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Targets
.
.
.
.
.
Find the Highest Common Factor (HCF) and the Lowest Common Multiple (LCM) of two
or more numbers.
Find squares, square roots, cubes and cube roots.

We can write a whole number greater than 1 as a product of two whole numbers.
E.g. 18=1x18
L8
Zx9
18=3x6
Teaclrer's
ilu";;ffiR*2.
Factors of a number are whole numbers which multiply to give that number.
.l
The common factors of two numbers are the factors that the numbers har e in
J.
common.
E.g.
2l:
,$,
4,6
, 12
:i:r,U.,:,,t,Ltlitll]:.r
'{'
,,,}i',J ,21
and 3.
t/
Lttl
,:l!_R
t
i{ti:\=::
.E:
4.
2x3
eet
multiple of the
2x5 = 10
3x5=15 f Multiplesofi
4 x 5 20
5 x 5 25
6
3x3=9
4x3 12
5x3=15
'=
numbers.
E.,q. Multiples of 4
are
4,
,'i2 ,
,32,36 . ..
12
.21 and i a
1.
1 that has
exactlr t\\
rr
;1::
F..P.
5=lx5
Since 5 has no other whole number factors other than 1 and itself.
it is :, i. r, "
.
number.
2.
The numbers 2,
3.
3,5,J,
different factors.
E.g.
6
6
= I x 6 I) J factors
2x3 )
+.
numbers.
Teaclrer's
Irp
\{athematics Tutor
lA
lrt
LLLI
5.
The table below shows all the prime and composite numbers from 1 to 100.
ii
},
13
t4
15
L6
25
!il!tli:
11
t2
2t
,) r)
10
ffi
18
it#.:
20
26
2l
28
'a#
30
35
36
ffi
38
39
40
!ffi
48
51
58
ffi
24
32 33 34
4T'
42 ffi 44
4s
46
51
s2 ffi s4
ss
56
LL
r:r:li::ii,
23
,iir::iiiir:
,,iji:+r:
ni:tr::r:: :,
,j.::,j:tl:ii
ffi
72
l.f$
81
82
ffi
64
74
84
9l
92
93
94
62
r.,,
63
.:, iii
.,
rrir,,
49 50
$1 60
75
66 ffi
76 t7
78
85
86
81
88
,'1*,g.
90
95
96
97
98
99
100
!!:r:;:
65
68
69
70
ji'l
:'i
':::
80
are shaded.
numbers.
6.
E.g.
1.
8.
We can use either the factor tree or repeated division to express a composite
number as a product of its prime factors.
Ltd
ffi
{R
=Jry&_
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Express 180 as a product of prime factors.
SOLUTION:
Steps:
/\
,/\
2x90
/ / \
2x2x45
/ / /\
/
numbers.
Continue to factorise if any of the factors
':l
2x2 x 3 x 15
/ /
1
*
/\
2x2 x 3 x 3 x 5
180 = 2x2 x 3 x 3 x 5
".4,1t
'iiit:,,ril
2tx32x5
is not prime.
Continue to factorise until the last rou
of the tree shows only prime factors.
Index Notation
If the factors
E.g. 3x3x3x3x3=35
3s is read
base
3t
'
index
180
90
45
J
15
Steps
1
180 =
2x2 x 3 x 3 x 5
rl..
=/ xJ x5
;+!=*=t1,
al
4 i: MathematicsTutor lA
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1.
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__
The largest common factor among the common factors of two or more numbers
is called the highest common factor (HCF) of the given numbers.
E.g.
Factors
Factors
of
of
1,2,3,4,6,and12.
18 are 1 ,2,3,6, 9 and 18.
12 are
'
thehiehestcommonfacror
2.
Another method to find the HCF of two or more numbers is by using prime
factorisation which is the more efflcient way.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
225 =
32x52
270 2x 33x5
ll
HCF =
32x5
_45
.'. The HCF of 225 and270 is 45.
Note!
x5x5
2702x3x3x3x5
225= 3x3
..::=S+=<11=;jiisj
HCF= 3x3
x5
=.15
/'l
J.
We can also repeatly divide the numbers by prime factors to find the HCF.
/
I
I
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Find the highest common factor of 54,90 and 108'
SOLUTION:
5+,90, to8
3 lzl,+s,
3  e. ls,
54
irnallest'eo
't$ffie
< ',piyi46 by co*rnon@fuefab'io,ffit'.
'ttre
.:
'.",
18
13.s.6
on prime factoi
HCF=2x3x3 =18
.'. The HCF of 54. 90 and 108 is 18.
%
woRKED EXAMPLE 3:
T:A group of 120 girl guides and 150 boy scouts took part in a camping competition'
>
were divided equally into mixed groups. Each group had the same number of bor '.'.girls.
(a)
(b)
SOLUTION:
(a)
120, 150
lil,
:.,:lrrlr:
60, l5
20, 25
't
:iit,,:rl:,::
f]::iii:i
4,5
I
I
I
HC]Fi)
.t.
'l
TIhe
x3x5
=30
la rsest nu mber
120+30=4.
150+30=5.
(b)
1.
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: \
Ctr'.
.:
."
 
.g.
...
i
I
2.
Another method to flnd the LCM of two or more numbers is by using prime
factorisation.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Find the lowest common multiple of 24 and 90.
SOLUTION:
24 = 23 x3
90=2 x32x5
lil.
3.
We can also flnd the LCM of two or more numbers by repeatly dividing the
numbers by their prime factors.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Find the lowest common multiple of
LUTION :
I zt, ez , 105
I 7 ,21, 35
3+l 1,3, l.1fft'i
5  1,
1,
,,
If u nu*b*f't'u;t*t'$i
r ]6;;;6,fi[,ifi'4i+
,Ht$.r'***U*t
5 315
63tand 105 is 315.
ffi,,
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Express 2520 as a product of prime factors in index notation'
in inder nor.liHence, find the LcM of 22 x 35 x 78 and 2520, giving your answer
(a)
(b)
SOLUTION:
(a)
2 r 2520
2520=23x32x5x1
,l*
,[:ts
2a1260
,[*
,,
,7a
'[
2'x3'
(b)
23 x32
llll
x78
x 5 x 7 i'g
22
35
x 78 and 2520 is 23 x
3s
x5x
78
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
and phone booths are
On a stretch of road, bus stops are located at intervals of 315 m
first bus stop.
l0cated at intervals of 525 m.A phone booth is l0cated at the
(a) How far along the road from the first phone booth would you be able to find the
next phone booth located at a bus stop?
(b) How many phone booths and bus stops would you pass by before you find a phonc
booth at a bus stop for the second time?
SOLUTION:
Bus
'.oo
lffi
i
fffil
f315 m
Phone f@l
booth
,:...r+er\l;
Mathematics Tutor
315 m
l@l
525 m
S j'
,i'i:**.+'
315 m
lA
525 m
3 15 nr
(a)
.n ce
;.
3r5,525
$,,
105, 175
21,
7"''"'
J,
3,
1,
:'5:.''
35
5
5
J X 5
: boot
otth that is located at a bus stop
is
:h.
(b)
booth S
B lsqqse
1.
1575
+ 315

When a number is multiplied by itself, the product is called the square of the
number.
E.g.
2.
5x5
 25 or
52
= 25 *i5ii;[r;*#'A[irr$
J25
5
The numbers whose square roots are whole numbers are called perfect squares.
1,4,9,16,25, ... are perfect squares.
 Casco Publications
Pte Lrd
{ffi
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woRKED ExAMPLE 1:
using prime factorisation, find the square root of 5184.
SOLUTION:
2 I 5t84
J5184
2[;;
2ux
r=;= ,l(2' x 3')'
2l
Ds6
za
=2'x3'
=8x9
648
za 3M
2l 162
'7)
rJl
3an
3f,
,E
1
gqb,{
1.
x3')'
a@1q___

E.g.
5x5x5
 125 or
5i = I 25
2.
of 125.
E.g. Vl25 = 5
23
t3
=8
 .t1
4364
3.
118
llil
=2
=z
1{6+ =+
cubes.
The numbers whose cube roots are whole numbers are called perfect
I , 8, 2l , 64, 125, ... are Perfect cubes
Mathematics Tutor 1A
'
 , "
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
imx
 ilr ,3'
"*
= il(z, x 3),
=22
x3
=4x3
_ 1a
 tL
zI nzs
zaB64
,l ou
za
216
l
ro8
2a
s4
3l
JI
3a;
^l
.
1
1728=2ux3,Splittheprimefactorsirrto3equa1grotrps.
= (2' x 3) x (:2'x3) x (22 x 3)
= (2. x 3),
ffiij
Tutorial
1.
Express each
notation.
1l
(a)
48
(b)
tz0
(c)
315
(d)
468
(e)
825
(f
t8e2
(e)
202s
(h)
43s6
\lutherllatlcs Trrtor 1A
@ Ctt.st'L' Piti': ,
(a) 60 and72
(b) 36 and 78
(c)
75 and3l5
(d)
(e)
Ltd
56 and 126
ffi
(i)
(k)
,,.G
Mathematics Tutor 1A
(h)
j)
(1;
(a)
18 and 42
(b)
54 and 15
(c)
98 and 140
(d)
(e)
(f)
__i
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r.{=
'
tS t:
'titY'.'"",
,,ffi
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(g)
(i)
14,25 and 35
(j)
18,63 and
(k)
(1)
196,616 and728
ig 16 Ei Mathematics Tutor 1A
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@ Cascrt
Prtlr!,,..;. .
.
(a)
18 and 60
(b)
42 and 105
(c)
28,35 and 84
(d)
(e)
(f
Chapter
l:
Factors and
Multiples
ffi
Find the HCF and LCM of the following, giving your answers as a product of prime factors in
index notation.
(b)
33
x 5ttx 13 and 32 x
58
2sx3ax7x13and
24x32x5x132
(d)
22
xJ x 11, 23 x72 x
13 and
(c)
{'ffi]
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Mathemarics Tutor
tA
22 xJ3
(f)
32x5 x
13
113 and4725
O Crlrt r'
P
11
6.
(a) 196
(c)
t52t
(d)
te36
422s
(h)
e2t6
(f
(e)
(g)
(b) s76
seze
.!.i;";;.
:.'
bl i t'ctti
1728
(b) 27 44
(c)
3315
(d) s832
(e)
9261
(f)
10 648
(h)
39 304
(e) t3 824
,..s.
i,
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Mathematics Tutor IA
@ Casco Publicuiit,it
f r,
8. (a)
(b)
(ii)
(i) 2016
s880
Hence, find the highest common factor of 2016 and 5880.
The product of the prime factors of three numbers are given below.
96 2s x3
112 =24 x7
504 =23 x32 x7
Find
(a)
(b)
The HCF and LCM of 264 and P are 12 and 5544 respectively. Find the smallest possible ralue
,rf P.
,il1()i 1\ Pte
Ltd
{.#
11. (a)
(b)
(c)
12. (a)
(b)
13
The HCF and LCM of 408 and X are 68 and 2040 respectively. Find the smallest possible value
of X.
))
Mathematics Tutor 1A
l;r:
14. Written
(a)
(b)
15.
308=22xlxIl
952=23xJx17
(a) Find the largest integer which is a factor of both 308 and 952.
(b) Find the smallest integer value of p such that 308p is a multiple of 952.
Ltd
Chapter
l:
Factors and
Multiples
,!st'%,',
r\$,1,
It.
(a)
(b)
18. (a)
(b)
19. (a)
(b)
(c)
ffi
When M is multipliedby 2016, the product is a perfect square. Find the smallest value of
M.
Find the sum of the flrst perfect square that ends with the digit 5 and the first perfect cube
that ends with the digit 7.
Find the composite numbers that are factors of both 36 and 54.
Find the smallest number which when divided by 24 and 36 leaves a remainder of 11.
Mathematics Tutor 1A
C,1.,
.:
20. (a)
(b)
(c)
21. (a)
(b)
(c)
22. (a)
(b)
(c)
Ltd
.#
23. (a)
(b)
(c)
24.
The numbers P and Q, expressed as the products of its prime factors are given below.
25. (a)
(b)
,,:S
'kf/
,{ 26 S; Mathematics Tutor lA
of &056
,D,,
A
.&. Frnd
x)1
:lnn
and, J2025
of
i,lnn
and JZOX
(a)
(b)
of ilg26l
of V926t
and 117.
29
Hence,
1"6 1t27aa
30. (a) It 2352 = 2" x 3t' x J' , flnd the values of a, b and c.
(b) Gir,en that the HCF of 2352 and2't x 33 x 52 x7'is
of d and
31.
e.
56162!x3qx13'.
(a)
(b)
(c)
i_=.++sqiir..
,i 28 ',
ttr,sq{
Mathematics Tutor
lA
32.
Express 3969 as a product of prime factors, leaving your answer in index notation. Hence,
(a)
evaluate
&%9
(b)
Express 5832 as a product of prime factors,leaving your answer in index notation. Hence,
(c)
evaluate :15t32 .
Using your answers from parts (a) and (b), flnd
(i) the HCF and
(ii)
the LCM
152
of /SZ
OOO
. ,,q
=22
x3ax 52x116,
B 33 x5xJ2xllsand
C
23 x
3s
112.
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35.
The numbers, A,
A=25 x32x53x I7
BZax33xJ2xIJ3
C 25 x3a xI72
(a)
(b)
(c)
36.
Find the value of each of the following, giving your answer as a product of prime factors
in index notation,
(i) the HCF of A, B and C,
(ii) the LCM of A, B and C.
Given that B x D is a perfect square, find the smallest value of D.
Given that C x E is a perfect cube, flnd the smallest value of F whete F =
(c)
ll2 x 2'
(e) .,fzr 
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i*===*"'\t\
30 i,
'it}:*=jti'
_,
Mathematics Tutor
lA
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+'[ts'  e x {e+
40. Two
comets travelling through the galaxy passes through our solar system every 84 years and
126 years. The last time they passed our solar system together was in the year 1168. When will
they pass through our solar system together agatn?
41.
A gift shop uses 1155 boxes of chocolates, 462bottles of wine and 693 tins of cookies to make
as many gift hampers as possible. Each hamper has the same number of boxes of chocolates, the
same number of bottles of r,vine and the same number of tins of cookies.
(a) What is the greatest number of gift hampers that can be made?
(b) How many boxes of chocolates, bottles of wine and tins of cookies are there in each gift
hamper?
42.
Three security guards, A,B and C,take24 mrnttes, 36 minutes and t hour respectively to patrol
around a building using 3 different routes. Each route starts and ends at the guard house. A11 the
security guards start patrolling the building from the guard house at the same time. How long
will it take before all 3 security guards are back at the guard house agarn? Give your answer in
hours.
,frt,
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Mathematics rutor
IA
ltd
43.
145 boys and264 girls were selected to go on a volunteer programme to visit several villages in
Thailand. Two days before the trip, one of the boys contracted chicken pox and had to withdraw
from the programme. The remaining boys and girls are to be equally divided into as many
groups as possible in order to visit as many villages.
(a) What is the largest number of groups that can be formed?
(b) How many boys and girls are there in each group?
44.
Three trucks A, B and C deliver goods to a supermarket ever\' 1 8 dar s. li dar s and 36 days
respectively. If all three trucks deliver goods to the supermarket todar . hou man\ dar s later u,i1l
they next meet together?
45. Along the footpath of a park, a bench can be found after every
(b)
Cctsco
How many water fountains can be found between any two consecutive shelters l
,.:ffi
\?y"
46.
(a)
(b)
47.
Find the area of the largest square tile that can be used without cutting any of the tiles.
How many of these tiles are needed to completely cover the floor?
Jason has 1000 small cubes, each side measuring 1 cm. He uses these cubes
cubes with sides 2 cm,3 cm, 4 cm and so on.
ffi':2cm
(a)
to make larger
ffi:
3cm
What is the length of the side of the largest cube that he can make using all the small cubes
he has?
(b)
(c)
,ffi'
Find the length of the side of a cube that he made using 729 small cubes.
He dismantles the cube from part (b) and arranged them in the shape of a square
with no cubes left over. What is the length of the side of the square?
i{ 34 Ei Mathematics Tutor lA
'w.
cm high
If it is I
E:tp.'1'g55
.,
1317x78+79x6)
l\ffi
=;'e.findtheHCFandLCMot3(7x78+78x6)andffi,givingyour
:r'in index notation.
i..ffi
''\=5t='
1.
The numbers S andT,expressed as the products of its prime factors are given below.
.S
= 2r x
5a
2) x
32
x 11'
x 5'x lI2
If
32 x5a
5.
All
6.
Palm trees are to be planted along 2 different hiking paths A and B of distance 3780 m and
4680 m respectively. A palm tree is to be planted at the beginning and at the end of each path.
The distance between any two consecutive palm trees on both paths are the same.
(a) Find the greatest possible distance between two consecutive palm trees on both paths.
(b) How many palm trees are to be planted on both paths altogether?
the pupils in the Mathematics Club were each given a box of jelly beans on Children's Day.
The girls received 923 jelly beans altogether and the boys received I15l jelly beans altogether.
How many pupils are there in the Mathematics Club altogether?
(Assume that there are the same number of jelly beans in each box.)
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:0 i; MathematicsTutor lA
t;i35***i.
Ltd
Real Numbers
ffi
o a a a a aa aaa
.
.
.
E)
aaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaacaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
L se negative numbers.
nuti.
1.
cr"..ptr
E.g.
2.
5.
('')
...
E.g.
a
__
.....,
Positive integers are whole numbers that are greater than zero.
E.g. 1,2,3,4,5,...
4.
Negative integers are whole numbers that are smaller than zero.
E.g. t.2.3.4.5.
...
5.
6.
54321012345
Negative integers
1.
The arrows on both ends of the number line show that the line can be extended on
both ends.
,
Llri
Every number on the number line is greater than any number to its left.
8.
2345
5432101
E.g. 2 is greater than 3 and is denotedby
We can also write
), (,>
9.
and
2>
3.
3 is smaller than2 and is denoted by 3 <2.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Show the numbers 6,
1ine.
SOLUTION:
I
321
01134561
WoRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Draw a number line to represent each of the follorving.
(a)
(b)
(c)
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
01234561891011t213t4
5618
',L,. ::I:rtiC.
TLTIOI
lA
91011t2
Ltd
ditierent
than
2 diff'erent factors.
1,6,8,9,
I
:
10.
which is not a
than I which
In other
other words any natural number greater than
prime number is a composite number.
Since distance can never be negative, the numerical or absolute value of a number
is always positive.
rqqfl,rll4!+try.ti9t"f Er.ryry
1.
__
Method
Sign of numbers
Both numbers have the same signs.
1.
2.
(+a)+(+b)=+(a+b)
(a)+(b)=(a+b)
Both numbers have different signs.
1.
2.
(+a) + (b) = +(a (+a) + (b) = (b (a) + (+b)  (a (a) + (+b)  +(b 
b) rf a> b
a) if b > a
b) tf a> b
a) if b > a
E.g.8+3=(83)=5
E.g. 9 + 15 = 15 9 = 6
a
,
_19
2.
To subtract integers, change the sign of the integer being subtracted and add using
the addition rules for integers.
E.g.
8
15 = 8 +
(15)=(158) 7
= 18
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
(a)
The hiehest and lou est temperatures of Town A were 3"C and 12"C respectively.
Find the ditterence betu'een these two temperatures.
(b)
The lori'est temperature in Torvn B rvas 23'C. The difference between the lowest
and highest terrperatllres u.as 12"C. Find the highest temperature in Town B.
SOLUTION:
(a)
=
(b)
15oC
\,
1:.1:.l.rii.: TLrtor I \
1loC
.l :..'
1.
Multiplication
Examples
(+a)x(+b)+(axb)
3x412
(5)x(6)=+(5x6)=30
8
(12)x4=(LZx4)=43
2.
(+)x(+)=(+)
()x()=(+)
(+)x()=()
()x(+)=()
Division
,:,r.].
(+a)+(+b)=+(a+b)
16+28
(a)+(b)=+(a+b)
(+a)+(b)=(a+b)
(a)+(+b)(a+b)
(20) +(5)
,:t ,,
:.
,,
(+)+(+)=(+)
()+()=(+)
(+) + ()= ()
()+(+)=()
Ltd
Examples
=+(20+5)4
36+(4)=(36 +4)9
(24) + 8 = (24 + 8) = 3
1.
a+b=b+a
Commutative Law of Multiplication of integers:
axb=bxa
E.g.
Fo
"'b'' )
2.
+(10)=(10) +28
x (10) = (10) xZ  20
of integers:
E.g.
+(5)] +8 =3 + [(5)+ 8] =6
t3 x(5)l x8 =3x t(5)x 8l = 120
[3
8.e.2
3.
(b) subtraction.
Distributive Law of Multiplication oyer Addition of integers:
ax(b+c)(axb)+(axc)
Distributive Law of Multiplication oyer Subtraction of integers:
='#.*.flir
E.g.
,.l',,{.a
x b}  (a x c)
The order of operations on integers is the sanre a: those for whole numlrer.
Order of operations
1.
2.
ft,
\0,;,,
Mathematics Tutor I A
Ltd
'%*
woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Evaluate each of the following.
25  36 + (4) + (11)
(a)
(b) (10)  (6) + (e) + 3
(c) (3s)'x4+ t(18) +(2)l+(z)'
(d) {1s  tls + (9)l'} + (3)
SOLUTION:
(a)
25
= 25
(4) + (11)
(9) + (11)
36 +
25+9ll
23
(b)
=10
.
, rr,i .,:;:,l
.r'1
:r'.,1
i' :i:",'
rr '
.l:i:r:.:'
r'i
I'
1.
,'
:,f
rr
rrl:
: ,r:
i:
+63
1,
(c)
=(2)'x4+(20)+(Z)'
=
.t
8it*
= 32 + (5)
325
 3J
(d)
Rational Numbers
1.
A rational number is any number that can be written as a ratio of two integers. In
other words, a number is a rational number if it can be written as a fraction where
both the numerator and denominator are integers.
integers
E.g.
. ,,,
3 I 5 .2
5'z'3"3
t_
Chapter
).
All
E.g.
3.
n,can be written
and
6
utTn
]
6
I
I
E.g.
*10
and
a.r
?)
l0
Recall:
51
r02
I
]10unO I2
factors.
32 16 nl
l0 5 5
*5
3:5
A proper fraction
denominator.
l3
E.s..and
q are proper fracl"ions.
5
,... .,
"r
n"tir"rl
,. ,., . ..
:i
To add or subtract rational numbers, express the rational numbers as equivalent fractions
\lathematics Trrtor 1A
Ltd
%.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
ott) * r+ . (r*)
SOLUTION:
,* *r* * (r*)
=t) *r+ z[
=(7
+32).(+.++)
\2 3 6)
=8+
(=)
=8+
.\:r%u\
is 6.
_8!6
=
<
8;J
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Evaluate
SOLUTION:
l___,we
use,i
'u ur*
*.
f , I _ 3')
(a) e!64 21 =(5_z) + [tao)
(t
:)
=3+[a2.]
=3+
=3+
.5
t2
12
_.. ,.r,.,71irrii\
ptt Lttl
+l
(b)
'
s una
""o''
 5+48+lo)
=[)+n )
=('.#)
=[s.r*)
=
20
81
(c)
(d)
of
the
where
d*0'
2.
(c)Multiplythenumerators,thenthedenominators.
o c
bdbc
,''
"
u .Ll
ax
bxc'
where
a,b, c and d
b*0.c+0andd*0.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Evaluate
&
{+oi
\g
N{athematics Tutor 1A
(12),
SOLUTION:
(a)
(.i) x:!
.u
5'
"v
16
/\
2t
5l
_e
+ (1 21 
8r
\,/l
s "[
2
Clrange
'to 'x'
o*.
t)
12=::
t )
12.)
lnvertinc
j_t2gives i l
l5
(c)
(
[
z\
=
".,J
=3t.1.1
=5
<
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Evaluate
(i  i)
( r X z)

