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Proportion

a aaooooooa

ooooo

aaa aaaooa

aaaoooaa

aao aaaaa

Read the scale of a map.

Find the area scale from the linear scale.

.
.
.
.

a aaa aaata

aa a oaaa

Calculate the actual distance befween two points and the area of
on a map and vice versa.

aaoa oaaa

a aaa aaoaa

place, given the measurements

Solve problems involving scales and maps.


IJse direct and inverse proportions.
Solve problems involving direct and inverse proportions.

El4qp!s?!.
1

2.

A map is a scale drawing of the actual shape of a piece of land. The area of the land
on the map is many times smaller than the actual area.

Tht

scale

of a map is usually given at the bottom corner of the map. The scale is

the ratio of the distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground.

=r--------------I0 I 2
0

3 4 5
2

6km

The scale shown above is 1 cm to 2 km.


It means that 1 cm on the map represents 2 km on actual ground.

r'.,1.,ir tititttts Pte

Lttl

Chapterl:Proportion

J.

It means that 1 unit length on the map l'epresents rl units t'rtl actuul ground.
E.g. A rnap is drarvn to a scale of 1 cm to 5 km. This scale catl be expressed as

: -500 000 or

*k

. The scale means thar 1

c,

on rhe r.rap represents

500 000 cm on actual ground.

E.g. A scale of I : 2-5 000 means that I cm is used to represent l--i l)(x) cm.
Similarly 1 mm represer-rts 25 000 mm and I m lepresellts l--i (X)() 1ll . etc.

tR.P.r ot

4.

E.g. The scale 1 300 can be expressed


:

E.g. lf the R.F

,.

is

,*

as a representative fraction (R.F.)

the scale would be

of

l.
I
300

: 200.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
A map is diawn to a scale of 5 cm to 2 km. The distance between two schools on the map
is 8 cm. Find
(a) the scale of the map in the form 1 : n,
(b) the actual distance, in km, between the two schools,
(c) the distance, in cm, between two stadiums on the map if the actual distance between
them is 6 km.

SOLUTION:

(a)

Scale of map

- 5 cm

zkm -=W

=5cm 2x100000cm
=5cm 200 000
=1cm 40 000 cm

cm

*1ffi
*s--.*l

40 000
.'. The scale of the map is 1 :40 000.

(b)

Mao

Actual

40000 cm
cm
+
I crn
u.4 Km
l.e. 1cm-+0.4km
-------* 0.4 km x 8 = 3.2
8 cm 1

1..:

:r

,:,I&tB0

km ii${ii{i**
-}}*di|tr

.'. The actual distance between the two schools is 3.2 km.

(( Z ))

\/

Mathematics Tutor

24

Cosco Publications Pte

Ltd

(c)

Man

Actual
0.4 km

lcm
I

1km

-0.4

cm = 2.-5 cm

2.5cmx6=l5cm

6km

.'. The distance between the two stadiums on the map is 15 cm.
..i
{|lr

xctC!, :I'i Icm=10mm

ei&i!i{!r;..ei'.eiri{*.u;jt

1m=l00Cm

: 1 f::1?99-::109999":
6*"{'o.

woRKED EXAMPLE 2:
The scale of Map A is 1 : 20 000.
The distance between tr.vo villages on Map A is 12.5 cm.
(a) Find the distance, in cm, betrveen the two villages on Map

I
(b)

B lvhose scale is

: 50 000.

A river is 8 cm long on Map B. Find its length, in cm, on Map A.

SOLUTION:

(a\

Actual
20000cm
1cm
Find the actual distance between
the two villages flrst.
i.e. 1 cm
0.2 km
+
12.5 cm O2kmx I2.5 =2.5km
.'. The actual distance betrveen the tr,vo villages is 2.5 km.
Man

Actual
clrl -*

50 000

i.e.

0.5 km

Map B
1 Cfl1

----------- 1

lkm------------*

2.5km+

cfil

!.*=2cm
0.5

2cmx2.-5=5cm

.'. The distance between the two villages on the Map B is 5 cm.

(b)

Man B

crn
8cm
1

Actual
0.5 km

0.5kmx8=4k-rn

Find the actual length of


the rirer first.

.'. The actual length of the river is 4 km.


Actual
0.2

km

Mao A

1cm
I

lkm --.--.------* 0.2 cm=5cm


4km
' 5cmx4=20cm
.'. The length of the river on Map A is 20 cm.
e

Casco Ptblicutions Pte Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

E)4relqq4-.
The area scale of a map is the square of its linear scale.

I : n, then the area scale is l'

,i

If

the linear scale is

i.e. I : ,,'.

E.g. If the scale of a map is 1 cm to 3 km, then I cmt on the map rvill
(3 km)'] or 9 km2.
.'. The area scale is

%.

cm2 to 9 km2 while the linear scale

represent

is 1 cm to 3 km.

woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 40 000. A nature reserve is represented by an area of
80 cm'z on the map. Calculate the actual atea,inkm2, of the nature reserye.
SOLUTION:
Actual

Mao
1
1.e.

i.e.

----------- 40 000 cm

cfi1

I cffr

------------*

(1 cm)'? +

0.4 km
(0.4 km)z

cm2
80 cm2

------------*

0.16 km2
0.16 km2 x 80 = 12.8 km2

--------------)

.'. The actual area of the nature reserve is I2.8 km2.

%'

woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
A map has a scale of 1 : 50 000.
(a) Find the actual length, in km, of a river which is represented by 9.8 cm on the map.
(b) What is the area,incrtf ,on the map represented by an area of 7 km2 on the ground?

SOLUTION:

Mao

(a)

cm
cm

9.8

cm

i.e.

Actual

------------>

50 000 cm
0.5 km
0.5 km x 9.8 = 4.9 krr,

.'. The actual length of the river is 4.9 km.


(b)

Actual
0.5

km

Mao
-------------->

lkm(1 km)r

i.e. lkmzTkmr ,:\


i{4}:

lcm
I

0S

"*

=2cm

(2 cm)2

4cm2

4cm2x7=28cm2

.'. The area on- the map is 28 cmr.


Mathematics Tutor 2A

Casco Ptblications Pte Ltd

WORKED EXAMpLE

O:

The scale of Map A is 1 : 400. A rectangular plot of land measures 6 cm by 2.5 cm on

MapA.

(a)

Find

(i)
(ii)

(b)

in m, the actual perimeter,


in m2, the actual area of the land.
Find, in cm2, the area of the plot of land drawn on Map B whose scale is 1 cm to 5 m.

SOLUTION:
(a)
2.5 cm

6cm

(i)

Perimeter of land on Map A


=2(Length + Breadth)
= 2(6 + 2.5)

=I'l cm
MaoA
i.e.

1CfiI1cfillTcm+

Actual
400 cm

4m

4mx17=68m

.'. The act.ual perimeter of the land is 68 m.

(ii)

Area of land on Map A


= Length x Breadth
= 6 x2.5

= 15 cm2
Mao

i.e

Actual
----------4m
lCm
(l cm)2 +
(4 m)'
*
16 m2
I cm2
15 cmz +
16 m'x 15 =240

The actual area of the land is 240


(b)

Actual

5m

lm(l m)' +
i.e. I m2 +
240

m2

m2

rrt.

Mao B

1cm

*I
5

cm=0.2cm

(0.2 cm)2
0.04 cm2
0.04 cm2 x240 = 9.6 cm2

.'. The area of the


- land of Map B is 9.6 cm2

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter

l: Proportion

zAr

\/

woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
A rvildlife santuary has an area of 22.5 km2.It is represented by an area of 7.5 cn)t on
a map.

(a)
(b)
(c)

Find the representative fraction (R.F.) of the map.


A road is 5 km 40 m long. Find, in cm, the length of the road on the map.
Find, in cm2, the area of a lake on the map if its actual area is 25.2 kmr.

SOLUTION:

(a)

Area scale =

=
Linear scale

l.)

cm-

1cm'

r.

22.5 km2
9 kmr

- {ICm

,t9 km

=
= lcm

3km

1cm

Divlde each term

F--------;

300 000 cm

b_v-

2.5

Square root each term.

+1km=100000cm

300 000

.'. The R.F. of the

(b)

map,r

40

5km40m=5I(XX)

km=5.04km

Actual

Map

3km

lcm

lkm _;cm
5.04

km

,**

.)

cm x 5.04

-1

1.68 cm

- of the road on the map is 1.68 cm.


.'. The length
(c)

Actual

Map

9km2
1cm2
.l
lKm -Cm
9
-t
25.Zkm) -*-----------> I cm'x25.2=
9

2.8 cm2

.'. The area of the lake on the map is 2.8 cmr

,;.\

{\r

( 6 jl
&sq

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

-n

Direct Proportion
1.

Wren trvo quantities are in proportion, a change in one quantity corresponds to a


change in the other. A proportion is an equation shor,ving two ratios are equivalent.

2.

In direct proportion,

-).

If -r,is directly proportional to x, then

r,vhen one quantity increases, the other quantity will also


quantity
increase. When one
decreases, the other quantity also decreases. Here the
tr,vo quantities are allvays in the same ratio.

I=kx or !;k

(a)
(b)

the graph of y =

(C)

:l\.,

)':

-r,

= ---!-

'\''

where (x,,

0f

),)

r.vhereftisacoustantandft*0.

pl is a straight line

v,
:-!
-rrt

r.vhich passes through the origin.

\'.
-x2

and (xr,,I.) are any two pairs of values of .x and y.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
The table shows the number of hours of rvork (0 and the amount of rvages ($-r') earned by

Marc.

Number of hours (l)


Wages ($y)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

10

20

30

40

50

180

360

540

720

900

Show that y and r are in direct proportion.


Write dor,vn an equation connecting l and /.
Use the equation in part (b) to flnd
(i) the value of 1, when t = 62,
(ii) the value of / when ! = 225.
Draw the graph of y against r.

G Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter l:Proponion

SOLUTION:
(a)

(b)

10

20

30

40

50

180

360

540

120

900

v
t

18

18

18

18

18

Since

Since

18 which is a constant, y and / are in direct proportion.


t =

t =

18

)=l8r
(c)

(i)

= 18/

.)'

When t = 62,

= 18(62)
= 1116

_v

(ii)

= l8r

,y

When

=225,

l8t

225 =

225
t18

12.5

t-

tt:
rll'i ,':
r]1: 'i,l

(d)

'i

Sca}

l";l

;::..

t ,i

ri

t-

,.

: --

,,i -i

t+
,.ir

t-;

.t;

t:l

rl

:.;;;

'+m
l j;

il

,lI :lil,

-:--i-r
I'l

+t
-1

=:=

1l

f't

i-

'f

f:i

il+
.]

'l i'

t*

ll

++ -i-ii
-i t-:
-i'i-:
i-.':+-

1:i

.* i'-'-j

l ':t I-1-

.-+-i.j-

t_

ri---1

','---

t-.

.,/

ii

._.,./_.........

1.7trl: i:
I ir i

l1

_:_

tl

,ll
r1.l

',t
.,,],,.

nt:l
{!l--!

Mathematics Tutor 2A

..1,;
..1...t.

i,i

i::

i Il

S })
{{
\\*--.f/

ir

.,,_

',:t,

/^

.:1

-i

1Rr

r-i+

.,1

i;t t.

i'l I'i
i r-l-:

tl

l,_

i, t '

"i

:'.

i:i

:i

^.a
'l_: i-

,/,1

1)"t1

1,.: ,r"

r -i

=i,--i-

lr

f.

.:

illi .;

-,j:

.A,

,1.

ir

i:'l

rrr

t'i+

-.

tl

.,,.ir

:i

t,,1..,"

::

i,.L.-=

il

--'i'

.'t.
n

r.
@ Ctrsco Public:ations Pte

Ltd

Rs-

woRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Given that y is directly proportional to -r, flnd the values of

10

15

21

and q.

SOLUTION:

p _6

15-10

P=
-o

[Jse

x15

3- =9
21 6

!\,ja
= :-rl ri

q-

use

10

)r

.)?
\,
nt'

6
_ +-J
/<
-

'tt = "r'
):

:.p=9andq-45

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
In each of the follolving, state which two variables are in direct proportion.

(a)

(b)

2x2
,l^1
(d) y'=rx
),

3) =

(c) I = Vr

5-,

(e) .I=x+l

(0 l--

SOLUTION:

(a)

(c)

(b)
2x)
Since I =2isaconstant,then
r)-t3
proportional to x2.
is
directly
],
t- =

)'=

(d)

v;

3-v

5-,,r

Since
.y

i.aconstant.then

is directly proportional to x.

.,'=

]..
-a

Since

|{x

lisaconstant,then
proportional to {i .

y is directly

(e) )'=.\'+l
r'- l- r
51r."
(y

-'1

,}'2

ffl

L =]
.\' -

lraconstant,then

is directly proporlional to -r.

t=1

"'" */ r\ =- I isaconstant,then

$ince

then
proportional to,r.

'

\t

= 1 is a constant,

1) is directly

Pitblitatiorts Pte Ltd

Since

1,

is directly proportionat

Chapter

to 1 .

zAr

l: Proportion K 9

\r'l)

"Eu

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
It is given that
Find

(a)
(b)
(c)

.r'

is directly proportional to x and :- = 72 r'vhen -r = 4.

an equation connecting

and

1,,

the value of l u,hen -r = 3,


the value of .r rvhen \ = 24.

SOLUTION:

(a) !=kx

- 4,)'-

When.t

12,

12 = k(4')

,12
o=T
-3

.'. -) = 3-r

(b)

(c)

When,r = 3,
y = 3(3)

) /,t
La

_o

Wheny=24,
1.*

--

-tt

-r=8

WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
It is given that

(a)

-t,

is directly proportional to .rr ancl )' = 32 r'vhen x = 2.

Find

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(b)

an equation connecting -r and,r,


the value of y when -r = 5.
the value of ,r rvhen | = J2.
Sketch the graph of y against -t2.

SOLUTION:

(a) (i) !=k*


When "l = 2. )' = J2.

32 = k(2)2

.
k-,-_

3).

-8
(ii)

8x2
"' -I =

When -r = 5,
r'= 8(5)-

= 200

(iii)

When
'12

! =72,

8x2

x'=9

@:,-

x=*Jg ffi
=*J

w#ffi

,;"\
,Jd{

\\

i{ 10 };

Mathematics Tutor 2A.

Q) Casco

Publicntions Pte Ltd

(b)

Since,r, is directly proportional to xr, the graph of ,-r.,against


passes through the

Qq'

rt

is a straight line rvhich

origin.

WoRKED EXAMPLE 6:
Given that
find

(a)
(b)
(c)

.y

is directly proportional to the cube root of

and

-)'

= 6 rvhen

-r

= 2J ,

an equation connecting x and y,

the value of ,r when x = 125.


the value of x when ,)r = 1 B.

SOLUTION:

(a)

v=

kli

Write an equation r,vith

a constant

lirst.

Whenx=2J,)t=6
6 = k1,lz1
6=3k
l- _a
^-L

..,-lr/-

.. -y - . !a

(b)

When r = 125,
y = 2l.[tzs

Substitute x

125

r/
into r'= 2^ V.r.

?r5l

=10
(c)

When ) = 18,
18 = 2{i

l.\ -

Substitute.r = I8 into t' = 2

if.

i8
2

Vx =9
--o-l
- 7)O

e Casco Publi.cations Pte Ltd

Cube both sides.

(S)'=,

Chapterl:Proportion

WORKED EXAMPLE 7:
y is directly proportional to x3. It is known that y = 48 for a particular value of x.
Find the value of y when this value of x is halved.

SOLUTION:

!=kx3
For a parlicular value of x, -y - 48.

48 = kr3
t.__ 48
J.

When

is halved. i.e.

rr i

-. _ t-t
-Ala't\z

-l

]r
'

rnO

t=

a-?

( 48 )ft

/\
Z )tE^ )

=[

-6

%*

woRKED EXAMpLE

B:

The extension of a spring, e cm, is directly proportional to the weight, w kg, attached to
it. If the extension of a spring is 3 cm when a weight of 8 kg is attached to it, flnd an
equation connecting e andw. Find the extension of the spring when a weight of 50 kg

is attached to it.

SOLUTION:
e = h,,t

When w -- 8,e
3 = ft(8)

L_

=3,

I
J

=W
tJ
When w = 50,
c

= :t{'(-50)
=

8.75

.'. The extension of the spring is 18.75 cm.

,*&\

l( tZ3
'**s/

Mathematics Turor 2A

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 9:
The mass of a sphere is directly proportional to the cube of the radius. A sphere with
radius 5 cm has a mass of 525 g. Find the mass of a similar sphere with radius 2 cm.
SOLUT!ON:
Let the mass of the sphere be m g and the radius of the sphere be r cm.
nt = kr]
When r=5,m- 525,

)l)
n

--.]

= k())-

5r5
115

= 4.2
.'. nt = 4.213
When

= 2,

nt = 4.2(2)3

= 33.6
.'. The mass of the sphere is 33.6 g.

Sometimes, the two quantities, x and y. may not be in direct


proportion buty''andy-,where mandn are rational numbers,
may be in direct propottion.

Casco Publicatbns Pte Ltd

Chapter l:Proportion

I IrD Inn..t. Ptopottio,


I

2.

In inverse proportion, r.vhen one quantity increases, the other quantity decreases.
When one quantity decreases, the other quantity increases. However, the product
o[ the two quantities is a eonstant.

If y is inversely proportional to x, then

(a)
(b)

xy: k or )= a
{

whereftisaconstantandk*0.

the graph of y against;r is part of a curve called a hyperbola.


v

The curve tends to the y-axis


when x is small and it tends to
the r-axis when x increases.

(c)

the graph of

_y

against 1 is
x

part of a straight line passing through the origin.

)
Since

I
,r

is never zero, the point

(0, 0) is not on the graph. We


draw a small circle at the origin
to indicate this.
1
x

.'. y is directly proportional


(d)

r{ r+J

to 1
x

ffiwhere(x,,y,)and(x,,y,)areanytwopairsofva1uesofrandy.
*$ts:l:ir:Tl#461*qi4}

Mathematics Tutor 2.A

@ Cast:o PLtblicotions' Pte

Ltd

q*

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
The table shows the time taken (r hours) by a motorist to travel from Tor'vn A to Town
,B at various speeds (v km/h).
sl}eed {v l{nvnl

20

30

50

60

90

Time taken (/ h)

4.5

--)

1.8

1.5

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Shor,v that / and l,are in inverse proportion.


Find an equation connecting / and r.'.
A motorist r,vas travelling at a speed of 40 km/h from Town A to Town B. Use the
equation in part (b) to f,nd the time taken.
Draw the graphs of

(i) / against u,
(ii) ragainstl.

SOLUTION:
(a)

Speed (v km/h)

20

30

50

60

90

Time taken (dh)

4.5

-)

1.8

1.5

vt

20 x 4.5

30x3

50

=90

=90

=90

1.8

60

1.5

=90

90x1
=90

Since r,/ = 90 which is a constant. r, and t arc tn inverse proportion.


(b)

vt=90
90
v

(c)

When v = 40,

r=4
40
-))<
.'. The time taken is 2.25 h.

---;,.'.r Ptrblications Pte Ltd

Chapter 1: Proportion

({ rs

.V

Jl

(d)

(i)

20

30

50

60

90

4.5

--)

1.8

i.5

a = o.os

v.

/#L\
i{ to }.

Marhematics Tutor 2A

= 0.0333

= o'oz

= 0.0167

= 0.011

@ Casco Publications Pte

Lttl

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Given that y is inversely proportional to .r, find the values of

36

20

.y

t6

and s.

SOLUTION:
20(r) = l$(5;

s(16) = 3615;

36x5

36x5
t6

20

-o
-t
.'. r=9 and.s= 11.25

\u

11.25

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
In each of the following, state which two variables are in inverse proportion.

(a)

),=

(b)

(e)

(d) ',= r-l

(c)

.',.t=

1
'[

,=;'

SOLUTION:

-t
(a) )'= --=

(b)

= 3 is a constant, then
y is inversely proportional to x'.

sm.lr'y

(c) y'=1

,=*

Vr

Since

Jiy

= 5 is a constant, rhen
y is inversely proportional to .uf

6;
(d) )'=
' -r-

SincJrty' = 2 is aconstant, then

)'

is inversely proportional to

xt.

- l).v = 6 is a constant, then


y is inversely proportional to ("r - 1).
Since (x

(e) !=4x
Since

I =4ory[) =+ir"

constant, then y is inversely

proportionat to 1
x

(B Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

%'

woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
Given that y is inversely proportional to ;r and ) = 6 lvhen
(a) an equation connecting,r and y,
(b) the value of rr rvhen x = 9,

(c)

the value of

when

= 3, flnd

= 4.5.

SOLUTION:

(a) j=; k
When.r = 3, -v = 6,
lr
''

L
U-

=-)

fr=6x3
_ IO
t(l
-

l8

'-r
(b)

(c)

When -r =9,

'9

When

18

= 4.5,
l8

4.)-- r

l8

-2

4.-)

-+

..,

WORKED EXAMPLE 5:

If

r.,

is inversely proportional to the square root of


an equation connecting x and 1,,
the value of y when x = 9,

(a)
(b)
(c)

the value of -r r'vhen

and

if

.1,

= 3 rvhen

= 4, find

I = I .5.

SOLUTION:

(a) l'= k
J;
When

x=4,y=3,

l-Jn

___l

k=3xJ4
-1v-)
-A
- t,

..v- 6r

i{ tS })

MathematicsTutor2A

@ Casco Publicatic.tns Pte

Ltrl

(b)

(c)

Whenr=9.

When}'=1.5,
6

l.) = v.rr

v//()
6

v\ -

=-

-')

6
r-5

ft
!.\ -+

-r = :lt

Scluare both sides.

=16

WORKED EXAMPLE 6:
l6lvorkers take 45 hours to paint a house. Horv many workers are needecl to complete
the job 5 hours earlier?
SOLUTION:

More rvorkers will take less hours to complete the job. So the
number of workers is inversely proportional to the number of hours.

l6

45 hours

r.vorkers

.15-5=40hours

-r rvorkers

rx40=tr6x;15
16x45

't -

J()

ro
t()

.'. 18 workers are needed to complete the job 5 hours earlier.

Alternative method:
Let the number of workers be w and the number of hours be ,.
k

t
When

w=16,t=45,
k

lb=-

45

k=16x45
=720

.',W=-720
t
When

t=45-5=40,

120
40

=18
.'.
9

18 workers are needed to complete the

Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

job 5 hours earlier.


Chapterl:Proportion

(1)

Linear Scale

1.

Write each map scale in the form 1 : n.

2.

ZO

(a) 1 cm:5 m

(b) 2cm:90m

(c)

cm: 240 m

(d) 5cm:1km

(e)

cm:

(0

20 km

4 cm:25 km

Find the R.F. of a map drawn to the following scale.

}'

(a) 2cmto5km

(b)

(c)

(d) 4mmto8m

cmto

12 m

Marhematics TuLor 2A

1.5 cm to 0.6 km

O Casco Publicatiorts Pte Ltd

-\ map is drawn to a scale of 2 cm to 5 km.


Find the actual distance, in km, between two villages where their distance apart on the
map is

(a)

-t.

(b) 19 cm

3.6 cm

Two towns arc 24 km apart. Find their distances apart, in cm, on a map drawn to a scale of

(a) 1.2 cm to 10 km

(b)

0.5 cm to 2.5 km

The scale of a map is 1 : 10 000.

(a)

Find the actual distance, in km, of the following distances on the map.

(i)

(b)

5 cm

(ii)

12cm

Find the distance on the map, in cm, for each of the follorving distances on the
ground.

(i)

Z.4km

(ii)

8 km 50 m

*
i

Cttsco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter

l: Proportion

{Z
\i::ry},
f

6.

A map is drawn to a scale of 4 cm to -5 km. Find


(a) the scale of the map in the form 1 : n,
(b) the actual distance, in km, betr.veen two tor,vns

(c)

if their distance apart on the map

is 2.8 cm,
the length, in cm, of a road on the map r,vhich is l4 km long.

A map is drarvn to a scale of I : 800. Two petrol stations are 260 m apart.
(a) Finc'l the distance, in cm. betr,veen the trvo petrol stations on the map.
(b) A fbotball field is 118 m lon-e and 90 m rvide. Find the perimeter, in cm. of the fouball
fleld on the map.

B.

A bridge is 7-5 m long. It is represented by a distance of 3 cm on a map.


(a) Express the scale of the map in the form I : n.
(b) A river is 930 m long. Find its length, in cm, on the map.
(c) The length of a stretch of road on the map is 12.6 cm. Find the actual length of the road
in metres.

9.

A railway track of length 24 km is represented by a distance of 8 cm on a map.

,A il
\w

\{ 22

(a)

Express the scale of the map in the tbrm

(b)

The distance betr,veen two railway stations on the map is 2.1 cm.
Find their actual distance apart in kilometres.

'il

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

@ Casco Publiccttiotts Pte

Ltd

-\ rectangular vegetable farm measures l0 cm by 6 cm on a map'uvhose scale is I : 5000.


Find the actual perimeter of the vegetable farm, giving your answers in kilometres.

The diagram below shorvs the plan of a plot of land.


Find the actual perimeter, in km, of the plot of land.

It

is drawn to a scale

of l : 150 (XX).

3.7 cm

2.5 cm

The diagram belor,v shows the plan of a papaya plantation. The actual perimeter of the

plantation is

(a)
(b)

km. Find
the scale of the plan in the form I : n,
the distance, in cm, betrveen trvo huts on the plan
11

if their actual

distance apart is 3 km.

8.zl crn

3.6 cnr

-5

-..

cnr

The scale of Map P is i : -50 000. The distance betrveen trvo srvimmin-u pools on Map P is 6 cm.
(a) Find the actual distance, in km, betr'veen the srvimming pools.
(b) Find the distance, in cm, betlveen the sr,vimming pools on Map Q rvhose scale is
1 :40 000.
(c) A stretch of road is 5 cm long on Map Q. Find its length, in cm, on Map P.

e Casco PubLications Pte Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

(2)

Area Scale

14.

A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 20 000. Find the actual area, in km2, of a plantation where its
area on the map is

(a) 150 cm2

15.

A map is drar.vn to a scale of 1 : 50 000. Find the area on the map, in cm2, r'vhich represents an
actual area

of

(a) 25knf

16.

(b) 320 cm2

(a)

(b)
(c)

(b)

64 km2

A map is drawn to a scale of 1 cm to 3 km. A farm is represented by an area of 2.5 crl


on the map. Find the actual area, in km2, of the farm.
A map is drawn to a scale of 1 cm to 5 km. A plot of land has an actual area of
27 kflf . Find its area,in cm', on the map.
A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 250 000. The area of a national park on the map is
IO.4 cmz. Calculate the actual area of the park in km2.

,-;--\L24

jl

"&vfr

Mathematics Tutor 2.A

(A Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

r7.

(a)

The R.F. of a map

(i)

it *+*

Find the actual distance, in km, between two MRT stations rvhere their distance
apart on the map is 6 cm.

(ii)
(b)

Find the area, in cm', on the map which represents an area of 30 km2.

The R.F. of a map

i, 1 . th" area of a forest is 213 kmr. It is representecl by an area of


_,

75 cm- on a map. Find the value of n.

A map is drar,vn to a scale of I : 20 000.


(a) The length of a road is l6 km. Find the length, in cm, of the road on the map.
(b) On the map. a lake has an area of 300 cmt. Calculate the actual area, in km2, of the lake.

Ca.sco Pttblications Pte

Ltd

Chapter I:Proportion

19.

A map is drawn to a scale of

20.

A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 40 000.


(a) The perimeter of a lake on the map is 385 cm. Calculate the actual perimeter, in km,
of the lake.
(b) The actual area of a durian plantation is 6.4 km2. Calculate the area, in cm2, on the map
which represents the area of the plantation.

21.

Amap is drawn to a scale of 1 : 120 000.


(a) Calculate the actual distance, in km, represented by 4.2 cm on the map.
(b) The distance between two villages is 8 km 40 m. Find, in cm, their distance aparton the

(a)
(b)
(c)

I : 50 000.
Calculate the actual distance. in knt. represented by 1 cm on the map.
Find the actual length, in km, represented by 9.5 cm on the map.
Find the area on the map, in cmt. that represents an area of 30kmr on actual ground.

map.

(c)

The area of a reservoir on the map is 3


reservoir.

MathematicsTutor24

cr*.

Calculate, in km2, the actual area of the

@,

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

,:

A map is drarvn to a scale of 5 cm to 1 km. Find


(a) the scale of the map in the form | : z,
(b) the actual distance, in km, represented by 36.4 cm on the map,
(c) the area, in cm2, on the map, which represents an actual area of 8 kmr

--..

It is given that2 cm on a map rcpresents 7 km in actual distance.


(a) Find the actual distance, in km, between two schools lvhich are 5 cm apart on the map.
(b) Express the scale of the map in the form 1 : n.
(c) Calculate, in cm2, the area on the map r,vhich represents an actual area of 49 km2.

-l

A map is drawn to a scale of 5 cm to 2 km.


(a) The length of a railway track on the map is 60 cm. Calculate the actual length, in km, of
the railway track.
(b) Calculate the length, in cm, of the raihvay track drawn on another map of scale 2 cm to
i0 km.

Cttscr.t Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

25.

A map is drarvn to a scale of .1.5 cm to 0.9 km.


(a) Express the scale of the map in the form I : n.
(b) Calculate the actual distance betr,veen two MRT stations, in km, if their distance apart o1']
the map is 8 cm.
(c) Calculate the area of a reservc'rir on the map, in cm2, lvhich represents an actual area of

l2 knr.

26.

It is -eiven that 4 cm on a map represents 3 km on actual ground.


(a) Find the actual distance, in km. betrveen two post ofhces which are 6 cm apart on the
map.

(b)
(c)
(d)

21.

Find the distance betrveen tr,vo stadiums on the map, in cm, if their actual distance apart
is 18 km.
The actual area of a zoo is 16.2 krrrr. Find the area of the zoo on the map.
Write down the scale of the map in the fbnn I : n.

The diagram belorv shor,vs the plan of an orchard WXYZ in the shape of a trapezium.
It is drar'vn to a scale of 1 : 25 000. Find the actual area, in km2, of the orchard.
5.2 cm

6cm

,rji"ii:r

It 28 **j Mathematics

Tutor 2,A

@ CcLsco Publir:tttion,s Pte

Ltd

-r

On a map, I cm represents an actual distance of 500 m.


map has a length of 3 cm and a breadth of 2 cm. Calculate
(a) the actual perimeter. in metres, of the vineyard,
(b) the actual area, in hectares, ofthe vineyard.
[Note: t hectare = [0 000 ni2]

-:;

A map is drawn to a scale of I : 200 000.


