(i)
(ii)

(b)

## the angle bisector of LABC,

the perpendicular bisector of AB.
The angle bisector of LABC and the perpendicular

(c)

## Mark and label the point X.

Measure and write down the length of BX.

## of AB intersect at the point X.

,igits-..E:',

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t+o***di'

Mathematics Turor

lA

## Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(a)

(b)

(c)

-15.

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)

Construct AWXY wherc WX -7 .5 cm, LWXY - 120" andXY = 9 cm. Measure and write
down the length of WY.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the angle bisector of LWYX,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of WX.
The point Z ts equidistant from both points W and X and the lines W and I{. Mark and
label the point Z on you diagram.

## Construct LABC such that AB = 9 cm, AC = 7 cm and BC = 8.5 cm.

Measure and write down the largest angle in the triangle.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the perpendicular bisector of AB,
(ii) the angle bisector of LCAB.
Mark and label the point P where the angle bisector of LCAB intersects the perpendicular
bisector of AB.
Measure and write down the length of AP .

## --.,i t, Publications Pte Ltd

Revision Exercise

,,t'-=,

j
,j393
i3=,.,*r-'i

46.

## Constructaparallelogram ABCD inwhich AB

and write down the length of BC.

47.

(a)

Construct a quadrilateral WXYZ such thatWX = 6.5 cm, LZWX = 115o,XZ= 11.5 cm,
YZ = 10 cm and XY = 11 cm. Measure and write down the length of WZ.

(b)

## On the same diagram, construct

(i) the angle bisector of LXYZ,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of YZ.
Mark and label the point P where the angle bisector of LXYZ meets the perpendicular
bisector of YZ.

(c)

,r&,

## rffi\$f: Mathematics Tutor lA

- 8 cm, AC -

15 cm and

LABC -l10o.Measure

Ltd

(a)
rb)

+9. (a)
(b)
(c)

## Construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which the base AB = 6.5 cm, AD = 6 cffi,

LABC = 105o , LBAD = 85o and LADC -78o. Measure and write down the length of AC .
On your diagram, draw the perpendicular bisector of BC. The perpendicular bisector
meets AD at the point 7. Measure and write down the length of AT.

Construct the quadrilateral ABCD such that AB = 9 cm, BC = 6.5 cm and LABC = 1 10o .
DC ts parallel to AB and AD is parallel to BC .
Write down the name of the special quadrilateral ABCD.
On the same diagram, draw the perpendicular bisector of AB. The perpendicular bisector
of AB intersects AB at the point M.Measure and write down the size of LAMC.

## Cctsco Publications Pte

Ltd

Revision Exercise

,#%,,

rt395\$;

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50. (a)
(b)
(c)

Construct a parallelogram EFGH such that EF = 8 cm, LEFG = 100o and FG = 6 cm.
Measure and write down the size of LFGH.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the perpendicular bisector of EF,
(ii) the angle bisector of LHEF.
The perpendicular bisector of EF intersects the angle bisector of LHEF at the point X.
Measure and write down the length of EX.

.'"+'r.';-

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Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Pwblications Pte

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Mid-Year Examination
Specimen Paper A
Paper

Marks
/s0

ii

Time: I hour

## - . i er ALL the questions.

-. 'I..-rking must be clearly shown.
Evaluate each of the following.

ra) 5-(-2)+4x(-3)+6

b) ('i-,i) .r!

(a)
(b)
(c)

Answer: (a)

t1l

(b)

t1l

Answer: (a)

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(b)

t1l

(c)

t1l

## Express 0.375 as a fraction in its lowest term.

Express

tf,

"ta

recurring decimal.

ffi

3.

3

## J, - t, o, 0.36, t, *, -1.5, 7t,

g,

83
99

Write down
(a) the whole numbers,
(b) the perfect squares,
(c) the recurring decimals,
(d) the irrational numbers.

4.

Giventhata=2,b--3

(a)

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and c

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(b)

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(c)

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(d)

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(b)

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3c3 - 2b'
(b)
ab-fc

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Answer:

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Answer: (a)

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(b)

12)

## Simplify the following.

(a) lrr.-zy)-|ru.-ey)
(b) 1r;" -

2(P

3q)

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1.

(a) 3(2x-3)-

(b)

8.

-x)=6-(4x+

5)

,*-t*r'=)*Y

(a)

(b)

## Hence, find the value

l.