+ I
[ 4 e)'

SOLUTION:
(l_____r x_l_
z') (:s) ( r)
=
\\./,4
rs ,
[r8]
r)
2.(
=
15
2
r{
'"
l. 18,
,.6
18
1
.5
47
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Er aluate
a (;1) .[+t;)]
s 't1.)'*[ri']l
,[_o))= (';)
b, IL_r;+[_,2/
SOLUTION:
(t+z\
lCI)
[r)
\ t2)
5.
6,
I rz')
[ ,
=10
(b)
.[,;)] . (,;)
[,;.(' i)'
. (,;)
=
[z **r]z;)
( s\
lr+2l+(:)*f1]
L
[aJ + +)*[';)*
simplirvexpresslons
withinbracketsfirst.
=[:.!l+ry] .(,;)
.
. (,:)
[, (3 )]
= (*) . (,;)
_JJ :
8
,3
JJ
84
(_
rt
o]
(, o')
.
xl\.
11,
9
4
_.1
4
^J+8
I.I:
Ltd
n.uN"*n.*
1.
A11
the denominator.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Write
as a decimal.
SOLUTION:
I =5*g
tt

0.625
8 I5^ooo
0.625
48
20
_16
40
40
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Express each of the following as a decimal.
(a) ;1
,..
(b)
(c)
SOLUTION:
(a) ;5
1
0.333
=l+3
3llooo
9
= 0.333...
= 0.3
rL
10
The dot above 3 shows
is
9
10
9
1
l..ffi
(b)
0.1818
_M
rl
)2.0000
11
= 0.1818...
90
= 0.i8'
88
I
I
20
1l
90
88
2
(c)
0.5833
l
i=t+
t2
60
= 0.5833...
l70ooo
12
100
0.583
.11
t2
96
1.583
36
40
36
z7
= o.i g5
2
0.285
1 =
11 285 714...
= 0.285I 14
E.g.
The numbers
a1
of
as
approximations for z
^gl0
l''1,:
t::tt.rlti. Tittor iA
on11'.
r 
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
I9
(a)
(b)
and
SOLUTION:
(a)
58
+= 13
13
9
.t
=^/1
x92
13
18
(b)
0.7222
1* =13+18
0.7222...
0.12
Il3
0ooo
t26
40
36
40
36
40
36
4
2.
r5
E.e.2. o. S.7.
Rational numbers
(Terminating or
repeating decimals)
E.g.2,0.
5"
15
;. ;
*.
Irrational numbers
(Nonterminating
and nonrepeating
decimals)
E.g.tt,
tlT,
ZnE
Integers
E.g.
Whole numbers
(Zero and positive
2,0,5
Negative Integers
Fo
)
l
integers)
E.g. o,5
Ltd
Chittrr1.'1'I Rl,1
\.. r', .
,"
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
.\ruan_ee the
i. 3 +
"./lo .
T .o, ,ffi
SOLUTION:
3Jrl
^lo = 3.t62...
t
t3
2a
=3
=z.slt...
J
1
Il=
1
J,
"5
ll=ll
The numbers zuranged in ascending order are:
WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
Consider the numbers:
?,0.6,
9',
Write down
(a) the prime numbers,
(b) the square numbers,
(c) the irrational numbers.
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
Prime numbers: 5,
13
tttf
32
(c)
Irrational numbers:
Ji
,o
,5l
"
Ltd
woRKED ExAMpLE 6:
Use a calculator to evaluate each of the following, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal
places.
(a)
ze
2392
(b)
0.36
(c)
5.433
 (2.39)
SOLUTION:
(a) ,6;t
+ l(2.64)3
 (e.ss + 3.45)2)
= 10.509 218l
= 10.51 (conect to 2 decimal places)
2392
(b)
5.433
 69.597 r89 49
 69.60 (correct 2 decimal places)
,^\
\./
fu6e:;l1
,
.:
\i ['3
.'
r,it ! i t
Lttl
Chapter 2: Real
Numbers
ffi
Tutorial
1.
(e)
2.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
36.
MathematicsTutor 1A
of
24
and,
21.
Ltd
a[l+
o[lz
s ll:
o
(b)
(d)
+
f r, f
t_ttt_
,\t o
!sl
(0
rzf]o
[l :
1m [:] ls
.r4
(h) J:n
Eto
Write True (T) or False (F) for each of the following statements.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
5.
(0
(g)
(h)
(i)
(e) fi,26,
(0 #,#
,,
l,,o.za,#
Jj ,0.383,0
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
6.
:^
(a) 3  (e)
(b) 8+(12)6
(c) 6 + (15) + a
(e)
(f)
18 +
(8)
 (1s)
lA
s(10)
a+(7)
Ltd
(g) 16(20)5+(6)
(h)
(i)
13
(k)
[3 + (17)
[1 + (1s)]
10]
24
Chapter 2: Real
Numbers
'O=
(8) x (4)
(b)
(c)
68 + 4
(e)
0 + (9)
(f) t2+(4)x(7)
a
a
10
x (18)
(1) (J)xtr8)x0x6x(5)
Mathematics Tutor 1A
t2+3x(16)
(k)
(1)
(24) x 2 + (8)
8.
(n)
56 + (7) x t2
(288)+(8) + (3)
(a)
15
(c)
5 + (3) x
x (2) + (11) x
L2 +
(4)
(b) 32+8lzsx(4)l
(d)
l28 + (14)
 4l x (20)
Chapter 2: Real
Numbers
=,..S
(e)
(f)
x (8) x 5 + (6)
(h) 36(t441)+3x(5)
(i)
{tl8
(j)
(7)' + (z)'
xZ + (3)]
 lezq + 4o  :{A
lvlathematics Tutor 1A
x (e)l
Ltd
9.
(a)
t+.
(c) (,
(e)
(b) + ( ?)
i) . ( *)
,I*( ;)
(e) (3)
"2+
( *)
(f)
(h)
('*) . (';)
:.O
(k) r 
(m)
{^0Z
\t
// \\
:'[ I  1
8)
. [i,
,+)
.3 .l *; 2  1
i=
=i
) ^
535
Mathematics Tutor
lA
(i) ?o.lr+(r+)]
.) * = t+.+*)
(n)
[3)' (,*],;)
Ltd
+ (i)l. [+.(*)]
rLl)
(q)*
(p)
,rr
i " ti
(r)
( +) .(T).(j) *x
6
lrrrzl*i
',ffit
10.
(b)
 (rl)x
5+8
[l
 t6 + (7)]
(c)
11.
(a)
x([l
answer.
+ 5) = (2) x
(r4) + (2)x
5=
[l
(b)
(c)
(
t2.
(a)
(c)
11
#"('i)'
J4.
Jzs
ffi,i
[
' )
J6ffi  \. Jt44
Jt44
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
(a)
(c) i2
e 
(g)
(b) 2fi
rdr ;
rl
L.
L
Chapter 2: Real
Numbers
ffi
(1)
l1
(k) *
(j)
3+
(1)
2
r3
(m)
r.
(n)
(o)
tfi
(p)
Mathematics Tutor 1A
2s
98
99
uL
Ltd
*
:
of 4.13
and 3.5i
Find the decimal number which is exactly halfway between 8.7 and 9.0.
16.
(a)
(b)
17.
'
(i)
(ii)
1 ""0 1
(a)
(b)
Express
15.
urra
7
1
2i
an +!
as a recurring decimal.
,.:.*,
18.
Mark down clearly on the number line all the prime numbers between 20 and 40.
30
20
19. (a)
20.
2,3
3
4
(b)
ers
:)
, 1.5,
40
2
(c)
2I.
,+,; , 1.5 ,
_1.57
J1
2
(Ji)',o3,nJi,#,(,..8
Mathematics Tutor 1A
)0,
Jl+
r,3
,#,.2+
l:
Write down the following numbers in order of size, starting from the greatest.
0
23.
.52 , 2 .6
,0, 0.14, 3
24.
0.696,4.699,
;.0.
,