(a) The distance between tr.vo villages on the map is 3.5 cm. Calculate the actual
distance, in km, between the two villages.
(b) The area of a reservoir on the map is 5.5 cm2. Calculate the area. in cmr. r.vhich represents
the reservoir on a second map r,vhere the scale is 1 : 40 000.

'I

rectangular vineyard on the

A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 5000.


(a) The length of a rectangular field is 5 cm. Find the actual length of the field in kilometres.

(b)

Giventhattheareaofthefieldis8.4cmz,findtheactuaiperimeterofthe fieldinmetres.

Ca.sco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter l:Proporrion

3l

32.

The scale of a map is I : 200 000"


(a) The actual area of a lleld is 0.35 kmr. Find in cmt, the area representing the field on the
map.
(b) On another map, the field is represented by an area of l.ri4 cmr. Fincl the scale of thi:
map in the form I :p.

A map is drawn to a scale of I : 250 000. A motorist travelled from Torvn X to Trnvn Irvhich
rvere 32 km apart. He visited a rambutan orchard in Torvn Y. The area of the orchartl on the
map is 1.6 cm2.
(a) Calculate, in crn, the distance betr'r,een the tr,vo towns on the map"
(b) Calculate, in km2, the actual area of the rambutan orcharcl.
(c) Calculate, in cmr. the area of the orciraril clrarvn on a second rnap lvhich iras a scale of
1 : -500 000.

33.

A map is drarvn to a scale of


Find

(a)
(b)
(c)

cm to 1 km. The length of a cycling path

r,rn

tire rnap is 12.5 cm.

the actuai length of the cycling path in km,


the area of a plot of lanci, in cm', ou the inap if its actual are a is l2- kmr,
the scale of anothcr map in the fcrm 1 : rr if ttre actual arcu of the plot of land in part (b)
is represented by an area of 192 cn-r2 on the other map.

.V H Marhematics Tutor 24

{( :O

-5

O Casco ])ubliculion:; Pte Ltd

The scale of Map A is 1 : 50 000.


(a) A stretch of road has a length of 6 cm on Map A. Find the actual length of the road in

(b)
(c)

km.
A durian plantation has an area of 16 cmr on Map A. Caiculate. in km2, the actual area
of the plantation.
An organic vegetable farm is represented by 7.2 cmt on Map A. Calculate, in cmr, the
area of the farm on Map B which has a scale of I ; 30 000.

The scale of Map P is 1 : 10 000.


(a) The distance betrveen trvo banks on Map P is 11 .8 cm. Find, in cm. the distance bett,een
the trvo banks on Mup O.The scale of Map Qis | :40 000.
(b) The area of a park on Map Qis20 cm'. Find. in cmr. the area of the park on N{ap P.

'

\{ap A is drarvn to a scale of 1 : 4000.


(a) The dimensions of a rectan-eular field on Map A is 1 cm by 5 cm. Calculate the actr,ral
perimeter of the field, giving your ans\ver in metres.
(b) The area of a herb garden on Map A is 1.5 cm2. Finil the area of this garden. in cmr,
drar,vn on Map B r,vhose scale is 1 : 2500.

Map R is drnr'vn to a scale of 1 cm to 4 km. The area of a lake is 2.1 kmr.


(a) F-ind the area of thc lake. in cmt, drarvrr on Map R.
(b) The area of the lake clrar,vn on lViap S is 0.96 cmt. Find the scaie of Map 5 in the forrn

l:n.

tE Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

38.

A map is drawn to a scale of 2 cm to 1.2 km.


(a) Write down the scale of the map in the form 1 : n.
(b) Calculate the actual distance between two flre stations, in km, if their distance &port L':.
the map is 15 cm.
(c) Calculate the area of a nature reserve on the map, in cm2, which represents on actu.-,
area of 27 km).
(d) If theareaof thenaturereserveonthesecondmapis 6.75cm2,findthescaleof th:
second map in the form 1 : r.

39.

A plantation has an area of 12.5 km2. It is represented by an area of 0.5 cm'on a map,

(a)
(b)
(c)

Find the representative fraction (R.F.) of the map.


Two tor,vns are 6 km 50 m apart. Find their distance apart, in cm, on the map.
The area of a forest on the map is 1.44 cm2. Find the area, in cmt, of the forest drawn on
a second map rvhose scale

is

I : 150 000.

The area of an island is 80 000 m'. It is represented on a map by an area of 2 crf .


(a) If the scale of the map is 1 : rz, find the value of n.
(b) Given that the length of a river on the island is 2.3 km, find the length of the river, in cm,

40.

on the map.

i$ 32

$l

\$yd:/

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Casco Public:atiotts Pte

Ltd

Direct Proportion
Which of the following shows -r and _rr in direct proportion?
(a)

(c)

-l

(b)

10

15

50

100

r25

180

32

64

96

t28

"r

t6

18

24

32

2.6

6.5

1.8

rl.1

88

99

156

t76

(d)

Which of the follor.ving graphs show:r and _r in direct proportion?


(b)

(a)
i

:i
:i

t'

:/
,-

t5

://

-i:
l

-i

5-

rl +
I

_;

iii

t ]

-:-++

'i '-

I ili

,/,
.t
-

I 'i/.
',

4..

itr
i

,'.'

Cusc'o PLtblications Pte

Ltd

-l-r

!l

ir

;i
!i

ii

i'i
:i

!l

i
:

:i

ri

-..--

il
:

:7

;:

::i r-

::
t:

...i.......i:

,,.

:
,

'l

Chapterl:Proportion

(c)
:

!i

li
ii
il f-i

il

--.

t\

iii

.:.....i.....

''

ti:

'

.:
.,,

-i-i

].,'i

ti

ii

-.j..,..i....j..,.

:-:iI :;

,.

'-":-f

lj

$i t

.l

il

,''

i--

.'.ij

In each of the following, state which two variables are directly proportional to each other.

(b)

4r'

(c) y=2Ji

(d) p=2(q+3)'

(e) )=8,r-3

(fl -x
,= I

(g) nt-;ni)l1-

(i)

i{.ro}
11\19,

Yt =

.,/

-v+1=2(x-1)2

Mathematics Tutor 2,+

(h) 3y=x+2

.l

0) l'= ;

@ Casco Publicatiorts Pte

l-td

It is given that -r is directly proportional

-6.

(a)
(b)
(c)

an equation connecting x and

(a)
(b)
(c)

an equation connecting x and


the value of r when _\ = 5,
the value of y r,vhen x = 42.

that

.1,

= 20 when x = 12, find

_v,

-y

_y,

is directly proportional to,rz and

= 36 r'vhen x = 3.

Find

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(b)

If

the value of y rvhen x = 30,


the value of -r when ), = 86.

It is given

(a)

to x.

an equation connecting x and

_l ,

the value of -y when x = 5,


the value of x when )' = 196, where
Sketch the graph of -y 3gzirr1r:.

e Casco Pttblications Pte Ltd

> 0.

Chapter l:Proportion

It is given that P is directly proportional to p3 and P = 40 rvhen Q = 2.

47.

(a)

Find

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(b)

the relationship betrveen Q and P,

the value of P when Q = 4,


the value of Q rvhen P = 135.
Sketch the graph of P against 83.

Given that y is directly proportional to J; and -y = 10 when x = 25.


(a) Find
(i) an equation connectingx andy,

48.

(ii)
(iii)
(b)

49.

the value of v rvhen x =


the value of x when

Sketch the graph

ofy

_y

4'

= 18.

against

J;

Giventhat yisdirectlyproportionalto

JF

and y=5when x=4,findthevalueofywhen

r=9.

i& 36

})

Mathematics Tutor 2,{

@ Casco Pttblications Pte

Ltd

5l.

Given that y is directly proportional to the cube root of x and that


(a) write dorvn an equation connecting x and y,
(b) calculate the value of -r' when x = 125,

(c)

51.

If y is directly proportional to the


and

:1

calculate the value of x when y = 3 +

_y

-l

rvhen.tr = -8,

square of x and the difference in the values of y when x

x = 3 is 32, find the value of y when x = 12.

If yr is directly proportional to

13

where

> 0 and ,l = 54

'nvhen .r

= 3. flnd the values of

r, r,vhen

r=5.

-<1.

Given that the square root of p is directly proportional to q and lhat p

l6 when ,l -- +

find

(a)
(b)

the value of p rvhen q = 2,


the value of 4 when P = 324.

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter

l: Proportion

/F'
f$l

54.

Given that x is proportional to y2. It is given that x = 12 for a certain value of


Find the value of .r when this value of v is doubled.

5-5. d is clirectly proportional

to et. It is given that rl = 216 for


Find the value of r/ when this value of e is halved.

56.

57.

1{

,y

particular value of

is directly proportional to the cube of x.


Write dor'vn an equation connecting -),,.r and a constant ft.
It is given that y = 40 for a certain value of r. Find the value of
halved.

(a)
(b)

.r,.

_y

e.

when this value of ;r is

It is given that _r, is directly proportional to (3x - 4) and -y = 28 when x = 2. Find the value of
r.vhen this value of _v is increased by 50Va.

:S }l

Mathematics Tutor 2A

"rr

Cnsco Publicatkns Pte Ltd

5U.

If

59.

It is given that

varies directly to (-r- 1)r and that.y = 96 when -r = 5, find


(a) an equation connecting r and y,
(b) the value of -1, 1v5", r = -l .
(c) the tr.vo values of x lvhen y = 5.4.
.y

(a)
(b)

50.

_r

is directly proportional ro

2r+l

and that

= 3 rvhen -r = 2.

Find an equation connecting and -r.


Find the value of r 11zhsn 1' = -/+.
_1.,

The table shorvs some corresponding values of r and

-)

t2

17

(a)
tbt

-rr

Shor,v that (r

Hence. erpress

i-. Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

11.

2) is directly proportional to d.
l in terms of d.

Chapter l:Proponion

@)

61

Given that

.x

(a)

(c)

62.

(b)

tz

225

36

45

36

60

13.5

17t

18

t6

(d)

25

12

72

63'

Ji

Write down an equation connecting y and x.


Find the values of r and s.

The variablesrand) are connectedby the equation I =k(x + 2)2' where


Pairs of corresponding values are given in the table below. calculate
(a) the value of k,

(b)
(c)

\:w }

b.

18

It is given that y is directly proportional to

(a)
(b)

{ 40

and y are in direct proportion, flnd the values of a and

the value of a,
the values of b.

Mathematics Tutor 2A

kis aconstant'

-3

72

@ Cnsco Publicatiorts Pte

Ltd

64.

The variables x and -y are connected Lry the equation ) = f .,[J


of corresponding values are given in the table below. Calculate
(a) the value of k,
(b) the value of m,
(c) the value of n.

where k is a constant. Pairs

65.

65

.l
,4

r6

22

It is given that p3 and (q - l) are in direct proportion. Some values of p and q are given in the
table belolv.

-)

4r.5

1094.5

(a)
(b)

66.

Given that (y + 1) is directly proportional to

(a)
(b)
(c)

Write dorvn an equation connectingp and q.


Hence, find the value of r.

Jx

and that

= 47 when x = 16, find

the equation connecting y and x,


the value of y when x =25,
the value of x when I = I3l.

Casco Pttblications Pte Ltd

Chaoter

r\

l: Prooortion \{ 4l
'\fs

},
"d.

61.

It is given that y varies directly as x2 and x > 0.

(a)

(b)
(c)

Complete the table below.

2
18

50

Write down an equation connecting x andy.


Draw the graph of y against x2 on the axes provided below.

MathematicsTutor24'

@ Casco

Pttblicaliot:'

.:

.3.

The table shorvs the number of litres of petrol (P) consumed by a car to travel a distance of
d km.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

a9.

tl

18

27

36

45

and P are in direct proportion.

Write down an equation connecting d and P.


Find the distance travelled on 2.8 { of petrol.
Find the number of litres of petrol needed to travel a distance of 32.4 km.
Draw a graph of r/ against P.

The table shor,vs the royalties earned, $R, by an author fbr n copies of books sold.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

1)

Show that

10

20

30

40

50

t4

28

42

56

70

Shor,v that R and n are in direct proportion.

Find an equation connecting R and n.


Calculate the royalties earned when 2500 copies of the books were sold.
Drarv the graph of R against z.

The table shows the volume of a sphere (Vcm3) ancl its radius (r crn).

(a)
(b)
(c)

-)

33.52

113.13

268.16

905.04

Show that Vis directly proportional to 13.


Write down an equation connecting V andr.
Find the volume of a sphere with radius 8 cm.

l-. Casco Publication,s Pte

Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

71.

The pressure of water, P units, at a point belor'v the surface of the sea, is directly proportir-rn.,
to the depth of the point below the surface, r/ metres. If the pressure is 400 units at a depth L-6 m, calculate the pressure of rvater at a depth of 15 m.

72.

The cost of a pearl, $C, is directly proportional to the square of its mass, rn grams.
If apearlof mass l0gcost$240,find
(a) an equation connecting C andm,
(b) the cost of a pearl of mass 25 g,
(c) the mass of a pearl which costs $540.

73.

In a pond, a lilypad grows such that its area, A crri,is directly proportional to the square root
of the number of days, n,that has elasped. If its area is 24 crrt after 4 days, calculate
(a) the area ofthe lilypad after 25 days,
(b) the numberof days taken by the lilypad to grow to an area of 0.024 r*.

i{ 44

}]

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Casco Public'ations Pte

Lkl

--.

In an experiment to test the braking system of a new car, engineers found that the length of
skid, s metres, is directly proporlional to the square of the speed of the car, v km/h. In one test,
the car skidded 32 m r.vhile travelling at 80 km/h.

Calculate
(a) the length of the skid when a car is travelling at 100 kmih,
(b) the speed of a car r,vhich skidded 40.5 m.

--i.

The table shorvs the time taken (t seconds) by a ball being dropped fiom a vertical distance
(s metres) to hit the ground.

(a)
(b)
(c)

20

125

320

720

12

Show that s and /'are in direct proporlion.


Hence express / in terms of s.
A ball took q seconds to hit the ground after being dropped from a vertical distance of
14 metres. What is the vertical distance when the time taken by the ball to hit the ground

is tripled?

O Casco Publicatiorts Pte Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

(4)

Inverse Proportion

16.

Which of the follor,ving


(a)

(c)

17

shor,vs

x and -v in inverse proportion'?


(b)

l2

T7

27

18

21

)c

3.5

4.5

5.5

7.5

30

9.9

1.7

6.3

4.62

-)

30

18

15

10

10

t4

1B

63

45

34

(d)

Which of the foliowing graphs show r and,y in inverse proportion?


(b)

(a)

rrll

ri,'i..

.. i- i. l.l
--i _:-1'_f'

,il
.iil

il

il

t-:
'a'i:l

i:
-i'-,

:t

:i-

.- i...,.:..

t:

t:

-.1

,l

l,

t/

:rx,

irl

::-,':IT

I tiitjl j

.l

-i-

:- -,-

i-r'.i

1'

it

,a,

i..':--

l-i

il

,l I

1'-

ti

i:

"\

,.

,,i

tit
lii

lir

lii

:.
I

/(l

,A l)

(t 46

Mathematics Tutor 2A

-r', ..

-i i

:';

'l
ii

ll

:i

rl
-'1

,l:
ri

@ Casco Publicatiotts Pte

Ltd

(d)

r:ttt

,l )' ll

l.

ll1TT
!--Ti

1',

,-i

'1
l

:)4
*r'f
l-ttt

l
--1-

'l iI

..i....!......

,t'

'i

:i

li
ii

,,,'],"

dil
r-LLL

.il
!;

-l-l-

j1

1t
....1

rll
:,lLl

i:tl

iil

rll

l-' I

+ -i-i
i:i

1-i,

=r-R+
-:-l ,{ ,,,,,,:r'

..i

ii
t

i,t

"1
l_

1_

t-

-:

In each of the following, state which two variables are inversely proportional to each other.

(a) ),= +
r

(b) .'r'= 2f
v.\

(c) l,=*

(d) 1l= 1".

(e)

J' =

(t) i=

(g)

-)'2

(i)

,tr

Vi

1
_r,- 5 = x

Casco Publicotions Pte Ltd

(h) y=

0)

(x

- i)'

+
r

v = l,TV.r

Chapterl:Proportion

79.

It is given thaty is inversely proportional to x. If y =


(a) an equation connecting x andY,
(b) the value of Y when x = 12,

(c)

the value of x when

18 when x =

4,find

= 50.

80.

Given that m is inversely proportional to x and if nt = 5 when x = 3, find


(a) an equation connecting x and m,
(b) the value of m when x ='7 .5,
(c) the value of r when m = 60.

81.

Given that y is inversely proportional to f and) = 0.5 when x = 4, flnd


(a) an equation connecting x andY,
(b) the value of Y when x = 5,
(c) the value ofxwhen y =Tl,giventhatx>0.

82.

It is given that b is inversely proportional to


(a) a law connectingb andx,

(b)
(c)

83.

\d

the value of b when x = 9,


the value of x when

r+.

Given that y varies inversely as the cube of x and I = 7 when,r = 2, llnd


(a) an equation connecting x and -l',

(b)
(c)

{ 48

Ji .If b = 18 when x = 4, find

}r

the value of v when

,={

the value of x when.Y = 7000.

n,4atnemati* Ttrtor 24,

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Ltd

8-1.

y is inversely proportional to (x - 3). If y = l8 when


(a) an equation in terms of ,r and y,
(b) the value of _y when x = 7 ,
(c) the value of x when y = 3.

85.

It is given that

86.

It is given that,y is inversely proportional to (xr + 2)

87

88.

(a)
(b)

(a)
(b)

is inversely proportional to (2x


Express _y in terms of ;r.
Find the value of 1, when x = 14.
-r,,

Write down an equation connecting


Find the values of x when y =

_v

and

= 5, find

7) and that

and.

1,

= 4 when x = 5.

that,] = 2 rvhen

-r

= 2.

r.

11'

The cube root of .r varies inversely as the square of y and that x = 64 when y = J.
Find the value of x wheny - 2.5.

s is

inversely proportional to the square of r. It is given that s = I 8 for

a certain value

of /. When

/ is increased by 1007o, find


(a) the value of s,
(b) the percentage change in the value of s.

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Chapter

ze&lr
l: Proportion i{ +S }f

89.

(a)

(c)

90.

and q.

-)

13.5

Given that x and tr are in inverse proportion, find the values of


(b)

15

18

25

40

84

105

I2

10

16

2t

The variables .r and

-),

(d)

are connected by the equation ,'

= ,+
V'\+5

r,vhere k is a constant.

Pairs of corresponding values are given in the table below.

Calculate the values


(a) k,

(b)
(c)

i&

*1

59

30

t2

of

P,
q.

50 $l Mathematics Tutor 2A

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Publications Pte Ltd

91.

It is given that

(a)
(b)

1,

varies inversely as (3x

2)1 andr,

'

*200

rvhen x = 4.

Write down an equation connecting y and x.


Find the value of ;r if the value of

1,

is

Siu"n thar,r < 0.

92. It is given that (v -

2) is inversely proportional to ("r + 1). The table below shor,vs some


corresponding values of y and-lr.

(a)
(b)

Find the equation connecting

x andy.

Calculate the value of e.

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Chapter 1: Proporlion

(t5t,il
\!/

It is given that y is inversely proportional to .r.

93.

(a)

(b)
(c)

Complete the table below.

20

5
8

Write down an equation connecting -,r and


On the axes provided,
(i) drarv the graph of 1' against ,r,

tiit

draw the graph

oll

ugrinrt 1

1'.

iJ-

1:

ri

i!

]:

ili
rl

i,,
::i

I
I

1i

iii

i,

lIl

ltl
{..i..;..1
l:
I

ii

l_:-l

'-1

!
--L

.i--l

f:Ir-:r
i
i

ti

ti

i
:

-i
:

:i1

i'i,I.
l

fi

ll,l

52

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

'f
i:

li

ir
-i

il

f-

i
,

lli:l

IJ-] II

i{

t:

L:

--i'

.{:i:\
:".et \\

l!

t.-.t... -..;..-.i....

-.j.r:,l
Ii

,i

':

l. )l
i

@ Ca.sco Publit:tttiotts Pte

1'

Ltd

91.

A train travels uniformly from Station A to Station B. The table shows the time taken, / hours,
and its speed, y km/h.

100

_.1

JJ;

50

25

20

--)

Time (rhours)

(a)
(b)
(c)

Show that r is inversely proportional to v.


Write down an equation connecting / and y.
Use the equation formed in part (b) to find the time taken fbr the journey

(d)

tbe train is 80 km/h.


Draw the graph of

if the speed of

(i) / against v,
(ii) ragainstl.

95.

The table shows the volume (V cm3) of air inside a bicycle pump when the air pressure is
P units.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

-)

90

45

30

22.5

t8

Show that 7 is inversely proportional to P.


Write dorvn an equation connecting V and P.
Find
(i) the volume of air when the air pressure is 8 units,
(ii) the air pressure when the volume of air is l5 cm3.
Draw the graph of
(i) 7 against P,

(ii)

1
Tagainst'P'

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Chapter l:Proponion

@,

96.

The table shor.vs the clepth of rvater, /r cm, and the base radius, r cm, of a cylinder when a jug
of lvater is poured into it.
Base radius (r cm)

-I

l0

t.75 0.28 0.07

(a)

Shor.v that ft is inversely proportional to rr.

(b)
(c)

Write dor'vn an equation connecting lt and r.


Find
(i) the depth of water in the cylinder rvhen its base radius is 4 cm,
(ii) the base radius of the cylinder rvhen the depth of rvater in the cylinder is

2.-5 cm.

91.

The number of days, d. needed to assemble a car is inversely proportional to the number of
rvorkers, r.r,. if 6 lvorkers take 4 days to assemble a car, find
(a) an equation connecting d and rY,
(b) the number of days taken by 8 r,vorkers to assemble the car,
(c) the number of workers needed to assemble the car in 2 days.

98.

The volume of gas, 7cm't. is inversely proportional to the plessure, P units.


72 units compresses a certain gas to a volume 640 cm3. Iind

(a)
(b)
(c)

ffi

If

a pressure

of

an equation connectirtg V and P,


the volume c-,f the -sas when the pressure is 90 units,
the pre ssure needed to compress the gas to a volume of 960 cm3.

Mathematics Iutor 2A

Ca.sco

Publications Pte Ltd

99.

'frvo pulleys are belted together:. The number of revolutions per minute, /l rpm. is inversely
proportional to the size of the pulleys, .r cm. A 15 crn pulley running at240 rpm drives a 9 cm
pulley. Find the number of revolutions per minute of the 9 crn pulley.

100. The force, F newtons, between two particles is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance, d cm.lf the force is 1.5 newtons when the distance between the two particles is
4 cm, flnd

(a)
(b)
(c)

101

a law connecting

and d,

the force when the distance between the particles is 10 cm,


the distance between the particles when the force is 96 newtons.

The weight w of an object above the Earth varies inversely as the square of the distance d from
the centre of the Earth. If an astronaut weighs 80 kg on the surface of the Earth, what would
this weight be at an altitude of 1000 km? Assurne the radius of the Earth to be 6000 km. Give
your answer correct to the nearest kg.

Ca.tco Publicutions Pte Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

102. Determine whether each of the following is in direct proportion or inverse proportion before
solving the rvord problems.
(a) 4 taps can flll a storage tank in 50 minutes. Hor,v long would it take I0 taps to

flll

the

same storage tank?

(b)

(c)

(d)

If

8 men can build a garage in 21 days, how many days would


similar garage?

it take 14 men to build

George takes 40 minutes to drive from home to work at an average speed of 60 kmlh.
How long would it take him if he drove at an average speed of g0 km/h?

A certain laser printer prints

12 pages

in I0 seconds. How many

pages can it print in

half

an hour?

KS0)
\s/

(e)

A farmer has enough feed to last 40 cows 25 days. If he buys 10 more cows, how long
would the same feed last?

(f)

It takes l4 workers 56 days to build a ship. If another 2 workers were to help, hor.v many
more or less days would be needed to build the same ship?

1o\

A piece of rvire 22 cm long has a mass of 154 g. Find the mass of the same wire of length
8 cm.

Mathemarics Turor 24,

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103. 60 lvorkers take I 50 days to renovate a museum. Assuming that all the r,vorkers rvork at the
same rate. find

(a)
(b)

104.

9 men can paint a house

(a)
(b)

105.

the number of days taken to complete renovating the museum rvith 40 rvorkers.
horv many more r.vorkers are needed to complete renovating the museum in 120 days.

in l6

days.

Horv lon_e rvould it take 6 men to paint the house?


The house is to be painted in n days. Write dolvn. an expression, in tenns of
number of men needed to paint the house.

i 00 r,vorkers take 360 days to

build

a factorv.

If

ru,

for the

20 rvorkers left after 120 days, how many davs

would it take the remaining B0 rvorkers to build the f-actory'/

'@Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapterl:Proportion

i06.

It takes 12 r.vorkers 20 days to paint

a warehouse. They

work 8 hours each day.

Assume that the lvorkers lvork at the same rate.


(a) Horv many workers would it take to paint the warehouse in 15 days?
(b) If l2 workers need to linish painting the warehouse in l6 days, how many hours does
each worker need to r,vork per day?

107

,A
Qpfl

quilt blanket.
How many days will 4 women take to finish sewing the same quilt blanket?
How many days will 2 women take to finish sewing 2 such quilt blankets?

10 women take 2 days to sew a

(a)
(b)

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Casco Publicutktns Pte

Ltd

THINI(ING S](ILLS GORNER

o
IlacRitchie
Rescn'oir

1.

-l

Find

(a)
(b)

the R.F. of the map.

the actual direct distance, in km, between Bedok Reservoir and MacRitchie Reservoir.

2.

Map A is drar.vn to a scale of 1 cm to 2.4 m. The zirea of a fleld on Vlap A is 25 cmt. The area
of the held is 2.56 times bigger on Map B than on Map A. Find the R.F. of Map B.

3.

An area of 512 km2 is represented by 50 cm'zon a map.


(a) Find the scale of the map in the form 1 : ru.
(b) Two museums are 6 km B0 m apart. Find, in cm, their distance apart on the map.
(c) Calculate, in km2, the area on the ground which is represented by a paralleiogram s,ith
base 2.5 cm and height 1.4 cm on the map.

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Chapter t: Proportion ([ 59

4.

A village of area 18 km2 is represented by an area of 72 cmz on a map.


(a) Find the R.F. of the maP.
(b) If the area of a golf "o,rrr" is 20 cm2 on the map, flnd its actual area, in kml

5.

Map R is drarvn to a scale of I : 25 000.


(a) A school is 5.8 km away from a library. Calculate, in cm, their distance apart on Map R.
(b) A fish farm has an area of 80 cm2 on Map R. Calculate, in cmr, the area of the fish farm
on MaP S r'vhose scale is I : 30 000'
(c) If the fish farm is dra',vn on Map 7 r,vhose scale is 9 : 750 000, {incl, in cm', its area on
this maP.

6.

g.

R
If R is directly proportional to S and s =9.4,find the value of R when

S = 3.5.

Given that z is inversely proportional to /', find the value of n and then complete the table.

Given that d is inversely proportional

60

1.5

4
7500

dA, f,nd the value of n andthen complete the table

below.

9.

It is given that
.t =

ffi

-3

,1,,

and ,r = 4

varies directly as (-r + 2X-r

64

21
1.6

) and that the difference in the value s of

is 101 . nira the value of -r' rvhen x =

MathematicsTutor2A

,r'

rvhen

10.

@ CasL'o Publicatiorts Pte

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Expansion and
Factorisation of Algebraic
Expressions
.

Recognise and manipulate quadratic expressions'

Expand and simplify the prodr,rct of

E"p"rd ,lg"brrt"

tlo

algebraic e.xpressions.

expressions using special algebraic identities such as perfect squares and

the difference of two squares.

Factorise algebraic expressions by using a rnultiplication frame.

Factorise algebraic expressions usitrg special algebraic identities.

Factorise algebraic expressions by grouping.

Quadratic
1

Quadratic expressions in,r are of the fbrn-r a-r' + br + r.', r,vhere o, b. c are constants
and a * 0. The highest power of -r in a quadratic expression is 2'

E.g. 3rr + -5-r + 2 ancl


2xt + 3-r

2.

%*

-rr

Br +

2 and 7,r +

z[

are quadratic expressions.

I are not quadratic

expressions.

We simplify quadratic erpressions by collecting like terms'

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simpl ify the t-ollorving.

(a) -5;t+ 9x-l +6xt-4x+3


(b) 3t'- 11-i'-8-v2-_2+ 13.v
SOLi.JTION:

(a) -5x2+9x-7+6i-4x+3

=-5x'+6x'+9x-4x-7 +3 @

=f+5x-4

(b) 3y'- tly -8y'-Z + l3y


-3y'-8y'-lly+l3y-2
- -5y'+2y -Z

q7

Mathematics Tutor 2A

Lbllect Iike tcirns.

O Coscr., Publicatiort.s Pte Ltd

3.

'e*,.

We add and subtract quadratic expressions by removing brackets and collecting


like terms.

woRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Simplify the following.
(a) (.1.r2- ll.rr+(-5r' -7.t_ 21
(b) (-4r2 + 8x - 4) - (-6x'+ 9-r - 5)

SOLUTION:

(a)

- I lx) + (-5x'] -7r _ 2')


= -lrr I l.r 5.r': - 7.r - 2
(3r2

=3r2-5rt- llx_ 7r*2


= -2xt - 18.r - 2

(b) (af
-4f

Rcmor e brucketr.

Collcr't like terms.

- (-6*' + 9x - 5)
+8x- 4+6x2-9x+5

+ 8x - 4)

@
=4f +6i +8x_9x_4+5 *___.ffiffiffi
=2f-x+l

4.

%-.

The example below shows how we

multiply

a quadratic expression

with an integer.

woRKED EXAMpLE 3:
Expand the lollorving.

(a)
(b)

-Lx +2'; +3(x1_ x+2)


l(2r2 -,t - 4) -2(4) - 3.r + 1)

-2(3x2

SOLUTION:

(ir) -2(J.rr-4.r+2)+-lgr
= -6xt +
= -6f +

8-i;

- 4 + 3,r2 -

3x2

3-r + 6
+ 8x _ 3x - 4 + 6

=-3x' +5-r+

(b)

7(2r2

-,\'-

-.r' +21

rt)

-ffi*#k&tqlsu

- 2(42 - ix + 1)

= 74x2

- 7.r'- 28 + 8.rr + 6x
+ 8x'- 7x + 6x _ 28

= )2x)

-,r -

= lJrr

@ Cnsco Pttblications Pte Ltcl

-2
- 2 .-

.CCl#fu*e.iraffi:

30

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

a(-r + -r,) = ax

* a)t

a(r -.r') = ar - a)t


a(;r + -r. +:) = 0x + a)'+

P.D

plpqrqo!

oJ

Lh.JLo{r.t

qr r'ryg

-tt(r + y) = -ar - a)'


-a(1 - Y) = -ux + q'
aa.