+00
,f'.-i\*,*.*#,

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1,lg26t

Answer: (a)

l2l

(b)

l2l

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(b)

l2l
@ Casco Publications Pte

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Given that

A=22 x

3s

x 7a and

B=3x52xJ3,
flnd in index notation
(a) the LCM of A and B,
(b) the square root of 2lB.

10.

## Answer: (a) LCM =

tll

(b)

t1l

Jim is x years old. His sister, Jill is 8 years younger than him. Their father is twice as old
Jim. Their mother is 3 times as old as Jill. Write down the expression in terms of x for

(a)
(b)
(c)

as

Jill's age,
their mother's age,
the sum of Jim, Jill and their parent's ages.

Answer: (a)

years t1l

(b)

years t1l

(c)

years

tzl

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11. (a)
(b)

## Expand (3a - 4b + 9c)(-3).

Factorise the following expressions completely.

(i)

Zm'n'-

(ii)

p(3x

l*'n',
,)

y)

- 7q(y -

3x).

tll

Answer: (a)
(b) (i)

t1l

(ii)

12.

a rhombus.

LPQV,

(a)
(b)

## PU is parallel to QT and QVS is a straight line. Given that

84o, calculate

LVPS.

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t3l

(b) LvPS

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" l2l

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

13.

(a)

(b)

Three of the exterior angles with a polygon with n sides are 80o, 50" and 70".
The remaining exterior angles are each 20' . Calculate the value of n.
ABCDE is a pentagon. Find the value of xo.

Answer: (a) n -

tzl

(b) x" =

l+.

ABCDis a rectangle. AB =

(a)
(b)

(*.+ t).-,

## BC = (2x -3) cm and CD=

the value of x,
the perimeter of the rectangle.

(;x

/r-)
l-x+l
l,
\A

l2)

+ 8)

.*.

Find

lcm

(2x

-3)

cm

(i..') "*

Answer:

i.

(a)x-

cm t3l

(b)

cm t1l

## Mid-Year Examination A: Paper

, ,,m)

Mid-Year Examination
Specimen Paper A

NIarks
/s0

Paper 2

Time:

t hour 15 minutes

ALL

the questions.
A11 working must be clearly shown.

Answer

1.

2.

(a)

Simplify 5x

(b)

If x -

(a)

Use a calculator to evaluate the following, giving your answer correct to 3 significant
figures.

9y2 +

3.85'
Round

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

[8;r

22.

ffi,flndthe

685 + (18.26

(b)

- {9x-

- (1x - 6 -

5x)]

- a].

## valueof zwhen x=5 andy

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--6.

t3l

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tll

- {6001 65

off 169.58 to
the nearest whole number,
2 signiflcant figures,
the nearest perfect square.

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tll
t1l

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t:.1.'1i11,

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

In the diagram, PV is parallel to RU, LPQV ="76o and LQUR = 30o. Calculate
(a) LQPV,
(b) LVQU,
(c) LQVU.

(a)
(b)

tll
t3l
t1l

## Add(2x2+Sxy)tothesumof 0;-ll*y)and(3 -2*y).

t1l
is
more
its
numerator.If
4
is
In a fraction, the denominator 3
than
added to both the
numerator and the denominator, the fraction becom.r

## Form an equation to flnd the

original fraction.

t3l

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5.

(a)

## On the diagram, construct

(i) the angle bisector of LABC,

(b)

t1l
through

## C to cut the angle bisector at

point X.
Measure and write down the length of BX.

the

t1l

Answer: (a)

Answer: (b) BX
6.

(a)

(b)

,ffi

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cm

tll

Charles, Betty and Lisa sat for a Mathematics qurz. Charles scored 17 marks more than
Lisa but 31 marks less than Betty. It is given that Charles scored x marks and Betty's
marks were twice Lisa's marks.
(i) Write down an equation in terms of x.
t3l
(ii) Solve the equation to flnd Lisa's marks.
tzl
Mr Lee has a collection of n toy f,gurines. Each toy flgurine costs \$29. He displays the
toy flgurines in a glass cabinet costing \$198.
(i) Write down an expression, in terms of n,, for the total value of the cabinet and
n toy figurines.
tzl
(ii) If the total value of the cabinet and n toy flgurines is \$gS t , flnd the number of toy
figurines in Mr Lee's collections.
l2)

Mathematics rutor I A

## Casco Publications Pte Ltd

7.

(a)

(b)
(c)

8.