2../3 , 3.14,
3,
in ascending order.
\\rite dou'n all the rational numbers.
\rran_qe the numbers
Chapter 2: Real
.,**',
Numbers i{ 69 S
1'r>==<:=ss==ll
26.
0.54
(a)
(b)
21
n, Ji,J',1,
64,5,i,rr,o, J2.g
(a) Write down the perfect cube(s).
(b) Write down the natural number(s).
(c) Write down the irrational number(s).
28.
(a)
(b)
(c)
,:*:
70
Mathematics Tutor IA
.{
'*+*sr ,i.
*o8.3.6.25,3+sJ2,
l, * ,n,036
Srite down
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
30.
the
the
the
the
recurring decimal(s),
irrational number(s).
7T,5J1
31.
natural number(s),
perfect squares(s),
,,?,J8
",
(a)
(b)
(t)0,0, Ji , {n
,,
Chapter 2: Real
Numbers
ffi
ra) \l)+l2+(3)rx2l
.
(b)
I 5 *,jl
I =g
33.
34.
,.
(a)
Evaluate
(b)
(i)
(ii)
2.962
n;;^,
Evaluate
2.
,.,
x75.65'
94.37
=ZT.t
^,
Mathematics Tutor 1A
decimal place.
Ltd
'
36.
E'. aluate
t t '+: +
/ll
\3/
to
decrmal places.
Evaluate each of the following, giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places.
(0.3s +4.26)s
(a)
115
5.23
(b)
37
E(sY
tal
t/rz
Ltd
@..f1
\49:\n
i.ffi
Use a calculator to evaluate each of the following, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal
places.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
ti)
s\' x(:rc)*
iET +3x
[ ,.]
( +)
+ (4.234) x
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
rr:C a
LaIL
'ulator
paces.
5.87
89.6
(tt.52 + 8.03)4.64
i
:
(")
(,i)' (,+)'
,8.[f
4l
o.ozo'
(h) tvHS 
(3)'
(r r 
3e2D)
V+
,<
05
* t8.9 rl
5
(f)
'
.56 + 3.2
0.45
(,'+)'
(e)
 5'
. ('i)'
6.2'
*21)
" rZ)
 eD'
ffi
Use a calculator to evaluate each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal
places.
815
27'. lg
I
ta, 
.,
s)
nt3 r
[ s]
J:,s:lb
(c)
7t +
(e)
(f)
{(+)'
(d)
rel
*[(,*,)'
,*^( i)]
t
)_l
G *('Z)'
(z)3(s)2x(s)2
13, +101
..s.
ZO },
'{..,N,
<lnse  zg
(b) 80ffi04
MathematicsTutor
lA
 ( +)
Ltd
+1.
The table shorvs the highest and lowest temperatures one day in London and Singapore.
(a)
(b)
Highest
Lowest
London
7"C
20c
Singapore
32"C
25"C
Find the difference between the highest and lowest temperatures in London.
Find the difference between the highest temperature in Singapore and the lowest
temperature in London.
42.
The lowest temperature on a certain day in City A was 15oC. The difference between the
lowest and highest temperatures was 8oC. Find the highest temperature on that day.
43.
The hiehest and lowest temperatures of Town X were 4oC and 18"C respectively.
(a) Find the difference between these two temperatures.
(b) The lowest temperature recorded in Town I was lz"C higher than 18'C. Find the
lor,vest temperature recorded in Town I.
''i..*l
+r.
15.
The temperatures of Town X taken at 5 a.m. every morning for a week were:
1.5oC,
46.
The temperature in London at 5 a.m. is 6"C. The temperature at 11 a.m. was 12"C.
(a) Find the difference between these two temperatures.
(b) Assuming that the temperature rises at a steady rate, flnd
(i) the temperature at9 a.m.,
(ii) the time when the temperature is 10.5.C.
\ l,:i,:nt.r:ic
>
TLittrr' 1\
Ltd
The temperature at Ciry Xat2p.m. was 11.8 "C and at l0 p.m rvas 2.6 "C.
(a) Find the difference in temperature between 2 p.m. and 10 p.m.
(b) If the temperature drops uniformly between} p.m. to 10 p.m., estimate the temperature
at 5 p.m.
_ig,
The table below shows the temperatures in a number of cities at noon on a particular day.
(a)
(b)
(c)
49.
(a)
(b)
Singapore
Moscow
Beijing
Helsinki
32"C
6'C
0"c
2.5'C
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Jonathan is scuba diving 12 m below the surface of a iake s.hile Edu'ard is on a cliff
29 mabove the lake. What is the vertical distance benveen Jonathan and Edu ard?
A rescue plane 85 m above sea level spots a sunken ship 18 m belori. sea level. Horv far
apart are the rescue plane and the sunken ship?
;;;'*i;''
Ltd
50.
51.
,ft,
i.Uy,
Mathematics Tutor
lA
Ltd
1.
be negative?
2.
Give an example of two different numbers a and b that are not rational, where
number
3.
andb*0.
36*51
0.6
Evaluate
is a rational
(b)
+.
=63x2=60
('i'i)
,f tq
\'z7
/&
w'
5.
F*.1 (,?')";]
8
(c)
rffi
_6_"1
,*2(,+)
t25
1r
2
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Targets
.
.
.
.
' 5fr
Approximation
mathematics problem, approximating the answer first serves as a check as
to r,vhether your actual answer is correct or not. We use rounding off to obtain an
approximation to the actual value.
When solving
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Round off the following:
(a) 2836 to the nearest 10
(b) 9741to the nearest 100
(c)
SOLUTION:
More than
(a)
283
,&r
84 Sj
i{tw
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
Less than 5
I
(b)
97 :'4'
It
7 remains
Equal to 5
(c)
I
30 5 28  31
000
nr""ai"g"nrx"n.
ffi
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Round off 9.6358
(a) to 3 decimal places,
(b)
(c)
(d)
to 2 decrmal places,
to 1 decimal place,
to the nearest whole number.
SOLUTION:
(a)
9.636
9.635 '$'', =
More than
(b)
9.63'',5'8 =
9.64
(correct to
dectmal places)
t
Equal to 5
(c)
9.6'T,,58 =
9.6
10
t
Less than 5
(d)
9..6',358 =
More than
5
,*;';Bq'
SS Sr
,t'l\=.===s'
{f.__a
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Round off the following:
(a) 2.326 cm to the nearest 0.1 cm
(b) 5.28 cm to the nearest cm
(c) 36.45 kg to the nearest 0.1 kg
(d) 85.69 kg to the nearest kg
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
re
2.326 cm = 2.3
5.28 cm = 5
Significant Figures
The number of digits used to denote an exact value to a specified degree of accuracy are
The table below shows some numbers expressed to a specified number of signiflcant
flgures.
1.
J.
0.003
0.071
20 800
E.g.
4.
360
48.5
6000
2t00 42 000
8.03 0.900
500
E.g.
a
12.
2t6
20
E.g.
2.
Zeros following a nonzero digit after the decimal point are significant.
E.g.
,,::=::..
'.*=;'lr
.{ SO
Mathematics Turor
lA
Ltd
5.
(2 sig. flg.)
t2
595
Zero issigniticant
t
1.
Count the given number of signiflcant f,gures from left to ri_eht. startine rvith the
first nonzero digit. Include one extra dieit for consideratron.
2.
(a)
drop the extra digit and all the other di,eits to its right, or
E.g.
1.5 2 63 =
1.5
Less than 5
(b)
replace the extra digit and all the dieits to its right by zeros to keep the place
value.
J.
If
(a) add 1 to the previous digit before dropping the extra digit, or
E.g. 2.3 '5 8l  2.4 (correct to 2 sig. flg.)
t
Equal to 5
(b)
replace the extra digit and all other digits to its right with zeros to keep the
place value.
E.g.
62
15 = 63
000
More than
i.,ffi=
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Erpress
correct to
(a) s831
(c) 0.000 859 3
(i) 2 significant figures,
(ii) 3 signiflcant flgures.
(b) 6.04s
(d) 8s 04e
SOLUTION:
Less than 5
(a) (i)
(ii)
I
58 ,3 7 =
5800
583 ?, =
5840
t
More than
(b) (i)
(ii)
6.045 =
6.045 =
(c) (i)
(ii)
6.0
86
Less than 5
(d) (i)
(ii)
4 9 = 85 000
t
Less than 5
fUlertm"tm"
__
1.
2.
gi
Teacher's
Tip
iH!:*;eiii;i#;;;;i:l;i;i5;;;*l
the
final answer.
Remember to work to one signiflcant figure more than required in
the final answer.
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Estimate the following, giving your answers correct to 1 significant figure.
(a)
34.867
(c)
44.89
 t9 .425
(b)
t82.3 x 0 .2036
1.53
SOLUTION:
Remember to estimate each number
=16
=
(b)
182.3
20
36
=
40 (correct to
sig. flg.)
45
(c) 44.89
1.53= 1.5
_ 450
15
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Estimate the value of
.'lit4 ],lnt
"
J4.st
to I significant flgure.
SOLUTION:
hr4 , ihn
:=={
J:o
llt2s
J36
V1a5 =
G=
=15
20 (correct to 1 sig. flg.)
,
:
Here, we
llvlrv:
wL, l(lr.lrrLr
round \[l
35 .4 4tltt.+.JI
perfect squalts,
off JJ.a
and 4.51 to
tu the
LrItr ll(]illti5t
nearest lrEr"rEU[
square,
i.e. 36 = 6r and 4 22 so that we can find the values of their
sQUirre
i.e.125 =
Ltd
cube,
':#
1.
2.
or 0.666...66 (truncation).
Teacherts
Tip
worktngs.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
{ rectan_qular
tank of height 19.86 cm, has a square base of sides 21.54 cm is halffilled
oil in the rectangular tank can flll up a cubical tank completely.
Find
)
rb r
r
it
SOLUTION:
(a)
tank
Lc,'r\
:: ', "'".;::,:sr19.86<=' x21.54x21.54x
,
'
= 4610 cm3 (correct to 3 sig. fig.)
Volume of oil in rectangular
tb
:,,:;:.*,,::::,,
I2 x2r.54x21.54x
19.86
.'**F*=Ni
90 .+j MathematicsTutor lA
it'i\E.'
Ltd
Tutorial
1.
2.
3.
(c)
(d)
(a)
(b)
,:S\.
R91S
_
l.
\\1te each of the following numbers correct to the number of decimal places (d.p.) as stated in
the brackets.
)
)
(e )
a
1482 51 (3 d.p.)
(c
3.0548 (2 d.p.)
0.008 070 (3 d.p.)
5.
Express each of the following numbers, correct to the number of significant flgures (sig. fig.)
as stated in the brackets.
(b) 0.003 198 (3 sig. fig.)
(a) 0 .0254 (2 sig. flg.)
(d) 2.893 14 (4 sig. fig.)
(c) 826 940 (3 sig. f,g.)
(f) 9.086 (2 sig. flg.)
(e) 249.s37 (1 sig. fig.)
(h) 0.000 10204 (2 sig. flg.)
(e) 73 382 (3 sig. fig.)
(i) 300 94s (3 sig. flg.)
0) 0.s30 46 (3 sig. fig.)
(1) 3.iS (4 sig. flg.)
(k) 0.0s0 98 (3 sig. fig.)
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
6.
(a)
(c)
(b)
2.0036
0.045
7.
8.
(a)
(b)
(c)
9.
0.000 60s 0
(d) s201.30
1 signiflcant flgure,
2 dectmal places,
3 significant figures.
(b)
(c)
(d)
3 signiflcant figures,
3 decimal places,
the nearest hundred.
Ltd
,ffi
93
ig
Bl
10. (a)
(b)
11.
12.
Round
13.
i.@
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
off
169.56 to
Express
(a)
(b)
Mathematics Tutor
tA
Ltd
t4.
Express 207.049
(a) correct to 1 decimal place,
(b) correct to 2 signiflcant figures,
15.
(b)
3 decimal places.
(b) 2.es1
(c)
17.
0.040 49
Express
Estimation
,.G,i
18.
Erpress
(a) +5.2509 correct to 3 signiflcant figures,
ibt 8.986 correct to 2 signiflcant figures,
(c ) 9.199 correct to the nearest whole number.
t9.
(a)
Express 328.998 correct to 4 significant figures. State the number of decimal places in
(b)
your answer.
Express 0.000 684 7 correct to 5 decimal places. State the number of significant figures
in your answer.
20.
{ffi'
'ed
(a) J:e8
(b) J8238
(c)
(d)
.,/i20.gs
(e) v?865
(0 J6rw
(g)
:l2s
(h) :,lnr%
(i)
:h.Bee
0)
:h44 s
(k),ffi
(l)
511.11
Mathematics Tutor
tA
J 2/+.09
,@
Ltd
Estimate the value of each of the following, giving your answer correct to 1 signiflcant flgure.
(a)
53.957 13
(c)
61.2 x 0.5045
(b)
0.0123 x 3040
(d)
(f)
75.21 +2.53
(g) 337s841
s
(h)
(u
5.02
84.95
z4.gg
38.437 05
88.3
0.0218
.99
25.01
r9%
Ltd
rffi.
Estimation ifl qZ
w,
$j
(m)
95.989
0.6023 x 9.997
(o)
Jz4% x 19.98
o.o2o32 * Vq.tt
(p)
(q)
z.otg,  1,1%.tt3
Jsr;olz 
(r)
zrw
119.975 + 19.899
(n)
Mathemarics Tutor 1A
 8.98
3t.99  2.0t1
13.203
,,D% +
5.0102
s.999
24.979
 8.010 x1.996
3.977 + 0.995
3/78.051+ 89.998
5t.965  45.99
of
5.02 x..85.gs
22.
23.
24.
25.
Crzscrr
9.98
8.0496
* ^,lu.g06
9.957
of
s.sgs
"
41.86 + 3.003
t'==SS..
I 99 S
*::=:
26.
2l
of
x25.4,givinu
.a
S
Vzs.o:
(a)
20 .03
19
.99
68.03
719.86 x 0.50012
\v7,
;
t
<126.95 + 1.996
28.
29.
r&
({tOO}]
Mathematics Tutor 1A
63.96
x 9.03
T97S
3.of
" Jns+
giving your answer
+ t.e7 ,
:l$.%
ltd
x
of J4L%
t9.91
30.
31.
(a)
Express each of the foliolvrne numbers, giving your answer correct to 2 signiflcant
(b)
figures.
0.062 s24
8e.s76
Hence, estimate the value of 89.576 x0.062 524,cortect to 1 significant figure.
(a)
32.
(b)
(i)
(i)
(ii)
V909 x o.o2oll
(ii)
8r8.24s
s.043
(11) 8r8.245
to43 '
= rl
;'
,1R..
i$:
33.
(a)
fraction.
34.
445.82t
(b)
(a)
Express. correct to
(i)
(ii)
(b)
,,G
0.2033
, leaving
your answer as a
si,enificant fl_Eures:
35+.639
0.025 189
Mathematics Tutor 1A
354.639
0^0x 189 '
Ltd
35.
(a)
(b)
(c)
36.
(i)
(ii)
(iii) t.9s0l
of
19'96
of
of
355'6?8 19'0495'?
1.9507'
355'699 I9r0a95'z
, giving your answer correct to
'9507
(a)
(b)
3.98
19'96l0'503
.
398
_=+.
Casco Publiccttiotts Pte Ltd
:]
(o)
E*
{+r"
101.16 +
l(9.2)'
(p)
Jsffi6 
fi0il81
36.258' r4.oozxog28
(8.15 + 3.4)')x4.21
(r)#
,&.
38.
Evaluate
39.
Use a calculator to evaluate the follorving expression, giving your answer correct to 2 signiflcant
++=
It.t2  v9.6
\
2
flgures.
sivinq olrr ans\\ er corect to signiflcant
figures.
o1)'rll
ffi^l(
"L(zl
't )
0543',
40.
0.328
,  .(r1)'
(a)' 7' \' 2 ),, correct to 4 significant figures,
.\'
 '',l
[',?'
0.362. comect to 3 decimal places.
{z.ozs  +.
(
(b)
4r
ire
Evaluate,fri?,
1
Mathematics Tutor 1A
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(
(.s)'
g)  1)'
\ t )
m,
\is1 :!rx
J2.
Evaluate
E.
43.
Evaluate
<lT2s.s6  3 +12'
, giving your answer correct to 5 significant flgures.
4.926 x 5.05 r
44.
(a)
6'953
_pirine \
( z\
['r.,]
e Criicr, Pttblictttiorts
Pte Ltd
'
...'@'
45.
7.9
(a)
(b)
46.
Evaluate .u6gl,
5
(7.36+2.72)3
(a)
(b)
.
23
2!'3
1.152
t8
47.(a)Evaluatetheva1ue$#,showingthefirst7digitsonthecalcu1atordisplay.
(b)
Mathematics Tutor
tA
Ltd
48.Evaluate#fr,givingyour2nSwercoffectto3significantfigures.
+9'(a)Evaluateffi.rrrttiilg.].,,,.'tlthefirst8digitsonyourcalcu1atordisp1ai,
(b)
significant flgures.
50.Eva1uateffi,givingyouranS\\er,r]rTeuttolsigniflcantflgures.
sl.
(a)
(b)
Evaluate
3[;
#L*
z.+s,
tJe'ima1 places.
Estimation
.l...@
52.
The mass of a bag of cherries is 83 srams, correct to the nearest gram. Write dorvn the least
possible mass of the bag of cherries.
53.
The mass ot
(at
(b
54.
ffi,
\H'
11
bl>ket
,rf
I rrin.li.rn: iglrfes.
Ilathematics Trrtor 1A
Ltd
55.
(a)
(b)
56. (a)
(b)
A nervspaper company sold an average of 1 548 975 copies a day during the month of
January. Express the average number of copies sold correct to the nearest million.
A rival company sold an average of 849 752 copies a day during the same period.
Estimate the difference in the number of copies of newspapers sold between these two
companies. giving your answer correct to 1 significant flgure.
Joshua buys 3 pens at49(, each and 5 flles at Si.99 each at the school bookshop. The
shopkeeper asks for $12.42. Shor,v by usin,e estimation that the shopkeeper has made a
mistake.
A rectangle with an area of I 17.06 cmr has a breadth measurin g 7 .49 cm. Estimate its
length, giving your answer correct to I significant figure.
.*F.
tiUS
O
v
1o,
H E THINI(ING S](ILLS GORNER
A number is approximated to 3 signiflcant flgures and its value is given as 81 300.
(a) What is the smallest number it could have been?
(b) If the number is an integer, what is the largest number it could have been?
2.
(a)
(b)
3.
In the number 906 A45, A is a prime number. If its value, correct to 3 slgnificant flgures
is 906 000, find the maximum value of A.
The number357 800 is estimated correct to n signiflcant figures. Write down the possible
values of n.
Using each of the digits 2,3,5, 0 and 9, write down all integers (without repetition of digits)
which will give 3000 when corrected to 2 signiflcant figures. Give your answers in ascending
order.
,@
Mathematics Tutor
tA
Ltd
4.
5.
Estimate the value of each of the following, giving your answer correct to
(li3:
{a)
rr
rbr
\r1.i1l1x Mx9.99t2
(,1.993
12.9951
significant figure.
(\,r*.Se
+z ioi'is
3.ee8'. )
signiflcant figure.
=
tli
!t
k#ry
wffi
Il5'
:"'.re.%
.
.
.
(1)
Revision Er<ercise
1.
(a)
(b)
(c)
2.
(a)
(b)
(a)
(b)
3.
Mathematics Tutor 1A
of 1960
and 2548,
4.
(c)
5.
(a)
(b)
=2tx32x11,
find the greatest integer that will divide both 756 and 1548 exactly.
Find the smallest integer k such that756k is a multiple of 1584.
6.
(a)
(b)
(c)
@ Casco
..
1.
The numbers A and B. expressed as a product of its prime factors are given below'
A=21 x
3s
11
B=2ax3x72xLl3
Express each of the follorvine as a product of its prime factors in index notation.
(a) Highest common factor of A and B
(b) Lowest common multiple of A and B
(c)
8.
.lA
"
V=25x32xJ
W=33xJ2x13
9.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(c)
of J3%9 .
Find the LCM of J3g6g and 3 x 52 x
11 ,
factors.
'.\sf'
'ftft1
Mathematics Tutor
lA
10.
11.
12.
(a)
(b)
(c)
)
rb I
{c )
tdr
(a)
(b)
of l,ll7n
of ihl2f
and 23
x 32 x 7 .
of J828t
Given that9261 = 33 x7',find the value of 1,[g26t
Hence find the HCF and LCM of J828r and .,19261
Hence. find the value
of V587
Express I22  I 8 and 13 + 17 as a product of prime factors in index notation. Hence, find
the HCF and LCM of 122  18 and 73 + 17 .
e Casco Publicatiorts
Pte Ltd
Revision Exercise
, iG
13.
A shopkeeper wants to pack 180 pencils,200 rulers and240 erasers for sale. He packed all the
items into bags rvith the same number of each type of item. Find the maximum number of bags
that he can eet.
1+.
Three coloured bulbs P, Q and R are set to light up after every 36 seconds, 1 minute and
1 minute 30 seconds respectively. If all three bulbs f,rst lighted up together at09 45, when will
all three bulbs next light up together again?
Mathemarics Tutor 1A
Ltd
(2)
15.
Real Numbers
Studl the numbers below to ansrver the questions.
16.
(a)
(b)
(a)
Exoress
(b)
'6 1l
u, a recurine decimal,
rl
0.25'.+.0.25
a .ln
(c)
17.
in part
(b ).
3,2.,6,0, X,t.6
Write down the
(a)
(b)
(c)
integers,
rational numbers,
irrational numbers.
,@
2 3
7and1.
18.
19.
2+
anaZ]_.
II.
eualuate
2 decimal places.
'3r,37)x(4)+(84)+6
f , 1.1 + 3.8 x 0.5
Mathematics Tutor
lA
Ltd
22.
23.
(a)
Eva,uate
ft)
Express
fr
(_+)
as a recurring decimal.
I.9.1.5,0, O,,r+
(a)
(b)
24.
(,i)'  ,
Revision Exer.1.:
(3)
25.
,o;  (,+)'
(a)
(' u, "1)
(b)
(3)'
 s'
7T
26.
l.
(b)
(c)
2.4986
(a)
(b)
tc )
8s 487
(ii;
MathemarirxTutor
lA
28.
(a)
0.3g,0.3g3, 0.38
(b)
30.
(a)
. 0.:s3
h?
29.
'. E
11
x 149.9096
49.567
.899
(b)
(c)
nt
of
2.043
* JtS.Ot x9.95
30162
24.96x4.02
3 996 x 25 '03
correct to the nearest inte_eer.
2.499 x 2.01t
Revision Exercise
(al
Erpress
(i)
(ii)
(b)
32.
:
:
295.13
o.ozs 43
The average mass of 6 pupils is 54.0196 kg. Express this average mass correct to
(a) 2 decrmal places,
(b) 2 signiflcant figures,
(c) the nearest integer.
MxrmairxTutor
of
1A
Jz4.B% x 3.0472
{26.os
34.
35.
(a)
36. (a)
(b)
in_q )
(ii)
(iii)
(b)
of
2.4967
4s 438
Hence,estimatethevalue
of
ot
"t
*'L:?;!u'.eivine)ourans\\ercorrectto 1signiflcant
Ltd
of
., tLr.r
0,198.
Revision Exercise
, l,*;51
^il)
l  ,i.o)*
,;
Vrzr g
3r
31
flgures.
38.
0.8162
0.075
9'22 +
'611 ' showing all the digits ot'fl you. calculator display'
23.36ffi
(a)
Evaluate
(b)
39.
7,63
^tL4
(c)
x 4J2
(0.2s)
.l
,Z
="
[i)'.(,,i)
'.*.'"fiGB'
':J
Ltd
.Fot
lntroduction to Algebra