4tg"Etqit Etptttqo:tt

'Ib expand the product gf trvo algebraic expressions, lve multiply each term in the {irst
expression by each term in the second expression'

%,

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Expand each of the follorving.

(a)
(c)

(b)
(d)

(.r + 2Xx + 3)

(3r + 2y)(x

4,t')

(3-r- 1)(2-r-s)

(2r-yX3r-5-rr+

1)

SOLUTION:

(a)

(x+2Xx+ 3) ='rt + 3x +2r+6

=x)+5,t+6

(b)

(3.r

1x2r -

r,
=

(c)

ll,_ l;l;

(3x + 2-t)(..r-4y) =

(d)

':

6+: I

,'-'

(2x

.'\\

y)(ix-iv

3,,r2

.t

12.11'+ 2-r1'-

10xr'-

B-r'2

8r'2

:n

irl =6i -10'17 + 2x-3ry + 5v' -v

\;tri:::---,,s
--

Mathematics Tutor 2A

3r'-

rr'

-E

_
= 6x, + 5y, l3xy + 2x

O Cast:o Publica.tions Pte Ltd

(h-.-.

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Expand and simplify each of the following.
(a) 3(x - 2)(4 - 2x)

(b)
(c)

1zx'z- ll1sr- s;
(3x + Z)(5r2 - 4x + 3)

SOLUTION:

(a)

3(x-D@-2x) =3(4r-2x' *8 + 4x1


= 3(-2x2 +

Bx

- 8)

=-6xt +21x-21

(b)

(2x']- t)1s.r-5) = l6x3- 10x2-8;r+5

(c)

(3x+2)(5x']*4r+3) = l5.rr

_ 12.i

=15r''_

{h-.-<3ih!

+9,r+ 10.rr-8x+6

2i+x+6

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Simplify each of the following expressions.
(a) (2;r - 3Xr + 4) - (,r + 1)(,r - 2)
(b) (r + 4y)(3x - t,) - 2(l - 3rX4x * -r,)

SOLUTION:

(a)

Remembertoaddbrackets.
(2r -3)(x+4)-(,r+ ltrl -2)
f= 2x' + 8-r- 3x - 12 _ 1.rr - 2r' +.r - 2)
=2x1 +5x-12-(r1_ x_ 2')

=Ztt+5x_ 72-x2+r+2
=x'+ 6x- 10
Remembertoaddbrackets'
rbl (r+4.\')(3r-1)-2(r.-3r)(4r-r.) r
= 3r2 -.ry + 12x1, - 4yt - 2(4\- - y' - l2x'+ 3ry,)
= 3rt + I 1xy - \,' - 2(*1212 + 7xy = 3r2 + lxy - 4,-2 + 21x2 - l4xy +
1,21

= 27.r': - 3.n

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21,-2

- 2t'

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

flaD
\Qg

E)

rypqrylo" qllq.f.qqqqutqq rlq Pif&Iglg. q{r*qqq"ut.'


expressions:

(R
----=&:-

WORKED EXAMPLE 1: (PERFECT SQUARES)


Expand each of the following.

(a)
(c)

(b)
(d)

(r + -5)2
(3,r

,1)r

(2r + 3)r
(-)r

/'\')-

SOLUTION:

(a) (.r+)) =.\-+l(.\.)())+)=xt+10x+25


(b)

(2x + 3)2 = (2r)2 + 2(2r)(3) +

3']

=4x2+l2x+9
(c)

(3.r

4)'] =

(3-u)2 _

= 9t)

%.

25x2

2(3x)(1) + 1)

24l +

TOxr'

(a)
(cl
(e)

,,Ar

49y2

WORKED EXAMPLE 2: (DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES)


Expancl each of- the fbllor,ving.
(-r

+ lXr

1)

1l.r-5t(2.r'+.s)
(rl, + lXr.r'-

\,1}l MathematicsTutor2,A

i{ 66

16

tr)

(b) (-3 + r)(3 - x)


rcrr []..*,,Ji..-r',)
(f) (r + _r'+ 2Xr +,r'- 2)

Q) Ca,sto

Piltlications Pte Ltd

SOLUTION:

(a) (x+l)(x-1)=x'-l'ffi
=,r'*

tbr r.r + rr(3 -',:;_l'


(c)

(2x

5)(2r + 5) = 12xl - 52
= h2 *25

(r .Yr -,1
(t
. l;r*-{r'l;r-)
{t -r-r
-t:'
\/
)\/-

r2
\

(d)

(3t')'

t,

9)'
4'- -

(e)

(r.r'+ l)(r'r'- l) =(.r]')r- lr


tl
=-Tl,-_t

(0

(x+,1'12)(x+Y*2)
= [(x + "]) + 2l [(r + _y) - 2]

-(x+ y)t-2'

'%,.

woRKED EXAMpLE 3:
Use algebraic rules to evaluate the following.

(a)

(b)

6052

(c)

B9l2

30t

299

SOLUTION:

(a)

6052

= (600 + 5)'?
= 6002 + 2(600)(5) + 5'?
= 360 000 + 6000 + 25

Use(a +b)2=

+2ab+b1.

= 366 025

(b)

B9J2 = (900

3)'?

2(900)(3) + 3= 810 000 - 5400 + 9


= 900'

Use

(zz

_ b).
=

rf _2ub + b2.

= 804 609

(c)

301 x 299 = (300 + l)(300

= 3002

I)

12

=90000-1
= 89 999

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

ffi)
\/

'e.*&",

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Simplify each of the following.

(a)
(b)

(2r-3)2 +5r(4r- l)

13x + -r,)2 + 7(x

2,rXx + 2f)

SOLUTION:

(a)

- 3)2 + 5x(4-r- - 1)
=4:-t- l2r+9+20'12-5-r
(2r

(b)

24x2

(3r'+

l'lx + 9

-v)2

+ 7(x

= g-rt + 6-r.v +

-r.,t

21')(;r + 2,r)

- 7lr' - (2t)tl

= 9xr + 6.p,+ -r,t -l@2 - 4y2)


= 9lr + 6ry + Y2 -Jx) + 28Y2

=2rt+6-rv+2912

%,

woRKED EXAMPLE 5:
(a)

(b)
(c)

lf -r2 + )') = 29 and xl = 10 , Iind the value of (-r + -v)2 '


lf'x - 1' = 8 and x! = -lZ,flnd the value of xt + -r'' '
If r + 1- =J andr -)' = 11,Iind the value of 3-rr - 3r':'

SOLUTION:

=f +y'+Zry
= (29) + 2(10)
=29 + 20

-ffi

=49
.'. (r +

N')2

= 49

(b) (r-t')' =12_ 2xy*tJ

*y'=(x-y)'+2xy
= 8r + 2(-12)
= 64 -24

Use(a-b)'="'-2ctu+i'

ffi

=40
.'.

x'+

)'2

= 4o

(7)(11) =,r'- -1'


)l
.'.-r--t'- =/l
-j(.{--l'-) =-:\lt)
3x' -'3yt =231
.'. 3xr

,A

l(9fl

- 3y' = 231

MathematicsTulor 2A

@ Ccrst:o Publ.icatirtrts Pte

Ltd

It

".ti"g

Cr--r" EeglglllBgyErrq_

1.

In Book 1A, rve have learnt to factorise simple algebraic expressions.

2.

Factorisation is the reverse process of expansion.

E.g.
3(r

Erpansitrn

+,r)

3-r

+ 3y

Factorisation
--) .

4.

lvill revise the method of factorisation by extracting common f'actors learnt in


Book lA as shorvn belolv.

We

In this method, lve rer,vrite the expression rvith the common factors outside the
brackets. Remember that common f'actors of trvo or more terms are factors that
appear in all the terms.

%e.

woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Factorise each of the follorving.

(a) 2r- B
(ct -zh.v - 20r: + 6n':
(e) 2x(3x- 1)-7(3x-

1)

(b)
(d)
(f)

3u + 2lab
,r'-'!'*

-tr't-l't

5n(2n + 3)

3,r!t
2n

SOLUTION:

(a) 2x-B
= 2(x - 4)

Exrract comfilon factor 2.

2lab
= 3a(I + 7b)

(b)

3a +

(c)

-4-ry -2O,rz.+ 6x1,2


= *2r(2J,+ 102 - 3,y:)

@ Casco Publit'ations Pte

Ltd

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

(d)

) L
l,
^L5
y
x-y -x-y- + Jx

=fy','-x+3fy')

(e)

2x(3x-t)-7(3x-t) @i;
- (3x - t)(Zx - 1)

(f)

5n(2n+3)-2n-3
= 5n(2n + 3) - l(2n + 3')
- (2n + 3)(-sru - l)

Extract comnlon factor 2n + 3.

It is a good idea to check your work by expanding the brackets


to make sure you get the original expression back.

[D

]qqto.iqq4ql by

%*

woRKED EXAMpLE 1:

"qqg

q 1\4"ltip1i.utiq"

Eryry.

Factorisef+5x+6
SOLUTION:
Step

@:

Write,r2 in the top-left


corner and 6 in the
bottom-right corner

X
2

.T

of the multiplication

frame.
Step

@:

Consider the f'actors of ,rl


and 6 and r,vrite them in
the appropriate column
and rolv.
Here, there is only one
pair of factors of x2,
i.e. -r and x.
There are two pairs ol

x2

or

factors of 6. i.e. 1 and 6


or 2 and 3.
Step

@:

Multiply the factors and


check if the results
match the given
quadratic expression.
... r' + 5r+ 6 = (x+ 2X.r+ 3)

6:r

+ 1(r)
=6-r+-r

-r;(6)

=Jx

qy

Mathematics Tutor 24.

or

r
2

2r

3x
6

Check:.r(3) + 2(.t)
-1..r)''

=5r /
O Casco Publication,s Pte Ltd

aw

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Factorise each of the following.

(b)
(d)

(a) rr--r- 12
(e) b.r--x-15

2-lr2-5x+3
-x2

4x + 21

SOLUTION:
(a)

3x

.'. x'
(b)

1r

=-r {

- 12- (x + 3)(,r - a)
x

-1

2x

2x)

-2x

-3x

-l

---)

Check:.r( 4)+ 3(.\)


= -4x + 3-r

-r2

+-

Check:2.r( I) + (-3)(-t)

=-5x

... 2r, _5x + 3 = (Zx _3)(_r_ 1)


(c)

2x

X
3,r

6x2

9r

-5

-10r

-15

.'. 6x' _-r


(d)

-,7

-x

-)

Check:

-l

15

(3x

J,{

5rt2.r.1

10-r"

=.r/
-

5X2r + 3)
Check: (-r)(7) + 3(r)

7
2

3x1.r1

= 9.r -

= -7.r +
_4i t-"

-Jx

3.r:

21

4r + 21- (-r + 3Xr + 7)

(a Casco Prblictttions Pte Ltd

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

,A

qy

*Gs$%.

woRKED EXAMpLE 3:
Factorise each of the follorving.

(a) 1 2r- 15.r2


(b) r'+ ry - 12y'
(c) ia)c - l6ubc: + 6b2c
SOLUTION:

(a) l- 2x- l-5x2

=-l5f-Zx+1 *ffi
- (3r + l)(*5-r + 1)

-5x

3x

-l5x-

3x

-5x

Check:3x(1) + 1(-5r)
=

3.r
1/

= -l\

(b)

-rt+r.\'_
= (.r

12)''

3_v)(.r

+ 4r)

.t

-3y

-3.r-r'

5.,r

r'

41t

4x1

-72v'

Check:x(4t') + (-3,r')(x)
).-..
- ^-.-. Jlv
=rl- /
- +-tl

(c)

8a'c-l6abc+6b2c
= 2c(4a2 - 8ab + 3b2\
= 2c(2a - b\(2a -

*;

3b)

;ffilffi:lfi;;

2u

-3b

2a

4a'

-6ob

-b

-2ob

3b'

Check: 2n(-3&) + (*b)(2o)


= -6ab

=-Bab

A72

\:w)

it

Mathematics Tutor 2A

2al:t

Cusco Publicutions Pte Ltd

Eqq1q4!q@! q!!qs ergepre4

1.

!qe!tit,.!

We have learnt to expand perf'ect squares and difference of tr,vo squares.

(a+b'f=o'+2ab+b)
(a- bf = 02 -Zab + b)

(o+b)(a-b)=at-b'

2.

Since factorisation is the reverse process of expansion, we have the following:

^
a.+2ab+b=1a+b),
I
,)
^ ,
o -taD+D
-l.o-o),.)
,,

I
rl
cr-b--(cr+b)tu-b)

We use the above algebraic identities to factorise algebraic expressions that can be
expressed in one of the above forms (i.e. the left-hand side of the equation).

A%,

WOHKED EXAMPLE 1:
Factorise each of the following.

(a) f+2x+l
(d) 4i -8x + 4

(b)
(e)

+ l0r + 25
1x) + ZOx + 25

x2

(c)

,1'2-61'+9

(0

9x)_

12x1,+41,2

SOLUTION:

(a) x2+2x+l
=,r2+2(.r)(1)+1r
* (-t + 1)l
(b)

.r2+10r+25
I
.^
-)
=.t'-+Z(.rX))+-1.-)

=(.r+5)

(c)

- 6-r'+ 9
= r,'- 21y113; + 3.

)''

= f1,- 3)r
(d)

4-r2-Br+4
= 4(r) - 2x + 1')
- 4l.r'- 2(rX l) + 1']1
= 4(-t

(e)

Use rrr

h) +20r+25

9x'=

l2xy,+

13x)z

= (3x

A Casco Publicarions Pte Ltd

2,tb + b' = (a

ht:.

1)2

= (2x)2 + 2(2x)(-5) + 52
-)
- (rr + ))-

(f)

41-2

-2(3x)(2y) + (2y)'
2y)z

ffi*

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

,A\
\rw

r{ 73 !l

Gro,

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Factorise each of the following.

(a) f
(c)
(e)

-ze
zxz - 50
p' - (q + ,)'

(b)
(d)

7-4v'

(0

8l-r;a

b- =

la + bl(u - bl.

1612 .r2

49y2

1,t

SOLUTION:

(a)

x'

36

=i-6'
=(-x*6Xx-6)

(b)

| - 4y'

=lr_(zy),

-.ffi
_ffi

- (1 + zy)(I -2y)

(c)

(d)

2rr

50

= 2(r)

16xryr

'

25)

49t1

= yt1l6-r' - 49;
= r't[(4.r)t - 7']
- t,'(4jr +'t)(4x

-7)

(e) p'- (q + r)'


=lp+@+r))lp-@+r)l
=tP+c1+r\tp-q-rl
(f)

81,r4

-)'

= 19xt)t +
=

(.-'tt)'

Urc

aj

ef y\ef -y')
=of +y')[(3*)'-y'l .- &&imiry*#":&ffi
=0,f+y';13x+yX3x-y) ffi

/64\

\\-r'll) Mathematics

(t Z+

Turor 2A

Cnscr.r

Publications Pte Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Use algebraic rules to evaluate each of the following.

(b)
(d)
(f)
(h)

(a) 292+58+1
(c) 882 + 352 + 4
(e) 10-52 - 2-5
(g) 68x95-8-5x68

812

162

17'-232
59.52

78

40.-52

x 22 + 182

SOLUTION:

(a) 292+58+l
=292 +2(29)(t) +
= (29 + 1')2
= 302
= 900

(b)

+I
= 812-2(81Xl) +
= (81 * 1),
812

t1

1r

162

= 801
= 6400

(c)

+ 352 + 4
= 88r + 2(BBX2) + 2l
= (88 + 2)2
B8r

ffi

= 90r

= 8100

(d)

7'7) _ 232

= (77 + 23)(71
= (100x54)
= 5400

(e)

(0

l05r - 25
= 105t - 52
= (105 + 5)(105
= (110x100)
= 1l 000
59.5r

ffi

s)

40.52

+ 40.5)(59.5
=
(100)(19)
=
(-59.-5

- 23)

40.5)

= 1900

Cusco Publit:tttions Pte

Lt.l

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

/A
i{

ZS

\4

68x95*85x68
= 68(95 - 85)

(g)

= 68(10)
= 680

78x22+18)

(h)

= 78(22 + 7B)
= 78(100)
= 7800

%*

woRKED EXAMpLE 4:

(a)
(b)

Factorise l-9.
Use youranswerin part (a) to flndtwo factors of 1591,otherthan 1 and 1591.

SOLUTION:

(a) f -9=l -3'


-

(b)

1591

(-t + 3)(.r

3)

= 1600 - 9
=4Ot_ 3'
= (40 + 3X40

Use

a2

112

= (1t + b)(a _ b).

3)

= (43X37)
.'. The tr,vo factors are 43 and 37.

(h_==ilh\

WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
Given thatx2 -y'= 28 and

x-y

= 8, find the value of x + y.

SOLUTION:

t -Y' =28

(x+y)(x-!)=28

(x+yX8) =28

Substitute

-r:

-.y

8.

28

-{*v =.-

.1
"2
^1
J.x*Y=3-

,-i;;*.

i{ 76
\Yt;r'

}f

Mathernatics Tutor 2A

@ Cttsco Publications Pte

Lttl

Rt,,

woRKED EXAMpLE 6:
Factorise

Z"y

* y' - r'.

SOLUTION:
.r' -z.ry *.t't

a'

(r'- 2-rr, + 1,r) - :'


, ,] : ]
=(r-t')
=

= L(r-

r'.1

+:lli.r'-

r)

=(x-f'+:X.r-]'-:)

E>

regloliqetiqq

-:1

plqrqqpils

Expressions containing four or more terms can be factorised by the method of grouping.
In this method, the terms are divided into groups such that the terms in each group have a
common tactor. We then extract the common factor to factorise the expression.
a.r + (/'r' + b.r + by = r,1, + y) +

b{r +

r')

=(x+y)(a+b)

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Factorise each of the following.

(a) 5x+5y+ax+ay
(c) ax+ay+xy+f

(b)
(d)

3px-9ry-4q,r+l2qy
l5ntx-Zny -3nx +

10n21'

SOLUTION:

(a)

-5r + 5-y + ax + ay

= 5(-r +

,v)

+ a(x +

1')

-(x+y)(5+a)

(b)

3px - 9py - 4qx + 12qt= 3p(x - 3r) - 4q(r - 31')


= (.r - 3.v)(3p - 44)

(c)

0x + a,f +

r] +.r-

=ax+a]-+x'+x1'
= a(r + rr) + r(r + ,y)
= (,r * 1')(a +.r)
(d)

15mr-Zny'*3m+ llmy
= 15ntx - 3nx + l\my- - 2n_v
= 3x(5rrt * n) + 2y(5ru - n)

- (5m - nX3,r + 2.r')

= Ctrst:o Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

ffi)
\:/

{h_--_*_4e. WORKED EXAMPLE 2:


Factorise each of the follorving.
(a) l0(2-r - ,l) - p(.y - 2r)

(b)
(c)
(d)

7-rt

-.r' : I +Jr

3(2

(-r

5-r,)r

8 + 20-r'

2r)(5:r +

3,-r)

(x

2yXr

5r,)

SOLUTION:

(a)

10(2-r

t')

p0' 2x)

= l0(2r - )') + p(2x


= (2r -,r)( 10 + p)
(b)

ix3-x2_

r+7x *--ffi

=-rt(7-r-

1)

2 -1
=lx-X+lX-l

=(7x-

(c)

- t)

+ l(7.r-

1)

1X,r']+ 1)

3(2-51,)r-8+20.r'
=.1(l- 5.rt:-4( l-5rr

Extract common factor 2

- 5,1.'.

= - 5t')t3(2 - 5-r) -'11


= (.2 - -51'X6 - l5,y - 4)
= (2 - 5r')t2 - l5r't
(.2

(d)

("r

2,1,)(5x

+ 3t')

(.r

= (r - 2_r,)(5-r + 3-r,-.r +
= (.rr - 2y)(4x + 8,y)
= ,1(_t - 2.r,)(_r + 21,)

21,)(-r

-51,)

51,)

il

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

O Casco Publiurtions Pre Ltd

Tutorial
(1) QuadraticExpressions
l.

Simplify the following.

(b)

-ll+3v-iv'-5+y" 2',

(c)

(r2 + 3r

(d)

(-62' + 72-

4) + (-3rt

4)-

5x + 1)

1-10rr

32,- 1)

(e) 3(-r' - 2r + 3) - 2(4:'2 + 5r - 6)

(fl

1-

-5(-2x2 + 5x + 1) + 4(2r)

Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

2,r + 3)

Chapter ?: Erpansion and Factorisation of Aigebraic Expressions 1|rr,J.;

Find the sum of 3,rt -

3.

Subtract 8(-2-rr

4.

Subtract 2(9x

5.

Adcl -2(-.r2

lg 80

$l

\h**,0{'

+;r-

11

,5(7 x

2r2) and -2(4

1) from 2(6r

- +fl fromthe

+Jr

sum of

-.r

+ -,r';.

4.r').

3x2

-7x + ll

and 8(4x

_3) to the sum of l(-6x +2,r2) and

Mathematics Tutor ?A

315r'?

- 5i).

-4).

@ Casco Publication,s Pte

Ltd

Ir Expansion of Algebraic Expressions (Revision)


Expand each of the following.

(a)

3(7a

(c)

4(2x + 5y)

(e)

2.r(3x

5x(,r

(i)

4r(2x2

1)

1)

6"'b(

5::

-5(6 - t')

(d)

(.-2x

(0

x(-7 + 4x)

(h

7.r)

ft)

,,b +

"yX-2)

) 1,,(, ,, - 4,t * ;,)

U) -ro(_i,

1)

lot - it)

rrr i,,

zq,

- p,)

[t, +-' *)

,;A&
l-

Cctsco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

l{,S, }1
']}r9:'

(m) 5r -

(o)

3rry

2(x

2x(y

3-r,)

(n)

lOx + 3x(,r

(p)

51,-2

3)

(2x

4)

3yX-3y)

(q) i,(rr'- *)- ,r,'

(r)

*7(4a

(s)

2x(5x + 1) - (8

(0

5r(-x + 31,) -.v(-r -

(u)

21\e

(v)

2(3r

(r)

{3,r

-A

(ru) I2r -

+ kl(e

*2x)(t)

fl - 2e(cl +J)

{3y-412x-7(x--r')l}

,;$*iL\
i{ 82 3j Mathematics Tutor 2A

1b)

* 8(-3a + 2b -

2y) + [5(r

1)

1')

4y) + 8y]

- [5_r - 2(x - ay)]] - 2(r - 3"r)

Q) Casco

Publications Pte Ltd

(3) Expansion of Algebraic Expressions (Product


7.

Expand each of the following.

(a)

+ lXx + 4)

(b)

(,r + 2)(-r + 3)

(c) (r- 1)(r-3)

(d)

(-t + 5X.r

2)

(e)

(0

(x + 3)(r

3)

(h)

(3r + 2')(x - 4)

C)

(3r

(l)

(t

(x

(x

2)(x

2)

(.r+ 1)(2,r+3)

&

of Tlvo Expressions)

(i)

(-2x + 3X-r +

(k)

(2r

4)(5

Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

3-t)

1)

2)(4x

5)

4x)(7 + 2x)

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

,A

K83ll
\w

Expand and simplify each of the following.

(b)

1.rt + .r

(c) (2x+1)(3xr+r-3)

(d)

(3-r

_r)(

(e)

(r + 2)(x + 3) - 5r

(f)

5r)

(2r

1)(-r

(g)

3.r

(h)

(-r

2)(-r

3) + 6(.r

(i)

1r(2r

(j)

(2x

(k)

8.r2

(l)

(5x

- 2')(2x + 3) - 2(2"r -

(a)

(x + 2)(x']+ 3r + 1)

2(r

1X3r

- l)

- 1) - 8(;r - 1X,r + 1)

12-r

1X3.r + 2)

l- Casco Puhlications Pte Ltd

211x

1.1

i - 3r -

,'r

1)

1)

5)(2r -- 1) - (r + 3)(.r

3)

lX"r

3)

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

(4)

Expansion of Algebraic Expressions (Perfect Squares)

9.

Expand each of the following.

(a)

(x +

2';2

(c) (, +)'

(e) le - 1'
\3t

\=4

(,

8)'

(d)

(4

r12

(f)

(3,r+ l)r

(g)

(Zx + 7)2

(h)

(1

(i)

(8-r

3)2

(j)

(-6r + 7)2

(k)

(2r +

31')r

(l)

(3,,

t \'

(n) (t\'
l3x-iy

(m)

i{ S0 })

)'

(b)

l**rY)

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4r)1

-v)'

@ Cust'o

Publicatiotts Pte Ltd.

(o)

2(21'_

(q)

3-r(-5.r

(s)

(run

(p)

5(4r + l)']

(r)

10r(3-r + 4)-

t\2
(u) Ilx+:x,/

(v)

(z**!\'

(w) /-l,r
\l'--:

(x)

1;2x2

(z)

(3cr1b

(y)

-r))

l)']

1))

^ \'
)

, 2
.3,1
rx
-y )

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xl

112

+ 2at'1)

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

,A
87

\/

]l

10.

Expand each of the following.

(a) 3x'- f .+11'


1 2)

(b) 5r-(2.r-l)2

(c) 8rr+ [-(3r,2)]

(d) 1lx - (5r - 2)1 + 7

(e)

9r(2x + 1) - (2.r -

-5)l

(2r-1)']-3jr15-2-r;

(i)

,^.
lQy,

(5.r

4)r

2(x

Mathematics Tutor 24

t)2

(f)

(2x+3)2

-4x(1-x)

(h)

(.3x

(r

-2(.r+3rr+31.r-31r

2)1

(2x

7)2

Cas't:o Publicaticttts Pte

Ltd

(5)

Expansion of Algebraic Expressions (Difference of Ttvo Squares)

11.

Expand each of the following.

- 1)

(b)

(d) (-. +)(- - +)

(a)

(-r

(c)

(B + v)(8

(e)

(g)

(9-r + 2X-2 + 9x)

(i)

("r

(k)

(.-2r

+ lXr

(s

_r')

4\/t
tL_r_ 1)
s/

[-r 57[-r

3-y)(r + 3r")

5yX-2-t + 5y)

(r + 4X-r - 4)

(0

(3x + 2)(3x

(h)

(-5-t + 4X--5r

C)

(.2r + 7y)(2x

(1)

(a'

2)

4)

7,v)

b)(a' + b)

,3**:i
-. Casco PubliccLtions Pte Ltd

Chapter'2: Expansion ancl Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions ,.\,813


\::o:/

(m)

(Zpq + 1)(2pq

(o)

/ilttt + 5il

)(

(n)

t)

(p) [l * ,r,'

lntil - 5tr-\

\il

(q) (r+y'+ l)(r+1,- 1)

(s)

(.3a + 2b

(u)

(x +

(rv)

(a

(x)

(t +9'
I,rlt
r r/l
lo't
Jlt'+1.'J[:'

l)(r

+ 1)(3a - 2b -

A. }) MathematicsTutor2,A

i{ 90

\/

1)

l)("r'] + 1)

2b)(a +

2b1@2

t3x1':r- l)( l+-l.r.r-r)

(r)

(2r -

(0

(,r' +.y' +

(v)

(2

.y

]l/\ .r\'-

1:'

+ 3)(2x -,-v - 3)

:')(r,

-y, :,)

3x)(2 + 3rX4 +

9r')

+ 1,FI

r
j']

(a Casco Publir:atiorts Pte Ltd

12.

Use algebraic rules to evaluate each of the following.


(a)

701'

(b)

(c)

g92

(d)

6982

(e)

tooT'

(0

20Ixt99

(g)

94

(h)

398x402

(i)

915 x 885

t503 xt497

(k)

89'-90x88

(r)

106

345'-35ox3z1o
25

\
O Casc'o Publications Pte Lt(l

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

(@

(m)

t3.

g6)

1l

lt - lll

x',65

3338x::32-3::S'

(b) 3x(.2x - 3) + (x - 2)']

1)

(c)

(r

9)("r + 9)

3(3

(e)

(r + 5)r - 5(l

2x)(1 +

(g)

(,r + 2-r:)(x

,A }) Mathematics Tutor

(10000+1X10000-1)

Expand and simplify each of the following.

(a) 2x2 - (tr + 1)(x -

{f 92

(n)

x)(3 + x)

r)

2.vXrt + 4r,')

24,

(ro

(d)

-rr

(0

(2x + 3.y)r

(r + .r,'11, -

-r,'1

(2-r + y)(2r

-,v)

*.v')

@ Cttsco Publit:cttiotts Pte

Ltd

(a)
(3-r

(b)

(2.r

1) crn

ABCD is a square.

(d)

(4x-6)

(5x

4) cm

ABCD is a trapezium.

pt + p)(n - p).

Hence, evaluate 89 548'z

Casr:o Ptrblictttiotts Pte l-td

+ 3) cm

cm

ABC is a right-angled triangle.

Simplify n'

(.r

(2;r + 3) cm

(5.r + 7) cm

ABCD is a rectangle.

(c)

-i. (a)
(b)

3) cm

89 552

x89

544.

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

16. (a)
(b)

Simplify 12 - (x + a)(r - d).


Use your answer in part (a) to find the value of 25

11.

Simplify:
(i) rr - (r + 2)(x * 2),
(ii) -{r - (,r + -vXx - t').
Use your answers from part (a) to r.vrite dolvn the value of
999992 - 100002 x99996.

(a)

(b)

18.

9872

25 990 x 25 984.

Expand and sirnplify each of the fbllou'ing.


(a) (-tle + 5gt11-de

,5gt) ,l

(b) t2-nx2+nt-[j,,*,J
(c)

\bfl

(3x + 2r,):

(3-r + 2-r)(3,r

Mathematics Tutor 24

2,v)

.0 Cusr-o Pu.blicatirtrts Pte Ltd

19. (a)

Giventhat(r-,y)'=-50

and

xj =l,findthevalue ofxz +1'r.

(b)

Given that (x + y)' = 63 and xj = 5.5,find the value of

(c)

Given that

-yt

= 29 ancl2x1, = 29,Iind the value of (-t -

(d)

Given that,r2 +

),'t

= 13 and:r-y = 3, find the value of (, + ))t.

(e)

Given that

,r2

,)'2

= 53 and r.)' = 14, flnd the value of (2r +

(t)

Given that

x2

12 =

(g)

Given that

-r + J'

-r2

45 and x

= 19 and -t -

.y

12 +

= 3, find the value of (.r +

! = 1.7 ,1ind the value of |

-tt

y'

- I.

,'t')t.