(i)
(ii)

Factorise 5p + 5q.
Hence, without using a calculator, evaluate (5

x 88.825 + 5 x

Il.l75).

7x-4y )a
x
Given that 5X+
" -; - .find the value of ; .

tll
l2l
t3l

## A flshmonger buys p kilograms of pomfret at \$q per kilogram at the wholesale market.

He then sells them at \$r per kilogram. Write down, in terms of p , q and r the amount he
earns.
t1l

Jonathan has three parcels to post. The mass of Parcel A is x grams. The mass of Parcel B is
three times as heavy as Parcel C. The mass of Parcel C is 80 g lighter than Parcel A.
(a) Write down in terms of x
(i) the mass of Parcel B,
(ii) the mass of Parcel C.
l2l
(b) Given that the total mass of the three parcels is 920 g, write down an equation in terms

(c)

ofx.

tLl

l2l

## Mid-Year Examination A: Paper

2 i,ffi-i

(a)

Construct

LABC

(b)

a quadrilateralABCD such that the baseAB = 9 cm and LBAD = 85o ,AD =7 cm,
75" and CD = 6.8 cm. Measure and write down the length of BC.
t3l

## On your diagram, draw

(i) the perpendicular bisector of AB,
(ii) the angle bisector of LADC.

tll

t1l
The perpendicular bisector and the angle bisector meet at X. Measure the length of
t1l

AX.

,';&

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Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Mid-Year Examination
Specimen Paper B

Marks
/s0

Paperl

Time:Lhour

## Answer ALL the questions.

A1l working must be clearly shown.
1

(a)

## Complete the number line below to represent all prime numbers

>

30 and

<

40.

Answer: (a)

(b)

t1l

A polygon has n sides. Two of its exterior angles arc 40" and 45o while the remaining
(n - 2) exterior angles are each equal to 25". Find the value of n.

Answer: (b) n =
2.

t2)

(a)
(b)
(c)

## 24x 8 + 6 -36 + (-9)

(-3)' x (-2)' + 18 x (-2)
{to52 -27) + 5 x 6l - 105 + t5} x2

(b)

tll
tll

(c)

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(b)

-8

4.

64

(a)

#,

-8.63, -8

## ;, -8.63, -8.63, -8.6

Answer: (a)

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(b)

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Write and simplify an algebraic expression for each of the following statements.
(a) Add 4pq to twice the product of 3p and2q.
(b) Subtract 5f -Txy + 8 from the sum of -x' + 9xy and 3 - 2i.

Mathematics Tutor 1A

Answer: (a)

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(b)

t2)

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

5.

(a)

A number corrected to four signiflcant figures is 1 930 000. Write down the minimum
possible value of the number.

(b)

The number 29 899 corrected to n significant flgures is 30 000. Write down the possible
values of n.

Answer: (a)

t1l

(b) n6.

## Estimate correct to one signiflcant flgure the value of

t1l

(-3.oll;3 + thu)
1.969 + 4.032

Answer:
O Casco Publications Pte Ltd

1.

(a)

(i)

(*y)'

/"\
(11.,
xV-,f+Z

(b)

## ! = 4 and z= 3, find the value of the following.

- 8xz

Write down in its simplest form, the fraction which is exactly halfway between

13and- t4

15

15.

## Answer: (a) (i)

(ii)
(b)
8.

Factorise completely
(a) -ab - 9abc,
(b) 3(2x - 3y) - th(3y

,f+tZl*t
'&**41

Mathematics Tutor

lA

t1l
Lzl

t1l

2x).

Answer: (a)

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(b)

t2)

Ltd

## Simplify each of the following.

3x - {5 - t8 - (sx - a)l}

9.

(a)

(b)

10.

re?

-(x+1)-

2x+l

Answer: (a)

tzl

(b)

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## Solve the following equations.

(a)
(b)
(c)

3x

- 15 + 2(x -7)) -

t3

x+3 4-2x
, (x-2) =--2(3x+4)
'69

2x-l
--a

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(b)

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(c)

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11. (a)
(b)

## Express 53 - 15 and 1 12 + 9 as a product of its prime factors in index notation.

Hence, flnd the HCF and LCM of 53 - 15 and ll2 + 9.

Answer: (a)

L2.

5'-

15 =

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ll2 +9 -

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(b) HCF =

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LCM =

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Three different coloured lights on a signboard flash at regular intervals. The green light
flashes every 15 seconds, the yellow light flashes every 20 seconds and the blue light flashes
every 35 seconds. Occasionally all the lights flash simultaneously. If all the lights flashed
simultaneously at 11 00, when is the next time the lights will flash together agatn?