ffi
oaaaaoooaoaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaoaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
i .
numbers.
i .
i '
i
i :_::"::::"_::::':i::l:1'::_Y1.1':t:1
_
Fffi
urmg
1.
1t'::11::::::::1:"::
r.tt.rr t" n.
E.g.
=
a bag.
2.
3.
'x'or'+'.
E.g. 3x + y, a2  ab and 2x2 + 3x  4 are algebraic
expressions.
ie,aIgebraicexpressiondoesnothaveanequalsign(=).
i
,
lb is an equation.
l
I4il}
128;j
Algebraic Notations
Ltd
2.
Words
Algebraic expression
Add a to b.
Sum
a+b
=b+a
Differencedc
Subtract c from d
Note:
 e x.f
Multiple eby f.
Product
Divide S by h.
Quotientg+h
(h+0)
=h
pq+3
and q.
Cost of x books
=$4xx
= $4x
Cost of y magazines
=$5xY
Total cost
i
3.
dc*cd
=$sY
Index notation
Recall: 5 x 5 x 5 =
i'*lnder
+
I
Base
l
is read as '5 to the Dower of 3'.
5'
I
In Algebra,
a
:i:i,ilrii:ti::+;:ru:i':liirl:lii:
ii':l,i
. ij,,:i,,:i:il,
r'.
:,,
,;;5GH
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra i{.129S
"..\.=,.
G\
=&\ WORKED EXAMPLE
1:
(a) 3xx4y+62
(b) 2ax3bxa
(c) 5p+L)q+7sx2
SOLUTION:
(a)
3xx4y+62
=3xxx4xy+62
=3x4xxxy+62
12ry+62
*y
',ti
r
,,6'
_2*
* (6o)'
6a2=6xaxct
6a2
(b)
(6a)'=(6a)x(6a')
= 36a2
2ax3bxa
=2x3xax axb
 6azb
(c) 5p+l)q+'/sx2
=
befbre addition.
5p
loq + l4s
p.1
= ^/.q + t4s
'
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Write an algebraic expression for each of the following statements.
(a) Subtract 3 from the sum of 5a and 4b.
(b) Add the product of c and d to the cube of e.
(c) Multiply 2 to the quotient of/divided by g.
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
Sum of 5a and 4b
Required expression
Productofcand d
5a + 4b
5a + 4b
3
=cxd
=cd
Cube of
=exexe
=e'
Required expression = cd +
Mathematics Tutor 1A
e3
Ltd
(c)
Quotient of/divided by
Required expression = 2
I  T6o
t
x
_,f6
1.
'
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Evaluate
(a) 3a + 2b  4c,
(b) a(Zb  c)  3b2,
(c)
a a*b
rt
DAC
SOLUT!ON:
(a)
t2+4+12
28
(b)
a=4,b2andc3,
a(z b  c)  3 (z)'
When
"'
==y!i)t
(c)
When
a=4,b =2
 3,
4+2
and c
a a+b
4
b * =r 4J\
) f!)
\t2 )
_1
=r*,
_nl
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
,,ffi
2.
Area. b = base
and h = height.
woRKED EXAMPLE2:
Given the formula S =
n(a
t
2
l),
 6 and l=
15.
SOLUTION:
o_n(a*l)
2
When n  18, a
c_
r
l8l(6)+
=6
and I
= 15,
15l
.2
='_lt2l
= 8l
ffi
rtr"ttrtt"gst*pt.
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Write an algebraic expression for each of the following.
(a) The price of a pen is $3 and the price of a flle is $5. Find the total price of x pens
and y files.
(b) Bobby had $500. He bought a camera and 2 badminton rackets. The camera cost Sp
and the rackets cost $q each. How much money had he left?
SOLUTION:
(a)
Cost of x pens = $3 x x
= $3x
Cost of y flles = $5 x y
= $5y
Total cost = $(3x + 5y)
(b)
=$p
Always'plaee.*umb,ir'ih.frontt.Cost of 2 rackets = $q x 2
 $2q
,'
Amount of money left = $(500  p  2q)
il
\lathernatics Tutor 1A
Ltd
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
(c)
= 5x,
r*g

2.5x kg
Son's mass = 5x + 5
5x
5
xkg
Total mass of daughter and son
=25x+x
= 3.5x kg
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Lisa bought 3 bags of apples. There were p apples in each bag.
(a) Write down an expression in terms of p for the number of apples she bought.
(b) Her family ate q apples. She then placed the rest of the apples equally into 5 bowls.
Write down an expression in terms of p and q for the number of apples in each
bowl.
SOLUTION:
(a)
3p
(b)
3p 
=3Pq
5
Ltd
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
ffi
Tutorial
1.
Statements
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
32.
)z
(0
and
y from
)z
2\t.
i,r+
\{athematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
t.
(b)
Find the total cost of 7 bars of wafers at p cents each and q packets of sweets at $1 per
packet.
(c)
John has $100. He bought n comic books at $9 each. How much money had he left?
(d)
The cost 3 caps is $x. Find the cost of 5 caps. Each cap costs the same.
(e)
Find the sum of three consecutive odd integers rvhere x is the greatest integer.
Ltd
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
iffii
(f)
Janet is x years old. Sarah is 3 times as old as Janet. Ronald is 2 years younger than
Sarah. How old is Ronald?
(g)
(h)
Abox has mbig cans andn small cans. There are 6 peaches in a small can and 8 peaches
in a big can. How many peaches are there in the box altogether?
(i)
Pauline has $2000 now. She saves $20 each month. How much
time?
(j)
Mathematics Tutor 1A
will
(k)
(1)
Maria ts m years old. Jiali is twice as old as Maria. How old was JtaliT years ago?
(m)
A car salesman received a f,xed salary of $500 each month. He gets a commission of
$150 for each car he sells. In a certain month he sells n cars.How much is his salary that
month?
(n)
(o)
A shopkeeper packed n packets of jam tarts into each box. There are
packet. How many jam tarts are there in m boxes?
Ltd
If
15
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
ffi
(a) 6xaxb
(b) 7 xpxpxp
(c)
9x x 4y
(e) 5x+y
(0
(g)
(h) 2dxex4d
1lr + 1ls
(3a)xZb x (5c)
Mathematics Tutor 1A
?9m) + 3n
Zpqx 3r x
Ltd
\mx5n+l)p
(1) axZb
(n)
,
l'Lm) x 5n x3m
3x
+c
8x2
(3p)'xZp + q + 4s
(r)
2p + (3q) + (r)
(s)
(0
(3ab)2
4a + (Zb)
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
tffi
1.
,,@
Given
(c) 2a23a+4
(4b)'
(a)
2a3
(d)
3c
(g)
(a + l)2
(h)
(2b
U),c3 +2c
(k)
(c + 2)2
Mathematics Tutor 1A
(b)
(0
7b + (2a)
(r)
._y
T3
6b
Ltd
5.
6.
(a) a+2b+3c
(b)
(c) c(a
(d) b'ac+c'
Given that x
b)
2, y
6x+32
4, evaluate,.
(d)
and z
(b) xy  yz
(a) x2y
(c)
 8
a'bc
Ltd
..F
*/
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
ffi
7.
8.
(a)
abc
(c)
2a2
(ab)3 + c3
a2c
3bc
T2
rfp ,,q=
3
andr=
i (a) pqr
!
(c)
141
5c2
p
q
Mathematics Tutor 1A
, evaluate:
(b) p+rq
(d) p(8 
6q)
Ltd
9.
Given
thata 2,b 3
and c = 6, evaluate:
(a)
b(Za + 3) + Za(c
 3b)
(o
(c) "h"'b'
10.
Given that x
(a)
 b)'
5al3b(2c+7ba)+acl
xzy2n 2x+32
3  2.
Ltd
(b)
2(5xy
yz + xz)
+Zy(xz+32')
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
,ffir,
11
(a) !=a(3a4);
Given: a =
(c) y=:U;
Given:
22
.
m n
(e/
y = *:;
mn
Given'.nt=8,n=2
(g) )=
F
V12ab,;
Given: a=3,b=2
ffi
Mathematics Turor 1A
(b) y(x+p)(ZxpI);
Given: x=6,p=4
b3
(d)
,=ffi;
Given:
e=2
(f) y!*!*L,
pqpq
Given:
p=2,q= !
4
(h) y=(xp)u*';
Given: x=2,p=_I
Ltd
n(n +
l)
12.
13.
t4.
15.
,findthevalueof vwhen
if r 
6 cm, h
and height
14 cm and z =
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22
7'
..
hrsV= ,I ftr' lt
and r =
1.
.,1&r
tfu14s$j
\]:i!s#1
16.
t7.
18.
g'h'
.,'
gk4
th
3k3
a
(a) 2b*
)
5ab
8
.@
4m'no
3mn (m \'
+; "lz^)
Mathematics rutor 14
Ltd
19.
Given that x
20.
Given that x
3,y = 4
and z =
z).
,\
(a)6,
(b)
2I.
y(32
If a= 3.5,b 
x3 )
(a) 2a  be  cd,
(b) 3at2c
,t b'
22.
(b)
5 and c  2,
evaluate
ab
D_C
(br)'  a'.
Ltd
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
ffi
a1
,/3.
 2,!  1
,ry
(a)  +
.,. ): 3(x+y)_z
ro/
.
Gir en that x
and z
3,evaluate
l/
" 
^ x
lz.+
x 3, y = 18 and z =
24.
Given that
25.
(b)
26.
1+8
tP
*'
),nnathe
t
value
,, +!
1, evaluate
Mathematics Tutor 1A
I)'
Ltd
)7.
28.
29.
Given that a = 1, b
(c)
T
t:
D+C
y3 when r =
3. J = 1 and :
3b2
2
^)  &(5  c). )
(a) 2a.
ub
a
\u,
30.
(xz)'
and c = 3, evaluate
 l.
a3
Jzca
and c = 3, evaluate
*nbtx3ac+6bi.
5
Given thatp
.lL*L
(a)
Vq 4q'
(b)
(p
3q)o*'
Lt,l
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
,i.FF\
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'=S:::
31.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
32.
,.1
JJ.
 3,b 2
a'zb'+4c,
Given thal a
and c
= 1.5, evaluate
(3ab+2c)2,
af 8c
b'
1 t+,
b
3b\.
(a)
(b)
(i)
(ii)
Jack's age,
Sam's age.
Paula's age is half the total age of Jack, Annie and Sam. Let Paula's age be y years old.
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
34.
The cost of x doughnuts and y cupcakes are $p and $q respectively. Express in terms of
andlor q,
(a) the cost of 1 doughnut,
(b) the cost of 1 cuPcake,
(c) the total cost of 10 doughnuts and 15 cupcakes.
x,y,P
35. A ticket for an adult visiting an art eallery costs x dollars. A ticket for a child iirStS
5 dollars less than an adult's ticket.
(a)
(b)
36.
Timothy is r years old. His sister, Pamela, is 3 years younger than him. His mother is
three times as old as he is. His father is 19 years older than Pamela. Write dorvn an expression
for
(a)
(b)
(c)
Pamela's age,
his father's age,
his parent's age.
Ltd
Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
ffi
37
38.
At a grocery
39.
,ffi.
ffi;
of
store, a packet of flour cost $x and 5 pears cost $y. A loaf of bread cost 80p
more than a packet of flour. Express in terms of x andlor y,
(a) the cost of a pear,
(b) the cost of a loaf of bread,
(c) the total cost of 10 packets of flours, 20 pears and 5 loaves of bread.
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
40.
shop sold a raincoat for $15 and an umbrella for $20. In January the shop sold
3x raincoats and (2x + 7) umbrellas. Write down and simplify an algebraic expression
in terms of r. for the amount, in dollars, the shop received from the sale of raincoats and
umbrellas in January.
4t.
r
(br
(a
42.
follouing.
(a)
(b)
(c)
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Chapter 4: Introduction to
Algebra
s*\.
''\,..
i{tS:==i:
:
:
Peter pfip marbles into q bottles. Each bottle contains the same number of marbles, with three
marbles remaining. Write down an expression in terms of p and q for the number of marbles
there are in each bottle.
2.
The total cost, $C, of placing an advertisement in a magazine consists of a fixed charge of $5
and an additional charge of 20 cents per word used. John wants to place an advertisement in
the magazine.If it contains n words, write down a formula connecting C and n.
3.
'r@
Mathematics rutor 1A
Lttl
! r.
...
..
. a a a a r r a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
+fi
Targets
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.
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iuo


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Ee. 2
siens
'+ 
Eg.
2.
In the term 3x, the numerical part 3 is called the coefficient of x. In ofrerr,uds.
the constant that is attached in front of a variable or a group of variables is calH
the coefficient.
E.g.
I ob,
l,thetrrrm ,
E.g
3.
Jr1'
2x2
The algebraic term that does not have a variable attached to it is called the constznr
term.
E.g. I
E.9.2
Mathematics Tutor 1A
,=i
In short:
term
term
9x'
tl'
I
I
9 is the
coeflicient
term
nv
of
1 is the
coeflicient
of
r.
11 is the
constant term.
v.
4.
Algebraic terms that have the same variables where each variable has the same
power are called like terms. They may differ in their coefflcients.
5.
If two terms
6.
Examples of some like terms and unlike ter?ns are shown below.
are not like terms, then they are called unlike terms.
Like terms
x,
2x
and
x
J
a
Unlike terms
5x and
4x2
6x and 9y
6x2,9t
and 2x2
{..
3x2 and 6x
7x2 and 8y
2x2 and 6xy
xy,Zxy and
l*'y,
lxY
5,3,Z a"a
All constants
l
and a
1.
To simplify an algebraic expression, we collect all the like terms together. Only
like terms can be added or subtracted.
8.
3a+5a=8a
Pte Ltd
Chapter
5:
Algebraic Manipulation
'ffi
="%
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify
(a)
(b)
2x+3y+5x+7Y,
Lay
+ 4y +
t + laY  5Y 7.
SOLUTION:
(a)
2x+3Y+5x+7Y
 2x + 5x + 3y + 7y
'We
 7x + 10y
(b)
+rr + 2 ay  5Y 7
8ay*;oy+4y 5y+ ll7
8ay
+ 4y
.L
.vi+ +
_2"r
=8iay\,+4
ffi
.%,
ec,t!! ,1e
:,,,
a\!
#;.r1,;;,1,
WoRKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify
(a) (3x + 7y) + (9x  4y),
(b) (8p  s)  (3p  6).
SOLUTION:
fi8
(a)
(3x
(b)
(8p
7y) + (9x
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ra.mo+e'uiackati
r'to:$e.ther;
, 1. If the sign before the brackets is o+', then the signs remain the
same when the brackets are removed.
,
,
E.g. 1+(2c*3b)=l+2a3b
:
...2.IfthesignbeforethebracketsiS.*'thenthesignsneedtobe
removed
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
(a)
(b)
(c)
2m9n5.
SOLUTION:
(a)
Sum
(3x
=6xlly
(b)
Difference = (8p
(c)
Removebrackets.
 5q + r)  @  aq _ 1r)
Bp5q+rp+4q+7r
= 8p  p  5q + 4q + r + 7r <,Collectlike terms together'
Jpq+8r
=4mlln+6+2m9n5
= 4m + 2m  Iln  9n + 6  5
6m20n+l
Difference  (6m  20n + 1)  (m  3n)
=6m20n + 1 + m+3n
=6m+m20n+3n+l
='7m*lln+l
q
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
The length of the sides of a triangle are (3x + y + 1) cm,(2x
(a) Find the perimeter of the triangle in terms of x and y.
(b) Find the perimeter when x = 3 and y  1.
SOLUTION:
(a)
L ,i
Perimetev
ffi
.'/
(b) Whenx=3andY1,
Perimeter = 5(3) + 6(1) + 6
= 15 6+6
=15cm
W,
1.
E.g. 8x  llx
3)
=8x(4x+3)
=8x+4x3
=lZx3
are glven
2.
.d(tr,+r)
a(xY)=axaY
a,(x+y+z)ax+a))+az
a(x))= ax+aY
;'';  *
E.g. t 4(a  5)
 4(a)  4(s)
=4a20
.ts'"'_*.*_s
8.g.2
,;'; 'r,;,d;
a(x+Y)=ax+at
f.*
'k
bY
J
4'
'&
3(2i + 5y  4z)
= 3(2x) + 3(5y)
 3(42)
6x+l5yl2z
,.+iif"^r'.
E.g.
Zp(q  irl
= Zp(q)  2p(3r)
= Zpe
 6p,
160
Mathematics Tutor 1A
br lil:.
:
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Expand the following.
3(6x  7y + 3z)
(a)
(b)
8x
 4(2x + 8)
SOLUTION:
*..*s:T.__:
fl*8\
(a)
3(6x  7y + 3z)
= 3(6x)  (3)(7y) + (3)(32)
= 18x + Zly  9z
(b)
8x  4(2x + 8)
= 8x  a?Zx)  4(8)
.,*G*^k
=8x+8x32
=l6x32
fl=
__.rj,==
\
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Simplify
(a) 5x +3(x +2) (2x  5)  9,
(b) 8p  3{aq  Zlq  s(p  q)l}.
SOLUTION:
(a)
 (2x  5)  9
=5x+3x+62x+59
5x + 3(x + 2)
5x+3x2x+6+59
6x+2
(b)
8p3{4qZlqs(pd}
 8p  3l4q  2(q  5p + 5q)1
 8p  3l4q  2(6q  sp)l
 8p  3(4q  IZq + 10p)
 8p  3(8q + t}p)
8p+24q30p
= 22p + 24q
3.
Ltd
ffi
%s.
woRKED EXAMPLE 3:
1o
Simplifv 1'
?,
x2
t,
LJ)
SOLUTION:
3(2x  3)
= 15
5(x
2)
15
3(2x3)+5(x2)
15
6x9+5x10
15
llx  t9
_=I5
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Simplify 1 
_ 2(3x  t)
SOLUTION:
r!
_ 2(3x  t)
a
x
66
6xaQxl)
_ 4(3x1) *,'TheLeM,'of
,6.and 3
iS6,
6xl2x+4
10
13x
,ffij
Mathematics rutor 1A
IJd
WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
Express
2xl
_+
x*2
a
a single fraction.
as
4
SOLUTION:
2x1.
x*2
3  6 4
 4(x.!2)
t2 
2(21 1)
12 * *12
12.
_ 4(x+2)2(2xl)+3x
t2
4x*84x+2+3x
t2
3x+10
=
12
1.
2.
,ax+qlia: +I)'''
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Factorise the following.
(a) 3x  12
(b) 5y + 202
(c) 4ax  I6ay
(d) pq + Zpr  ps
SOLUTION:
(a)
terms
3r  1 z
= 3(.r)  3(4)
Factorise.
Ltd
Chapter 5: Algebraic
Manipulation i{.163S
.r...._l
(b)
5y + 2Oz
..fhe,'eCI
faotor is 5.
= 5(y) + 5(42)
= 5(y + 4z)
(c)
4ax
l6ay
<The
comm*
ri+iart 'i
 4a(x)  aa(aY)
= 4a(x  ay)
Remember to factor out all cornmon factors'
4ax
(d)
16ay
" = 4(ax
to be factorised
4ay) ..._* This needs
turther' It is not complete'
ThE cot.rrrnon,faeffi
irB,
=p(q+Zrs)
%,
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Factorise each of the following'
3a(2x  5)  aQx  5)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
8p(4Y
 1)  @Y  r)
6q(5x  4)  5x + 4
Zx(a + 2b  c) 5Y(a + 2b
c)
SOLUTION:
(a)3a(2x_5)_a(2x_5)<_Thecommonfactoris2x5.
 (2x  5)Ga  a)
(b)
= (4y
(c)
The commo,
1)
 1X8p  1)
*ffiart,1]",''
,,,,,
d+v';:$as',(tft+v";4
''
6q(5x4)5x+4
=$q(5x_4)_(1X5x_41.Thecommonfactoris5x_4.
= (5x  0(6q  l)
Zx(a + 2b
 (a + 2b 
Mathematics Tutor 1A
c)
c)(Zx
5y(a + 2b
c)