2y)2

,r'1r.

lz

1!.

,A,

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

( SS })
\*4

20.

Given that 4f +

21.

If

22.

,r2

(a)
(b)

If

9y2

= 80 and x! = 5, flnd the value of (2x - 3y)'.

lt = 73 and -n' = 24. calculate the values of


(-t +

))',

(, -

-v)'.

.r + y =

-2

and-O = *8, find the values

of

(a) (x + 1)(1'+ 1),


(b) ,'+ )'',
(c) (r, - ]').]
.

'..1k\

i{ 96

}i

Mathematics Tutor

2,A.

@ Casc'o Publications Pte

Ltd

(6) Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions (Extracting Common Factors)


23.

Factorise each of the following.

(a)

3x +

(c)

xt

(e)

6ntn

(b) ll - llx

15

(d)

94,- +

(f)

-12-r-1,- r1,;

(g) 10x- 18x3

(h)

12r'

(i)

U)

-4r3 + I0.rr-y

(1)

9a'br,'

9x

rcr) +

8mp

2nrlt

(k) -21iy - 35-r,v'

O Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

36-r,'

4r1:

27

abc

Chapter 1: Expansion ancl Factorisation of Algebraic

Expressions

'l*"ri\
rr."
i\l:f?,

lga3b3

(n)

25x3

(o) 2ab+6ac+\ad

(p)

3p'

(q)

8m'

(r)

Zry

- ry'+ 3-r2y

(s)

x3

+ 10x3y _ lr'y'

(t)

p'q - ptq'

(u)

,vz - ,'y'z'+ ,tytz'

(v)

ga'bt

(rv)

6-12

(m)

\3}

30a2b2

6rn'

- r(3y

Mathematics Tutor 24

4mt

l2)

r-s

l0x2z

6p +

\pq'

pq'

l5a2b^

+ l2ab2

(x) p' * p'(t -3p)

@ Cctsco Publications Pte

Ltd

(7') Factorisation
24.

of Quadratic Expressions (Using a Multiplication Frame)

Factorise each of the following.

x2+3r+2

x2+7x+10

x2+2x*15

x'-

6;r

x2 _

x-20

3x2+5x*2

Casco Publicatbns Pte

Ltd

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

/d6\
,U5,

(i)

x2+14x+45

U) a' - 5a _ 24

(k)

.rr + 3x

(1) -v'- 7v - 60

(m)

2xr

+ 1lx +

(o)

2r2

t OO

})

12

10x + 8

(q) 6rr-r-

i{

28

(n)

3rr + l3r + 14

(p)

2r2

*Jx

(r)

4x2

+6

l3x +

(s)

2y2

-y - l0

(0

3x2+ 11r-20

(u)

612

(v)

8x2

23x + 21

Mathematics Turor 2A

+ 26x +

15

Q) Casr:o

Publications Pte Ltd

25.

Factorise each of the following.

(a)

8x2

(c)

-12x2

3Ox

27

l7x + 5

(d) 2x-8 + 15,12

(e) 3 -4x-64x2

(f)

3xt

(g)

(h)

6xy'+

15p2

+ 2pq -24q2

(i) 4it - 4rst -

(k)

@ Casco

(b) t-p-12p2

3s2t

a'b'c -Zabc _ 35c

Publications Pte

Ltd

..

2x),*

8-r,r

16xy

U) r-+rl--0.i)

(l)

,'.rtz

6-r

16xyz + 642

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions ,\L101"}j


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(8)

Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions (Using Algebraic Identities)

26.

Factorise each of the following.

(a) i+6x+9

(c) 36y'- I2y +

(e) 2x2 -

l2x + l8

(g)

9x' + 6rr, + y'

(i)

at

(k)

Or'

*za'b

(b)

ntz

(d)

4x2

lt

Bm

16

+ l2r + 9

(0 f,**'-r,

(h)

+ ab'

+ 3n, +

4x'

l2x1-

91,'

-rr-yr-S-r-v+ 16

(l)

xt

2x1,t +

y'

.,46q*.

({tOZ}

Marhematics Tutor 2A

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

21

F-actorise each of the tbllor,ving.

(a)

f-g

(d)

,'*

(g)

25nt2

(b) x' -

- 4n'

(c)

25

(e) i.,'-

(h)

-81,12

I00 -y2

(f) 4f - y'

100

.o
{l) +r 2.5 '
-1'

.A
0t 9u'- nb'

(k) 3.r'- 48

(l)

2;r3

(m)

3nt2

lZnta

(n) 16x'1,' -.r'

(o)

l8m3

(p)

25x2y2

-|

(q)

lr)

Casco Publicatiorts Pte

Ltd

54xs

-6x3

,r2
r00

50x

-2mn)

-II

rl

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

r,;s{'

.ttO-li,
\$

28.

Factorise each of the following completely.

(b) 1 -

16ra

(c) )' -,v

(d)

(r + y)'- z'

(e) 4-(2x+I)2

(0

a'*1b+3y'

(g)

(x + 7)2

(x

- 3)'

(h) x'-4-r_ i+4

U) x'-6x+9-4)-2

(k)

i{104}j

x2

+ 2rr' +

y'-

Mathematics Tutor 2A.

(1) 1-,r2+10.ry-25y'?

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

29.

Use algebraic rules to evaluate each of the following.

(b) 1992 + 398 +

(a) 392+78+l

(c)

(d)

8012

(e) 282 + 112 + I

(0

212

(g)

(h)

751

-750 + 25

(i) 79'-21'

9t'-90'

(k)

(t)

8.62

812

162

3l) +222+9

9052

95r

@ Ccrsco Publiccttions Pte

Ltd

fi02 + I

192

16

1.42

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions ,U05J]


.::ty?,

(m)

1.036'z

(o)

982

(u)

.t 106

\--//
'.e!'

0.0362

-4

(q) 9992 -

(s)

1.

-5oo'

--------.-------

375'

125'.

0.0052 -o.oo42 +0.003'z-0.0022

Mathematics Tutor 2A

(n) 932 -49

(p)

2252 -252

(r)

88882

ft)

(v)

8889'z

- 3832
213' - 212',
-

4612

29992 -29982 -2gg72 +2g962

@t

Cast'o Publications Pte Ltd

30. (a)

Given

thatl -y'=96andx+y - 12,findthe

(b)

Giventhat-r+

(c)

lt

f '!'

(d)

If

(e)

Ifx2- !'=96andx+) = 16,flnd

!=17 andx-y=-l,findthevalue

=72 and x -

-yz =65 andx-y

Casco Publicatiorts Pte Ltd

value of

of

x-y.

f -y'.

= 4,find, the value of .r + y + 3'

-l3,flnd

the value of (2x +2y)2.

the value

of

(1, - ir)'

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

i{l07}]
\ef/

31

. (a)
(b)

Factorise

,'

-.)''.

Findtheexacrvalue of321 0032- 3210022.

32. (a)
(b)

Given that

812

Given that

2022

33. (a)
(b)

Factorise x'-gUse your answer from part (a) to flnd two factors of 891.

l(l08p
'\ry9'

Mathematics Tutor 2A

-752 =6p,findthe value of p.

1942

= 8q, find the value of q.

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Factorisation of Atgebraic Expressions (Grouping)


. :;torise each of the following.

(a) 3x+6+xy+2y

(b) 3p-4q-pq+12

(c.) ob+b2-a-b

(d)

x1'

(0

px + 3py -3qy

(e)

3xp

6rq

-2py

+ 4qy

Sax-t,+10aY-x-2

(i) 2m)+8m-mn-4n

@ Casco Publiccttirtns Pte

Ltd

+ Za.r'

31:

6ax

- q,

(h) 10ar + 5by -2uy

-25bx

0) mq-nq+n-m

Chapter 2: Expansion ancl Factorisation ofAlgebraic Expressions

ItOOJ
{
-Jl

35.

Factorise each of the following.

(a) *tn-m'p-8p+8n

(c)

4p' + 6p'q'-8ptq

(e)

1-r

- -r)'-

3x +

lZpq'

3-v

(8r-y)'-52(8x-t)

(i)

(3,r + 8y)(x

Casco PLrblicutiorts Pte

Ltd

4y)

(.x

4y)'

(b)

9x:r'

(d)

l5a3bc

(t)

2(3r + 21,)2 - 12r -

(h)

Jx21x2

+r- 7t'- 63r.r"

12a3b3 _ 30ac

1)

-4(-r'?+

+24ab2

8.v

1)2

3tt(2x-y)-7b(6x-3y)

l}j

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions iq 1 1


\\**.d/

36.

,t I l2 j

Evaluate each of the following using algebraic rules.

(a)

25

x18 + 25 x

22

(c)

L7

x285

(b) 38x15+38x85

(d)

49 x399

(e) 69x45 +31 x45

(0

3.8 x 5.7 + 4.3 x 3.8

(g)

777

(h) 28x72+282

(i)

96x39 -43x78

185

17

x57 -57 x157

Mathematics Tutor 24

8e(33

-49 x299

8) + 11(33

- 8)

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

THINI(ING S](ILLS GORNER

o(".I)' = l2,frndthe value of a'+ \.a

2 ,r(#,-,X*+t)

=a,' -

1, flnd the value of k.

3.

Given that x -,1 = 3, find the value of

4.

If ,r + y = l5 and r-v = 54, flnd the value(s) of -r -

5.

lf

(2y + p)z = 4y'

@ Casco Pttblication.s Pte

Ltd

l2y

-t-t

2x2y

x1''

3ry' + 3-v''

-l '

p2,find the value of p.

,'ff\,
13i

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Exptessions Lt

Use algebraic rules to evaluate each of the following.


(a)
50002 - 5004 x 4996 -99962

6.

77 777 777

(b)
(c)

(a)

7.

Q7111 119

(987 654X987 6s4)

t)(17 111 179 +

l)

(e87 078X987 078)

576 000

Given that l23x = rcz

(b) rf-q(l-q=

Expand and simplify

8.

-*;*

't7 111 7792

(*-

8902

I27

- lo2 8892,flnd

the value of x.
if x > 0.

449, find the value of x

n)'+ 4m(m+ n) -(m+

n- l)(m+ n + I) - l.

tl l4Ji

Mathematics Tutor 24

@ Casco Publicatiorts Pte

Ltd

9.

10.

1l

Factorise each of the follorving completely.


,
t,t
2 ,l
(al t+oD
-a -n

(b)

(9y

(.)

32roy2

1250-v6

(d)

8lxa

- (r' -,r)'

re)

9r I

-4.r'.tr-41r+3.t2

(0

11.r2

+ 1ly'

Factorise

. (a)
(b)

gxoo

-(r),)"0

-7)' + 1441,3 -

22xt'

112y2

99

-9y"'-81.

Factorise 2x"' - 1.3x'- 15 completely.


Hence factorise l0-r'0-v - 65,rsy -75.y.

@ Casco Publiccttions Pte Ltcl

Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

l.{ tSJ,
'*ry(:.i

12.

Given that the surface area of a cube is (612


in terms of x.

13.

Find the smallest possible value of the expressi on

i{ 116 3j Mathematics Tutor 2A

\*/

- 36,r + 54) cm2, express the volume of the cube

3x2

+ 27y2 + 5z'

tSxy

302

125

@ Cosco Publications Pte

Lkl

Solving Quadratic
Equations
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a ! a ! a a a a a a a a a a a a a

ffi

Tarsets
tW#
\d
.

Solve quadratic equations in one variable by factorisation.

Solve problems involving quadratic equations.

l--3:D

Solving Quadratic Equations by Factorisation


1.

A quadratic equation is of the fbrm arz +

b:c

+ c = 0 r'vhere

a,b

and c are constants

anda+0.
2.

To solve a quadratic equation, lve need to hnd the values of -r that satisty- the
equation. The values of r are also called the roots of the equation.

-).

There are basically three lvays to solve quadratic equations:


(a) Factorisation
(b) Completing the square

(c)

Quadratic fbrmula

In this chapter, lve will learn to solve quadratic equations by factorisation. We lvill
learn the other trvo methods in Book 3,A.

4.

To solve a quadratic equation by factorisation:

Step 1 : Write the equation in the general form, i.e. put all terms on
the left-hand side r.vith only 0 remaining on the right-hand
side of the equal sign.
Step 2 : Factorise the left-hand side of the equation.
Step 3 : Set each factor equal to 0.
Step 4 : Solve the nerv equations from Step 3
.

Casco Publit:atiorts Pte Ltd

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

ffi

Q='a

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Solve the following equations.

(a) x(x-2) =$
(c) (x+3)(x-4)=0

(b)
(d)

3-r(2-r

+ 1) = Q

(3x

1)(5-r

7) = 0

SOLUTION:

(a)

-r(,r

.'.

2) =

-r=0
.r= (J

Since the t-HS is aireadv

x-2

or
or

lar'toriscti. !o ttr

=0

S1311

e.

*-a

Il tivo factors

A and B are such that AB = 0. then either A = 0


or B = 0 or both A ancl B are equal to 0"

(b)

3,r;(2-t

+ l) = 0

.'.3.t=0
.\.=0
.r =()
(c)

or

2x+I=0

or

L^

or

--l
1
-

--

(x+3Xr-4)=0

.'.-x+3=0
x =-3

(d)

a-" _

or
or

x-4
r

=0
=4

(3x-1)(5x-7)=0

.'.3x-1=0
3x=l
*=

or
or
or

5x-7 =0
5x =J

r= -25
1

A quadratic c(luatiun uill rr:trully huve 2 different


solution:. but it is possible ior a quadratic cquatiorr
to have only one solution or even no real solution.

%,

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Simplily the fbllorving.

(a) 4.r2 - 3,r = 0


(c) 2-tr+5r-3=0
(e) J.r- = .\' + I
(g) 4,rr = 3(zlr - 3)

ffi

Mathematics Tutor 2A

(b) x'-25 =0
(d) -5x2+13x-6=0
(0 @+2)(3x-1)=10

'e

(.'cLst-o

PubliL:utiott.r Pte

t,ld

SOLUTION:

(a) 4f -3x=0

x(4x-3)=0 *------.,W:

.'.-r=0 or
r=0 or

(b)

-0
r =-4

.1-r-3

.1

.r'- 25 = 0
.rl-5r =0
(.r+ 5)(x- -5) =0 +

=(a+b)('t
-r-5 =0

Usea:-

or
or

b2

b)'

Alternative method:

rt-25=o
I
r'-

-_
)\

- - --l'ti

=+)
-5 tlr

.'. .r =

(c)

2r)+5r-3=0
(2r-l)(r+3)=0
.'.2-r-1=0
-r=

(d)

r=-5

or

-2

OI

x+3=0
.x=-3

-5.rt+13-t-6=0
5,rr-13-r+(r=0

(5.r-3Xr-2)=0
.'.5.r-3 =0
T=

or
or

-t-2=0
.._,

2x

2x2

6-r

-1

-J

-3

5x

-)-r-

-10x

-J

--),t

-1

JT

rl
-t-r

-3.r

2x

.5

3-rr = -r +

(e)

3r2-x

-2=0

(3x+2)(.r-1)=0

.'.3r+2=0

, =-32

e) Casco Public'tttions Pte

Ltd

or

.r- 1 =0

or

-- _ I
-t - I

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

(f)

(,r+2)(3-t-l)=10

3r2-,r+6r-2-10=0
3rt + -5-r - 12 =0
(3-r-ztX.r+3)=0

.'.3-r-4=0
,=113
(g)

or

x+3=0

or

,.1

r
al

-l

3x

J-X

9.r

-4x

-12

2x

--1

Zx

4x'

-6x

-J

-6x

-3

-f.1r=.114.r-.1..1

4,r2=72r-9

4r)-12tr+9=o
(2x-3')(2x-3)=0
r)r'-ltr-(l
\-.'

.'.2-r-3=0
2.r=3

*=t+

(repeated)

Check yollr answers by substituting both solutions into the


original equation. Both must satisiy the original equation.

%.

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Given that 5 is one of the roots of the equation3f + px + 10 = 0, flnd

(a)
(b)

the value ofp,


the other root of the equation.

SOLUTION:

(a)

Given that 5 is one of the roots of the equation, substitute -r = 5 into the equation.

3f+px+10=0

When x = 5,
3(5)'z+ 5p +

i0

=0

75+5p + 10 =0

(b)

zf - rtx+

5P

=-85

=-I7

1o =

(3x- 2)(x-5)

=o'lt'+r*+ffi$ffi9;
-*:*,Y:.ffi$*W&

.'.3r-2 =0
_t=-23

or

or

-t--5=0

X
3"rr

x
:2

-1X

a-"

-5
-15x
10

.\-J

Since -r = 5 is one of the roots of the equation,


the other root of the equation

i, ,, =
1

zffi"r

i(l4ojJ

Mathematics Tlrtor 2A

Q, Cusco Publicution,s Pte

Ltd

%,

woRKED EXAMpLE 4:

lf

2a2 +

ab

4b2 = 0, where b

O,

findthe possible values of

SOLUTION:
2a2

-0
-0
-0
2a -b

+7ab*4b2

(2a-b)(a+4b)
.'. 2a- b
2a
b
a
b

ffi

or

a+4b

OI

-1

-0

a =
a

or

-4b

Divide each rerm by b.

i -4
CI

=-2

Problem Solving involving Quadratiqlqq4e4q


Read the qirestion carefirlly.

If

needed, draw a diagram to illustrate the problem.

Choose a variable and rvrite lvhat it represents.


Write an algebraic expression for any other unkno'"vn in terms of the variable.
Write a quadratic equation that describes the situation.
Solve the equation.
Check that your answer satisfles the original problem.
Ans'nver the original problem.

C-"*..

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Find two consecutive positive integers such that the sum of their squares is equal to 145.

SOLUTION:
Let the flrst integer be x and the next consecutive integer be x +

1.

.r +(r+ ltr = 145


rt+.r't+2r'+ I = 145
+2x_ 144 =0
-rt + .r -'72 = 0
(r-8)(r+9) =0
.'.r-B =0

2x2

or
or

-r =8

-r+9 =0
r = -9 (rejected

since

is a positive integer)

When-r=8,r+1=9
.'. The two consecutive positive integers are 8 and 9.
Check answer: 8' +

92

= 145

/
,4.

Q Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

i{r+r}
.**,

{h..-jj_l4t-, WORKED EXAMPLE 2:


A rectangular piaygrouncl is 80 m [on-e anci 35 rn rvide. lt is surounded by a footpath
of uniform r,vidth" Finil the rvidth of the lootpath if the area of the footpath is 732 nr '
SOLUTION:
Let the rvidth of the footpath be .r m.

Area of footpath ='732 m) (Given)


(80 + 2r)(36 + 2-r) - (80X36) = 732
2880 + 160-r + J2r + 4r) - 2880 = 732
4r) +232r-132 =0
Divide
-tr + 58.r - 183 = 0 *

cach term by 4.

(.r-3)(r+61) =0

.'..r-3 =0

(:)r

-r=-1

OT

.r+61=0
-r =

-61 (rejected

sincc length
cannot be ncgative)

.'. The rvidth of the footpath is 3 m.

Check answer: Area of footPath


= (86 x 42)

=132m)

%*

(80 x 36)

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
The diagram shorvs traPezium ABCD in rv5ieh 4pr = (5.r. 3) cm. BC = 2r cm anci
BE = (x + 2) cm. Given that the area ol thc trlpezitrm is 7.i cmt. find the sum of the
lengths of the parallei sides.
_

(-5,r 3) cm

'ffi
\/

Mathematics Tutor 24,

C.asco Ptrblit:otiorts Pte

Lttl

SOLUTION:
Area of trapezium ABCD = /,\ cnt- (Ulven)
I

'. (AD + BCt(BE\

=75

lt-5r -.1r + 2.rlt r' + 2t =75

:(7-t-3)(-r+2) =75
(7r-3Xr+2) = 1-50
Jx2+l1*-3r'_6 = 150
'7r) + 11-r- 156 *t)

Multiply both

(7-r+39)(..r-4) =0
.'. 7r + 39 -0
., =--5
(rejected since

sides

by 2.

x-4=0

()r

x=4

is positive)

When -r = 1, AD = 5(4) 3 = l7 cm
When r=4,8C =2(1) = 8 cm
Sum of length of parallel sides

=AD+BC
=17+8
=25cm
Check ans\Yer: Area of trapezium
I

- -) r25rr6t
-=J5cm) /

'

.- Co.;t'o PubliccLtions Pte

[-tLl.

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

(1)

Solving Quadratic Equations by Factorisation

t.

Solve the following equations.

(b) 3r(2x- 1) = Q

=0

(d)

(2-r

-5)(3.r

(g) 3x2+9x=0

(h)

4r2

3,r = 0

(i)

xt = 6x

0)

3r2 =

8r

(k) + =,

llt

2rt =

(*) r'-9=0

(n) -r'-25=0

(a)

x(-lr

(c)

+ 2) =

r'r7

.5

(e) (3r-

ffi

-r)

r,(+,-r)

Mathematics Tutor 2A

+ l) = 0

=o

-)

Q) Casco

Publicotiorts Pte Ltd

(o)

9.tr

(p) I -

-,1 = 0

(r)

4r2+5=14

,25

(t)

,,"t =

t{l

(u) 4r =;27
I

(rv)

(.r + 3)2

(y)

(2x

(v) (x_ 2)2=1

25

+ l)2 =

A Casco Publications Pte Ltd

=0

(q) ""'1=u

(s)

16.12

100
81

(x)

(2r

1)' = 19

(z)

(3x

212

= 64

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

ffi

Solve the follorving equntions.

(a) x'-8x+15=0

(b) ,r'-2x-48=0

(c) 2x2+7r-4=0

(d) 10-t2--r-3=0

(e) _r2+2r+3=0

(f) 12-r-,r'=0

(g)

-r'-6,r+9=0

(i) 6-x-

l2r2 =O

(k) Brt-10r-3=0

,'ffi
\/

Mathematics Tutor 24

(h) 3-rr+10,r-B=0

(,) 6-r'- 15-r

(l)

4r2_

9=0

lt+ l=0

A Custo Publir:utions Pte l,ttl

lrn) 2r2-13-r+6=0

(n)

6,rr

(o) 12*5x_ 2.r1=0

(p)

r'-

(q)

(r) 2x2+B=l1x

612= l1r+35

+ 14-r

12 =

l7-r+60=0

(s) r'=3r+4

(t) xt-"lx+6=-4

(u) f-5=6x-14

(v)

tB Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

10x-

10

=l9x*f

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

l[147]
.w?

J.

Solve the following equations.

(a)

x(.Zr + 3) = 5

(c)

2x(x

(e)

(r

5) = 5-r

- l)'-

(;r

18

1) = 6

(2.r+3Xr-1)=6

(i) (r-4)t='1.r-11

,4,
\/

({r+s})

Marhematics Tutor 2A

(b)

r(.r

(d)

(.r

7) = -]Q

3)' =

3-r

11

(f) (-r-3)(,r-1)=

15

(h)

(2,t

(j)

(2r

- \)(r + 3) -

5)(3.r + 4)

1-5

l0

=0

Cctsc'o

Publicutions Pte Ltul

r
I

"10

(a) xt+!x=3

(b)

(c)

"r(5

(d) 5 -

(e)

xt_ x+0.25=0

(0

(.r

(g)

(2x + 3)2 = 5(2r + 3)

(h)

(2x

(i)

3(x

(2-r

- r)

-lS

4Xx +

L'ttsr:o Publi<:otions Pte

Ltd

l) = 4(.x -

1)

i\l--1=

3x2 = -r(3,t

13)

.l)' = 7(.r' - .l)

112

1x

2)1

3)(.r + 2) = -5(2.r

3)

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

ffi

(k) lf -lb

+ 1) = 5r

(l) zf -*!rr =t

-l

,,

ifl

(m) -'
r)

(o)

(2x

- 1)(x + 1) = 4(1 + xXl - x) - 6x (p) (x -2)'

(q)

(3"t

=x+2

2X-r + 3) = (2"r + 9)('r

SO)) Mathematics Tutor 2A

\4

(n) =-=-

r'+3r-2

l') +

-1

(r)

=I

= 3(2x

3(2x + 1)(2x

3)(z

x)

1) = 5[x(x

2) +

l)

Q Ctt.st:o Publit:tr.tions Pte

Ltt.J

'

Given that

6.

(a)

Factorise

(b)

Hence

p)c1

12p

3c1 6 = 0. find thc values of 7r rvhen

17

= 3.

20; -23x + 6.
solve 20-rr2 *Z3x + 6 =0.

7.

If

3x2

-4"y +y' =0,wherey *0,flndthepossible

8.

If

3p2

5pq-2q' = 0, where

1- Ca.sco PLrblications Pte

Ltd

values

of

f)

*0,flnd,the possible values of

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

4i -

9.

If

10.

Solve the equation 9x'

11.

lf x =3is

12ab +9b2 =O,where b

0, finci the possible values

of

f,

30xy + 25y2 = 0, expressing your answer as y in terms of

a solution of the equation

x'

x' + px + 12 =0, flnd the value ofp. Hence find the other

solution of the equation.

12.

one of the roots of the equation x2 - 5,r + k = 0 is 2, find the value of /r. Hence find the other
root of the equatiorr.

If

3.

One solution of 6x2 + hr - 20 = 0 is ,r = '1.


(a) Find the value of /2.
(b) Find the other solution of the equation.

14.

Theequation2x2

+5x+n=0is satisfledbyr= 1 Findthevalueof n.Hencefindtheother

solution of lhe equation.

/A

(t.w
SZ]j

Marhematics Tutor 2A

CcLst:o

Publicatiorts Pte Ltd

#
E

(2) Solving

Problems involving Quadratic Equations

1,).

Find tr.vo consecutive positive integers such that the sum of their squares is equal to

16.

The sum of the squares of tr'vo consecutive positive odcl integers is 103 more than the product
of these tr,vo integers. Find the integers.

The product of tr.vo consecutive positive even integers is B more than fbur times the sum of the
trvo inte_ters. Find the integers.

ll3.

f
I

I
&

I
I
I

I
I
I

11

18.

Find three consecutive positive odd integers such that the sum oftheir squares is equal to 155.

Ca,sco Publication.r Pte

Lt(l

Chapter 3: Solving Quadraric Equarions

,A

l[] 53jl

\w

19. (a)
(b)

20.

2l

The len-eth of a rectangle exceeds its breadth by 3 m. If its area is 504 mt, flncl the
perimeter of the rectangle.
The area of a rectangle is 2,1 cmr and its perimeter is22 cm. Fincl the length ancl the
breadth of the rectangle.

Marc is 3 times as old as his brother. John. The sum of the squares of their ages two years
ago was 178. If John is.r years old, fbrm an equation in,r and shor.v that it reduces to
5,r'- Bx - 85 = 0. Solve this equation to find their present ages.

The product of three consecutive positive integers (.r - I ). r and (r + I ) is 65 times the ir sum.
(a) Use this information to fbrm an equation in -r and shorv that it reduces to

,r3- 196r=0.

{b}

Fautorisc cumplerely

.r'

l96r = 0 and Ilncl the thlee 'ntegers.

zG,
it l54p

\!ez

Mathematics Turor 2A

:QICasco Publications Pte Ltd

22.

a right-angled trian-ele. AB = (r - 3) cm and.BC = (2-r + 1) cm.


W'rite down an expression in terrns of .r for the area of triangle ABC.

ABC is

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Given that the area of triangle ABC is

t9I

crnt. form an equation in terms o1'-r and

show that it recluces to 2rt - 5x -.12 = 0.


Solve the equation 2xt - 5.r - 42 = 0 to find the values of
Hcnce. flnd the length of BC.

r.

(x-3)cm

(2.r

23.

+ 1) cm

Thediagrambelowshowsarectangle PQRS.PQ=@-2)cm,QR=(2x+3)cmandthearea
of the rectangle PQrtS is 39 cm2.
(a) Form an equation in x and show that it reduces to 2x2 - x - 45 = 0.

(b)
(c)

Solve the equation 2x2 - x - 45 = O.


Hence, find the perimeter of the rectangle PQRS.
,t

(x

-2)

cm

Q: Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(2x + 3) cm

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

21.

The area of a rectangle is thrice the area of a square of side (.r + 1) cm. The length ancl the
breadth of the rectangle are (.2.r + 7 1cm and (2x - 6) cm respectively.
(a) Form an equation in -r and shorv that it reduces to,rr -'l.r -_'l-5 = 0.

(b)

25.

Solve the equation and find the area of the rectan-gle.

ABCD is a rectangle in which ng = (3x + 5) cm and BC = (2x + 8) cm. XYZ is a right-angled


triangle in which XY = 6x cm and y7 = (5x - 1) cm. The area of the rectan gle ABCD is equal
to the area of the triangle XYZ.
(a) Form an equation in x and show that it reduces to 9x2 - 37x * 40 = 0.
(b) Solve this equation and flnd the perimeter of the rectangle.

DC
(5x
(2;r

(3x+5)cm

+ 8) cm

1) cm

.6il+\

156}} Mathematics Turor 2A


',k*d/

1{

Cusr:o Publicutions Prc Ltd

ABCD is a trapezium in r'vhich AB is parallel to DC. It is given that AB = (2-r + 3) cm, AD = r


cm, CD = (x * l) cm and 1-DAB = 90".
(a) Theareaof trapeziurn ABCD is l12cm2.Formanequation in-ranclshoi,vthatitreduces
to 3-r2 + 4r * 224 = 0.
(b) Solve this eqr"ration and find the length of AB.

(2-r + 3) cm

21.

The base and the height of the parallelogram :rre 2-r cm anci (r - 1) cm respectivelr. The trapezium hets the same tie ight as the parallelograrn. The length of the parallel sides of the trapczirrrn
are (3r - 4) cm and (5r 8) cm. Given that the area of the trapeziurn rs -10 cnl n.rore thaii the
area of the parallelograrn, find the vaiue of ,r.
(5x

(3x

- 4) cm

8) cm

(x-1)cm
2,v

'@),Casco

Publications Pte Ltd

cm

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations

,^
W

28.

The length and breadth of a rectangle are (;r + 6) cm and x cm respectively. The perimeter of
the rectangle is the same as the perimeter of a square.
(a) Find the length of each side of the square.
(b) Given that the sum of the areas of the rectangle and the square is 41 cm2, flnd the value

ofx.

29.

Thelengthof thesquar"r. []r+:).*.Thebaseandtreightof thetriangleare2(x-2)cm


and (x

(a)
(b)

6) cm respectively.
Find the value of x if the area of the square is twice the area of the triangle.
Find the values of x if the area of the squa-re is 37 cm2 more than the area of the triangle.

(t
l-x*
\z

,) "*

-6)cm
2(x-2)

fG
\r/

MathematicsTutor24

cm

'@ Citsco Publications Pte

Ltd

30.