Answer:

lfl}:

-T

Mathematics Tutor 1A

t3l
Ltd

,{

t4.

Answer: x" =

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yo=

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## Hisham, Chongming and Bala shared 1 10 marbles. Hisham receivea

] ,, many as Chongming

## (a) If Chongming received x marbles, write an equation in terms of x.

(b) Solve the equation and write down the number of marbles Hisham received.

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Answer: (a)

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(b)

marbles tzl
Mid-Year Examination B: Paper

r;i;ct\:..

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Mid-Year Examination
Specimen Paper B

i Marks

Paper 2

Time:

## ALL the questions.

All working must be clearlY

/s0

hour

1"5

minutes

Answer

1.

(a)

shown.

Use a calculator to evaluate the following, giving your answer correct to 3 signiflcant
figures.

Jtg.s + V-sz.s

(b)

(5x-

## 2) cm,QR= (6x +1) cm andPR =

(zx + 4 \
[;

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) "*.

Given that the perimeter of trian gle PQR is 53 cm, write an equation in terms of x and
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solve it to flnd the shortest side of the triangle.

ii

I
{

2.

5.4

(a)

(b)

ll2
Ifx= 1,)'=-i

-'-

and z

- r(1.* t)

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.evaluate

x(z-y)

x*y

3xyz

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## giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms.

ifi,ui,
i\.-'*-\$'

Mathematics Tutor

lA

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

The diagram shows a regular octagon ABCDEFGH and a regular n-gon ABXY...WV. Both
LVWA = 168o, flnd
(a) the value of n,
12)
(.b) LW'AH,
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## polv_eons share a cofitmon side AB. Given that

1.

(C)

LATVH.

(a)

A coin box contains 91 coins. 19 of the coins are 5(, coins. The rest are I0(, and 20(,

(b)

t2)

coins. Given that there are twice as many 10p coins as 20C, coins, flnd the total amount
of money in the coin box.
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Jason earns \$890 a month and Jamie earns \$1335 a month. How many months would
Jason take to earn the same amount Jamie will have earned after working for half a

year?

(c)

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JJ

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5.

(a)

## Mrs Kamal bought 102 sticks of satay. Her

ate
Her daughters,Aini andAminah, '4

## of what was left. Mrs Kamal and her husband

of the satay. If her husband ate twice as many as her, how many sticks of
Mrs
Kamal eat?
satay did
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On a certain day, the high tide was 2.5 mabove a mark on a sea wall on Pulau Ubin. The
low tide was 1.8 m below the mark on the sea wall. Find the difference between the high
and low tides.
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ate the rest

(b)

6.

In the diagram, ABDE, EFG, GHJA, FHI, CBJI and CDF are straight lines. Calculate
values of

the

(a)

xo,

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io,

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tzl

(b)
(c)

zo.

y" +

,ffi,

w'

10o

130o

## @ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

In the dia_eram. PQRS is a rectangular field. PS = (5x + 7) m,SZ = (4x + 8) m and the perimeter
of the field is ( l-Lr + 26) m.
tat Find. in terms of x, an expression for
P(2.

.
,

PT
tJ, ;.. lhut the ien-eth of R.S is thrice the length of PT,form an equation in terms of
H= ,.:. :o1r e the equation to flnd the value of x.

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t1l
x. 
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(5x+7)m
(4x+8)m
P

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@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Mid-Year Examination B:

Paper,

,rfug*S:

8.

When written

as the

## product of its prime factors,

m=2'x3u,
n=2x32x7.

(a)
(b)

,ffi,

'ffij

Find

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the value of the cube root of m,
tll
the smallest possible value of q such that nq is a perfect square.
down
tll
write
Hence,
Express 132 asthe product of its prime factors.
(i) the LCM of m,n and 132, gltng your answer as a product of its prime factors, 
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(ii) the greatest number that will divid e m, n and 1 32 exactly.
(i)
(ii)

Mathematics Tutor

Ltd

'

## ABC, such that AB = 10 cm, /-ABC = 50o and BC = 8 cm. Measure

an-j rr rite dorvn the size of LACB.
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. -' '-..lli dia,sram, draw the angle bisector of LBAC. The angle bisector cuts BC at
f . \lark clearly the point X on your diagram. Measure the length of AX. l2l
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