 c'
5Y)
li
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
(a)
(b)
Factorise mx + my.
Hence, evaluate 62
8765 + 38
8765.
SOLUTION:
(a) mx+my=m(x+y)
(b)
x 8765 + 38 x 8765
8765(62
+ 38)
= 8765(100)
= 876 500
62
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Factorise completely
(a)
(b)
,\
(c)
 2Oa2b2c3 + 5abc,
 + 9x(x  2),
I z ^
zyz.
,r'z 
75a2bc
3(x
2)2
SOLUTION:
(a)
I\azbc
(b)
ZOa'b'c3 + 5abc
5abc(3a
 4abc2 + 1)
= 3(x
2)l4x
2)

oris
:. :.:,:.,. ,:.::,, ii iij,,,,:i:.
i:
Sabc.
3(r2)
,,:,
continueJlfactllise
il'
'i:';r:' :l;'r'r;r'rnlii:'rliiri1ilf:
6(X2)(2Xl)rirql
is
4z)

The:cornmon factor
ir 'w.
Chapter 5: Algebraic
Manipulation
,F%.,
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Tutorial
1.
Write down the coefficient of x and the constant term in each of the following.
Algebraic expression
Coefficient of x
Constant term
(a) 3x'+5x4
(b) 8x9x2 +7
(c) 2f+llx
(d) 8ry+x,
I
t .,1
Simplify each of the following.
2.
,:.f"tR=i:'
i$,166
(a) 8x+5y3x4y
(b) 3a6b+8a+8b
(c) 5u9v6wv
(d) 7p+3q5r7q+3P
"F'+o**qo.'
@ Casco
Pulrlir,,t,,',' '
9+5pq9pq+16
(g)
(k)
9ab
5cd + 12cd
 3ab
6x8y+3x5y1
(h) 3+mn4mnZmnll
2l^l
3x rPrzx+ 4P*
6h4sh
15
t2
3*+ 6!5x ,v + 5*
Ltd
!n*
lsn
,&'
.a
(a) (3x 
4y)
 (5x + 2Y)
(c)
(6p 7q)
(e)
Add 8x  5y  3z
to 6x + 7y  42.
(g)
 (3P + 4q)
(d) (, 
(f)
Subtract 2x
 5Y + 9
Mathematics Tutor 1A
i.
rr) * (z* 
 4Y,
6y+7zandLxlTz.
(h)
fromx+8y7.
ffi
(b) 2x(4x5y+z)
Subtract 3x
 7Y from the
sumof5x8Y +7zand
6y4x32.
@ Casco
Publicrtr:"'' : 
4.
(a) 3a x (5b)
(b)
+""(.1)
(c) 15 + (5y)
(e) :)px8q
(f) Zpqx3rx(6)
(g)
2a x 5a x (4b)
Chapter 5: Algebraic
Manipulation
ffi
(i)
(k)
2a x 3ab x (7 c)
;. #
u) t;,)
(l)
"(6v)x(32)2
(n) :tudb'
(o) .M"^b'
r;+J:nr\i.
.i
tZO
i;
'h**f;'
Mathematics Tutor I A
(p) {rsFf
O Crt.sr,, Ptri'
(a)
3(2x
(c)
5(4x + 3y)
(e)
e(Zh
(b)
5)
(d) (6k 
ax)
1)(3)
(f) 5(3ab+2c)
3)
2Q
iG)
Chapter 5: Algebraic
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'il5\rl:1..!
6.
8p3(2p+4)
(b) 2r  3(s  r)
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i 172 $l
(e) 7(2x3y)4(x5Y)
(f)
(h) 5(c+2de)+3c4e
p(Zx 7)
 3p(x + 5)
@ Casco
Prti,lit,,
'
(a) 3(2ab)+5(a4b)
(e)
2(2a + 3b)
(fl
3(x
2y)
3(a
2(3y
O) (5xzy)(Z)+(2x+y3X3)
(d)
2b)
2x)
4(2a
2(3x
5y + 1z)
 4(x 
5z)
2b)
 (2x  5y)
ffi
,i
l74jr
'{\***+I;
(a)
315(a + b)
(c)
2p
(e)
t1x
 4(2a 
3q + 5l2p + (3q
3{2y  3l7x
Mathematics Tutor lA
(b) 8x+215y@ay))
b)]
 Dl
2(4x
 y)l}
(d)
3(m
2n) + lZ(n
 5m) + 3nl
(r) *. * ],  +(+..
ir)
Ltd
9.
(a)
3x+l
(b)"*A
x3
(d)
3y+4
a
2x
xl
1'+
2x+l
x*2
**J
,FttcB'
''Y.:f'
10.
(b)
2(xt\ 3(2x3)
3nu
 2x+l + 3(xl)
t+
6
3
,&'.
rzoBi
'W
{fl
Mathematics Tutor 1A
TT
(d)w
x x3
(f)
\/ 2 * 4
5(3x +
1)
2x
l
@ Casco Ptblicctti,''.'
.r
(e)
x+5 2x3
,:\
1'r'/248
3("r+1)
2(x1) _ 5x+3
312
l.
(h)
(j)
, x3
26
(1)
Terr)+
7214
5(2xl)
ffi
(a) 2x + 18
(b)
(c) 88y
(e)
(f)
8ab + lZac
(g)
''''.]ffi
lZx + 8y  4z
Mathematics rutor 1A
25x
xy
(h)
 9xyz
9px
lSqx
9x
U)
Zpq*
 pq
 8px
i
i
i:
(k) 8a  8ab  8c
(m) 2*y 
gmtx'
8y2
+ yz
i 0)
(n)
3ab
9ac + 3ad
lOtrrh + 4ny2
36mx3
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iE
tt
,,
Chapter 5: Algebraic
Manipulation
i!.i.l79=$j
'.lt:_=:1.::',."i
(q)
Zlp2qr
(s) z*'+
(u)
10
7pq',
(r)
)*
 8(b  2c)
(w) (zm)(p 
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14.
Simplify
(a) 2s+5h394h+3,
(b) 3m x (2n) x (5P)'
(c) t5x  312(t  x)  4(3  2x))'
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15.
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(b)
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(b) (2r)' + 6r'
(c) (7)x(as)6x5s
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e)
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(b)
(c)
26.
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 5(a  3b).
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(b)
3(2x+3yl)
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28.
Express
29.
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xl
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3x+1 x2
(b)
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73
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1.
(b)
5(3x1) _2(x3)
(c)
x2y
't 'l
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Simplify 3p
(b)
Factorise 2m(3
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(b)
JJ.
93
(a)
(b)
4x+y
\
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2n)
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34.
Write down and simplify the algebraic expressions for the following statements.
(a)
Add
(b)
; 6x y) to ,
(+
*
35.
Add (3a2
36.
37
. (a)
(b)
im
'=tud,.,
*r)
Subtract 3x'
2x + 7 from
5x + 3.
subtract
Mathematics Tutor
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andZq.
x+
8x2
7q
4x+7?
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result.
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 l\abc,
 r2pr2 + 9p2qr,
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10ab
3pqt,
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(a) 1l2pq8r,
(b) 3a2 + lZab  6a,
(c) Zh(x  y) + 5k(y  x).
lij.
(a)
(b)
+1.
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5)
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(a)
(b)
43. (a)
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6a'b
 20ab3
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Factorise 18xy
Simplify
 42xz + 6x.
+  T,
44.
45,
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(a)
(b)
\4
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,,
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Factorise ct + ay.
Hence eraluate 47
,,
 . rtiSe xy
x 962 + 53 x 962.
xZ.
..:rr,e evaluate
6l x3L82  5l x3182
,rr
br
1a
a/
(a)
(b)
FactoriseTx+7y.
Hence, without using a calculator, evaluateJ x 3.885 +J x 1.115.
198
x 98.
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Chapter 5: Algebraic
Manipulation
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50.
answer in terms
of x.
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51.
Find the sum of 3 consecutive odd integers if the greatest odd integer rs 2x. Give your answer
in terms of x.
52.
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Mathematics Tutor
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,
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A fruiterer bought 35 apples at p cents each and 56 pears at q cents each. He packs them into
bags which contain 5 apples and 8 pears and sells the bags at (8p + 9q) cents each.
Write down in terms of p and e,&rr expression for
(a) the amount of money he spent on the fruits,
(b) the total amount of money for which he sold all the bags of fruits,
(c) the amount he earned from selling all the fruits.
Ltd
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56.
In an interschool
57.
Amanda is x years old. Her brother Andrew is 6 years younger than her. Her father is 5 times
as old as Amanda. Write down an algebraic expression in terms of x for
(a)
(b)
58.
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lffi,
A bookshop owner boughtp novels. x of them cost $16 each, 2x of them cost
rest of them cost $5 each. Write down an expression in terms of p andx for
(a) the number of novels he bought which cost $5 each,
(b) the total amount he spent on the novels.
Mathematics Tutor
lA
Ltd
(3r 
l)
cm
i
I
T:e ciagram is nlade up of two identical rectangles and a square. The length and breadth of
,he r,.rapgle are J' cm and n cm respectively. The length of the square is half the breadth of the
'
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expression for
ycm
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Basic Concepts
1.
E.g.
2.
3x
2=
When we solve equations. ri e hnd the value of the variable in the equation.
E.g. x=
a
5 and 6.r + 1 =
equationx 3 = 5.
i; tlie solution to
both equations.
4.
5 = 9 is a linearequation.
The highest power of the variable x is
1.
,
I
E.g. 3x+
EZ
1.
2.
The solution or root of an equation is the value of the variable that will make the
equation true.
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WC.II(ED EXAMPLE 1:
SoLl
(a) x6=5
(c) ' =4
5
(e) 6x  L0
2
(g) 5;.r=
ll
J
(b) x*3=8
(d) 4x  tZ
(f) 2x3 9
(h) 0.2x+7 12
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(a)
x65
6+'6t = 5 i#$t.
x=7I
(b)
t;lA
'i6dd,e1*tt
x+3=8
x+3;"3 =8 *,3 *
x5
'
ffir
'wj
* 4
5
(c)
x
X# =4i*i5ii._iu
x=20
(d)
4x 12
4x
44
*r'*i#ri
12
d'i$d.#
x =3
(e)
6x
6x
6
1
...
(0
10
10
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'4
.,
_;5
1r_{
x=41
2x3 9
2x3
'= 9'
2x12
2x
+i'
12
i$;
x=6
(e)
s ir= 11
2
5;x
5 = ll
,t 5,
+,
5x=0
?3^* x
^\ f 1)
z)  6.^\ f *)
z)
x=9
(h)
0.2x+7 12
0.2x+7 7 =12 7
0.2x
o, f:J
\ Ll
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0.2x 5
m, = !fi#, ''r$l*iae'iudifi'
x 25
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V/ORKED EXAMPLE 2:
following equations.
S,'lr e the
.1r 8r12=0
(c)
(e)
(e)
)r'Q
)
_ _
 tt
63
8y'=o
o;
6
(b)
T_r
(d)
x'=9
(f)
Ji
(h)
tr[5*q z
z
SOLUTION:
8x12
+ lZ
(a)
gx
12
8x
0
_0+
lZ
._.i+:daii.tjtd.d*t
12
8x
88
12
<
v_
^
rd
x  1
"'
3x2
(b)
2,u
J^
8
t
) 2
3x2 40
X)=6X)
3x
2 _ 40 + 2 <ri*dflrei;d,$difi
3x =42
2+
3x
42
=x=14
JJ
^a
2x9
(c)
?a
J
22
;*;
JJ
2x9
0
=0+
i5
_u ''
'ffi
2x9 :2
63
2x9 to=
6
6 ]r#utd$iiifirt$6
2x9=4
Zx _ 9 + 9 = 4 +
_1.666rrit6i$ot
2x13
2x
22
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13
1
O;
./.
r&
.W'
I
(d)
x2
=9
J *' = t J9 .',',
x=+3
x+3,o.r,*3. . i"
32 =9,(3)r = 9.
8y'=o
(e)
8
)'' 
$=0
)'=
 8
Subtract8fromboth
sides.
= VS
._a
)L
(D
eliq tii+odi.dtuotU'uae*
''
^ly =z
(.,F )' = (3)'
.rQ
v)
(g)
Jzxr 6
1
'l2r  1)t = 6t
2xl =36
2x l*l =36+l < Addltobothsides.
2x 37
Divi 'bath'sides'by 2'
2  ;
i
x
rc+
(h) {s*t
z
11t57;3=(2)3
5x7 =8
5xl *'7 =8+l
5x15
5x
55
15
x=3
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Mathematics Tutor
lA
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P:. '
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WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
S ,1r
e the
following equations.
, 2(7x3)=5
,c) 8(.r+2)3(2x+1)
(b)
(d)
1
3(4x)=8
3x4(x2)=133(4+x)
SOLUTION:
(a)
2(7x3)=5
l4x65
l4x6 "6=5+6
14x
l4x
t4
11
1l
14
11
t4
(b)
3(4x) =8
123x 8
123x12 812
3x = 4
3.r= 4
3 3
l
vl
.,Divide,both.si&s
by'(
);,,
(c)
8(.r + 2)
8x+
3(2t +
7) <
8x+ 16 6x+21
16
6x 6x+216x
2x+16 21
2x+161621 16*rs,
2x
5
2x5
22
, 2!
2
(d)
2x+8 l
2x +
8
 1 8
)u 1
,
2x l *''Divide'h
=
;
z
.l
)
1
_1_
h sides bY 2'
J.
,;itr'*q\
+]Sj'
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Solve the following equations.
(a)
(b)
(c)
x+l
2x5 __35
x  x3
2'
7
2x x*l
_A
_t
Ts
t
2x
^15 l
SOLUTION:
x*l
2x5
(a)
1s
r2'=
)
\J/
=lsr'll)
\) )
*.il
raAd;$j
 5) =3(x+1)
 25 3x+3
llx  3x =3 +25
5(2x
10x
7x =28
28
7
(b)
.'.
x =4
,o(;)
a?
hJt
=4
+r+(f)
=14(4)
7x+2(x3)
7x+2x6
9x6
Iv,Iultlpl$1e'aeh
:terrn
,1
,, thE :L.CFtr'of
2 and
7'
= 56
 56
= 56
9x= 56+6
62
A_
l
62
9
8
b9
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Mathematics Tutor
lA
@ Casco Publicatiotts
Prt' t ...
2x x*l
^ 5
3
" 2xl
rs
,'(?)
 3(x+ l) = 15  (2x  I)
10x3x3 =15Zx+1
lx3 162x
5(2x)
7x+2x =16+3
9x =79
t9
9
_.1
9
C "
WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
If A
 *I t, * blh,findthe
value of b when
A= 35,a = 8 and h 
5.
SOLUTION:
A= *@+b)h
2
A35,a=8andh5,
35=tr*bX5)
;
35=:(g+b)
When
x3s 8+b
14=8+b
b=6
WORKED EXAMPLE 6:
3x4v
ff "_
; = ),findthe
value of
/.xry
5
x
v
SOLUTION:
3x
2x
 4y*'E'*4
 3t,'\
5
5(3xaD=4(2x3y)
l5x20y=8x12y
7x=gy
{, .,.,
7y = 'ln, v
x8
y7
l
.,1
Divjdo hoth,sroe,bt
ir\t" ,
_t
,,i;t:i[i,ii,
t
1.
EIu.tlAlt Eqq4lo"!
S'A,p!g
@_qqly,"g
3 , 1r,;*,
x
Z.
"%