The diagram shor,vs a rectangular flou,er bed rvith a footpath ziround it. The length of the florver
bed is (.r + l) m and its breadth is (-r - 2) rn. The rvidth of the footpath is I m.
(a) Write dorvn an expression jn tcrnrs of r, for
(i) the length of WX,
(ii) the length otXY.
(iii) the area of rectan-sle WXYZ.
(b) Given that the area of rectangle WXYZ is 180 mr, rvrite dorvn un equation in.r ancl shor'v

(c)

that it reduces to -rr + 3-t - 180 = 0.


Solve the equation rr + 3-r - I 80 = 0 and rvrite dou,n the

are a

of the florver bed.

(,r+1)m

(1- -_)m

Flo*

r-r'

hed

31.

A rectangular container can be formed by cutting out squares of side (x - 3) cm from each
corner of a piece of rectangular cardboard measuring 12 cm by B cm.
(a) If the area of the base of the completed box is 32 crrf , write down an equation in x and
show that it reduces to x2 - 16x + 55 = 0.
(b) Solve this equation for x and flnd the volume of the container.

)r'- " "-

12 cm

"),'Casco Publications Pte

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Chapter 3: Soiving Quadratic Equations

ffi

THINI(ING S1(ILLS GORNER


I

2.

Given that,r2 = 5-t - I . llncl the value of

2
.d

Solve the lbllorving equati()ns.

(a)
(b)

x*

,/r

25rt = 9r1 - 225.r

r+llJr.r,2ruf.+:r =:'

{f IOO}) Marhemarics Turor 2,q

\.J/

2.ra +

(Q)

()tL.yr.o

Publicaiions Fte Ltd

3.

In an office Christmas party last year,a gift exchange was conducted. Every employee was
required to buv a present for each of his fellow colleagues. If 600 presents were collected on
*.Le
sa3 rrt the paq.. horv many employees were there in the office?

-1.

The length of a rectangular plot of land exceeds its bre aclth by 6 rn. \\iheu rts length is iucreased
by one third and its breadth is decreased by haif. its area is clecreased b1 1-1-1 nr , -Fnrl thLoriginal perimeter of the plot of land.

.@ Casco

Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 3: Sotving Quadratic Equations

5.

The diagram shows a pendant made up of three circles. The smallest circle, centre O, has
radius o cm. The largest circle, centre O, has radius b cm. The three regions are formed usiltg
gold, silver and platinum.
(a) Find the radius of the medium circle in terms of a and b.
(b) Write dorvn an e.xpression in terms of a and/or b and r for the area of the regions formed
by

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

Al62rl

{t

\/

platinum,
silver,
gold.

Given that the area of the -eold region is tr'vice the area of the silver region. rvrite dor,vn
an equation in terms of a and b and shorv that it rcduces to 5a2 - 6ub + ltt = O.
Factorise 5ot - 6ab + bt.
Solve tlie equation 5ct) - 6ttb + bt = 0, expressing b in terms of n.
Find the fraction of the area of the pendant that is made of silver.

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@:

Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Graphs of

Quadratic Functions
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

Targets
.
a

Drarv quadratic graphs.

of quadratic graphs:
positive or negative coet{icient of rl

State the properties

- maximum
- symmetry

and minin-rum points

Solve problems involving quadratic equations graphicaliy.

iZD

Graphs of Quadratic Functions

1.

Quadratic graphs are graphs rvhose equations are ot the fclrrn


r,vhere a.l:t and c are constants but a cannot be zero.

E.g. l,= 3-r2,)'=-tr + 2-r-3 and.v - s - 1.'are

2.

! = cLxl + br + c

quadratic grapl-rs.

The graph of a quadratic equation is tr smooth U-shaped or ll-shaped curve called

a parabola.
The examples belor.v shor,v some qr-radratic graphs.
,r
|
i:::::l::l

]\iulut

.-

iti

i:

;\,'r:rr i::tk,
\i I

+-++ri:,\:

:i:::ttr'L

,t:..:

1it"

-,
':tf:-

r-'

i/8,

ii\. v
il
,ll

1-5
i.],r

i,Ii,
i:lirf'
t^

Y=x -x-/.

3.

t'
t'

I-

'|j

il:

i:::r::::

- -t+

::t::t:

I:ll

l',:

1':f"ll ,,1 l \i.,.

,ff

\'
rl;,lr

i; i-

,1

i.L

t,

''.1..::.

,,

f-

r..

-.:

l:

rl

l.l,
'-^r''

,:t0
::l::ll:::

+l

:
.:

..t.r.l,

)'=2x2-1x+9

!=-f+5x-4

The curve of a quadratic graph is symmetrical about the line of symmetry.

Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic Functions

:j
il
:i

4.

The curve of a quadratic graph has either a maximum or a minimum point


depending on the value of a,i.e.the coefficient of r:.

5.

The line of symmetry is a vertical line that passes through the maximum or the
minimum point of the curve.

6.

The properties of quadratic graphs, J = &x1 + br + c. are given belos-.

(a)

If a is positive, i.e. a 2 0, the graph

.
.
.

has a

minimnm point.

The graph opens upwards i.e. U-shape.


The vertical line through the minimum point is the line of symmetry.
The smaller the numerical value of a- the s-ider rbe graph opens.

Line of symmetry

y=x2-4x-5
(Here a = i.,t

y=ar2+bx+
a>0

,r-intercept

x-intercept

Minimum point, (2. -9

)-intercept

Minimum point

(b)

If a is negative, i.e. a < 0, the graph

.
.
.

ha.-s

meximrrm point.

The graph opens downwards. i.e. ^-shape.


The vertical line through the manimum proint is the line of symmetry.
The smaller the numerical value of c. the s'ider the graph opens.
E.g.

'

Maximumpoint.
Maximum point

( i l,
l-i--6+ 8'

J=at2+br+c
a<0

!=

2x2 - 3.r + 5
(Here a = -2.)

-Tl
Line of symmetry

,&r

I(164fi

&g

Mathemarics Tutor 2A

Line of symme

W1

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(c)

-\'- c-rr + bx + c may cut the x-axis at 0,


-axis
at
I point. (0. c).
only
-r,
The graph of

)'= ort + br

I or 2 points and the

t'=rz,rt+D-r
(0, c)

(0, c)

0 point ol- inlersection

(a.rt +

(urt + bx +

br + c' -- 0 has

no solution.)

The graph of

1,

= a,rr (a

O')

y=ax'+bx

point of intersection

2 points of intersection

= 0 has

(.ax)+bx+c=0has

2 real and equal roots.)

2 r:eirl and unequal roots.)

c'

passes through thc

origin. The line of syurmetry is the

1'-axis.

E.g.

j.it,l,tl

Chapter 4: Graphs

ol Quadratic Functions

,4,
,&fy

The srnaller the numerical value of a, the x'ider the -eraph opens.

!=Lx2

'l'

B.

l-

= --_t-

Steps to draw the graph of a quadratic equation:

$
'

Construct a table of values of

and y for the quadratic eerrarion.

Choose a suitable scale.

The scale used on the x-axis does not have to be the :ame as the
y-axis. The scale chosen should allow for the largest possible graph to
be drawn. The bigger the graph, the more accurate s-ill be the results
obtained from it.
Plot the points on a graph paper and join them up to form a smooth

curve.

i{:i

Label your graph with the equation of the cun'e.

When drarving quadratic graphs. it i:1rr:' --.'.'


join the points up lvith a smooth cur\ L' ii ),r,.of straight lines.

,il

.r..i)

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

(a)
(b)

Drarv the graph of -r, = rt + 2 tbr -3 < -1 < -i


From your graph, find
(i) the value of 1' rvhen r = 1 .J .
(ii) the coordinates of the maximum or minin'r-r-(iii) the equation of the line of symmetrr.
.

SOLUTION:

(a)

Construct a table for corresponding values of -r and r'.

Y=x2+2

,A

({

\/

oO}

Mathemarics Tutor 2A

-J
11

-1

-l

-1

) ' .: r-.:ialueSOfr
- ': j-_ .-:i itn to find
:.

--)

l1
_

--:

t- ( ,ir. , Prrrr ;, ,1;r,,;r r Ptt Ltti

Plot the points and join then,

to f'orm a smooth

curve.

Renrembe;:
t. l:rbcl
1'oul greph.

(b)

F-rom the graph,

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
q.,e",

rvhenr - 1.7,tt=4,.9,
the minimum point is (0,2),
the equation of the line of symmetry is .u = 0.
(The _r,-axis is the line of symmetry.)

WORKED EXAIVIFLE 2:

(a)
(b)

l)raw the graph of -i, = -tr' + -r - 2 fbr -4 < ,t < 3.


From your graph. find
(i) the value of ,r' rvhen

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

L:

.i'

I .6,

the values of .r r.vhen t, - 5.


the smallest value of 1',
the equaticln of the line ol symmetry of

1,

-t' +

,r.

2.

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic Functions

SOLUTION:

(a)

Construct a table for corresponding values of -r and _rr"

)'=r)+'r-2
4

SirbstirLrte tire r,alues

-3

10

-v

-1
a

-1

oi,r- into the etluation


to lrnd the values of i.
E.g. When .i = -zl.

\ =(-+)

10

+(-+.)

-j

=10

Plot the points and join them to form a smooth curve.

Rerner.nber

to iabel
vour sraph.

Do not drarv
a straielrt
line betrveerr
i-i. -.2) antl
(0.

-ll.

Choose suitable scales lbr-r- ancl .r'-axes to iLarv the li.,r-rest possihle glaph
otr rhe graph paper. This rvill incrcase the accurac-,- oithe solutions.

(b)

From the graph,

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

,Up

whenr=1.6,y=2.2,
wheny =5,x= -3.2 or x =2.2,
the smallest value of y is -2.3,
the equation of the line of symmetry is x = -0.5.

Mathematics Tutor 24

r(li

Cosco Publitotiotts Pte Ltt!

\a

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
ie

Copl' and cornplete the table rvhich gives tire values of r. = 1 + 2x

-tr for

-3<-r<5.
J

-J

-t4

-1

-,)

-1

(b)

Using a scale of 2 cm to rcpresent I unit on the .r-axis and


on the -t'-axis, drar,v the graph of .t' = 1 + 2-r - -rr.

(c)

From your graph, find


(i) the values of _r' when,r = -1.6 ancl 3.2

(ii)
(iii)
(ir,;

cm to represent

unit

the values of -r rvhen .]' = -9.


the greatest value of _r' and the corresponding value of "r,
ti-re equation of the line of symmetry of the curve .

SOLUTION:
(a)

-3

-14

-7

-1

t)

,,|

--)

,)

-7

-14

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic Functions

(c)

%,

From tire graph.

* - I .6, lr =
-4.B ,

(i)

rvhen ,r

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

= -2.8,
=-9,-r = -23or-,r= 4.3,
the gleatest value of .r is 2 and it occurs rvhen -r = 1.
the equation of the line of symmetrv is ,t = 1 .

'rvhen x = 3.2,

_r.

r'vhen,r'

woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
The diagram shows the graph of y - f - zx - 8. The graph cuts the r-axis at the points
and B, and the y-axis at the point C.
(a) Write dor,vn the coordintrtes of A, B and C.
(b) D is the minimum pornt of the graph.
Write down the coordinates of D.
(c) Write dorvn thc equation of the line of
symmetry of the curve.

SOLUTION:

(a) J=x2-2r-8
= (x + 2)(x

+)

When r' = 0. .(x+2)(x-4) =0

---*.ffiffiffi
At the .r-axis.,r' = 0.

x*2 =0 or x-4

x=-2 or

=0

x=4

- (-2, 0) r,n4 6 = (,1. 0)

.'. A

.Atthey-axii"x=
-),=or-2(o)-8=-8
Whenx = 0,
.'.

(b)

c-

(0,-8)

-2+4

Substitute

and B.

r = 1 into,), = rr -

,l:= 1r-2(l)-8
--9
.'. D- (1,-9)

,([9

To frnd D. r.i,e neeci to llnd


the r'-r'alrrc of tlic niidpoirrr

ofA

-1

(c)

0.

2x

8.

Equation of line of symmetry: -r =

Mathematics Turor 2A

*--

Line of symmetry

O Casco Pu.blications Pte l-t(l

12>

Solving Problems involving Quadratic Graphs


The fbllor,ving examples shorv horv lve solve problems involving quadratic graphs.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
The total surface area of a solicl prism A is given by A =

(a)
(b)

Drawthegraphof A =4r.'_

5r+2for0<.r<2.

(r1-r2

5-r-

+ 2) cm2

From the graph, {ind


(i) the minimrlm total surface area of the prism.
(ii) the value of ,r rvhen the total surf'ace area is 5 cm'.

SOLUTION:

(a) A=4,r)-5,r+2
x

0.25

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

t.15

0.5

0.5

3.5

5.5

j--+
i,

Pte Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic Functions

(b)

From the graph,

(i)
(ii)

the minin-rum total surfhce area of the prism is 0.45 cmr.

rvhenA=5cmt,,r= 1.7cm.
.'. Whcn the total surface area is

%,

-5

cm2. -r

= 1.7 cm.

woRKED EXAMpLE 2:

- -r) cm. AD - (2.r + 3) cm and CE = x cm.


\
ShowthlttlrearcrA.ol'ABEDiseivenbyA=
f 1t -.'
-

In the diagram, ABCD is a rectangl e. AB = (4

(a)
(b)
(c)

\ r

Drarv the graph of A =

-1.rt
22 * ]., *

From your graph, flnd the value of

-r

!\+o,em'

6 for -,1< x < 5.

that will result in the maximum area of ABED.


(2x + 3) cm

(4

*x)

cm

,rcm

SOLUTION:

(a)

BE =BC-EC

=(2x+3)-x
=(x+3)cm
Area

BC=AD
= (2_r + 3) crn

of LBED

=)"BasexHeight
=

) "BExCD
= ) r@ +3)x(4 -,

)er-x2 + 12-3x)
=){-*'+x+Lz)
=

,A\

((tZZ)

\\.//

(-+o * )* *o) cm'(Shown)

Mathematics Turor 2A

Casco Publiccttions Pte Ltd

A=-!*'+
2
l"+o

(b)

,ii
r:L

-4

|)

--)
0

-1

-)

-4

I:

::l

,t,

rtal

rto

,l l.

-i--r:;.

- ril

j.ir

it

i:

,-i

ii:
. r..r...i..
:

l,
I

:::i

;/

'i'

'i

'tI

r:i
l..r

i'
i'rt-

il

t:

i
i

:i l

':

:.

lr

* ,

il

::riil,:

5 il
I
.

;,

l\, i: !..: i..:

l\ :iii

i:r

ir

li'
ii

\:i\

f:

1':

A'=i. .n?'+t4* r
t-\ .i l: i

_t-:\|...i

-f

-l-

,/,

-i-1-

I-j'.1

"4

.,
rl

t:

:'
l

.:

,iir

ri

, li-i

:i

rl

,i,

_:

:l

'i
.',1

:i

l-:

rl,

l,i

l::i

:i,,\

::

,.:.;

,'

:iiL

)l .1i

/
/I:

.:"

-i

i:

-r :t
l, l ri:'

i
,,i

illl
lrl
ll'

:;

'

rl

jj

/l

II'

_:,:1.

:l

(c)

:-,

---_

i-i

','

'.

.l

iil

:,lr

:ti

ll

f,

::"i

r.l

l
l

;:

Frorn the graph.


r.vhen A is maximum..r = 0.5 cm.

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
When an object is throrvn upr,vards from the top of a tower, the height, /z metres, ol the
object from the -grouncl after r seconds is given by the formula ft = -10 + l0r 5rr.
The table belor,v shor'vs some values of / ancl the corresponding values of il.

0.5

It

30

33.75

(a)
(b)

1.5

2.5

Completc the table arbove.


Using a scaie of 4 cm to represent

t;i,tns ptu Ltul

3.5

15

3.15

-10

seconcl on the /-axis and 2 cm

5 metres on the /r-axis, clrau, the graph of /l =

-10

+ 10r-

-5rr

for

to represent

< t < 4.

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic

Functions

ffi

(c)

From your graph.lind


(i) the height of the tolver.
(ii) the time, in seconds. r,vhen the object hits the ground,
(iii) r.vhen the object rvill be 25 m from the ground,
(iv) the maximum height of the object above the ground.

SOLUTION:

h=30 + 10r-5t2
t

0.5

1.5

2.5

-)

3.5

30

33.75

35

33.75

30

23.75

15

3.75

-10

(b)

-i
l!

-l

I l=

ical

i::

.:;

r .i l.

I.i

rXi

{ ari

..

'lo )rm
llr

i"

.1

l-,

rii...i

;.

._l'

:
!,

j-

t.

..

r+il

iir

i-.
,+
- :.
t:

t-r

rl;

rl

::-

il
:l
,i

.--

':l
ii

l r;

:
-i,l
tl:

t= 5,'

-;'

l.

*-',

-"

:l:]

-i:

+I

l'

\,-

t,

i,

-i

l-

,i:
l

lli
ii:l

Ii :l

--

i':
ii-

:i

;l.

1."

'L

:l' '

.-l

-t

rliti

I
rl:l
-r...1

,l:
-i +.

rIl t,

t:
rlj

t+ -+

I :1.

i;

-i:
i

i_-

\r'

174})

.,]

Mathematics Turor 24

lll
' il

l.

-l-

-:

l-'i

i.

.t,

tii

+tt

+-

Ir

i-

.-;
Lrtr
\'

,l' J
ri

'l

a :--

iTj

1{

:r

,l:

,.li

i.iii

i,rl

it].r
a\
liiI

t-

1.

]rj

ii:
,i

I'1,

il

,.

*a

rir

lit:

IJ

\l
rli
.,':.t

, ii

-+.t'
.[;
i l

\ ;-l

li

,,
l::i

,;

'0

rt-=

-j

:ir:l
:j:r l

*:

:'it
,:ii
t,li

i. i
lr-

\t'r

I.r
l

(e) Co.st:o

PLtblications Pte

Lttl

(c)

From the -eraph,

(i)

u,hen / = 0, /r = 30.

.'. The height of the tower is 30 m.

lvheni=0./=3.65.

(ii)

.'. The time r,vhen the object hits the grouncl is 3.65

(iii)

r,vhen /u

s.

= 25, t = 2.4.

.'. The object will be 25 m from the ground after about 2.4

(iv)

A%,

s.

the maximum height of the object above the ground is 35 m.

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
The variables of r and -)) are connected by the equation
values of -r and y are given in the table belolv.
a

I
(a)
(b)
(c)

-t'

-1

-1

-1

Calculate the values of a irnd b.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent

-12

2r

1.

Sorne cclrresponding

unit on the r-axis irnd I cm to represent


crn the r.'-axis, clrarv the graph of ,r, = xt - 2x- I for -2 < -r <,5.
Use your graph to flnd the solutions of the equations

(i) r--2x-l=0,

(i, x'-2*-

unit

1 = 3.

SOLUTION:

(a)

=,rr - 2,t - I
(/=(l) -211t-l= 2
__)
ir-(5)--1f5)-1=14
.\"/-\-,

-r

i'. Cusco Public'a.tions Pte Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic

Functions

(b)

-i1.

ill
;ti

j'l-

..

.i

irl

tt t:ti

/ r l-

ti

+i

1-

;l
;i
!:

ii

li

il

ti
li
ll

:l
ili

ili

i,

I-i
i:

-::,

i
l

it

;
r1

+t)

l,

-!

t-

:f llli

:;

:'

''

-ir

ri
rl

ii|:

lj

il
i

il

l;i

ri i:

1
l

',t_i'

-l-:.

{:

lt
ti

irl

l.

til
-*l-i

il

il

::

(i)

ii

:'

1...-l

l;-"

iI

r-

ir

;,

/2

\ +,
i

..-

4
ll

i
':'f

1l

ri

'l-i"

:i

itii

'i i il

(c)

l
i,

'-i

j*
ll

1....!..

I 'l--i'

iil

.ax
ir.
ir &

1-i

,9
l-:

lll Ir

1rlFi,

To solve x1 - 2x - I = 0, fincl the r -coordinates of the points where the graph


cuts the.r-axis, (i.e.1' = 91.
The solutions are .r = 0.4 or x = 2.4.

- I = 0. you rvill need to consider


the points which lie on the curve -\, = r2 - 2x - I and the line
To solve the equation x1

Z{.

)' = 0. Any points that sirtisfy both these equations rvill also satisfy
the equation x2 -2x - 1 = 0.

From the graph. you can see that x) - 2x - I = 0 when the curve
- 0) giving the solutions x = 4.4 or x = 2.1.

crosses the "t-axis, (i.e. ),

.'. .r = -0.4 or,tr = 2.4 satisty the equation x)

(ii)

(\s

2x

- I = 0.

* 2.y- I = 3, find the.r-coordinates of the points of intersection


of the graph ,1' = .rr - 2.r - 1 and the straight line ,r' = 3.
The solutions are ,r = -1 .75 or r = 3.25.
To solve .\)

Mathematics Tutor 24

Cusco Publictttion.s Pre

Lkl

WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
The table belorv shows the values of x and

!
(a)
(b)

I
.)

-3

')

I fbr the function , = -1,rt


-) -'

-1

--)

-5.5

5.5

1.5

Find the values of a and b.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent

+ 6.

unit on each axis. drarv the graph of

t^

)'= ;.r'+6l'or-4<r<4.
(c)
(d)

Ur" y"ou, graph to hncl the maximum value of y for -4 < x < 4.
Write down the equation of the line of symmetry of the graph.

(e)

Use the graph to solve the equation

I ,r' + 6 = t

SOLUTION:

(a) ,=-1
2

\.t+6

,,=-l2 (-J)'+6=

1.5

tr= !r4)'+(r=-2
2

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs ol Quadratic Functions

6h
\q

at

(b)

i(

l78ll

(c)

From the graph, the maximum value of ,r'is 6.

(d)

From the graph, the equation of the line of symmetry is x = 0'

(e)

From the graph,the solutions to -].tr + 6 = I are-r:-3'15

Mathematics Tutor 24

orx:

3.15

Qt Cust:o Publicutiorts Pte

l-l(l

Each of the equations in the table represents one of the graphs fiom
letter of each graph in the correct place in the table.

Equation

A to F. Write

dor,vn the

Graph

Y=x2+2
!=lx^1
1^

!=x -zx-3
^l

.,_ 1
'2 ".:
!

= -2x2

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic Functions

2.

The diagram shorvs the graph of )' = lr - 2-r - 15.


(a) The graph cuts the t'-axis at R(0. r). Write dor'vn the value of'r.
(b) The graph cuts the.r-axis at S(.s,0) and T(.t,0). Find the values of s ancl /.
(c) Write dorvn the maximum/minitnum point of the graph.
(d) Hence, find the equation of the line of symmetry.

-).

The curve

(a)
(b)

4.

ffi

P and Q, and the -i,-axis at the point R.


points
R.
P,
and
Write dorvn the coordinates of the
Q
Given that S is the minimurn point of the curve. 'nvrite dor'vn the coordinates of S.
_J,

rr + 4,r -

5 cuts the -r-axis at the points

The curve J'= -rr -x + 6 cuts the -r-axis at the points A and B. and the,l-axis at the point C.
D is the maximum poir-rt. Write dorvn the coordinates of A. B, C and D.

MathematicsTutor2A

G) Casco PrLblicr$iorts

Ptc Ltd

The diagram sholvs the graph of ,r'- -r'- 3-r. The graph passes through the origin and crosses
the .r-axis at the point P.
r a)
Find the cooordinates of P.
(b) Write clor,vn the equtrtion of the line of symrnetry of the graph.
{c) Find the coordinates of the lorvest point on the graph.
(d) Find the coordinates of the point Q on the graph. other than the point (0.0), rvhere the

x- and ,1,-coordinates are equal

The diagram shor,vs the graph of r' = 2x2 + 3x - 20.


(a) The -eraph cuts the y-axis at A(0, a). Write down the value of a.
(b) The graph cuts the r-axis at B(b,0) and C(c, 0). Find the values of b anci
(c) Write down the equation of the line of symmetry of the graph.

1.

.O

The curve y = (-r +

(a)
(b)
(c)

r:.

1)(,r'

3) cuts the,r-axis at the points A and B ancl the,l-axis at C.


Write down the coordinates of the points A, B and C.
Find the equation of the line of symmetry of the curve.
The point D(5, d) lies on the curve. Find the value of r/.

Cascc Publ.icarious Pte LtLl

Chapter 4: Craphs of Quadratic Functions

8.

The diagram shorvs the graph of ,)' - --r2 + -r + ft.


The curve meets the.r-axis at Q and R and the r'-axis at P(0. 12).
(a) Fincl the value of ll.
(b) Write cloivn the coordinates of'Q and R.
(c) Write dorvn the equation of the line of symmetry of the graph

-),

= -.rr +

-rr

+ ft.

-i+x+k

9.

10.

= (.r * 1)(2

- r)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

cuts the r-aris at P and the _r'-aris at R.


Write dorvn the coordinates of P and R.
Find the equation of the line of symmetry tbr the curve ], = (-r * 4l(2 , x').
Hence. rvrite dorvn the coordinates of the maximum point Q of the curve.
Calculate the area of the triangle POR r,vhere O is the origin.

(a)
(b)

A( 1 . r) and B(s. 3) are points on the curve -\i -- J + 3r - -rt. Find the values of r and s.
The graph )- = ax) passes through the points (1,5) and (.2,b) Find the values of a and b.

The curve

1'

r{ 182 }l L,{athen'ratics
\k\tE#,,
,8J

lutot 2A

(A Ca.sco Pr.tblicution.s Pte

Ltd

ll.

The diagram sholvs the graph of y = J + 2x _r2 for

-2

< -r < 4.

From the -uraph, find

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

the values of -t. rvhen x =).J ancl -0.9.


the values of -r rvhen I = 4,
the greatest value of 1.
the equation of the line of symmetry of the curve.

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic

Functions

t2.

The diagram shorvs the graph of

1,

r'

+ -r - 3 for

-3

< .r < 2. Use the graph to ansr,ver the

fbllorving.

(a)
(b)

Estimate the solutions of the equatiou ,r' + -r - 3 = 0.

Write dor.vn

(i)
(ii)

ffi

the smallest value ot-y,


the equation of the line of symmetry of the curve.

Mathematics Tutor

2,A,

Cu.sr:o

Publictttion,s Pte Ltd

The graph sf -i, = (.r - 2)2 ,1 is shorvn belor,v.


(a) Write dorvn tl-re equation of the line of symn-retry.
(b) Write dorvn the coordinates of the minimum point of the graph.
(c) State the.r-intercept(s) of the graph.

(d)

If the point

> 0. find the value of' /z

(h , 5) lies on the curve ancl h

l,l

,;,

..r....:....i..

,,

l:,

:ll

:,

i:r

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t:

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li

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:

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:-*

la

!ii

ti

=t-

!:

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r

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j:,

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t,

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t:
i:

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i

Chapter 4: Craphs

ol Quadratic Functions

'@

t4.

(a)

-1

(c)

v
(b)

Complete the table of values fbr.r,

.rt

- 4r + 4.

16

Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 unit on the -r-axis and


the -r'-axis, clraw the graph of .v = r'- 4, + 4 for-l < r < 6.
From your graph, find
(i) the value of 1' when -r = 3.-5,

I cm to represent I unit on

(ii)
(iii)

15.

(d)

the value(s) of -r rvhen )'= 10,


the coordinates of the minimum point on the curve.
Drarv and label the line of symmetry of the curve.

(a)

Complete the table of values for

J
(b)
(c)

16.

(a)

-J

x2

- ,r -

-1

'7

5.

-5

--)

Using a scale of 2 cnr to represent I unit on the r-axis and I cm to represent


the -r,-axic, draw the graph of v = .r'r .r -5 for -3 < ,r < 4.
From your graph. find
(i) the values of I r'r,hen -r = -1 .2 and 2.4,
(ii) the values of r r'vhen v = 3,
(iii) the smallest value of ,r' and the corresponding value of -r,
(iv) the ecluation o1'the line of symmetry of the curve.

Complete the table of' values fbr


.r

-4

J
(b)

1'

--)
-1

l'

- 2 - 2r

-1

Using a scale of 2 cm to represent

-4

unit on

< x < 2.
2

-6

--)

I unit

-r' fbr

on each axis, draw thegraph of

y-2-2x-x'

for-4<x<2.
(c)

,A86ll

lU

\7

From your graph. find


(i) the values of x when y = 0,
(ii) the value of y when x = 1.5 ,
(iii) the equation of the line of symmetry,
(iv) the coordinates of the maximum point.

Mathematics Tutor 2A

A) Casr:o Publicatiott,s

Pt( t ld

t7.

-3

(b)
(c)
(d)

the values of "r rvhen v = -5,


the smallest value of 2-r2 + 3r

Complete the table of values

(a)

-1

13

Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 unit on the ,r-axis and 1 cm to represent


the,t'-axis, dralv the graph of ,r, =2t) + 3;t - 1 fbr -3 < r<2.
Draw and label the line of symmetry of the curve.
From your graph, find
(i) the value of y r.vhen x = 1.5,

-1

-r)(,r

unit on

3).
4

5
a

(b)

Using a scale of 2 cm to represent


(l -.r)(x - 3) for -1 < r < 5.
-y =

(c)

From your graph, flnd

unit on each axis, drarv the graph of'

the values of ,r when _'i'= -1,


the value of y rvhen.r =,1.5,
the greatest value of .r' and the corresponding value of "r.
the equation of the line of symmetry of the curve.

The variables,r and J' ilre connected by the equatior -1'= -2r2
values o1'x and r are given in the following table.

7.r:

*.1. Some corrcsponding

0.5

1.5

2.5

-)

3.5

4.5

10

+A

-5

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

@,:Citsco

-l

forr = (1 -

-J

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

19.

(ii)
(iii)

18.

* l.

Complete the table clf values for v = 2x) + 3x

(a)

Calculate the values of a, b and c.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 unit on the x-axis and 1 cm to represent 1 unit on
the y-axis, draw the graph of y = -2x' + 7 x + 4 for the range 0 < x < 5.
Draw on the graph the line of symmetry of the curve. Write down the equation of the
line of symmetry.
From the graph, find the maximum va.rue of -2f + 7x + 4.

Publicaions Pte Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic Functions

20.

The variables x and y are connected by the equation


values olx and y are given in the table below.

-1

t5

-J

= 2x2 - 5x

3. Some corresponding

0.5

-6

-5

Calculate the values of a and b.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 unit on the x-axis and 2 cm to represent 5 units on
the y-axis, draw the graph of y = 2x' - 5x - 3 for -2 < x < 5.
From your graph, flnd

(a)

(b)
(c)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
2t.

the value of y when x = 4.3,


the values of x when y = 8,
the smallest value of y and the coresponding value of ;r.

The variables x and y are connected by the equation y


values of r and y are given in the table below.

r
v

(a)
(b)

1 ._
x';. Some corresponding
- 1(cx-

-1

-l

{t

--l

Calculate the values of a and b.

Using a scale of 2 cm to represent


1 .).

unit on each axis, draw the graph of

!=;(5x -x') lor-l <x<6.


(c)

F.ori you graph, find

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
22.

The variables x and y are connected by the equation y = (2x


values of -r and y are given in the table below.
JT

-4

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

,A
V

the value of y when x = 4.7 ,


the values of x when y = 2.5,
the greatest value of y,
the equation of the line of symmetry of the curve.

- 3X5 - r). Some coresponding

Calculate the values of a and b.


Using a scale of Z cm to represent I unit on the x-axis and 1 cm to represent 2 units on
the y-axis, draw the graph of y = (2x - 3X5 - x) for 0 < x < 6.
From your graph, flnd
(i) the value of x when ) = -10,
(ii) the value of y when x = 2.5.
Draw and laLrel on the graph, the line of symmetry of the curve.

tt I 881) Mathematics Tutor 24

@ Casco Publications Pte Ltd

The variables r and l are connectecl by the equation


values of r and 1' are given in the table below.

-3

.A
-z+

,,'

.):

= .l 8 + 5-l -

-1

.l

18

20

16

-10

-1,rt. Sorne corresponding

Calculate the values of a and b.


Llsing a scaie of 2 cm to represent I unit on the ,r-axis and 2 cm to represent
the,y-axis, drarv the graph of 1 = 18 + -5.r - 3-rr fbr -3 < x < 1.
Drarv and label the line of symmetry of the curve .
From your graph, find
(i) the value of I' r'vhen -r = -2.5,
(ii) the values of .r rvhen -y = 15.

(a)

(b)
(c)
(d)

24. (a)

(b)

Complete the table of values fbr y

-5

2t

*3

25.

.|

-1

Using a scale of 2 cm to represent

-11

,l

-J

unit on the -r-axis and 2 cm to

units on the ,v-axis, ciralv the graph of ,t' = 2,rt + ,i.r 9 for -5 < .r <
From your graph, find
(i) the -r-coordinates of the points on the curve rvhere,I = 10.
(ii) the .y-coordinate of the point on the curve where -r = -2.5.
(iii) the equation of the line of symmetry,
(iv) the solutions to the ecluation 2x2 + 4x - 9 = 0.

The table belorv shorvs the values of "r and


\'= r- - 2-r - 5.
.r

v
(a)

(b)

-)

-1.5

-1

0.25

,,)

i.

r.vhich are counected

-0.5

2.5

{r

-5

-5

-3.75

by the

(d)
(e)

equation

-)
.,)

Calculate the values of a and b.


Using a scale of 2 cmto represent 1 unit on each axis, draw the graph of y = x'

lor-2<x<3.
(c)

units on

- 2.r) -r h - 9.

-5

(c)

-5

2x

Write down the least value of y and the corresponding value of x when it occurs.
Write down the equation of the line of symmetry.
Given that the points (1.8, q) and Qt,q) iie on the curve, find the values of p and q.

'A',Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic

Furctions

26.

The variables ir and

of

-J

(c)
(d)

are connected by the equation ,) = xr + 2r

-1

-3

-J

(i)
(ii)

3.5

| -5.5

l1

-)

28. (a)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)

Some corresponding vaiues

the equation of the line of symmetry.


tsy drar,ving an appropriate line on your graph, solve the equation xt +

-{.5

(e)

3.

I unit on

the coodinates of the minimum poinr.

(c)
(d)

Calculate the value of a.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent I unit on the r-axis and 1 cm to represent
the .y-axis. draw the graph of -r, = r' + 2x - 3 fbr -4 < x < 2.
From your graph. find

The variables-,rand11 arecronnectedby theequation


values of -r and l are siven in the table belor,v.

(a)
(b)

29.

-y

_v are given in the table belorv.

.r

(a)
(b)

27.

and

!=2r) -

2-r

- 3 = l.

8-,;+ 11. Some corresponding

Calculate the values of a and b.


Using a scale of 4 cm to represent 1 unit on the x-axis and 1 cm to represent 1 unit on
the y-axis, draw the graph of y = 2x' - 8x + 1 1 for -{.5 < x < 3.5.
State the coordinates of the minimum point.

Write down

(i)
(ii)

the equation of the line of symmetry of the graph,


the coordinates of the point at which the graph cuts the y-axis.
By drawing an appropriate line on your graph, solve 2x2 - 8;r +
=7.

ll

Drawthegraphofy =x2 *3for-3 <x<3.


State the equation of the line of symmetry of the curve.

Use your graph to solve

x'-

3 = 0.

Draw the graph of y = 3 -5x-x'for-6<x<7.


Use your graph to solve the equations

(i) 3-5x-x'=A,
(ii) 3-5x-x'=5.
30.

/F

The total surface atea,A,of a solid cone is given by l= (;2x2 -3x + 5) cm2
(a) Drawthe graph ofA =2x' _ 3-rr+ 5 for0 <x< 2.
(b) From the graph, find
(i) the minimum total surface area of the cone,
(ii) the value of x when the total surface area is 6 cm'.

\\

l[ 190]l

\/

Mathematics Tutor 24.

',,@:Casco

Publications Pte Ltd

31.

The diagram shorvs a trapezium ABCD rvhere AD = (.r

AE=(r+2)cm.

(a)

Shorv that the

tbr
(c)

Drarv the-uraph of

2) cm, BC =

area,A.of the trapezium is given by A =

(ll -

2-r) cm and

(-1,,' + :j .+ O) .,r'.

A= -:.r'+.1 l.r+9lor-J <-r < 10.


graph to find th1 lengthl of AD,BC and AE that rvill

Use your
area of the trapezium.

result in the maximum

(x-2)cm

(1L

32.

-2x)

cm

A barbed wire fencing 10 m long is used to create

a rectangular enclosure.

rm

(a)

(b)
(c)

33.

If

the rvidth of the enclosure is ,r m, sholv that the area, A. of the enclosr-rre is given by

- (5.r-,rt) mt.

Drarv the uraph ul'A = 5r'-.r'' tbr 0 < .r < .5.


Use your graph to find
(i) the values of ,r when the area of- the enclosure is 5 mr.
(ii) the maximum area of the enclosure.

A steel factory manufactures a range of cylindrical oil tanks. Each tank has the san're
The volume, 7 m', of a tank ivith radius, r miltres. is given by the formula V = 1r'

hei-uht.

(a)

(b)
(c)

Complete the table of values of V = 4r).

2"5

t6

25

3.5

4
61

Draw the graph of V = 4r2 for 0 < r < 4 using a scale of 2 cmto represent 1 m on the
r-axis and 2 cmlo represent 10 m3 on the V-axis.
Use your graph to estimate
(i) the volume of a tank with a radius of 2.4 m,
(ii) the radius of a tank with a volume of 60 m3.

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic

Funclions

i($fl

34.

A stone is thrown fiom the top of a cliff into the sca next to it. The height, /r metres, of the stone
above sea level / seconds after it is throrvn is given by the equation h =JO + 14t 5f.
Some corresponding values of r and /r are given in the table belor,v.

l
-1

10

19

18

67

46

15

(a)
(t-,)
(c)

Calculate the value of a.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent I second, drarv a horizontal /-axis fbr 0 < I < 6.
Using a scale of I cm to represent l0 metres. drar,v a vertical /z-aris fbr -30 < ft < 100.
On your axes, plot the points given in the table and join them with a smooth curve.
Usc your graph to estimate
(i) the maximum height of the stone above sea level,

(ii)
(iii)

the length of tjme that the stone was more than 75 m above sea level,
the time taken fbr the stone to hit the water.

Mr Lim ordcrs chairs fiotn a factory to sell. When he orders a batch of r chairs, the cost of each
chair, $-r', is given by J, =.tr - 14,r + 80.
(a) Drarv the graph of r'=.rt - 14x + 80 fbr0 <,r < lr1.
(b) From your graph, find
(i) the number of chairs in a batch Mr l,im needs to order so that the cost per chair is
minimum,
(ii) the number of chairs in a batch he needs to order so that the cost per chair is less

35.

than
36.

During a festival, firer,vorks rvere launched vertically upr,vards at a speecl of 30 m/s. The
height, ,1' metres. of the fire.,vorks above the ground after -,r seconds is given by the formula
t = JU.r'- 5-r'-.

iul
(b)

-)t.

$215.

(a)

(b)
(c)

Drarvthegraphof .r,= 30-r--5.rrfbr0 <,r<6,usingascalcof 2cmtorepresent


on the.r-axis and 2 crn to represent 5 metres on the l.-axis.
Use your graph to flnd
(i) the height reached by the firer,vorks afier 2.5 seconds.
(ii) tl-re shortest time taken tbr the fireu,orks to reach a height of- 20 m,
(iji) the maximurn height reached by the firervorks above the ground.

second

The perimeter of a rectangle is 12 cm and its length is.r cm. Shor,v that the area,A cmt,
of thc rectangle is given by A - (6r *,rr) cm'.
Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 cm on the .t-itxis and 2 cm to represent 1 cmr on the
A-aris. dran,the graph of A = 6.r- -.rt fbr 0 < -r < 6.
From your graph, fincl
(i) the area of the rectangle r,vhen -r = 4.8 cm,
(iil the dimcnsions of the rectangle r.vhen its arca is ,l cmt,

(iii)
(iv)
(v)

the maximum arca of the rectan_gle,


the corresponditig length and breadth of the rectansle rvhen its area is maximum,
the sh;ipe of the lectangle when its area is maximum.

/A\

({tSZ}i

\./

Marhemarics Tutor 2,q

(a Cu.sc'o Publication,s Pte Ltd

38.

A shop sells between 5 and 13 bottles of wine daily. The daily profit, $y, earned from the sale
of r bottles of wine is given by y = -f + l8x + 168.
(a) Drawthegraphofy =-f + 18x+ 168 for5 < x<13.
(b) From your graph, flnd
(i) the number of bottles of wine the shop needs to sell to maximise its daily profit,
(ii) the daily maximum profit.

39.

Marc dives off a diving board at a height of 3 m above the water. His height, ft metres, after
/ seconds is given by h = (3 + 2t - afi m.
(a) Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 0.2 seconds on the /-axis and 2 cm to represent
1 metre on the h-axis,draw the graph of h = 3 + 2t - 4f for 0 < t < 1.4.
(b) From your graph, flnd the time when Marc touches the water.

40.

The diagram shows a rectangular plot of land PQRS where PQ

= Qx - 2) m and

- 2x) m. The shaded part of the plot of land, A, of width -r m is to be cemented.


Find A, the area of the shaded part, giving your answer in terms of x.
Draw the graph of the above equation for 0 < x < 3.
From the graph, flnd
(i) the value of x for which the area of the cemented part, A, is maximum,
(ii) the values of x for which the area of the cemented part, A, is 3 m2.

QR = (5

(a)
(b)
(c)

(3x

-2)

(5

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

-2x) m

Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic Functions

@
\!y',

THINKING S](ILLS GORNER


I

2.

The equation of the line of symmetry of the curve J' = -r' +


Find the value of p.

The diagram shows the curve with equatiot

-y

pr + 21 is -r = ,1.

= cjrr + br + c. Find the values of o,b and c.

)
_'\'=a-rr+b.r+c

J.

The diagram shor.vs the sketch of the graph ! = 2x2 * 4x - 16.


(a) Given that the y-coordinate of the minimum point is 18, find
(i) the "r-coordinate of the minimum point,
(ii) the equation of the line of symmetry.

(b)

AandB arepointsonthegraphy =2x)-4x_ l6andthecoordinatesofA=( 1,k).Find


the coordinates of A and B if the line AB is parallel to the -r-axis.

)'=

,A\

tQp

Marhematics Tutor 2,t

2r)

'1-r

I6

(9 Cctst:r.t Publitotions' Pte Ltd

Simple Algebraic
Fractions
c i a a a c a a a a a a a a a aaaa

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a a a t

&1a.\
-.lL

lEZ rarsets
.
a

Multiply and divide simple algebraic fractions.


Add and subtract algebraic fractions.

Change the subject of a formula.

Find the value of an unknown quantity in a given formula.

rc

Simple Algebraic Fractions


1.

An algebraic fraction is a fraction that contains algebraic terms. It is in the form


where A and B are algebraic expressions and B

E.g.
2.

zrrb x*1
;. ffi

and

3x+2

ff

f,

0.

are algebraic fractions.

To manipulate algebraic fractions, treat them like numerical fractions i.e. the same
rules associated with numerical fractions are applicable.

The value of the fraction remains the same if we multiply or divide both the
numerator and denominator by the same non-zero expression.

3.

To simplify algebraic fractions, we divide the numerator and denominarr-rr h1 their


common factors i.e. cancelling common factors.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify each of the following.

(a)
(c)

l2at b'

3a'b'
-

-2x?. - 8x
r'-16

MathematicsTutor2A

(b)
(d)

n2

+ 3mn

x'+x-6
TJxJs
"@ Casco

Publicarions Prc Lrd

SOLUTION:
o

(a)

14ot'

4u
b

5mn (n + 3iit')

(b)

fl @-+.Mi
= 5ttt
(c)

2l)
.rt

zx94

8x

(x +

16

- 51 = (u + b'l(u bi"
.rt- 16 =rt 41

Use ct

4)p;--4J

= (,r + 4)(.r _ 4)

).

=--t,4
(d)

x'+x-6 -g*-s\(x-z)
2x - 15 .e-+-l1tx - sl

x' -

x-2
=-x-5
Cancellation is done only after both the numerator and
denominator have been completely factorised.
Correct method
2rt:

- 1u

,t'*1

ltr (rr - I
(a+2)(.a*21

^l
lLt

- +(l

=-o-t 2

%ru"

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Simplify each of the following algebraic fiactions.

(a)

2:2 -,r

-lt

(b)

a,r-3a)'+2bx-6b)'

trn + -5rr.r r

z[lr.t

+ lOhi

SOLUTION:

(a)

2x1

-x-6

r
+r-

(2-r + 3)(r

2)

(2+-t)(2--r)

-.tl
ATL

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 5: SimpleAlgebraic

Fractions

(b)

ax-3ay+2br-6b),
Lr, + 5rD'+ 4b, + l}b!

a(x

3y) +

2b(r

3.y)

a(2r+5,r')+20(2r+51)

(2r+5r')(a+Zb)

= 2-t-r-3)+ 5r,

[m>

Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Fractions

1.

Algebraic tractions are multiplied the same \vey

2.

To

as

numeric tiactrtrn:

multiply algebraic fractions:

Step 1 : Divide

the numerator and denominator by the common factrtr:

i.e. cancelling common factors.

Step 2 : Muitiply the terms that are left in the numerator and multiplr
the terms that are left in the denominator.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify each of the fbllou,ing.
r l,
_(l D
ld,

ir'

3.''

(b)

6ub

6x'

l8,rr

5x-zy

8,r'l

2xtt

/..r
tL l

1r+J

9.t-

Lr-l

.r'r.\' l

SOLUTION:

'2o'' b
lr'
(b)

fr

6-12
lt,'

5r,l'

5a

trlt

18.12

8r,2

2-lr'

0..' ..2(9r2-41
l-n'
.lt-2J

6,r
lr'-

ffi
\/

)r'

(3.r + 2y,)

l?x--Z-i\
f

6.r(3-r + 2-r')
}.

Mathematics Tutor 24

Casco PLhlicotiorts Pte Ltd

(c)

9.rr I
2r+4
'
l.i'- | .r'-.r'-2

tx-+-Zi

jx-r1"

i3x+ f13x
(x

1)

- II

($*5

_ 2(3x - 1)
x-1
-).

4.

Algebraic fiactions are divided the serme way as nurneric fractions" To divide
fraction is the same as multipilring it by its reciprocal.
To divide two algebraic fractions:

Step

: Multiply the first fraction by the reciprocal of the second


fraction , i .e. turn the second fraction upside dorvn and multiply.

r
s I
Fo
"'s'.\' + b - .\' *

/'
(t

Step 2 : Multiply the terms that are left in the numerator and multiply
the tenns thilt are lefi in the denominator.

Any trvo numbers r'vhose product is I are called reciprocals of each other.
F..g. Thc reciprot'rl of 2

Tlte rcciprocat

,,f

is j- tincc

].rzi, I

xj

In general. the reciprocal oi a is

I
cl

{k_{:s\ WORKED EXAMPLE 2:


Simplify each of the following.

(a)
(c)

o'b'
%*

2a3bo

(b)

k'

uiL

a'-2a+1

(3 r)' .9 *'
S.r,t; 10,1y:

3a+6

a-1
az,/0

tobc 21

.9 e ^ 2)ubn'
C

6ab

Casco Publit:tttions Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: SimpleAlgebraic Fractions

(b)

(3-x)' _9-*'
8y'z l}xyz

lAqz
9-x2

(3 - x)'
-----X
8y'z
(3

5t

- x)''

^ (3+x)!3-'r)

o.J1
=

(c)

... u+2

o'

5x(3

x)

4yz (3 + x)

3ct+6

)t+1

tt7

)fr ryz

,,

(a

* r)"

x_:-a.=-i

3W2)

I
3(a

5.

t)

In general, for any two algebraic fractions,

a c
b',1
0{'ocl

aa-t

-bdancl -

{lxc
b'.,!

-=ltdlst

axd
bxc

itr>

Highgqt Cornmon Factor and Lowest Cornmon Multipte

1.

2.

%,

have learned to find the highest common factor (HCF) and the lorvest common
multiple (LCM) of integers in Book lA.
W-e

In this chapter, we will find the HCF and LCM of algebraic expressions. We flnd
the HCF and LCM of algebraic expressions as we do for numbers.

woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Find

(a)
(b)

the HCF of 8x'y3z',12x'yz' and20xy2z3


the

LCM of 2x2 ,24i

and. 36x3y

,rq\

{,[200]

Mathematics Tutor 2A

i@-Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

SOLUTION:

(a) Bx'y'z'

x'x y'x7'
l2x3yz2 =2'x3 xxr x ! Xz2
20t1,'23 =22 x5 xr x Y'xz'
.'.HCF =22x x xy x7'
=23

4rjz,

Alternative method: Using repeated division

2(i,n'l:'

Start clividing all the terms by a


common tactrx'and cont.inltc to

-r

cio so

if

possible.

-]:

slx| 2

t -2
J-l'

c-.- .+
J)i

Stop here sincc 2.rr'r. J-rr ancl 5r':

have no nrofe common fackrrs.

HCF of 8x'y'z',llx3yzz and2Oxy2z3

=4xxxyxz2
=

(b)

+XIZ.

2x2

=2 x

x'

24x2=23x 3 xx2
36x3Y

=22

32

xx3 xY

.'.LCM=23x32xx3xy
= 7Zx3y

Alternative method: Using repeated division


Start dividing all the tcrms by a common
thctor and continue lo do so il possible.

6 is thc cornmon factol of 1l and i8,rr'.

lIr

rrrirnlrer ir ntrt

diliiiblc.crtrl

il ottlo

thc rrert lirte.


Stop *,hcn rvc have a rcrv

LCM of 2f ,24x'
=2x2

ol

1's.

and 36x3y

x6xZx3xy

72x3y

Cusco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Simpte Algebraic Fractions

rc&

Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Fractions

1.

Algebraic fractions are added and subtracted in the same way

2.

To add or subtract algebraic fractions:

Step 1 : Find

as numeric

fractions.

the lowest common multiple (LCM) of the denominators

lirst.

Step 2 : Write the algebraic fractions

as equivalent fractions

rvith the

sume denominators.

Step 3 : Add or subtract as rve do in numeric fractions.

'&*"*'

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify each of the following.

(a)j-2 r *
(c)

-)

,L

2.r'
+_

(b) ?Jx)x +;.a!

.\'-.\'
2

(d)

^-L

54

2x-4y - 3x-6y

SOLUTION:

(a)

x*2tt
---

x-!

=2(x+2y)-3(x-y)
6
2x+4l- 3x+3y
6

-r

+'7y
6

(b) *.*

2(4_r,)

+ ,r(3x)

12xy

8y

3x2

12xy

(c)

l2
,J + r,

_ 3(r-2)+2(r-l)
(r - l)(r - 2)
3x-6+2x-2

(r-lXr-2)
5"r-u

(,r-l)(x-2)

/4.
|x202'l\ Mathematics Tutor 2A

\.q

@ Ctrsto Publicatious Pte Ltul

(d)

2x-4y 3x-6y 2(x-2y)


_ 15-8
6(x

2y)

6(x

2y)

Simplify and write each of the following as a single fraction.


(a)

l(

x I

36

-l.t-5

(h)

2-r
-t+3 r -9

IU

'

35 +2x-3 x+2
x-4
I
----.
2x'-x-l
x-1

SOLUTION:

(a)3- x-l

-1.r

-5

2t.r

- lt-

t.l.r

5l

2x-2-3x+5

3-x
=- 6
(b)

_+

.l

x-f

5(2-r
(2x-3)(x+2)
3x+6+10x*15
(2r-3)(x+2)
3(r + 2) +

-1

2.r

13x

3)

(2-r-3)(r+2')
(c)

x2"d

,+3 - r: -9 - r+.1 (r+.t)(r-3)


-=- _ 2r.r'- 3t- (r+3)(r-3)
2r-6-x
r

(-r+3)(-t-3)

x-6

(r+3)(:r-3)

Casco PLtblication.t Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

(o)

x-4
1
x-4
2*r_*_1* *-=ex+l)(4-l)

*r-t

_ x-4+(2x+1)
(2x+1)(x-t)
_ 3x*3
(2x+1)(x*l)
g-*"5
(2x + t) (7"--f
3

=32x+l

ffi

Solving Equations involving Algebraic Fractions


I

We solve equations involving algebraic fractions in the same way as lve solve
equations r,vith numeric fractions.

2.

To solve equations involving algebraic fractions:

Step

: Eliminate the denominators by multiplyin_t each term of the


equation by the LCM of the denominators

Step 2 : Solve the nerv equivalent ecluation in the usual rvay.

''@&

woRKED EXAMPLE 1:
Solve the following equations.
,\t-

(a)

''u

x-1 r-3
(b) -;+i=l

-3

(c) --6,=o
x+2 2x-l

.
(d)

5r-4
x-3
--3+-

x-3

SOLUTION:
)+r
\

q./
_rr

2+-r=3r
,.

f -. _

1--

-2
a

-t

ffifl

Mathematics Tutor 24

e' Casco Publit:otions Pte Ltd

.'- 1
t)

(b)

r'-

1
'_l

2ix- l) + 3(\'-.1)

=6

2.r-2 +.1.t'-9 =6
5.r

17
1

f=J:

(c)'

86
()
r+2 2.r-l =
8i2r- l1-61r+2)=0
16-r-8 6r- 12 =0
10x-20 =0

l0r = 20
-._')

(d)

5r -zl
'---- -3 a
.r
- -l

.1'

-1

,5.r-zt=3(-t-3)+1

5.r-4=-l.r-9+
5x-3-r=-8+4
1-- _
z-t-,_

q*

I
a

woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
Solve each of the follor'ving equations.
(a)

(c)

*-{-

x-5

8r

2x-5

(b)

'

^aL

'

i -s - ,r-3

x-2
2x-l

.lrl

-0

\u/-T-=-

.\rl

.1 -{

-l

SOLUTION:
I

(a)

.r'-5= \-) (-r--5)2=4


-T(r-11=-1.

.'.

i-

Cct.sco

-r

./4

(-+)

2
-r=J
5=

Publiccttions Pte Ltd

ttr
or

x-5=-2
x =3

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

6m
\\ &/
\:Y/

2-r-5.. -x-2

(b)
(2-r

-r+2--'o''?,r:-l
- | ) = (r - 2)(x + 2)

5)(2-r

2x-10-r+5=.r2-4
3rt_ l2x+9=0
x'_ 1x+3=0

,4x2_

(-r lX"r - 3) = 0
.'.r-l=0 or x-3=0
-t=1 or r=3
8.r

(c)

L
\'-9

8.r
ar;x.'-31

- .\' J- =()
s

-=l)
8r--5(.r+3)=0
B.r-5x-15=0
3.r

15

-r=5
(d)

r+l ' .r-3 -

-1

3(.r- 3) + 3(.r + l) = 2(r + l)(;r- 3)


3r - 9 + 3-r + 3 = 2(.r2 - 2.r- 3)
-I

6r-6=2xt-4x-6

2rr-10.r=0
2 r'lr'- 5\ = O

.'.2r=0 or ,r 5=0
r=0 or
.t=5
ffi

ffi

Solving Problems involving Algebraic Fractions


To solve a problem involving algebraic fractions:

Step 1 : Use

a variable to represent the unknor'vn.

Step 2 : Form an equation in terms of the variable.


Step 3 : Solve the equation.
Step 4 : Check that your answer satisfies the original problem.
Step 5 : Anslver the original problem.

,/ff\
\/

({206}

Mathemarics Turor 2A

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Q**a'

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Tr.vo consecutive odd integers are such

that

]5' of the reciprocal of the first integer is

equal to the reciprocal of the other. Find the integers.

SOLUTION:
Let the tr,vo odd integers be x and .r + 2.

3rl \
-5\.r/ .r'*2
3 *_* l
I

tr'-*''r

3(.t+2)=5.r
3-r+6 =5r
6 =2x
j--_f
-

-)

.'rl-(

.'. The integers are 3 and 5.


Check answer:

i(l)

!.,
-t

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
A and B are 280 km apart. Andrerv drove from Town A to Tolvn B at an average
speed of -r km/h.
(a) Write down an expressit'rn. in terms of r, fbr the time. in hours, taken by Anclrerv
to travel from Tolvn A to Tor,vn B.
(b) On his return journey, his average speed r,vas increased by 10 km/h. Write dorvn
an expression, in terms of ;r, f-or the time. in hours. that he took for the journey.
(c) Given also that the difference in time betr,veen the trvo journeys is 30 minLrtes,
form an equation in r, and shor.v that it reduces to,rr + l0r - -5600 = 0.
(d) Solve the equation and find the total time that Andrew spent travelling.

Tor,vns

SOLUTION:
(a)

(b)

(c)

'\

t?:,ffi:ff::

travered

A*.,g" tr"d

Time taken

#% ,

280 280 I
.t
560(x + 10)
-560.t + 5600

r' + 10-r
I

280

rime taken -

Ca.sr'o Publications Ptu Lrd

.ttl0

+602

30r
30min=-h=:h

- 560r =.r(r + 10)


- 560x =.rr + l0r
* 5600 = 0 (Shorvn)
Chapter 5: SimpleAlgebraic Fractions

(d)

:r2+ l0-r-,5600=0

("r-70)(r+80)=0

.'.r-70=0 or r+80=0
r =J0 or
-r = -80
(rejected since

r is positive)

.'. .r = 70

Total time taken

2lt0

, 290
. 'r+10
280 280
10'80
f

-zl+ l:2
_l
l- h
=

Total time taken =

F.t>

Changing the Subject of a Formula

l.

A formula is an equaticln that

describes hor,v one quantity is related to other

quantities.
2.

Below are some well known formulas.

E.g.

A=ntr)
A is the subject of the formula.

8.e.2 P=2(l+b')

P is thc pcrimctcr of a

rcctan.glc

ol

P is the subject of the formula.

3.

The subject of a formula is a single term that appears on the lefl-hand side of an
equation and nor,vhere else.

4.

To make a variable the sr,rbject of a fonnula. we rearrange the torn"rula so that only
that particular variable appears on the left-hand side of the formula. This process is
called changing the subject of the formula.

[{ZOS}} Mathemarics Turor

\,/

2,A.

@ Casco Pttblications Pte

Lkl

5.

In the formu tu S =

?,

S is called the subject of the formula. We can rearrange the

formula to make D or T the subject of the formula.

^D
,\=T

sr=D-,W
.'. D

ST (D is the subject of the formula.)

D=ST
D

'P4l.;de kith"tides bY

t. f = 2
,s

17 is now the subject

i."

of the formula.)

WoRKED EXAMPLE 1:
Make

the subject of the fbrmula.

(a) t^

1r'-Jr'=-r

(b)

=1-r'

r,

SOLUTION:

(a)

l^
1.r- -.tr'- -\
fr'-5+1,'
-.r-rJr
2.\

-r = 2(5 +

3l') +

Multiply both sides by

2.

.r'=10+6.r'

(b)

'
r-2 -l-r'
I
r-2
l-r'
3

,. )_

-t -

l-1,
-

-i

-1

r.

+2

. I ir.ico PLrltlications Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

'%,

woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
Make the shaded letters the subject of the formula in each of the following.

(b)

(a)

A=lhta+b'l
2

ffi

_tlt
(d)
-*-=lll'I

1-2x

(c)

a(x+b7+x=c

Y+J

SOLUTION:

(a)

A= +h@ + b)
b)
2A= ho + hb
2A = h(n +

Multipiyiboth sides by 2,

ha=2A-hb -

o= 2A-hb
h
(b)

a(x + b) +.rr = c

ar+ab+r=c
ttx+x=c-ab
,r(n+1)=c-ab
c-ab
a*l

"
(c)

-].',

1-(x

- l-2x
-r+3

+ 3) =

| -2x

xy+3y= l-2x

x!*2x= l-31'
r(v+2)= 1*3v
1-3v

j-

,,r?
_t'-

tl
(cl) -+Llv

7
1

j1

LI

v- f
l"

1
LI

1
v

J,

t.t

v-f

T
tu
1,-|

'.1

i{210}l

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Cusco

Publicatbns Pte Ltd

wORKED EXAMpLE 3:

(a)

Make c the subject of the formu ,u n

(b)

Given that

-r'

^
!r-:,"

=- ^El

- (p, * q)t . express r in terms of p, cl and .v.

SOLUTION:

(a)

E+2,

= \l\b-2c

nz-b+2c
b-2c
a'(b-2c)-b+2c.
ertb-zatc=b+2c
2c+2a)c=atb-b
c(2+2a))=a'b-b
atb b
2a'+2

(tbt

r'

tn.r'- q)l

a
tV.\'_ p.\_q

r
q+{}'=pr

sr\[
p

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
The formula to find the volume, V, of a cone of radius r and height

t.
V= : ltr-lt.

/z

is given by

-1

(a)

Calculate the value of

(b)

Express

Vif r=2.1cm,/r
'1 = 8 cm

r in terms of V, r

anrJ

ancl

o= ?.

h.