+=*
a term.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Solve the following equations.
(a)
l8
(b)
x =3
2x+3
4
(c)^^ 5x+2
3
1Y,/
SOLUTION:
l8
(a)
3
(rs\
\//
xl
18
= 3(x)
3x
18
x
.'. x
6
5
(b)
2x+3 =4
/\\
(2x+:lIrr*3 )=Qx+3X4)
5
4(2x+3)
5=8x+12
8x512
1
'7I
(c)
?'J]3
3x2
(3x
(sx+z\
,:
 2\ltffi
)=(3x2)(3)
5x+2 3(3xZ)
5x+2 =9x6
8 =4x
,=
' v )
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Mathematics Tutor 1A
@ Casco
Pttblicut:,
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WORKED EXAMpLE 2:
Solve the following equations.
I^\
36
'
x*l
4xl
t2
(b) l ' x2
3
SOLUTION:
36
x+l' 4xl
3(4x1)=6(x+1)
llx36x+6
lZx6x6+3
6r
=9
.._
.'.r=11
2
lLL
t
(b)
x2
.2r
' 3  xJ
I * *l
t
2'''\3
? ,'1
x =5
qqltreple*lelylqsrurn Alsary

1.
2.
In other words, to solve word problems, we translate them to linear equations and
then solve the resulting equations
3.
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Variable
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1.
E.g.
2.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
The sum of 3 consecutive odd integers is
171 .
SOLUTION:
We need to find the 3 integers.
Identify the
unknown quantity.
unknown by x.
Themiddleinteger=x+2
Write expressions
for other quantities.
x+(x+2)+(x+4) 17l
x+(x+2)+(x+4)=17L
3x+6 =17l
3x  165
x 55
55
,57
and 59.
It is a good
Check.55 +
{ffi
Mathematics rutor 1A
5l + 59 = l7l ,/
@ Casco Publications Pre
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WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Afather ts2'7 years older than his son.In 12years'time, he will be twice as old as his son.
(a) If his son is x years old now, write down an expression in terms of x for the father's
present age.
(b)
(c)
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
(c)
=x+27 +L2
(x + 39) years
x+39 =2(x+12)
x+39 =2x+24
x = 15 (son's
age)
54
2(15 + LZ)
54 ,/
WORKED EXAMpLE 3:
A travel agent is planning an outing for x people. He enquires about costs from two coach
flrms, Daily Express and United Travel.
(a) Daily Express charges $15 for each person. Write down an expression, in terms of
x, for the total amount that Daily Express would charge for the outing.
(b) United Travel charges a flxed amount of $84 and an extra $12 surcharge for each
person. Write down an expression, in terms of x, for the total amount that United
Travel would charge for the outing.
(c) The travel agent flnds that the total amount is the same for each flrm. Find the
number of people going on the outing.
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
(c)
l5x = 84 + 12x
3x84
*=
YJ
28
Variable
ffi
Tutorial
1.
(a) 9x+229
(b) 3x1tJ
(c) 7 2x13
(d) 4x+614
(e) 5x+4182x
(f) l3xx+13
(g) l5x84+9x
(h) 73xZx+12
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lA
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F, '
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_l
5x
 20
.3
I
(k)
_
\l =x+1=152
(1) s?x=5
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(n) 2x0.2x+5.4
(o)
A.2x + 0.8
= 1.8  0.3r
Ltd
Variable
,ffi'
ik$.;
(q)
(r)
=36
(s) 2f
= 2J
o'=21
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f*,
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3 the
{a) 2(3x+4)26
(b) 3(4x  9) = 81
tc) 3(2x)=14
(d)
(e) 2(x5)=3x18
(0 63x=4(x+2)
2x
following equations.
7(x 
3) = 26
2(s
2x)
(h) (3x+2)(2x5)=0
Variable
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(i)
3(x
2.5)
0)
(k) 92.4x2(0.3x3)
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(n)
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2.5)
0.15 = 0.05(1 + x)
Z ru,
e) =
tzxzr=,(1,.,)
ffi\
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Mathematics Tutor
lA
:i 5(.r+2)3(x1)=12
(b)
4(3
(d)
2x + 3(x + 1)
(e) 5x+43(2x 
1) =
12
8(7x
1)
 x) + 3(5x + 2) 
23 
4s
(4x
7)
+x
(0 2x193(4x7)l26
Ltd
ifftf
'fue'$
(b)
v# 2 0
2x x+l
(c) T=
4
(d)
2xI
2
(e) I_
aQx2)=;
(0;
(a)
2x
I
3 =)
(g) 2x+3
s
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Mathematics Tutor
3x4
l
lA
2(3x
x+2
r)
lN,
.,,
e the
following equations.
.T
i1
, +3=
3x
..
(b) **;
rc) x1={+5
(d)
(f) 5+ ):
(g) 3x+5,x
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=12
=0
+  t =rI
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=x
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(a) +v * x2
g
=5
(d)
x*8
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s
15
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Mathematics rutor 1A
(r)
5(x1)
2xl
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@ Casco
Publicatit":'