SOLUTION:

(l)

l-

V- rttr'lt
-l
When r

=2.1.h=

V=!xllrl.ltxS
31

(bl
B and

o= |

1^
V=:nr'h

3V __z
ith -'
root
, =* @- .-"ffiS
trn
us&'Siies.,
\
i"6;
.":

= 36.96 cm:'

Casco Publications

Pte

Ltd

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

%,

woRKED EXAMpLE 5:
l?j-'

(a)

Given lhat p =

(b)

Given that s =

(c)

Given that iu = i/

!r,1-tI

tind the value of 4 rvhen p = 3.


. find the values of / r.vhen s = 6.

[+2r
*
! --r

find the value of .r r'vhen rt, = 2 and -1' = 3.

.r

SOLUTION:

lr_

(ar P= \l)q+l

When P = 3,

-21

r = \2q +

27

Scprare both sides.

'- 2q+l
I _ Zq+l
921
a'7
2a+l=!
'9
2q+l=3

Take reciprocals or-i both sides.

,,
4.,
LCl --L
^ _1
q-1

r--:-

(b) s- r/11+r'
When s = 6,
f---

6=,lll+t'
36=ll+f

Squale both sides.

f=25

-fake

7=*J25

sqirarc root ou both sidcs.

=+5

E+2"
(c) w= i(zxy
When w

=2

andy

3,

- -,Ei--*,6V 2x-3

*-x+6
- 2x-3 &*
B(2x-3)=x+6

l6x-24=x*6
15r = 30

,A
Kp]

r =)

Mathematics Tutor 24

'.@,.Casco

Publications Pte Ltd

1t

Simplifying Simple Algebraic Fractions


Simplify each of the following algebraic fractions.

(a) 1/8r--'.

(D)

4x) l
(d) -----+

(e)

-4n
(s) --

l rl-rn r'
(n) -_:

36ry'

\ n'

{c}

(2x\2

(m) -63ur.
-35ti

Publicotior.ts Pte Ltd

'

-r'r,'

..
{l)

(k) #8( r.,r'tr'r'


1O

(1.)

(n) 60xrI:-l5.tt'':'

to,

1t

74mn2

2lmn

5 r'r-

8x

I 1.r'r,:*
.. -:;-.
(l)
)).n.

, '-.;rco

6ult
10b.'

c1

20

u'

r,

l,

-)ta

Da

93alt),')

108(,'rr, )l

48ab'

-';:

-1 2ub:
a

,'

l,t

-1(l

l)

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

(q) (--1.1
rJ /.n'

(D) .-( 3ab t1


'
12n'' lt'

(r)

(2r2 v\3

l
_
t_
( \rr
b\'

(4tlt'\'
--+

-15ab

12'tat'

(t) --:

34ah

(u)

"

5ry"

../

2gq,i- /,,

lWl-

18

p'q(2
trt3

t1a

(2

3q)'

N,lathematics Tutor 2A

3q)'

(v)

"

20(x

y)
)

5(x

9xs

(2x +

),)-

y)s

3x" (2x + y)"

':@:.Casco

Publications Pte Ltd

Simplify each of the fbllor,ving algebraic fractions.

(a)

.
(b)

2r

"

J.t - .t

.r'' +

-l.rt'

6,r

(c) 2ab- 8b2


4t)

(e)

(s)

"

(t)

13,rr'

.-:-.1'

l.r'-r'' -

r-r'

3-6x+9xr
l-5r

-)

. 5x- (I)
8;-ri

15r-y

Casco Publications Pte

(d)

Ltd

(h)

0)

nltl
.

nt-

tltT

.L
9.r- ll

rr'

3m2 + mn

l2mn + 4n'

,3
^2
+x
-Jx
.;'z-\ -)

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

..
0)

30rrl
(rn) --18nt
---.-'' -

16r

(o)

(6x
(8x

(q)

9ax

l0 n'

6y)2
.

(n)

(n't

8y)'

27 ax2
D - + a-x
lax)-

(r)

tt 3ni n
._
ilnl
lilt
6rttt

1l

7.t + 28,t1'
(3 + l2l')':

5m.

)ntrr

n
.

l0nr-

(6x

- 3r')l
(4.t - 2y)'

-.

,A

((216))

\/

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

CcLsco

Publicotions Pte Lttl

Simplify each of the follor.ving algebraic fiactions.

a'-b'
(b) r
(a - b)'

J+V
(a) -.--x -y

(c)

(m + nlz

(d)

m, -n ,

r)- - r(x - v)-

8x2 - 4m
(e) ----;---.
4x' - y'

(e)

(1)-"

x' - 25t'

6+rfr 4f
_

5x-10

+2x-8

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

3a2 (t)-----;-

27b2

a' + 3ab

-(l3y - l3xXr + y)
. ----7
(h)
_l---

(i)

"

)x'-8;r+l-5

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

ffi

(k)

7.r 18
f -2r

.rr +
.

0)-

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1)

r'9

4x2 -l
(m)
' -_12x' -3x+1

18x2 - 50
(n) --6x' - x -I5

(O).

(p)

rr + 4-r )-1
.r'+5r l4

2x)

ll,v + l5

)-_l

(q)

(s)

,.4\

.r- + 6.Y\'- /l'-

)^)Z.n'+ r'-l'-

9.r2 -30,ri-+251,2

g-rr

25,12

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(r)

(t)

x'(y*,11y+2z)
5-D,(_)', 2)-

- gab2
Lat -otb-6ab2
1a3

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Simplify each of the following algebraic fractions.

(a)

ax+bx+a'+ab
ax*bx-a2 -ab

(b)

_----;-

-3ac+ab-bc
4a'-ab-4ac+bc

(d)

(2x+)t)2 _ 922
l4r2 +7xy+2lxz

(fl

+4ab+4b2 -L ^)
a'+Zac+(:2 -4b1

(h)

3a2

\v/

(e)

(e)

- qst'o

a2

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2mx*6my-3w-9ny
,ltut

4n; -

3,tx +

6ti

4x2 +9y2 +l2xy


2px*2qx-3qy+3py

(x+5v)2-4y2

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x2 +6xr-+9y1 -4r-2

x' -

25

r-'

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

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(2)

Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Fractions

5.

Simplify each of the following algebraic fractions.

(a)

(c

J ,r2
_x
,1r''

9a'.r
-1bi'

(b)

l2 -:
i,a

2l.r'

(d)

18-ry

abl

(e) 72a2b3* 8ab2


)x
I ^5r"
---;-

tl,

^2
.Jrv

xv

Y,

l5c*r/3

-2 ]
-rrv
....:=,.-..:-

/ l3
4-{v

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9'xV

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ir'
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t3th\:
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1

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./ -to.'

'

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a'

li
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1b'

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@ Casco PublictLtions Pte

Ltd

r)

t
6r
r'^
(m) ----:
x_:_
Ill

)''

F
8 -r*

22

J)'

4rt-r't .. 5r1-'
,\
..
,

l5,.rrz

---i

6a:r

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l8rr'rr'

9m'tt'

6p-q'

l2p

(n) 2rr'b)'' l1a'b:


9ob
I crc,
-X-:-

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5r'

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b:

lutt "

8rr5

.lc'

25ab

'16./rt

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Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

ffi

Simpliff each of the following algebraic fractions.

(a) 3x-2r'.. 4*'y


9x - 61
5t'
-X

8x

tL,

r^\

IOI

tnt

m-3n

5m-l5n

9mtt

6mn

- 6v 3Dr + 3hy
5a1'^- 4x: - 3.ry

-:----'-'-'-

5ar +

6p: +2pq

9p] +3pt,1

3pq

p'q'-3pq

16.12-4

(-l.r'X2y:t

4(2r'+1.1

9x:

'

1)
ttt--nm

n--mn

^
\,,/
n'-np

nm*mp

tnl

- 3-i : ll.t - 48
6x+12
-8

2r-r

i;&\ \\
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Ltd

.:\ 3rr-5x-2

lrl

r+2

9x2_ l

2x+4

t^

(l)-=.Y + lxy

. rt-3r+2
xl-r-6
(m)
3 " *'-'-2-

(o)

(p)

x+1

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ir+)'

x-y

r'r+5r
x+3

x'-25
.r2-r-12

rnl:_Y___

1+t

r-5
3xr

1_1.r
l-

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)^l

.r'+x-\'-2r'-

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

,{223ii

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7.

Find the HCF of each of the following.

8.

(a)

6p2q,21pq2

(b)

l2x2y2,1Sxyt, l5xy2

(c)

2lm:n. l2m'n:. l5nr:n'

(d)

6ai,l1a2b),20a)b3

(b)

2ab,5ac,l0bc

(d)

latbo,ga'b' , l4abc'

Find the LCM of each of the following.

(a) 9-ri, 15y'

(c)

i{224}l

6-r2y, 8rr-2,

l5,rrl

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

Cosco Publicutions Pte Ltd

(3)

Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Fractions

9.

Express each of the following as a single fraction.

. .r + .r-5
(a)
r
3

(c)

(e)

Io)

(i)

3,r +

I
36

.lr+l

f ?r'
.

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9t

. 2ab 3ab+ 5ob


(d)
i- - 4. 12*

4,

2r +

-r

-s
rbr 6:1
-

.t

f,

rl) l(.lr- lt_ r-2 _,

-sl

2u -5-L: r'

3-r

Ltd

- 5v

il]

2-t

r:

.11.r

l) + 5( r
I

- //l , nt 2.r
lnr-2r,-8*

.\'

2.t

x
4

.l.r

lrr

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

(k) x-z3. *1

(l) I 2

(m)

,hl

-r

2t+l-

3x-2

(o)

,-y - y-,

(q)

2r+3- 2x+l

(s)

3xx
x*2 x-2

I
2x

l4

-1

f,

3(x+2) x-5

3-r'
(r) .j*
-l-V

x*2
.
x'

)v_ 7

2x+3

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@ Casco Publi<:ation.s Pte

Ltd

Express each of the following as a single fraction.

(a)'

(c)

(e)

_53
_ --i-

x-l

r'-2x

x'_ l

9./A - 3r+t

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

(b) 23
"r-r.+r (r_J)-

(d)

.-+x'-4

(I)

2.r
5
3x-5 --- 9r'-25

2-r

(h)

--y-7-ry

0)

(x-2Xx+3) - x+3

4x+2

,n"j)

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions 1227

\"7

Express each of the following as a fraction with a single denominator,

r+l
(at ^t- _
xl

(C)

tcl

ip,
'c'

(b)

.l1 11'

1'

ldt

- 2r' l'-.r
-+2.r

l.r--3

6r zl

l&228p Mathernarics Tutor

l+ |

.r 2
2r-lr'

3+t'

9r'
-J

6.r

.r-l
6

9.t

t2\
.rf I

vrl

3.r'+

.r-l

2,A

l-rl

(h)

#.

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(i)

(k)

(m)

5105

(.r l) T-.T-(Jr-l)r

6y

rt

+,ry

2y'

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

'a

(.t-l)'

2t
r'- +

2.r1'

(1)

(n)

321
11 +

.r-)--T' .\ - \'-

.r\'-

ll_l
.r 2r' 4i-2.t'-l.t

tl
L'l^
-t
-

J.t

.r-

6r'

f_
f,

I :-t

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic

Fractions

(4)

Solving Equations involving Algebraic Fractions

12.

Solve the following equations.

(b)

r-2
(c)3=4

(e)

(ol
\b'

f\

x+2

l-.r
(d)2=3

(o*

=o

5-r

=-5x+4

5-3

3x x+2

(i) * *t=

fA
v

*20 =
x

5x
6

Mathemarics Turor 2,t

0)

!*l=n

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

.3x
(l)

(k) 6+?!--l=,

(m)

lnl--=l

--5

",r-) - _1
L

l0 -

x+2 2x-1
35

(n) .1r+l_5x-6 _,
74

2r+l

3.r+7
(p) .l+ 4r'-5
t5 = 6

s3

(q) Y?

4x-3

-"*;t'

(s) ),{
='-Z+l=A
x 3x

A Casco Publications Pte Ltd

x+3
46

=,

(t) z,r

3(x-l)
5x

19

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

,.r

',ty

Solve the following equations.

(a)

*=4-+

(c) 1 - 5
.r*l
.r-l

=o

(b) l+
.t

(d)

^-

(fl

6r
(gl '.+
,!

(r)

r a

-t -

r
4- -o

l4

-=l

5
r-l

=0

- .-l

5
.r*1 *

=0

3 =l

2x+2

(h)

u)*

_1

-r:+l -'

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Mathematics Tutor 2,A

@ Cusrz Publications Pte

Ltd

(k) r.-J
-a--l-=l
r--)

(m) ^--1 + --:-6


L\ J ,1.r-

(o)

6q

x'-4

x-2

=()

(nr 9l
.r*1

(p)

,rt-l

x-2
9

x-2

n+l
.r -l

t-l
t-5

-]

-,1-

(o) 2r_ l=
'

(s)

2r

r+--)
-

-l-'r.
.lr+.5

x+J
Lr+6

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

Solve the following equations.

(a)

(c)

(e)

,n,
'99

(3r-1)(x+2)

5x

(2x+l)(x-4)

I
+ x+2

=o

(b)

23
x-4 =-2x+l

(d)

2x-7

r--1 .- (x-3)(2"r+l)

Mathematics Tutor 2A

17

2x+l

(Ii^tll

4 _3_ l
2x: -x ' x - 2x-l

8+-r ^
_',

x'-4

il*

1
I

x+'2

*_r, =r_l

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(5)

Solving Problems involving Algebraic Fractions

15.

One number is five times of another number and the difference between their
reciprocals

.1
t.
i'.

Find the two positive numbers.

group of boy scouts brought a certain number of cans of sardines on a camping


trip. If they ate 9 cans of sardines a day, they will have enough sardines to last them
3 days longer than if they were to eat 12 cans of sardines a day. How many cans of sardines
did they bring with them?

16. A

17

The sum of the reciprocals of two consecutive positive even integers is

24

Find the two integers.

18.

Marc and Benson work part-time in the same company. Marc earns $x per hour while Benson
earns $3 per hour more than Marc. In a certain week Marc and Benson each earned $162. If
Marc worked t hours more than Benson that week, flnd the value of x and the number of hours
that Benson worked that week.

A Cttsco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

,A

1ky

19.

The denominator of a fraction is 2 more than its numerator. When both the numerator

'^)]

and the denominator are increased by 3, the fraction is increased fry

Fincl the

original fraction given that both the numerator and denominator are positive integers.

20.

A cyclist travelled fiom his home to the library at an average speed of 10 km/h. He

then

travelled the same distance to reach the post office at an average speed of 8 km/h. The total
time he took for both parts of the journey was

nou.s. Holv far is the post offlce from his

-)

home'l

2r.

A motorist travels from Town P to Town Q which is 75 km away at an average speed of .r km/h.
If he increases his average speed by 10 km/h, he would have reached Town Q 15 minutes
earlier. Find the value of x.

/-_:::,

i{236}l

Mathematics Tutor

2,A.

@ Cctsco PLtblictxions Pte

Ltd

22.

The ratio of the perimeters of triangle ABC to rectangle PQRS is 3 : 8.

r'
(x-3)cm

(3.r

1) cm

(r+1)cm
(r+2)cm

Find

(a)
(b)

13.

the value of ,r,


the area of rectangle PQRS.

Abigger car runs

km on each litre of petrol. A smaller car runs (r + 3) km on each litre of

petrol.

(a)

(b)
(c)

Find in terms of x, the number of litres of petrol used by


(i) the bigger car,
(ii) the smaller car
to travel 300 km.
Given that the smaller car used -5 litres less petrol than the bigger car to travel 300 km,
form an equation in terms of -r ancl show that it reduces to -r2 + 3r - 180 = 0.
Solve the equation from part (b) and calculate the volume of petrol needed for the bigger
car to travel 90 km.

@ Casco Public'otions Pte

Ltd

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions lt2373l

24.

The price of a bottle of jam tarts was $"r. During the festive season, the price of each bottle of
jam tarts increased by $2. Mrs Lee found that she would get 4 fewer bottles of jam tarts for
$160 during the festive season.
(a) Form an equation in x and show that it reduces to I + 2x - 80 = 0.
(b) Solve this equation to find the value of x.

25.

A shopkeeper bought some phonecards for $108. He paid $x for each phonecard.
(a) Find in terms of x, an expression for the number of phonecards he bought.
(b) He gave away 2 phonecards to his sons and sold the remainder for $2 per card more
than what he paid for it. Write down an expression in terms of x, for the sum of money
he received.

(c)

He made a proflt of $20.


(0 Write down an equation in terms of

and show that

it reduces to

+ l2x- 108 = 0.
Solve this equation to flnd the number of phonecards he bought.

x2

(ii)

26.

Mrs Rani spent $96 on some caps and T-shirts for her children. A cap and a T-shirt cost $14.
(a) Let the cost of a T-shirt be $r. Write down an expression in terms of x for

(i)
(ii)

(b)

If

the cost of a cap,

the number of caps that she can buy with $96.


she spends all her money on buying caps, she can buy 4 more caps than

if

she spends

all her money on T-shirts.


(i) Write down an equation in terms of .r and show that it reduces to
x2 +34x- 336 = 0.
(ii) Solve this equation to find the cost of a T-shirt.

/r,-A\\\
.(238,
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Mathematics Turor 2A

@ Casco Pttblications Pte Ltcl

?7.

A motorist travelled the flrst part of his journey at an average speed of 45 km/h, He then
increases his speed to 55 km/tr for the rest of the journey. If he travels 245 krr. in 5 hours, f,nd
the distance travelled in the first part of the journey.

18.

A motorist travelled from Town A to Town B which was 40 km apart, at an average speed of
x km/h.
(a) Write down an expression for the time, in hours, that he took for the journey.
(b) He returned by the same route but at an average speed that was 20 kmlh less. Write
down an expression for the time, in hours, that he took for the return journey.

(c)
(d)

Given that the difference between his two times was


in x and show that it reduces to x2 - 20x

no,r., form an equation

1500 = 0.

Solve this equation and flnd

(i)
(ii)

f,

his initial average speed,


the time taken, in hours and minutes, for the return journey.

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

zAr

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions ,(Z:O!,

(6)

Changing the Subject of a Formula

29.

Make the shaded letters the subject of the formula.

(a)

k(lt

(c) a(br d

ct

v*-

di:,

@#

L-a=2x ffi
(et
-xy

(i)

J,t

-k

=,

="

(e) A-!=c'

(b) @#

m) = n

(f)

'
x+a

-Q=o

p-qr

=s

,;i$::i

=n ffi
0) ;lL
I.X

..{*qi}\

i{z+O}

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@)

Casco Publicotiotts Pte Ltd

(l) ax'-b=c

2*.

(m) a"

+q-,

(o)

ax

bY

=3

1r- + r,
(q) il

:"'
"##

-2x

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ffi

Ltd

riis-

;{^

(p) eO+fl=ggt+h) &

(r) -y=#1v-+?
x-+

J*

(u) 1*1=l
xy

(n) 1*t'=rt

^1&

2p+3
.
(S)
D*a=
'a

'ffi

t.*:-

I
"
(t) s=ut+;at'

(v) a=- t+b


l-D

AAt*,

;P*

Chapter 5: Sin.rple Algebraic Fractions

,e\

V41};
\w,,

Make the shaded letters the subject of the formula.

(a)

p=o**

ax

''x

(d)

,'=

(0

!=a+.6+1

U)

o=u*$

ffi

.-3

(e)

,f =p+q

(g)

r=zofi

ffi

Mathematics Turor

2,A.

- a' = bx - b2

ff-

.,.i't,

t.:.c.l.r

.r'';r:.i:

(i) y='h?_ 2ss

v/

(b)

2x+1

(c)

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:tZqZll

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:111a.;1l

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Publicatbns Pte Ltd

(k)

p-q=

(mt

(o)

nt

(q)

5a =

(s)

T = Ztr

p-z. PQ
-

zo E ->'
=TV
;

2ah

= 117;

V-

(l)

xft
,={'-;

.s

(n)

ffi
-1.*!=1
x+l
Y

-16

b2

.ra

'q

3c

(p) L+Z=?
yxy

ffi

12b+c12 +3
(r) o- -----4

y
x( vz-w2)
(r) .-::'rl--:=61'

t'+k'

uL

2gt

2JA
(u) p=------ 3-

(v)

pJi+q=r+rJi ffi

'lq

@ Casco Publicatiotts Pte

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Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fraclions

,,^
\/

:{Z+l},

31.

Giventhat-y= I

(a)
(b)

32.

find the value of

rvhen b

It2443l

_y

when

express -r in terms of

Giventhat,y=

33.

- #5,

=2

+.
ol)

and

GiventhatA =

-2 and: = -1,

:.

S,expressaintermsof band,-y.Hencelindthetivovaluesof

r'=

_y and

12.5.

+-c)h.hncl

Mathematics Turor 2A

the value of r: given thatA = 82.5,b = 8 and

h=

15.

O Ca,rco PLtblicotir.tns Pte Ltd

-t:+.

Given thata=

-r5.

Given that

36.

Given thatp

Q!-t{-,

21 3v
* +q

p=3,r=-3

- +3,
ands=

,A Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

fincl the values of b when

find the value

ofp

express 4 in terms of

a=Zl and c =-7.

when 4 = 2, r = 8 and v = 3.

p,

rand s. Hence, find the value of 4 r,vhen

1.

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions 1t245*]

\\d'

37.

Given thatA = 5(B + O and if


A in terms of B and D,
D in terms of A and B.

38.

(a)

(a)
(b)

D= BC,express

Express x in terms of a, b and c.

2a+b=c[(x-O'-t)
(b)

39. (a)
(b)

Hence, flnd the value of x when a = -5, b =

Given ttru,

*7p * iq

Hence solue

I64+ {

-2

and c = 3.

= 2r, express x in terms of p, q and r.

10.

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Mathematics Tutor 2,A

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

40.

Given ,nu,

41.

Given

42.

3a

5b

2a-5b

f, nna the value of f,

5r - 3l
)x
that ,t1'+
t = iJ . find the value of

. 4m+3n
(ilven that
2m-9n =

.\'

1m
L5 find the value of 4n
-

@ Casco Publicarions Pte

Lttl

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

,A
Ky

THINI(TNG SKILLS GORNER


Without the use of a calculator, evaluate the value of
4x3

-x

Qx + l)(6x

2.

6
Ifp= 3r+2

J.

If ;

3) when 'r = 99

999 '

and pq

:-+
9r'-4. . find q in terms ol'r.

+ x = 83, flnd the value

of

"r +

x)'-

2],

-".::}

l[248]l
r.tr::}.,

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

@ Casco Publi<:ati.ons Pte Ltd.

If,r= 1+
I + 1"*rr"r,
ttl;t''.r

I ir,"r*, of u,banilc.

Express as a sin-qle fraction.

a',(l+b)'
ctb i -b

,t + n and ,!, = ,rIf 1


.r' =

ir. fincl

.1

Express,r'in terms of'p. r and

iI

,,

terms of rtt

at'td

n.

s.

]
'o =,.(\\ [. llrl
I 2')

@ Casco

Piltliccttions Pte Ltd

Chapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

8.

rt p

g.

Solve the equation

:;i

and q

express q in terms of x.

----9 ,| = ry
6t
5+a

ra.
!) Mathematics Tutor 2A
\/

iI250

i3.*,

Casco Pttblication.s Pte Ltd

-r+v
-1'+r-l '
l-

-.'+n-I

y
_

11

7-l X.(e) -r, y-^


-+
xy

8"r7

Chapter 5: Simple Algeb.aic nractions

11.

Three sisters won a lottery prize rvorth $(880.r - Ui). Theresa, Pauline ancl Anne decicled
to share the price money in the ratio 2r + | : 3r : 3r - 4 respective ly. If Thcresa received
li(2;t0-r + I 6)" hor,r, much rvas the prize money ? (x is an integer.)

t2.

A shopkeeper sold 800 flles in x days. The next day he sold 19 flles.
(a) Find in terms of r, the average number of files he sold per day for
(i) the flrst x days,

(ii)

(b)

theflrstx+1days.
If the average number of flles he sold per day altogether is

MathematicsTutor2A

13, flnd the value of x.

le)

Cusco Publictlliont I'tt:

[,kl

Linear Equations in
Two Variables
! a a a t t a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a oa a a aa aaa a a to a a a a a t a a a o a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

Targets
.

Dralv graphs of linear equations in trvo variables.

Soh'e simultaneor-rs linear ecluaticlns in tu,o variables using the graphical method.

.
.

Solr'e simultaneous linear equations in trvo variables using the elimination methocl.

Solve rvord problems inl'olving simultaneotLs equrtions.

Solve simultaneous linear equations in trvo variables using the substitution method.

f 6J >

Graphs of Linear Equations


1

2.

Graphs of linear equations are straight lines.


Steps to drarv the graph of a linear equation:

I : Construct a table of values of -r and r'.


You rvill need the coordinates of three points.

(A straight line graph can be

dra'nvn using

only tr'vo points but the

third point is needed to check.)

2 : Choose

a suitable scale.

The scale used on the.r-axis does not have to be the same as the r'-aris.
The scale chosen should allorv for the largest possible graph to be drau.n.
The bigger the graph, the more accurate r.vill be the results obtainecl irrrm it.

3 : Plot the points on the graph paper

zrnd dralv a straight line thr,.Lish all

the points.

4 : Label your graph

/.a\
ttZlZ'l)

\/

Mathematics Tutor 24,

r.vith the equation

of the line.

.i,l

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

(a)
(b)

Drar,v the graph of

=
From l,our graph, find

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

,r,

2-r

1.

the value of -r, rvhen x = 2.1 ,


the value of -r rvhen J, = -3.8,
the value of p given that (1.5.p) is a solution of

y'-

2x

1.

SOLUTION:

(a)

Construct a table of values for the equation ,l =

-5

-l

We then plot the points and

2-r

join them rvith a straight line to obtain the graph of

)=2-t-1.
ir
ii

f-i-

t:

tsca

tC

li

?i fr-

rrl

Ir

(1

;/,,:

ri
.

:-

f 4,

1-

il

r-l

,/

,fi

..1.
l

!l

ir

y',

:l

_1

../.t

r
ll

.J-

(b)

From the graph,

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Casco Publications Pte

rvhen.r =2.1.i'=3.2.
when rr = -3.8, -r = -l .4.
r,vhenx = 1.5,p =2.

Ltd

,A

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables l{273$J

&*q

J.

The graph of a horizontal line passing through the


point (0, c) and parallel to the x-axis is of the form:

E.g. The graphs of y = 2 andy =

il

-1

are shown below'

-r

i-i

_1
!

i-:f

lii

li
i:

lij

il:l

"T-l-ar--

'i.
-l ! i1-

'-t

'],.:

: I

-l

--,.

il-

,,

i-1

;=11

ti
tt- l. li i,

l-

ri

tl-1-

+
i

-i--

,,',,|,,,.

.1I

The gradient of the graph of the form


4.

ii.L

t_.

= c is zero.

The graph of a vertical line passing through the


point (a, 0) and parallel to the y-axis is of the form:

.x=.4
E.g. The graphs of x = 3 and x =

-Z

are shown below.

,r rj,l

-l

i.

_1.

i-l-

t-

t:

t'

j:

I
-,'1,,
l

__.:
I

I i-T

TI
iii
ii
iir

I Gzau r+]-{ +:

...1...
I

{i:

: r-lri-i : o

li
ii

,t

':

.J -t

lt'-i

The gradient of the graph of the form x = a is undefined.

,SGe\

q2141

''\*4

Malhematics Tutrrr 2A

@-'Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

5.

The graph of a straight line passing through the origin, (0,0) and r.vith gradient m
is of the form:
-l

)=ntx
m<0

where misaconstant.

If the gradient, m is positive, the line slopes upwards to the right.


If the gradient,m is negative, the line slopes upwards to the left.
The bigger the numerical value of m, the steeper the line.

.
.
6.

. lr is negative
the line slopes upwards to the right . the line slopes upwards to the lefi
nt is

positive

The graph of a straight line that cuts the l-axis at the point (0. c) and has gradient,
ru. is of the fbrm:

)'= ttlx + c

m>0

(0, c)

Y=mx+c
m<0
-t

Casco Publicatiorts Pte

l.td

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables

/n\
l(2753j

When the value of rz remains the same rvith r: taking on different values. the -eraphs
are parallel lines cutting the 1,-s1it at the points (0. r').

1.

E.g.

.'
''.'

ii

/,

i-l

:-

;<

'

.1'

1 .-

.t'

1,

/aI
a

t-..

.'-

'.1

4h

l
.1_

Tv,

+ Ii

i,

-i

t:

_-L

"r

;':'r

-=

Ix

?-'
-i .; :

't'

,7

t1 )),
r:li

|4

,.' -)z

i -r-:

i'l

-n

ru is a constant value

of

The graph of the straight


a

* 0 andb *

l,-

+i

lr

:- ,- -

-r'

:i

]iI

j: i,
ii

:/ t2:
t:

-1

_". .,.t. -

-! r

*
7 , I

.1
li
t;

-+
:l

iar

--L

tI

tt

i..r..

i...

..t..

ti

ti'*

!l

l'.-i-

:i

.'-'.- l-i

ili

:.,..i..-.:... I.

-.i--

-,1

r_;:l

Filr : .

ri

:r

:i

--i-L

li- '

li
,

a^7

F=

,.

f _l-'t'

,,i

il

-l-.
:

;i

'-i --*

t_

r.vhile r: takes on diffelent values.

line

0 cuts the x-axis at

where a, b and ft are constants and

L
a

and the,t-axis at

ana has Sradient

-f,

ax+by =ft
bY =-ax + k

ak

) =-;-x*;
-bD

ax+ by
m

t-

a
b

,A\

,qp

Mathematics Tutor 24

,:@):.Casco

Publications Pte Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:

(a)

Drarv the graph of each of the follorving equations on the same axes.

(i) x+2=0
(ii) 1'= Ir-x-l
(iii) 2y'+3r*6=0
(b)

Find the area of the triangle bounded

b_r

these three lines.

SOLUTION:

(a) (i) x+2 =O

Drar.v a

.r-arir

x =-2

verliciil line parallel to the

passing through thc poirrt

I
(ii) y=;x-1
Z

,)

(iii) 2y+3r*6=0
2)'=-3x+6
l^
\'--rr+.i
I

lf

0 r.

-1

.
l

raN

r.urit

uiut

ii \

r-1.

tl

.il
ol

i:
i

ii

il

:.

,:

-f

:,'

tr

5X,

=0,

.''

dn

*
:l

.:I

jli'1

:i

.-+
.

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

.:
l

i:

i:l::ii

,l

i
:

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables

ffi

(b)

Area bounded by the three lines


l

- a2 x8x4
=

Area of

16 unitsl
4

units

l xBur.xHeight
2'
1

- - xRx4
2

'e.,se."

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:

(a)

(b)

State r'r,hether the points lie on the given lines.