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Srrlr.e the
following equations.
(a) 8=)
x
(c)
2
=5x
(b) ? =3
x5
4
3t
4x2
(st
'D/
_ 5
2r l
 {
(d)
(fl
3
x*3 =4
(h)
,h
3=0
:
=0
'';*5i6i*"i*
U)  +x z
(i) *5=1
(k)
#=,
(l)
,ffi
s3
u
x+J = x
(n)
(o)
34x  7xl
x*l
'.l=,3x+2
Mathematics Tutor
lA
@ Casco Publicatiruts
: r
_ L=
W+X
lr
flnd the
valueofXwhenE=
20
Iti
andX
anO
16,
W=25.
+4
lfu=
v2
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(b)
Given thaty =
Given thatp
li
*,
2(q3r
m= 6andy *2.5.
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+, A
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13.
Given that
14. rfpq
r
15.
ffi,
=I
and v = 5.
I f,
q+s
=3,ll = 5
andr =2.
*  llb, find
(a) thevalues ofywhen a='/,b=l und*  !4'
(b) the value of xwhen a=4,b=3 andy  6.
Given that y2 
Mathematics Tutor 1A
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:r] thevalue of V when r=J,
G1r en the
br
thevalueof rwhen
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x=2andy4.
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1+ 1,*here,
1.l uv
is the distance of the object from the lens and v is the distance of the image from the lens. Find
the value of/when w = 3 and v = 5, giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms.
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Given that
i! 
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3P
 2q
p+2q
.t ,4x3y
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2xy
of
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(c)
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28.
29.
(b)
xl x+l
53
3y+2
8
(c)
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(c)
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34.
(a)
(b)
35.
(a)
Find two consecutive odd integers such that the sum of the smaller integer and twice the
greater integer is 85.
The sum of three integers is 40. The second integer is three times the first and the third
integer exceeds the second by 5. Find the tlyee integers.
(b)
36. I am thinking of a number. If I add 4 to the number and then multiply the result by 3, the
answer is the same as subtracting 5 from the number and then multiplying the result by 2.
(a) Letting x be the number, write down an equation in terms of x.
(b) Solve the equation and flnd the number that I am thinking of.
31
When a number is halved and 8 is added to the result, the answer is 54. Letting the number be
x + 3, form an equation in x. Hence, flnd the value of r.
Mathematics Tutor 1A
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_i8.
(a)
(b)
Jonathan is 15 years older than his brother Jeremy. Six years ago, Jonathan was six
times as old as Jeremy. Find their present ages.
Ben is twice as old as Belinda. Five years ago, the sum of their ages was 92. Ftnd
Belinda's present age.
(a)
Jack's brother is 14 years older than him. In six years'time, Jack's brother
as old as him. How old is Jack now?
(b)
Mary is
t
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will
be twice
be
of
+
The numerator of
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fraction.
42. Marc's mother is 5 years older than twice his age. Let Marc's age now be x years old'
(a) Express his mother's age in terms of x'
(b) Marc will be as old as his mother now in 27 years' time. write down an equation
in x
43
44.
'ffi
Mathematics Tutor 1A
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:
Tim has (2x + 1) marbles. Peter has 3 more marbles than Tim. James has half
as many marbles
as Peter.
(a)
(b)
(i)
(ii)
Peter has,
James has.
it
(a)
(b)
:"
Variable
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49. A saresman selling vacuum cleaners is paid $A per week. The amount
120 plus $ 15 for each of the vacuum cleaners that he sells '
expression cot::"In a particular week, he sold n vacuum cleaners. write down an
A and n for the total amount of money the salesman received that week'
if he sells 8 vacuulll cle' ' 'Calculate the amount of money he would earn in a week
wage of
(a)
(b)
(c)
50.
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51.
If x  18 and ! =
A piece of wire is cut into 3 equal pieces. The flrst piece is bent to form a rectangle of breadth
(x + 2) cm. Its length is thrice its breadth. The second piece is bent to form a triangle with sides
(3x + 5) cm, 3x cm and (4x + 3) cm. The third piece is bent to form a square.
(a) Express and simplify in terms of x,
(i)
(ii)
(b)
Variable
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53.
The diagram below shows arectangle ABCD. Find the values of x and y.
A
(2y+x3)cm
/zx+s)
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23 cm
54.
 (6x)
cmandthe
(6x + 5) cm
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Rectangle B.
fr
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peter has three times as many game cards as Philip. If Peter gives Philip 9 game cards ' Pr..
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9.
boys have.
10.
same job
Working alone, pauline can complete a job in 2 hours, while Anne can do the
job together?
3 hours. How long does it take the two women to complete the
11.
is r m
Rectangle ABCD has dimensions 12 mby 8 m. The length of rectangle PQRS
breadth is half its length. The area of the shaded part
ir *
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72m
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Algebraic Manipulation
Simple Equations in One Variable
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
(1)
Introduction to Algebra
le
;
given that x
1.
In the formula e =
2.
(a)
(b)
J.
5s'
(2h)3
8^
(h +
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3.
r)'
(a)
a,
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5a + b ab
(b)
2y
when a 
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and,
b 1,
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4.
5.
The cost of m files and n notebooks are $x and $y respectively. Find the total cost of 3 flles anc
7 notebooks.
6.
Given that x =
^(b)
(c) y'=;
 xz
(d) tO(xyz)z
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John is 3 years older than Marc. Lisa is twice as old as John. Let Marc's age be x years old.
Express in terms of x,
(a) John's age,
(b)
(c)
Lisa's age,
the average age of the 3 children.
A fruit seller bought 50 crates of peaches. There were m peaches in each crate.
(a) Write down an expression in terms of m for the number of peaches he bought.
(b) He sold n peaches and packed the rest equally into 80 bags. Write down an expression
(a)
fot
(i)
(ii)
(b)
Revision Exercise 2
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(2)
Algebraic Manipulation
10.
11.
Factorise completely.
(a) 4pq  l0p2r + Zpr
(b) Strrh + 18rcf
12.
13.
Subtract (2*'
5xy
(11x2
4x
2x+3
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(b)
x+v 2xy
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(D)
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,
4(2:. I) _ 3(z+2)
l
5
(b) Srif
!.
*,
+ (4xY)
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18.
t1 *
(a)
t'actorrse
(b)
a*
l!.
1
;J
x 8.375
+J
1
x 0.625 .
19.
(a)
5x
T*
3y _
1)l
xy
20.
Simplify
2t.
(a)
(b)
42
 Zcde
3m(p  q) + 5n(p  q)
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Simplify
(a) 3lm + 2n
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2(5m
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(b)
ry_lrr,_y).
(a)
(b)
Factorise completely
(a) 20ab  4b,
(b) 6x + LSxy  30x2,
_+.
(c)
25.
5pr' 
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+x'
Revision Exercise
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26,
27.
28.
(a)
(b)
, \ rl
(a)4*6'
5(3rl)
(b)
t2 + 5y 
(a)
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(c)
il#i
of
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1234
x 234.
Simplify
(b)
29.
r+
.2,! = 3
and
r=
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(a) 2(x+5)5(3xl)=6
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32.
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3
5
(b) ,;.3
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+ l=3
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Revision Exercise,
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34.
x2
ia) 3x+l
3  6
2'
15
x*4
35.
36.
1,
(a)
(b)
*(2s)'
if p_
J
2
Given that
5'+ 9) J
llx  3v =5
qrs
4s2
+I
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37.
(a) Jx3(x4)6
(b) syI11+Y
38.
(b) , 
3Y) = 4(2
y)
39.
(a)
(b)
(_).
aG
4x+7
ffi=i
ry(2x1) +36'
(a)
Simpliry
(b)
(c)
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(b)
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=3
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42.
43.
44.
(a)
(b)
*I  ,:tLr
+"xl
(a)
Simplify 8x  3l5x
 7 (2x 
(b)
(c)
lf
4
3)l
T
5x+3v ?
.r
I5 ,find the value of y''
. , +x+
ty =
^
Find two consecutive even integers such that the sum of the greater integer and three times the
smaller integer is 50.
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.:ht a trrtf,l of 20 hardcover books and paperbacks. Each hardcover book cost twice as
.. ;.r:h Lraperlrack. The cost of each paperback was $8. How many hardcover books did
. , .: i.e speirt a total of $264?
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total of $64
The denominator of a fraction is 5 more than the numerator. When 3 is subtracted from
the numerator and 4 is subtracted from the denomintor. the fraction becomes
] . nino,t.
original fraction.
ill
i.
Revision Exercise
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49.
In the diagram, ABCE is a square and ADF is an isosceles triangle. The length of a side of
the square is (3x +
2)
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(3x + 2) cm
50.
(b) (i)
Giventhattheperimeterof SquareBis
lf
of
"ftheperimeterofRectangleA,form
(ii)
1) cm
(4x + 3) cm
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 corresponding angles
 alternate angles
 interior angles
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A point has a position but not size and shape. All geometric figures are made up
of points. A dot ' o' or a cross 'x' is used to mark the position of a point.
E.g. .
AB
2.
_
x
The arrowheads indicate that the line continues indeflnitely in both directions.
A line has no width and it can be determined by two points.
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Lines 1{ZS:};
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Lrne AB
Line /
3.
E.g.
,4 and
4.
A ra1 is a line segment that is extended indefinitely in one direction. A ray ha.
one endpoint.
E.g.
5.
Ray AB
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1.
An angle is formed by two rays with a common endpoint, called the vertex. Thc
rays are called the sides of the angle.
angle
/
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LABC
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LCBA
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3.
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and
/rr.
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to'
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BC).
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Choose the inner scale and read off the number where the other arm
of the angle (side AB) cuts this scale.
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1.
2.
Type of angle
Acute angle
Description
Examples
L
Right angle
t_
Obtuse angle
An9les
qreater
than 90"
I
I
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900
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Angles greater than
180" but less than 360".
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360" G360'
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supplementary angles.
Angle Properties
The sum of adjacent angles on a straight line is equal to 180"
La + /b + Zc =
180o
Lx
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360"
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=
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WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
7o
SOLUTION:
520
=36
y" + 52 = 90o
)o=90o52
= 38o
88o + z"
88"+zo+38o=180o
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WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
SOLUTION:
3x" + 4x" + (2xo + 10") + 26 = 360"
9x"
(Ls at a point)
+36=
360'
9xo= 360"
9xo = 324'
36
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Parallel lines are two or more straight lines that never cross because they
always at the same distance apart. They have no points in common.
are
CD.
C.
and
1.
,2' Slide the set square along the length of ruler as shown in Diagram
Step ,3' Draw the line PQ which is parallel to line AB.
Step
Diagram
3.
A transversal is
2.
Diagram 2
transversal intersects
two lines, it forms eight angles. The angles formed at the intersections are named
in pairs according to their positions.
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(alt. Ls, AB
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WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
xo ,
yo and zo .
(a)
SOLUTION:
(a)
Ls,l, ll l)
ao
b"
12
ll
h)
xo=ao+b"
= 68o + 48o
(b)
116o
(y' + 19') +
118o
Zo =
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lo
(corr.
lz)
430
Ls,l, ll
12)
43"
Mathematics Tutor 1A
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Ro*
woRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Find the value of xo.
SOLUTION:
(Ls at a point)
a' + b'
ao = xo (alt.
: ?33"
Ls, L ll
zss"
lz)
ao
(x")
bo
ll
b"=180o3x"+25"
205"
12
b"
3xo
h)
3x"
25o
 3x"
ao + bo = 105o
(205"
x" +
3xo) = 105o
2x"+205"=105o
Zxo = 100'
,.o _
4
100"
2
= 50o
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that the arcs cut each other at P and Q as shown below.
3.
An angle bisector is a ray that divides an angle into two equal angles.
E.g.
angles such
that LABX
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4.
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WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
(a)
(b)
SOLUT!ON:
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With A as centre
and radius 6 cm,'
draw an arc to cut
the line segment at
the point B.
(b)
a
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68o,
(a) LPST,
(b) L\PQ,
(c) LPQR.
10.
In the diagram, PQ, RS and TU are parallel . Given that LLNM = 115o and LM bisects LPMN,
flnd
(a)
(b)
(c)
,ffi
LLMN,
LMLR,
LLKU.
Mathematics rutor 1A
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11.
In the diagram, CDE rs a straight line. LCDF  31o and reflex LBAD =
(a) Calculate LADF.
(b) Given thaI" LCAD ts 3 times LADF , calculate LACD .
12.
are
30Zo
(b) LvsQ,
(c) reflex LTUR.
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13.
In the diagram below, AOB is a straight line. Find the values of xo and yo.
14.
In the diagram, AB ll DE and BD ll FE. LABD = 43" and LBCE = 125o. Find
(a)
(b)
LCED,
reflex LDEF.
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15.
In the diagram, AB ll CD and EFGH is a straight line. Find the values of xo and yo.
16.
(a) xo,
(b) lo ,
(c) zo.
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17
In the diagram, AB, DE and FG are parallel. Find the values of xo and yo.
18.
In the diagram below, CDFG is a parallelogram. AB is parallel to CD , HBCK, JCG and CDE
are straight lines. Find the values of xo ,y" and z" .
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20.
In the diagram, BC ll ED
(a) LCDE,
(b) LABC.
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ll
LABC
90o,
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21.
(a)
(b)
(c)
22.
xo,
lo,
zo.
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Mathematics rutor 1A
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23.
24.
are parallel.
ADG is a straight
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26.
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27.
In the diagram, AC, DE and FH are parallel. DG ll KE, LBAG = 47o and LDEB =
Find the values of po , eo,, ro and so.
28.
In the diagram, AB
(a) LADG,
(b) LAHC,
(c) LDAE,
(d) LHAC.
113o
ll CD and AC ll BE.Find
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(b)
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32.
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(b)
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(ii)
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(b)
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;'i
._ i*_..+
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Ltd
35.
36.
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Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
The diagram shows triangle ABC. Construct the perpendicular bisector of AB such that it cuts
AC at X. Measure and write down the length of BX.
@ Casco
paralel Lines
,,;Jt*\
q{,:.S
38.
(a)
(b)
Draw a hne AB of length 11 cm. Using a protractor, draw LABC = 55' and
LBAC = 48o. Write down
(i) the size of LACB,,
(ii) the lengths of AC and BC.
On the same diagram, construct the angle bisectors of LBAC and LABC. The two angle
bisectors meet at 7. Measure the length of CT.
39.
Draw a line PQwith length 8 cm. Construct line /, through R, the midpoint of PQ which is
perpendicular to the hne PQ. Draw line lr,,parallel to PQ which is 3 cm away from PQ.Mark
the point S, the point of intersection of lines l, and lr.
<@
40.
of LRMQ.
Ltd
41.
(c)
X.
The perpendicular bisector of AB cuts AB at P. The perpendicular bisector of CD cuts
CD at Q. Measure and write down the size of LPXQ.
,",
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Mathematics Tutor
lA
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42.
\lark
,s*%',
i,ffiJi
/0. Express yo
in terms of x".
Lt4
2.
In the diagram, /, is parallel to /r. Express xo in terms of p" , q" artd r" .
3.
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Mathematics Tutor 1A
Lrti
@ Tarsets
re
.
.
.
.
.
Jr)
rrirrgtgl
1.
2.
E.g.
4
The triangle is called LABC
J.
I
i
or LACB.
Isosceles triangle
60o, ao = bo = co
= 60o.)
as
Scalene triangle
No equal sides
(Al1 angles are
different in size.)
.r'j.r..
Ltd
4.
as
Acuteangled triangle
Rightangled
All
One right
trianek
Obtuseangled triangle
N
angle
acute.
Fo
E.g.
\
\*\
\\
5.
La + Lb + Lc = 180"
1rtt
Yl___
1ii()'
(
:Lul,,,i
105"
3xo + 105"
3.r"
,r"
= 180'
= 180o
= 180"
_ 7<o
 tJ
75o
(Z
sum of
A)
105'
a
.'1
_')<o
qtlF
Mathematics Tutor 1A
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
/ q'\
B
/
/
\52'
p"/
E
SOLUTION:
ll
DF)
,/r"\
/ (70"\ \
= 58o
n
LBED
 s2 
(180" =+rr:
 52") + 2
(L
s8o
sum of
A)
./v,"
/\/\
/\
/\
/\
\52' ,t64" fi
{58"1
o. )
 640
r" = LBED (AIt. LS, BC II DF)
= 64o
6.
The exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles.
La=Lb+Lc
(ext.
of A)
62 + 85" (ext. L of L)
141"
Ct7rco
i;;';a;*
E.g.
xo+
l2l"
= 140' (ext.
L of L)
iR**__94tu,
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
\'2
n)z
/t
,/<'\
.(r"
74"
H'
SOLUTION:
LPRQ
180o
(Z
sum of
"l;33'1436
yo =
=
{t,*
___:=d&t
L of L)
109o
A)
Y",Y
.K
A \i"
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
i;=ii'*'*.E
i{:O+p
'i.}"t*.**;,I
Mathematics Tutor 14
Ltd
SOLUTION:
LCBE+LBEC+LBCE = 180o (Z
2x" +6o +3x" +27" +57o = 180o
5xo + 90o
5xo
=
=
sum of
A)
180o
180o
90o
= 90o
900
5
=
7.
18o
In a triangle, the longest side is opposite the largest angle and the shortest side is
opposite the smallest angle.
largest angle
shortest side
smallest angle
Quadrilaterals
A quadrilateral is a plane figure having 4 straight sides and 4 angles.
Examples of quadrilaterals are shown below.
L.l
['''''"1
Square
Parallelogram
Rectangle
Rhombus
1\
\/
Trapezium
e Casco
V
Kite
2.
A diagonal
is
Diagonals
3.
4.
La + Lb + Lc +
E.g.
Zxo+122'+118'
5xo + 240'
5x"
xo
1200
).
240
5.
Some quadrilaterals have special traits and they are called special names. The
properties of these special quadrilaterals are given in the table below.
Name
trapezium
Description
Example
Trapezium
Isosceles
ffi
sides.
in length.
{ffi
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
Parallelogram
.
.
.
.
Rectangle
All four
AX=XC
BX=XD
length.
angles are right
angles.(90')
Rhombus
.
.
.
.
.
.
length.
interior angles.
.
.
.
LABD = LCBD
LBAC _ LDAC
Two pairs of parallel
opposite sides.
Four equal sides.
titt()n.\. Pte
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l_t
!.+tr
.
.
at right angles.
angles.
++
It
tr+n
M
,/\I
chapter 8: Triangle,
; and Polygons
ti";'6*%'
i
f.$$
Description
Name
Kite
Example
No parallel sides.
Two pairs of equal
adjacent sides.
One pair of equal opposite
angles.
Diagonals intersect at
right angles.
One diagonal bisects the
interior angles.
t
LBAC = LDAC
LBCA = LDCA
,
,
:
Arhombuswith4equalanglesisasquare
",
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
SOLUTION:
LBCD
xo
110o
xo + yo + 46 = 180" (Z sum of A)
110"+y"+46=180o
yo=180"110"46"
_ aAo
L+
Ltd
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
PQRS is a rectangle. Find the values of xo and yo.
63"
)o
SOLUTION:
xo
63"
xo=90" 63"
xT
 )70
y"
63"
SI = RZ (diagonals of rectangle)
LTRS  LTSR (base Zs of isos. A)
63"
In AISR,
!" = LTSR + LTRS (ext.
 63" + 63o
L of A)
_ 126"
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
yo
Polygons
..tffi
';;;;+G;':t:
SOLUTION:
CB
= 35"
yo + 35o +
35'=
vo =
180o
(Z
sum of
A)
ii3.3so3s"
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
PQRS is a kite. Find the values of xo and yo
,P
,u\
0
#S
xoA
Voz'
R
SOLUTION:
P
 76) + 2 (L sum of A)
O
52o
QS
ll R4
= 62"
,/zo.\
xx
/*\
r>_{+s
\r
\2'
ur"/
\ v'l
Voz'
R
= 62"
ffi
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Polygons
1.
3 sides
Triangle
2.
4 sides
Quadrilateral
5 sides
Pentagon
In a convex polygon, none of its interior angles is a reflex angle. In other words,
each of the interior angles is less than 180o. In a concave polygon, one or more
interior angles are reflex angles. We will only be studying the properties of convex
polygons in this chapter.
E.g.
f,,
convex polygon
r
J.
Polygons are named according to the number of sides they have. The following
table shows some examples of polygons.
Number of sides
concave polygon
Ltd
Name of polygon
3 sides
Triangle
4 sides
Quadrilateral
5 sides
Pentagon
6 sides
Hexagon
7 sides
Heptagon
,ffi
Name of polygon
Number of sides
8 sides
Octagon
9 sides
Nonagon
10 sides
Decagon
.T'ea.o,herrs
4.
Equilateral
triangle
5.
ffi
Regular
Square
pentagon
,',sumtof.iht*ri6i"afig
E.g.
;;
:;2}'x,180*.',
(L
sum of polygon)
(\2)x180"
 \J
=3x180'
 540"
.'.
n=5.
Interior angles
= 13 x 180"
= 2340"
6,
each'inierior angle' _
'!"m
i\=uf1
Mathematics Tutor 1A
(n
_
2) x 180"
n
Ltd
Q*_
woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Calculate the size of each interior angle of a regular octagon.
SOLUTION:
Size of each interior angle of a regular octagon
t8llxl80o
S.i& of eaeh,inf.7 6f
(n *2) x 180'
135o
n sjded,pclygon
r,,lt
l:t
i,i:,::
'
''',
sreglll
,btta,go,r,l'Ua$r, ,g:i
65''',"'
ir':':rflr'
* gr,.r'
i:
i i:: r
:iii.ri:'
WORKED EXAMpLE 2:
(a)
The sum of the interior angles of an nsided polygon is 3240". Find the value of
n.
(b)
Calculate the number of sides of a regular polygon with each interior angle equal
to 150'.
SOLUTION:
(a)
(n  2)
3240o
x 180' = 3240" (Z
3240"
sum of polygon)
Divide both sides by I80'.
20
(b)
(n2)x180"
n
150o
150o
= l50ll <180n750n=360
l80n
360
 360
n360
12
30
30n
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
ABCDEF is a hexagon.
Find the value of x".
125"
150'
,:.,'
''''t"i.
fui..f.
SOLUTION:
Sum of interior angles of a hexagon = (6
:.
xo
2)
180" = 120"
210"
=. J
='70"
1.
'su of,e*
Exterior angles
E.g.
Two of the exterior angles of a pentagon arc 82" and 65' and the rest of
the angles are each equal to x". Find the value of xo.
8.g.2
2130
J
_
; 110
lL
45"
'
8.
;;**.'t,
i314
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Mathematics Tutor
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WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
SOLUTION:
g
xo=I80"125'
Teacher's
t...***.*,H.**;***.*,
= 55o
lnterior angle + Exterior angle
WoRKED EXAMPLE 5:
(a)
(b)
The exterior angle of a regular polygon is 20o. How many sides does it have?
The interior angle of a regular ngon is 165". Find the value of n.
SOLUTION:
(
a)
20" x n
360" (ext.
sum of polygon)
"=#
=18
.'. The polygon has 18 sides.
:'
., ).,' i t'
.:fJ;G't
Chapter 8: Triangles and Polygons
StL
i{':f
t'13t*.'slt:t
(b)
i:3'
sum of polygon)
360"
 ry
24
Method 2:
(n2)x180"
n
165"
(n
ru.
180n165n=360
l5n  360
,r 360
15
)a
%*
woRKED EXAMPLE 6:
(a)
(b)
(c)
LBAH,
LBAZ,
LAHZ.
SOLUTION:
(a)
LBAH =
(8
135"
.l:*.\,
i.3 l6 .ij
1**=..i'
Mathematics Tutor I A
2) x
180' <_
t1
Ltd
(b) LBAZ =
(62)x180o
_ (n2)x 180'
120"
,C)
105o
LAHZ = (180"
= 3J.5"
share
To construct a triangle given the lengths of all its three sides, use a ruler and
a pair
Q*
of compasses.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Construct LABC in which AB
,,
ABC,
SOLUTION:
Steps
for construction:
i
2
c",'
12 cm
lTcm
tZli
fu
'+\E*S'Y
To construct a triangle given the lengths of two sides and an included angle,
use a pair of compasses, a protractor and a ruler.
'%"
woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
Construct LXYZ in which XY  7.6 cm, LXYZ
size of LXZY and the length of XZ.
SOLUTION:
Steps
1
2
for construction:
Draw a line segment XY 7.6 cm long.
Using a protractor, draw a ray with
and LXYZ
as endpoint
=
With Ias centre, draw an arc of radius 5.6 cm to
3,
135o.
Jorn
l6cm
XZ to obtain LXYZ.
1.6 cm
,%
of
WoRKED EXAMPLE 3:
Construct LPQR such that PQ = 10 cm, LPQR = 65o and LQPR = 46. Measure the
lengths of PR and QR.
SOLUTION:
Steps
for construction:
it+
#i
Sketch:
LRPQ = 46.
10cm
,i!'"'*'*U.
ii,318
j'
'.11==gr",'
Mathematics Tutor I A
Ltd
3
4
8Djg.{ruction
of Quadrilaterals
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Construct a parallelogram ABCD such that AB
Measure the length of AC.
='7
cm, AD
SOLUTION:
Steps
1
2
3
.t
5
for construction:
Draw a line AB 7 cm long.
Sketch:
,,ffi,
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
720o
SOLUTION:
Steps
for construction:
iiii
#}
.#
'ffi,i
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Sketch:
DL5.*
\
6.s cm\
7c
/
w:w
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Tutorial
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l.
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3x"
55o
4",
(d)
2xo
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Mathematics Tutor
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B/fu+2"
\c
/\
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2.
(a)
BC
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)G
'/v
"(r.\o f
,,%/
L7 r)<xo +25o
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Ltd
 ., ,  u
(a)
(b)
A
160
x
,I
25"
.yo
lCt
(d)
'.'".. !q'
J2"
xo + 2y"
E
C
(e)
3y"
(f)A
5x" + 20"
E
C
4.
Zo
(b)
/
3xo +
5J"
5o
(d)
A
CD
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Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
(a)
i(b)
(c)
3xo
i(d)
+24"
7o
yo
5x"
12".
z;,\
A
\
""r,
x"l%
C
. 
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6.
(a)
\
*\
D
,"(
580
yo
(d)
(c)
h
Vv"
x'N
\
C
(e)
(f)
2y"
B
/.
E
yo
5/
150'
,/
D
D
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Mathematics Tutor 1A
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m..
iw)
Mathematics Tutor 1A
:
:
:
,,,,
RQ. LPRQ =
80o ,
RP.S,
./ PST.
In the diagram , AD
LFGJ  63". Calculate
(a) LJFG,
{b) LCJG,
(c) LBFC,
(d) LGKL.
:.'
tttiotts Pte
Ltd
is parallel
= 105'
, LBCF
65' and
D
10.
(b)
(c)
11
LAEF,,
LFGE.
Find
AB ll cD,, LBPT = 43" and LTSD = 24" '
In the diagram, pRTis a rightangred triangle.
(a) reflex < PTR,
(b)
(c)
LPRT,,
LCQR.
+J*c***
i. :lZ}:
"fu*'fi
MathematicsTutor
lA
* .d
:.
r
LACB,
LFGH.
in the diagram, AB
L1) LCDG,
LDEF,
br
. ) LCED.
and
LCGH =
108o. Find
.'ii;;a;n
Ltd
14.
(a)
(b)
15.
,!o
EC ,
LBCD,
LBAC.
ll
the values
and zo .
KA
',ffi
Mathematics Tutor
lA
Ltd
Irr the diagram, ABCD is a rhombus and DEGH is a parallelogram . KA is parallel to JF.
 128" and LCDE  120". Find
KBC
a)
r
c)
b
LHDE,
/DHF,
LJHG.
l., tlte diaeram, ABCD is a square and CDE is an isosceles triangle. ADE and CEF are straight
.res. Find LDEF.
_i;tons Pte
Ltd
ffi
18.
LDHF =
In the diagram, BC = HC = HD = HF '
AE. Find
(a)
(b)
(c)
t9.
46
to
and LFDE = 37" . GE \s PerPendicular
LHFG,
/HCB,
LABH.
LGAB= 31o
In the diagram, AC ll DF and GD ll CH '
and
/GDF =
57" '
yo and zo.
tro
'
rf.)f
I
lu"
'
2."
Mathematics Tutor 1A
l=
Ltd
In the diagram, ABCD and CPQR are two rhombuses. TBCP, ARDQ and BSD are straight
lines . LABT = 98o and LDQP = 110o. Find
(A) LADB,
DO
(b) LARC,
( c)
LRSD.
FE,
In the diagram, ABC is an equilateral triangle and ACF is an isosceles triangle. AC II
' BAF = ll2" , LCDE = 100' and LDEF = 90o. Find the values of x" , yo and z" '
.ii';Gil:
B Cosco Publications Pte Ltd
...'it.:l_.*,4,
"t1:Zii
22.
23.
ffi
Mathematics Tutor 1A
Ltd
(2)
24.
25.
Polygons
Calculate the sum of the interior angles of a polygon with:
(a)
10 sides
(c)
24 sides
(b)
15 sides
32 sides
(a) 6 sides
(b)
(c)
(d) 30 sides
20 sides
Ltd
18 sides
/ffi
W
Calculate the size of each exterior angle of the following regular polygons.
21
(a)
pentagon
(b)
hexagon
(c)
octagon
(d)
r}gon
(a)
",ffi
_
135'
(b)
(c) 156'
(d)
Mathematics Tutor 1A
is:
50"
170"
Ltd
28.
29.
if each exterior
(a)
15"
(b)
24o
(c)
36
(d)
45"
angle is:
#S
(c)
(e)
100o
Zx"
'r"ffi
x" + 25"
+20"
Mathematics Tutor 1A
3x"
Ltd
(b)
Three of the interior angles of a nonagon are each x" and the remaining interior angles
are each I14". Find the value of xo.
l
(c)
In a pentagon, two of the interior angles are t20" and 138" and the remaining interior
angles are equal. Find one of these equal angles.
(d)
{iffi
(e)
The sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon is six times that of a pentagon. Find
the number of sides of the PolYgon.
(0
Three of the exterior angles of an nsided polygon are 30o ,40" and 50o. The remaining
(n  3)exterior angles are each equal to 16o. Find the value of n'
(e)
(h)
.''**G\;,
3441':
tl\**..si'
Each exterior angle of a regular polygon is 120o less than each of its interior angle' How
many sides does the PolYgon have?
Each exterior angle of a regular polygon with 20 sides is 12o less than each exterior
angle of another regular PolYgon with n sides. Calculate the value of n.
Mathematics Tutor
lA
Ltd
(i)
Apol,v,son has n sides. Four of its exterior angles are 15",25o,40o and 30o while the
remaining aneles are each equal to 50". Find the value of n.
0)
The interior angle of a regular polygon is five times its exterior angle. Find the size of
the exterior angle.
31.
Aregular polygon has n sides. The size of each interior angle is seven times the size of each
exterior size.
(a) Find the size of each exterior angle.
(b) Calculate the value of n.
32.
(a)
(b)
(c)
LABC,
LBAD,
LDAE.
Ltd
'\e*$fl'
33
In the diagram, ABCDE is a regular pentag on. ABP , PCDR, BCQ, EDQ and AER are straight
lines.
(a)
(b)
(c)
34.
.+&.
Find
(i)
(ii)
LBCD,
LBPC.
Find LCPQ.
(a)
(b)
(c)
iffif.]
LABC,
LABP,
LBCP.
Mathematics Tutor 1A
The diagram below is not drawn to scale. It shows 3 sides of a regular nsided polygon
PQRS.... Given that LQPR = 10o, flnd
(a) the size of each interior angle of the regular polygon,
(b) the value of n,
(c) LPRS.
'
The diagram shows part of a regular nonagon, PQRSTU . QR and 7S produced meet at
Calculate
(a)
(b)
(c)
LVRS,
LRQS,
LQTU.
ffi
3l
(b)
38.
the value of n.
(a)
(b)
(c) LADE.
,,;#t\
'i348;1,
'ilr=*.**'.P'
Mathematics Tutor
lA
Ltd
41.
(a)
(b)
(c)
AC at
I.
Calculate
LBAC,
LCBE,,
LCYE.
The diagram shows a regular pentagon PQRST and part of a regular ngon PQCD... AB.
Given that LABP = 156", calculate
A
(a) the value of n,
(b) LBPT,
(c) LTPC.
42.
f*'
24o . BE rntersects
i{350$j
"kd/
Mathematics Tutor
lA
Ltd
+3.
The diagram below is not drawn to scale. It shows a regular octagon ABCDEFGH andpart
a regular nsided polygon PHGQ....If LFGQ = 69", find
(a)
(b)
++.
of
LHGF,
the value of n.
PQR... is part of a polygon. Reflex LPQR ts 212 and the size of the remaining exterior angles
are equal to 41" each. Find the number of sides of this polygon.
Ltd
ffi
45.
(a)
(b)
(c)
46.
Find
(i)
(ii)
LQRS,
LRMS.
State why MQ = MT.
Find LOTU.
In the diagram, ABCDE is a regular hexagon, CGHD and DJKE are squares and DHJ rs a
triangle.
(a) Find
(i)
(ii)
(b)
,ffi
'Wf}j
LCDE,
LHDJ.
Mathematics Tutor
lA
Ltd
(3)
11
.18. Construct LXYZ such thatXY = 6.5 cm, LXW = 48o and LYXZ ='73o. Measure
and write
ffi
49.
(a)
(b)
On the same diagram, construct the angle bisector of LBAC. The angle bisector meets
BC at X. Mark X clearly on your diagram. Hence measure the length of BX.
50. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
{ffi
LM=
8.5 cm,
10.5 cm.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the angle bisector of LMLN,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of LM.
Mark and label the point X where the angle bisector of LMLN meets the perpendicular
bisector of LM.
Hence, measure and write down the length of LX.
Mathematics rutor 1A
Ltd
(a)
Given the line AB, construct LABC such that BC = 11 cm and AC = 9 cm. Measure and
write down the size of LACB.
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
',ffi
52.
(a)
(b)
(i)
(ii)
pe,
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(a)
(b)
XI.
Measure
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(a)
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(i)
(ii)
(b)
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(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
56.
Construct APQR in which PQ = 9 cm, LRPO = 110o and PR = 7 cm. Measure and
write down the length of QR.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the angle bisector of LPRQ,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of PQ.
Mark and label the point of intersection of the constructed lines in part (b) (i) and (ii) as 7.
Measure and write down the shortest distance from 7to the line PQ.
Construct arectangle whose sides are 6.8 cm and 4.3 cm. Measure and write down the length
of the diagonal.
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57.
(a)
(b)
58.
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Construct a rhombus PQRS in which PQ = 5 cm and LPQR = 110". Measure and write down
the length of each diagonal.
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59
60.
= 53o,
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61. (a)
(b)
62. (a)
(b)
in which PQ = 9 cm, 8R
Construct a quadrilateral PQRS in which base PQ = 6.5 cm, LQPS = 80o, P,S = 5 .4 cm,
LPQR = 106o and LPSR = 88o. Measure and write down the length of PrR.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the perpendicular bisector of the hne PQ,
(ii)
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65. (a)
(b)
(c)
66. (a)
Construct a quadrilateral ABCD such that AB = 6.5 cm, BC = 8 cm, CD = 8.5 cm,
AD  7 cm and AC = 9 cm. Measure and write down the size of LABC .
On the same diagram, construct the perpendicular bisector of CD.
The perpendicular bisector of CD cuts AC at X and CD at I. Measure and write down
the length of Xf.
56o and
LBADLBCD=135o.
(b)
(c)
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(b)
PS = 9 cm, LPQR
110"
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. (a)
(b)
(c)
70.
(a)
(b)
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3.
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A closed ring is made using identical regular pentagons. Part of the ring is as shown below.
How many regular pentagons are needed to form the ring?
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(e)
(f)
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Revision Exercise
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(a)
(b)
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LBGE,
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(b)
(c)
 40
BC
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A
LFBD,
LBDC.
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5.
In this diagram, PQRST is a straight line. UR cuts LQRV into half. QU llRVand UR
Find the values of xo ,yo and 7o .
6.
xo
ll
VS.
,y" andzo
BC
7.
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11.
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 325o . Find
B
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I2.
In the diagram, ABCD is a trapezitm,, ABE is an isosceles triangle and BCE is a rightangled
triangle. LABE = 35o and LCDE = 100o. Find
(a) LEBC,,
(b) LDCE.
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B
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16.
In the diagram, ABCD is a kite. LADB = 40o and /BCA=25o. Find the values of xo and yo.
40"
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25"
C
17.
=23o. Find
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19
In the diagram, ABC is an isosceles triangle. BF ll CE,rcflex LBFC = 264" and LECD = 38o
BCD is a straight line. Find the values of xo ,yo and zo .
2x"
yo + 6o
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20.
2r.
(a)
(b)
a parallelogram .
LBCD,
LADE.
In the diagram, AE ll BC and BE ll CD. LAEB = 6J" , LBCE = 86o and LCDE
(a) LEBC,
A
(b) LCED.
105". Find
E
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The diagram shows a cardboard PQR in the shape of an equilateral triangle. It is folded along
tlie line QX.If LPYQ  102", flnd LRQX.
In the diagram, AC ll DF and GE II CH. LCBG _ 1050, LBCE LCHE = 90o. Find
B
(a) LGEH,
A
(b) LECH,
(c)
79"
LBGE.
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24.
25.
In the diagram,
PQ and
oz
In the diagram, ADE is a triangle. BC ll DE,BD = BE, LACB = 100" and LDBE
=94". Find
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LGEC,
LBCE.
ll
EC . Find
AE
In the diagram, JA ts parallel to CE, JF ts parallel to CH, LBEC = 82o, LDCH = 43o and
AB  BE. Calculate
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
' ,; i, o
LAJB,
LBAJ,
LFEG,
LGEC.
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28.
In the diagram, PD is parallel to FH and PQ is parallel to RS. PGQ, REFS and FGH are
straight lines. Given that LPER= 64", LPFG = 90o and LHQG = 50o, calculate the values of
(a) wo,
(b) xo,
D
(c) lo,
H
(d) zo.
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 HG. Find
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(a)
The ratio of the size of each interior angle to the size of each exterior angle of a regular
polygon with n sides is 7 : 2. Find the value of n.
(b)
If
one of the interior angles of a polygon is 120" and the remaining interior angles are
each 168o, flnd the number of sides of the polygon.
(c)
The size of three interior angles of a lOsided polygon are I 15o, 97" and 143" respectively.
The size of each of the remaining angles is equal to xo. Find the value of xo .
(d)
Apolygon has n sides. Three of its exterior angles are 60o , 15o and 45' while the remaining
exterior angles are each equal to 30o. Find the value of n.
Mathematics rutor 1A
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31.
(a)
Two interior angles of a pentagon are 135' and 147" while the remaining angles are each
equal to 2x". Find the value of xo.
(b)
A regular polygon has 12 sides. Calculate the size of each exterior angle.
(c)
When six sides of a hexagon are produced in order, four of the exterior angles formed
are each xo and the remaining exterior angles are each (xo + 60").Find the value of xo.
In the diagram, ABCDEF is a regular hexagon and AFGHJKLM is a regular octagon. Find
(a) LBAF,
(b) LMAF,
(c) LABM.
Revision Exercise
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35'
The diagram shows part of a regular polygon with n sides. Each interior angle
is 156". Find
(a) the value of n,
(b)
36'
LPRS.
In the diagram, PQRST... is part of an nsided irregular polygon. Reflex L7RS Z44o and
=
the size of each of the remaining interior angles is equal to I43". How many sides does
the
polygon have?
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37
38.
The diagram below is not drawn to scale. It shows a regular pentagon ABCDE and part of a
regular polygon FEDGH... Given that LDGC = 46.5", flnd
(a)
(b)
LCDE,
the number of sides of the regular polygon FEDGH...
Revision Exercise
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39.
In the diagram, ABRQ is a square, BRSDC is a regular pentagon and PQRST... is part of
regular polygon with n sides. Find
(a)
(b)
40.
LQRS,
the value of n.
In the diagram, ABCDE rs a regular pentagon, ABQP and BCSR are squares and BRQ ts a
triangle. Find
(a)
(b)
(c)
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41.
(a)
(b)
On the same diagram, construct the angle bisector of LCAB. The angle bisector meets
BC at X. Measure and write down the length of BX.
41. (a)
(b)
(c)
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43.
(a)
On AABC, construct
(i)
(ii)
(b)
(c)
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(b)
(c)
15.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Construct AWXY wherc WX 7 .5 cm, LWXY  120" andXY = 9 cm. Measure and write
down the length of WY.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the angle bisector of LWYX,
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of WX.
The point Z ts equidistant from both points W and X and the lines W and I{. Mark and
label the point Z on you diagram.
Revision Exercise
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46.
47.
(a)
Construct a quadrilateral WXYZ such thatWX = 6.5 cm, LZWX = 115o,XZ= 11.5 cm,
YZ = 10 cm and XY = 11 cm. Measure and write down the length of WZ.
(b)
(c)
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 8 cm, AC 
15 cm and
LABC l10o.Measure
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+9. (a)
(b)
(c)
Construct the quadrilateral ABCD such that AB = 9 cm, BC = 6.5 cm and LABC = 1 10o .
DC ts parallel to AB and AD is parallel to BC .
Write down the name of the special quadrilateral ABCD.
On the same diagram, draw the perpendicular bisector of AB. The perpendicular bisector
of AB intersects AB at the point M.Measure and write down the size of LAMC.
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50. (a)
(b)
(c)
Construct a parallelogram EFGH such that EF = 8 cm, LEFG = 100o and FG = 6 cm.
Measure and write down the size of LFGH.
On the same diagram, construct
(i) the perpendicular bisector of EF,
(ii) the angle bisector of LHEF.
The perpendicular bisector of EF intersects the angle bisector of LHEF at the point X.
Measure and write down the length of EX.
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MidYear Examination
Specimen Paper A
Paper
Marks
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Time: I hour
ra) 5(2)+4x(3)+6
b) ('i,i) .r!
(a)
(b)
(c)
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(a) the whole numbers,
(b) the perfect squares,
(c) the recurring decimals,
(d) the irrational numbers.
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Given that
A=22 x
3s
x 7a and
B=3x52xJ3,
flnd in index notation
(a) the LCM of A and B,
(b) the square root of 2lB.
10.
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Jim is x years old. His sister, Jill is 8 years younger than him. Their father is twice as old
Jim. Their mother is 3 times as old as Jill. Write down the expression in terms of x for
(a)
(b)
(c)
as
Jill's age,
their mother's age,
the sum of Jim, Jill and their parent's ages.
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(b)
(i)
Zm'n'
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a rhombus.
(a)
(b)
84o, calculate
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13.
(a)
(b)
Three of the exterior angles with a polygon with n sides are 80o, 50" and 70".
The remaining exterior angles are each 20' . Calculate the value of n.
ABCDE is a pentagon. Find the value of xo.
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(b)
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the value of x,
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MidYear Examination
Specimen Paper A
NIarks
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Time:
t hour 15 minutes
ALL
the questions.
A11 working must be clearly shown.
Answer
1.
2.
(a)
Simplify 5x
(b)
If x 
(a)
Use a calculator to evaluate the following, giving your answer correct to 3 significant
figures.
9y2 +
3.85'
Round
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
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685 + (18.26
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off 169.58 to
the nearest whole number,
2 signiflcant figures,
the nearest perfect square.
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In the diagram, PV is parallel to RU, LPQV ="76o and LQUR = 30o. Calculate
(a) LQPV,
(b) LVQU,
(c) LQVU.
(a)
(b)
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(a)
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point X.
Measure and write down the length of BX.
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Answer: (b) BX
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(b)
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Charles, Betty and Lisa sat for a Mathematics qurz. Charles scored 17 marks more than
Lisa but 31 marks less than Betty. It is given that Charles scored x marks and Betty's
marks were twice Lisa's marks.
(i) Write down an equation in terms of x.
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(ii) Solve the equation to flnd Lisa's marks.
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Mr Lee has a collection of n toy f,gurines. Each toy flgurine costs $29. He displays the
toy flgurines in a glass cabinet costing $198.
(i) Write down an expression, in terms of n,, for the total value of the cabinet and
n toy figurines.
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(ii) If the total value of the cabinet and n toy flgurines is $gS t , flnd the number of toy
figurines in Mr Lee's collections.
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7.
(a)
(b)
(c)
8.
(i)
(ii)
Factorise 5p + 5q.
Hence, without using a calculator, evaluate (5
x 88.825 + 5 x
Il.l75).
7x4y )a
x
Given that 5X+
" ;  .find the value of ; .
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Jonathan has three parcels to post. The mass of Parcel A is x grams. The mass of Parcel B is
three times as heavy as Parcel C. The mass of Parcel C is 80 g lighter than Parcel A.
(a) Write down in terms of x
(i) the mass of Parcel B,
(ii) the mass of Parcel C.
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(b) Given that the total mass of the three parcels is 920 g, write down an equation in terms
(c)
ofx.
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(a)
Construct
LABC
(b)
a quadrilateralABCD such that the baseAB = 9 cm and LBAD = 85o ,AD =7 cm,
75" and CD = 6.8 cm. Measure and write down the length of BC.
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The perpendicular bisector and the angle bisector meet at X. Measure the length of
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<
40.
Answer: (a)
(b)
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A polygon has n sides. Two of its exterior angles arc 40" and 45o while the remaining
(n  2) exterior angles are each equal to 25". Find the value of n.
Answer: (b) n =
2.
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(b)
(c)
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Write and simplify an algebraic expression for each of the following statements.
(a) Add 4pq to twice the product of 3p and2q.
(b) Subtract 5f Txy + 8 from the sum of x' + 9xy and 3  2i.
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5.
(a)
A number corrected to four signiflcant figures is 1 930 000. Write down the minimum
possible value of the number.
(b)
The number 29 899 corrected to n significant flgures is 30 000. Write down the possible
values of n.
Answer: (a)
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(b) n6.
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(i)
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(b)
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Write down in its simplest form, the fraction which is exactly halfway between
13and t4
15
15.
(ii)
(b)
8.
Factorise completely
(a) ab  9abc,
(b) 3(2x  3y)  th(3y
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(a)
(b)
10.
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(x+1)
2x+l
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(b)
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(b)
(c)
3x
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, (x2) =2(3x+4)
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(b)
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LCM =
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Three different coloured lights on a signboard flash at regular intervals. The green light
flashes every 15 seconds, the yellow light flashes every 20 seconds and the blue light flashes
every 35 seconds. Occasionally all the lights flash simultaneously. If all the lights flashed
simultaneously at 11 00, when is the next time the lights will flash together agatn?
Answer:
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MidYear Examination
Specimen Paper B
i Marks
Paper 2
Time:
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1"5
minutes
Answer
1.
(a)
shown.
Use a calculator to evaluate the following, giving your answer correct to 3 signiflcant
figures.
(b)
(5x
(zx + 4 \
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The diagram shows a regular octagon ABCDEFGH and a regular ngon ABXY...WV. Both
LVWA = 168o, flnd
(a) the value of n,
12)
(.b) LW'AH,
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(C)
LATVH.
(a)
A coin box contains 91 coins. 19 of the coins are 5(, coins. The rest are I0(, and 20(,
(b)
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coins. Given that there are twice as many 10p coins as 20C, coins, flnd the total amount
of money in the coin box.
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Jason earns $890 a month and Jamie earns $1335 a month. How many months would
Jason take to earn the same amount Jamie will have earned after working for half a
year?
(c)
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5.
(a)
of the satay. If her husband ate twice as many as her, how many sticks of
Mrs
Kamal eat?
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On a certain day, the high tide was 2.5 mabove a mark on a sea wall on Pulau Ubin. The
low tide was 1.8 m below the mark on the sea wall. Find the difference between the high
and low tides.
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ate the rest
(b)
6.
In the diagram, ABDE, EFG, GHJA, FHI, CBJI and CDF are straight lines. Calculate
values of
the
(a)
xo,
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(b)
(c)
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In the dia_eram. PQRS is a rectangular field. PS = (5x + 7) m,SZ = (4x + 8) m and the perimeter
of the field is ( lLr + 26) m.
tat Find. in terms of x, an expression for
P(2.
.
,
PT
tJ, ;.. lhut the ieneth of R.S is thrice the length of PT,form an equation in terms of
H= ,.:. :o1r e the equation to flnd the value of x.
tLl
t1l
x. [1]
t1l
(5x+7)m
(4x+8)m
P
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MidYear Examination B:
Paper,
,rfug*S:
8.
When written
as the
m=2'x3u,
n=2x32x7.
(a)
(b)
,ffi,
'ffij
Find
tll
the value of the cube root of m,
tll
the smallest possible value of q such that nq is a perfect square.
down
tll
write
Hence,
Express 132 asthe product of its prime factors.
(i) the LCM of m,n and 132, gltng your answer as a product of its prime factors, [1]
t1l
(ii) the greatest number that will divid e m, n and 1 32 exactly.
(i)
(ii)
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