(i)

14. 5 t..r'

riir

(1.7).r.=o-l.r

= 2r

-l

If (o,a + 9) is a solution

of

,r'-

3.r + 5, frnd the vaiue of rz.

SOLUTION:

(a) (i)

J'

= 2,t

When.t = 4.
1, l\ -_-]
..
-t - /l+,

=J

To chcck whether the point (,1,5) lies on the

line r'= 2.r'- 3. substitute the value of .l =,1


into the equation. If it lies on the line. thc
resulting value ofr,shoulcl be 5.

The point (4. 5) lies on the line

-rr

- 2,r - 3.

(tt) .r'=9- r.r


I

When,r = 2,

r =9- 1t2l
-)

-8

As the value of -r,c!oe. not equal 7


s,hen -r = 2. the point (2. 7) cloes not
lie on the linc ,2
r' = 9

- -.r.

The point (2.7) does not lie on the line

(b)

Since (rz, a+9) is asolution of


equation _\, = 3"t + 5.

)'-

t =9 ; t

3,r+ 5,substitute

l=a andr=a+9

into the

.r'=.1.v+5

(cL+9)=3(a)+5
1-, _,4
:tt
-+

., _

.,,

,4^\

({zzA}

\-/

Mathematics Tutor 2,q

.@:Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations in Two Yariables using


the Graphical Method
1.

A linear equation in tlvo variables has tlo unknowns/variables rvhere each term's
degree is nclt more than l.

E.g.

is a linear equation in trvo variables.


2-r' + 3.r1, = 5 is not a linear equation in trvo variables.

2.

2-r +

3.-1r

-5

Simultaneous linear equations are a set of equations 'uvhere variables are shared.
The example below shows a set of simultaneous linear equations in trvo variables.

E.g.

3.r

-2:- =4

-r+3-v =-5
,).

The solution to the set of simultaneous linear equations consists of one pair of
values of -r and 1'rvhich satisfy both equations simultaneously. This solution is

unique.
E,.g. The solutionto

"
.

3-t-2)'- l andx+3)'=5 is-r=2

and,t =

l.

To solve a linear equation in trvo variables, tr,vo equations are needed.


To solve a linear equation in thtee variables. three equations are
needed and so on.

4.

There are three common methods to solve a pair of simultaneous lineau ecluations.

5.

Steps to solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations graphically:

tt|,,:: Draw the graphs of both equations on the same axes.

,*:,: Read off the values of the variables at the point of intersection of the
lines. (The coordinates of the point of intersection gives the solution of
the simultaneous linear equations.)

e-.

Ctrsto PLtblir:otiotrs Pte Ltd

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl.,

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Solve the following simultaneous equtrtions graphically.

r*21'=8
3r -.t' =

SOLUTION:
Construct a table of values for each equation.

3x-y-3
! =3x-3

x+2y-8
2Y=-x+8

n=-!r+4
'2
x

-l

_J

Choose a suitable scale and plot the graphs of -r + 2-r = 8 and 3-r -.t

f:
I

1'

i-i

-i

:l

rl

"r-

r'

The coordinates of the point


of intersection (2, 3) give the

-'i''-

,r

il l

:J

rf
I

\
*i-

,rf
r;i

tl

,1,

/"

'i
!

'seeiic

.':

:i:i

rJ.

f.

-t+-.i

-i-1't-i

',]l

lr

.'. The solution is -r = 2 and .r = 3.

v
rl

'l
I,

-:*

rl

1l

:l
'-''t'

i11'=l

+iir

solution of the simultaneous


equations. At the point of
intersection (2, 3), x = 2 and
_rr = 3. So the solr-rtion is x = 2
and t, = 3.

I :T {i

.-

l' ,l

i.

- 3 on the same axes.

ii

-+

t:

+_

i:-1-i
rli

t+

-+-

_t:

I
l*+

,A

tffip

l
]

Ii lT-r

Mathematics Turor 24

-T-

f-+-

i..

ii,

-t

ilcal

-jiax
\

1'..

i-

'.:--

---!

-)

I ;i;+

1 ;ic

-ih

liln
I-

t-:

_i
-i

;.-

l
l

You can check this solution by


substituting the values in the
ori-sinal equations.

:@:Q61s66

Publications Pte Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Solve the follorving simultaneous equations graphically.

.r+2.r,-6

2l+{t,-4
SOLUTION:

2x+$,-4

.r+2-r'=6
1-._
zl
-

,.,
t t /:
t,

','--1-'*,

1)'=-2x+1
t'=-lr+l
1

'

)-

.r

')

..i
:i
': f-

i!

ri

]i
]l:l

1l

l1

n:f

rl

I :t
1 'l
: 1..1...i.,..
iil

,:l
tlli

.i

li

-i-

!l

iiir
rll!

:i

]..

-il

il:

.'. The simultaneous equations :r +

Ltd

\\

:)-

iil:
--i--+ i I
-i ,i--Lf,

.t. Cusco PLtblicotion.y Pte

i-l-

]i

Teaclre-r's

::

'it.

il

li

-l

::

rl

'i -i--

^*-:

.l,

:i

ti

\l-l

Since the lines are parallel.


they rvill never intersect or
have any comlnon poirrt:.
Therefore. the simultaneous
equations have no solution.

:i

2,1'

= 6 and 2r + 4y =

zl have

no solution.

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variabl",

"%,

woRKED EXAMPLE 3:
Solve the following simultaneous equations graphically.
2x

-3Y

=)

4x=6y+18
SOLUTION:
2x

4r=6-r,+18

-3y =)
3Y =2x-9

6,v =

MM
ffi-:l-tltlffi
y=?x-3

4;r-

18

y=lx-3

---1

The two lines are identical, i.e. the two lines coincidc.
.'. There are inflnite sets of common points that satisli
bolh cquations.
... The simultaneous equations 2x

.v-

= 9 and 4-t = 6.r + 18 have an in{inite number of

solutions.

A\

{{ZSZ}} Mathematics Tutor 2A

@)

Cu.sco PubLication.s Pte

Ltd

6.

A pair of simultaneous linear equations can have one solution, no solution or

an

inlinite number of solutions.


er

une solutron
Eo

E.g.

E.g.

b-Y=-3

2x-y=4

2x+1t=3

2r -1,=

).'r.,

Solution:-1

2x-y =-3

2x-y=!

Zx-y

=4

4x-2y=$

=Ispd,y=2

Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations in Two Yariables using


the Elirnination Method
i.

In this method. rve first eliminate one of the two variables. Either one of the variables
can be eliminated flrst. Pick the one that is easier to eliminate.

2.

Steps to eliminate one of the variables:

,lli:,: Compare the coefficients of the variable we want to eliminate.

If

they

have the same coefflcients, then eliminate by either adding or subtracting.


,.. 1,'

If

the coefflcients of the variable to be eliminated are different:

(a)

Adjust one of the equations by multiplying with an appropriate


number or

(b)

Adjust both equations by multiplying with a different number for


each equation.

Then, eliminate one of the variables by adding or subtracting.

,r:*: Solve the resulting linear equation in one variable. Find the value of
this variable.

-*t:

Substitute the value obtained into any of the original equations to solve

for the other variable.


,r5:,,:

Check that the values you have found for both variables satisfy the
original equations. You can check mentally or by writing down on paper.

Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl".

(m
\/

If

yoLr har'e to solvc a pair of simultatreous equations l-ry elirninatitrn,


the variables mLlst be on thc same sicle of the eqr.ration aucl iri thc same

order. If not reerrange the equations before you start"


E.s. Rearrilnsc

10 to
li.+ i-u = 78 -)

Jr = 3.t' +

2.r

3.r'

tr()

"l,r + 2r, = 28

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Soive the simultaneous equations:

2x+3v=3
x*3Y=$
SOLUTIO[tl:
2x

(l)

3 -(1)
- 6 -(2)

oil ere lhc same but onc is


positir,c anci tire otirel negative.'lir clinrinatc

l-hc roefhcient,r
r-

ftl.i llr,' ti\il ('(lititii('!l\.

+ (2): 3x = 9

x=3
Substitute x = 3 into (1):

2(3)+3y=3
6 +3Y =J
3Y=-3
I

J_

.'. x = 3 and y

iiirbstitrrte.,; - -1. i:iio ani, one of thc r-rligin:rl etlu:rtion-u


and solve lor r'. Here. r.,",c i.:lloosc {1) io ge1 a pcsiiir,e
i'. T'r) to lyr:iii negalire rurrircrs.

- -1 is the solution of the simultaneous

Check answer: Substitute x = 3 and ! =

-l

equations.

into (1):

2x+3Y =2(3) + 3(-1)

=6-3
_a (/
--)
Substitute x

=3 and) = -1 into (2):

x-3Y =3-3(-1)
=3+3
=$ ,/
a

Alri,,;ryg cirecir iliat y{}rrr ansl\,ers siitisry 'Lhe original eriu:if ions
by substituting tlrenr inlo ltri.: origin;ii e!,ltrilti()ns.

. s l'ttLi ni:crl itr;t r..,rite fhis pai-t

,A l)

{t 284

\/

Mathematics Tutor 2A

dor,.,l.i lis

ii

i--an hr: donc"

rnenlaliv.

,''@'Casco Pttblications Pte

Ltd

WoRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Solve the simultaneous equations:

2-r,+3,t'=ll

2-t-5r'=3
SOLUTION:

3.y

-5,-v
(1)

= l1

-(1)

=3 -(2)

- (2): 8r -

-)'=1
Substitute r, =

I into (1):

2x+3(l) =lI
2x+3 =Ll
2x =B

x =4
.'. x = 4 and y = 1 is the solution of the simultaneous equations.

R*'

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Solve the simttltaneotts

eq

uaticlus:

?. r'. -Q
a.. ,-.
-rJ
--\-F-rt -,

SOLUTION:
3x+
2x+
(1) x
(3) -

-(1)
-(2)

3: 9x + 3y =){ - (3)
(2): 7x =7
x =l

Substitute x = 1 into (1):

3(1)+Y =3
) =5
.'. x =

and y

Casr:o PrLblicatiotts Pte Lt(l

- 5 is the solution of the simultaneous

equations'

Chapter 6: Linear Equarions in Two

Variabl.,

-%,

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Solve the simultaneous equations:

2x-5Y

=l

3x+4Y

=i6

SOLUTION:

2x-5Y

=l -(1)

3x+4Y =36

'trri make t}-re cocfficicnts of -r equui, u,e

-(Z)

3: 6x - l5y =J -(3)
x2: 6x + By =72 -(4)
(a) - (3):
23y = $9
!=3

(1) x
(2)

irrultiirl)' ( i,)

b.,,

3 and (2) bv 2 so tl.lat l'e can elinlirlrte r sini:e tlic I-C\4


oi 2 lncl 3 ii, 6.

Substitute y = 3 into (1):

2x-5(3) =l
2x-15 =7
2x =16
x =8
.'.

*e\-e*

= 8 and y = 3 is the solution of the sirnultaneolts equations.

woRKED EXAMPLE s:
Solve the simultaneous equations:

xy+ a
-:
23 =3

x
45-! =4
SOLUTION:
x

1
x
4

(1)x6:

(2)x20:

+;vJ - 3 -(1)
_l -4 -(2)
5

3x+2y =l$
5x-4y =-$g

.1r{uitiprli'ca,-h itlnr b1'6. the


,l I :,.;.: .i q. , i., I .:,,,.r.,r'

11X.

r\,iir1t.ii;11 a!ir i!

Il-,1,,:,:,r,.i:

i,rrltl lr'' 2il^ flrr:

rql;, j,,

;;,,:,'

(3)

-(4)

x2: 6x + 4y =f6 - (s)


( ) + (5): llx =44
x=4
Substitute x = 4 into (3):

(3)

3(4)+2Y=18
-12 +2Y = 18
2Y =30

)=15
.'. The solution is x = -4,

6t

MathemaricsTuror2A

= 15.
,@'Casco Publications Pte Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 6:
Solve the simultaneous equations:

.r+21 =3:r-4,1 =-i


SOLUTION:

x+2y
3x-4Y

3:
(3) - (2):
(1) x

-5 -(1)
=J -(2)

Rcs,ritc as t\\'o separate eclratious.

15 -(3)
10y = lg

3x + 6y =

! =l

Substitute y = 1 into (1):

x+2(l) =5

x*2

=5

x =3
.'. The solution is x = 3, y =

t--&.

1.

WORKED EXAMPLE 7:
Solve the simultaneous equations:

5(x-

1)

-4Y

=l

3x+2(3-y)=8
SOLUTION:

5(x-1)-4Y =l
3x+Z(3-)) =8
From(1): 5(r- 1) -4y =1
5x-5 -4Y = 1
5x-4Y =$

From

(2):

-(1)
-(2)

Simpiity cquafums ( 1) anC t.li first.

- (3)

3x + 2(3

- 1,,) = 8
3x+6-2Y =8
jx -2Y =)

(4) x2:
(s) - (3):
Substitute x =

-(4)

- (s)
-2 into (3):

5(-2)-4Y =6
-I0-4y =6
-4Y = 16

! =-4
.'. The solution is x =
E Casco Publications Pte Ltd

-2,! = -4.
Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables

Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations in Two Variables using


Substitution Method
1.

In this method, ."ve solve one of the equations for one variable and substitute this
expression into the other equation to solve fbr the remaining variable.

2.

Steps to eliminate one of the variables:

I : Choose one of the equations

and make one of the variables the subject

of the equation.
2 : Substitute this expression into the other equation to obtain an equation
lvith only one variable. Solve this equation to flnd this variable.
3 : Substitute the solr-rtion into the expression frorn step I to find the second
variable.

4 : Check that thc values obtained satisfy the original equations. Again you
can do a quick mental calculation ornvrite it dorvn on paper.

%.

woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Solve the simultaneous equations:

2.r'+ r = 25

3-r-4-rt=-l
SOLUTION:

2x+y
3x-4y
From

(i):

=25

-(1)

-l-

17)
\-/

-75-?r'

-tl)

Substirute (3) into (2):

3x*4(25-2x) - -t I
3x- 100 + 8x - -1
IIx -oo
x --o
Substitute x = 9 into (3):

?5

2(q)/
-\..

-1

.'. The solution is

{{zss})

\/

Mathematics Tutor 2A

r = 9,I

= 7.

Q) Cast:o

PtLblications Ptc Ltd

Check answer:Substitute x = 9,y = 7 into (1):

2x+Y=2(9)+7
=18+7
_
_LJ ")< V/

Substitute x =

9 and y = 7 into (2):

3x-4Y=3(9)-4(7)
=Zl -28

=-l /

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Solve the simultaneous equations:

2x+3y=$
5x+9y=12
SOLUTION:

=$
l)

2x+3Y

-(1)
-(2)

5x + 9Y =

From

(1):

2x = 6 -3y

* =;6 - .J'' _(3)


Substitute (3) into (2):

t(?)
30

15y

+ey=t)
+ l1y =){,
3Y

=-6

y --L

Substitute

! = -2 into (3):
6
A-r,)

3(-2)

-6
.'. The solution is x = 6,

Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

! = -2.

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl.t

\d

ffiZaO})

'4",:e.

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Solve the simultaneous equations:

9,r-5.t,=20

3r+_r'-0
SOLUTION:

=lg
3x+.r'-0

9.r-5,1,
Frorn

(2):

-(1)
-(.2)

)' = -3-t -(3)

Substitute (3) into

(l):

9-t

5(-3.r) = 20
9r+1-5-r =20
24r =20
5

Strb:tittrtc..

inro (.1 )'


= '1
6

-\'

/s

=--ll:
\6/

r
l

= -2!
2
... The rolution ir.r.

,A

([290]

Marhemarics Tutor 2,A

= I6')'. ---'1'
-,

CusLo Publir:atiorts Pte Ltd

Solving Word Problems involving Simultaneous Linear Equations


in Tivo Variables
Steps to solve r.vord problems involving simultaneous equations:

I : Read ancl identify the tr'vo unknorvn quantities to be fbund.


2 : Assign variables,

e.g. "t and

.-v.

to the unkno',vn quantities.

3 : Write lrvo equations in trvo variables based on the information given.

.l :

Solve the simultaneous equations to iind the variables.

5 : Find the solution to the problem.

\b,

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

A cnstomer bought two cups of coffee and three cups of tea at a total cost of

1i3.80.

Another customer bought four cups of coff'ee ancl five cups of tea at a total cost of $6.90.
Fjnd the cost of a cup of coffee and a cup of tea.

SOLUTION:
Let

$-r be the cost

of one cup of coffee and $l' be the cost of one cup of tea.

=3.8 -(1)
4-t + -5y = $.!
-(2)
2-r+3y

(1) x 2:
(3)

4x + 6t,

(2):

Substitute

-r,

._r

= 0.7 into

=J.6 -(3)
= 0'7

l):

2r+3(0.7) =3.8
2-r+2.1 =3.8
2r =1"1
-r = 0.85
.'. The cost of a cup of coffee is $0.85 and the cost of a cup of tea is $0.70.

Check

answer: 2(0.8-5) + 3(0.70) = $3.80 ,/


,/
'1(0.85) + 5(0.70) = $6.90

lE Ca.sco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl.,

%.

woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
A group of 50 people si-ened up lbr a tolrr to an orchid farm organised by the Bishan
Town Residents' Contntittee. The senior citizens rvere given a 20o/c discount. Alto-sether.
$i678 rvere collected from the 50 people. Horv many senior citizens rvent on the trip if
the price fbr each regular person rvas $15?
SOLUTION:
Let .r be the number of senior citizens

ancl ._r'be the number

.r*.r'=50

of the other people.

(l)

(80%x 15)-t+ l-5i'=678


O'Bx + )' = 15 '2
-(.2)

l)

- (2):

0.2-r =

''Y=-

.1.8

4.8
0.2

=21
.'. 2zl senior citizens went on the trip.

%,

woRKED EXAMpLE 3:
The difference between two integers is 12 and twice the smaller integer is one more than
the larger integer. Find the two integers.

SOLUTION:
Let the smaller integer be x and the larger integer be y.

)'-x

=12

-(1)

-y+I -(2)
! =12+x -(3)

2x
From (1):
Substitute (3) into (2):

2.r =(.72 +,r)+


2-r = 13 +.r

x = 13
Substitute.r = 13 into (3):
,t,

= 12 +
=25

.'. The trvo integers are l3 and

13

2-5.

,A.

{(ZSZ}

Marhemarics Tutor 2A

O ()as<:o Publict.rtions Pte Ltd

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
A tiaction is such that rvhen both the numerator and the denominator are each increased

hv I - it becomcs
becomes

I- . If both
each decreasecl by I . it
6'" *""' the numerator and denominator are

I5". fina the orir:inal lt'action.

SOLUTION:
Let the original fraction be

x+I

r
)"

'----------

= .

x-l

y-l

4
-)

x+l

From (1):

-5

y*t

-(l)
-(2)

,><;

y+

-.-...

Cross+nqlaiPtr'

6(r+1) =5(Y+1)
6x+6=5y+5
6x - 5Y = -l
-(3)
x-l

From (2):

)-lz

L .-""piq:.ry@lrl
"."."\r_
15

5(x-1) =40-r)
5x-5 =4y-4
5x-4Y =l -(4)
(3) x 4:

(zl)x5:
(6)

24x-20y
25x-20y

=y' -(5)
=J -(6)

.r =9

(s):

Substitute x = 9 into (3):

6(9)-5t,--l
-54*-5,ir

Original fraction

=-1

55 =

5.1,

,)'=

11

,r

=-I'
(]

=-

11

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

rs in

Two variables

Tutorial
(1)

Graphs of Linear Equations

1.

Complete the table. Then plot the coordinates and drar,v the graph of each eciuation on
the axes provided.

(a) .v=x+2

..)

x
v
t+

r.ii

--

:i

.-i- : :-i 1+
r.]

,l'

.-f.
:,-

-l!i

rlr

t iE ,..

i-:l ti.
r

:l

I il
I'rl
rl

1.,.-

.,

.l l-

- + ll

(c) !=-x-l

rll.

.: I

t*l

:i

::L

(b)

.\ = 2x

-i.

il:l,l

tl,

il--,.11

,i

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l' l-ir;l.:l

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itril

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(d)

.r

ii:Jl

ti

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l' ..:." : l

:
l

r.

iu

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

l;

,l
r']

ril

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ii:-i

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r

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I I i,!-

li

fr,' t:-:I --i -,j

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rll

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l-

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:l

rl,

-l

r't-i]l;1il.l
it ii] II|

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l-II

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r:

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tt294ri

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liiv
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lrri,i rirr,l:

r,

f.,;j;:.

.l

:l

_ t-

i:
i,

I'll-

It

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-,li
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'e) Cla,rcr.r Publiccrtiort.t

Pte I-td

(0 2x-y=4

(e) x+y-3
#

rl

!i

'il
l.

:i
-::ii:r-i.:.

I'tt

rl

:-l

= :i:;-t-i-a-i
i:tl

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-ii

:ir I
:r:l
: 1 :l
t,

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,ii
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ir-j-i

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--

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i.t

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!l

.,

art

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

lr:

];-i--i

,i::

I i t:

,l

-l

.i

-,i

llr

-r:l !,
,,]

,rf;

:ll ,-

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i-.i

i-r

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ll

-_i

:l

tl

:r

;i

,i

il-

lrl:
:-l-

r:ll
ttli

:l

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l;

ir-

i-rj

-l-:--i

,i.

:i:i

I,

i:i

-l-:

ll-

ii

lr:l

+-

(h) 2y-3x+6=0

"L
:tl

:l::
t_*

(g) 2x+5Y=lQ

=
li'+

llr
ri--i
;r,

t_ tr

Li

1--'i
ii

"l:

irlr

t!
ll

l-:It

i!;

rQ

ll-

r
l

ti

l::

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-r.;.

,'.'....'.

l!

ti

+ i.l..j.

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. r. ..1.. .t .

r-:'1

rl

t.-t

lL

. -1"1,,a

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irri.

r,l

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I_

'. ii
i ,ril

l.:...i. i
''a

_i

i:

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+ -f.. r*
:

:!ii-:-

':

T-

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variabl",

t@

On the axes provided belorv, dralv and label e ach of the follor,ving graphs

(a) -r=2

(b) )=-1
i

:l

+
1

i-:

l:;

ftiil
t: I
-r: i
-j-xl

: t'i
I

lr
il

T
:

llii

'i..lI

-1

-t

::
,rit!
l!
f:-

1*

liia

-t

.1,.:... L..,1.

iiii

t--1-

.t,

tl

,i-!--L

,l.i li"

1"

il

- =l

li
i:

tl

;l:i

:
ffi

rl
U

,:

lL
i

ii:!

irl
'itt

-i',l-i r-

(e)

-r +.r,'

ti

-T-i-i_

Ii
J:

l'i'i'

t:
t:
"-l-!'
-l- f

t::

t.-i-.4-

''t

.:l

t!

"t-

-4.

,..,1,,'

i:i
1i

f..

':-

ii

T-

-l-.i-.

-i

t!
ti
ir
ir
.if

jj
t:

ilrill
ti i t-11,

.l

li

..,i-

hl

r.

..1.....i..

Ti

++-r

tti

.!

I
l

-.-+:-

i'1

-"t-T'

-l-i r

1-i:
r!ai

iil

tt
il
i

+-

t;ii

!:l
_:-:1

il

i.-i

(d) 1.5-y=Q

'l-1",j

-i-.i.-.i-

r;

tJ

(c) -r*zl=0
l

r-f

l:ii
ti:i

-t
I

-f.

+-l;-

i.,l
:i

-.i

.i.,i-.1...

l
.

.l--r-

il-

il

tl

t:

ll

(D y -2x =0

r. il
+
t

+r

rt

+
-t-

!-i

:'
iiil
ll il
-t-t

,A
Kp

MathematicsTutor 24

:-

@ Cctsco Pttbli<:ttlions Pte

Ltd

'

Write dorvn the equations of the follolving lines.

Slii:tch tire graph of

(c)

(b)

(a)

-v

= 4l, + c r.vhere

(a) m>0,c>0

(b)

<0,c <0

(c) nt=0,c>0

(d)

<0,c =0

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl".

5.

Each of the equations in the table represents one of the graphs from
letter of each graph in the correct place in the table belorv.

Equation

A to I. \\'rite

dor,vn the

Graph

!=x
! =2-x
y-3=0
!=2x+3
x+y+5=0
2(r+1)=3(-r-4)

\r'

{ffi

MathemaricsTuror2,q

't@,Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

':

The diagram shorvs the graph of

.\:

-r + 3. On the same diagram, sketch and label the graphs

of

(a) -y = -r,
(b) )'=-r-2,
(c) ,)'=3-r.
)=x+3

2r,v- 4,)'=8- t and.v= ;L-2'


1

Thediagram shtt1vsthelinesg'ithecluaticlns-!=
Match the equation corresponcling to each line.

@'

! =2x

@.

!=4
)=B-x

s.

&'

o
a

,=\*-z

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 6: I-inear Equations in Trvo Valiables

A
qp

B.

The diagram shor,vs three strai-eht lines.


(a) Write dor,vn the equations of the straight lines.

(b)

9.

tF\

,W

(a)
(b)

A. B and C.
Write dor,vn the coordinates of the points P and Q.

On the axes belolv, drar,r, the graphs of the lines .)' = 0, -r = 6 and -_l = -r + I .
Calculate the numerical value of the area of the triangle boundecl br. the lines
,t = 6 and t,= -,f + 1.

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

-r,

= 0.

tA ()a.yco PrtbLict.ttiorts Pte Ltcl

-1), (a)

Given the equation

*3

)'=2x + 5, complete

the table belorv'

--)

(b)
(c)

Drar,v the graPh of )' = 2-r + 5.


From the graPh, find

(cl)

the value of -]'rvherl 'r = -1.5,


the value of -r rvhen -t' = 6.8.
Is (2. 9) a solution to the equation l'

1 (a)

(i)
(ii)

- 2-r + -5'l

Given the equation.r + 3r = 6, complete the table belolv'

-J

-v

(d)

Draw the graph of -t + 3r'= 6.


From the graph, flnd
(i) the value of 1' 1Y1,"n r = 2.4 (ii) the value of r r'vhen )'=2.7
Given that the point (3.6. /u ) is a solution to the equation

(a)

Given the equation

(b)
(c)

t2.

3,r

4,r,

+ 3-r'= 6. find the valrte of /r.

12 = 0, complete the table belor'v'

v
(b)
(c)

Drarv the graph of 3-r - 4.t' - 12 = 0.


Given that the point (h, 1.8) is a solution to the equation 3r

- 4r'-

12 = 0. find the value

of h.

13.

(d)

The graph 3.r - 4-v - 12 = 0 intersects the -r-axis at the point A and the .rr-axis at the pornt
B. Find the area of triangle AOB r'vhere O is the origin.

(a)

Given the equation 3r

,)

+,-v

= 0. complete the table belolv'

14.

of 3,r + r,' = 0.
1) is a solution to 3.r +,t'= 0, find the value of p'

(b)

Drar.v the graph

(c)

If (-1. p -

(a)

Drar.v the graph of each

of the tollorving equaitions on the same axes.

(i) .r=6
(ii) )'=,r+
(iii) 2y'- 3r = 6
1

(b)

Find the area of the triangle bounded

rl'trsco Publiccrtions Pte

Lt(l

bl

these three lines.

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl",

15.

It is given that the points

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

16. (a)
(b)
(c)
17

" (a)

(2,4)

Draw the graph of each of the following equations on the same axes.

(i) x=l
(iii) ! = 2x

19

Draw the graph of each of the following equations on the same axes.

\e4

!l

3
(1r) ! = -r*

(iv) y= )x-6

Name the hgure fbrmed bl,these fbr"rr lines.


Write dorvn the coordinates of the verrices of this figure.

In each of the fbllorving, state rvhether the ordered parr is a solution of the equation.

(a) (-l ,4'), x - 2y = J

(b)

(c)

(d) (3,3),7x-8y+3=0

. (a)
(b)

it302

(ii) x=-2
(iv) y=2x+8

Name the flgure formed by these four lines.


Find the area of the flgure formed.

1(rr1) !--1x+tt

18.

(*8, 1) lie on the line hx + lq + 6 = 0.

Find the values of h and k.


Draw the above graph for -21x < 5.
Write down the y-intercept of the graph.
If (r, -5) lie on the graph, flnd the value of r.

(i) y=)*++
(b)
(c)

and

li,r),4x+y-o

(10,3),3x + 5y = lJ

Write dor'vn the equation of the vertical Iine that passes through the point (3 , _2) .
Write dorvn the equation of the horizontal line that passes through the point (ll, 8).

Mathematics Tutor 24

|.@.Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

- r. (a)

(b)
(c)
(d)

The line r = -3 meets the r-axis at P. Write dor'vn the coordinates of P.


The line _l = 4 meets the -r,-axis at Q. Write dorvn the coordinates of Q.
The lines -r = -3 and I = .1. meet at R. Wdte dor'vn the coordinates of R.
Calculate
(i) the area of APQR,
(ii) the perimeter of APOR.

ll

Finclthevalues olp,elandrif thefbllorvingpointslieonthe line2r+3r'=9.


(c) (1r,5 - 3r)
(b) (2q - 3. -t'1
(a) (-3, p)

tt.

The points k/, 0), (0, c) and (a,fl lie on the line -5r
(a) Find the values of cl, e and.f .

rhr

ll

4,1'

= 8.

+1 ] tie, on lhe line 5.r-Jt'= 8.


'"--- |,-2
\
))

State rvhethcr

Theequationof asrlaishthnelis
of h.

Casc'o Publication.s Pte

Lt(l

1y+41'--11.If

thepoint(2.h+ 1)lieson/,findthevalue

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl.,

21.

The point A is the r-intercept of the line -r + 3y = 10. Find the coordinates of A. Another point B
is the r'-intercept of the line 3-t - 5_r, = 15. Find the coordinates of B. Hence. Iind the numerical
value of the area of triangle AOB, r,vhere O is the origin.

(2)

Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations in Two Variables using the


Graphical Method

25.

The diagram shows the graph of 3x + y = J .


(a) On the same axes, draw the line with equation

ffi

MathematicsTutor2A

=x

5.

@ Ctrscr,t Publications Pte

Ltd

(b)

Use your graphs to solve the simultaneotts equations:

3.r+r'=7
-r'=.t

The diagram sho'nvs the graph of 2-r +

t6.

(a)

3)'=

18.

On the same axes, dralv the line r'l'ith equation

1'

=l

-1

-1

'

f-

--

='
=
[,i-l

r--+
-,1:-i
--i
l" r+

5i,
:i
1-t

(b)

Solve the simultaneous equirtions:

2,r+3r'= llJ
-r-3-i =9
.

-,r-rco Publit:ations Pte Ltd

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables

The graph of l'- 2r*6 is shorvn. Drarv on the same axes the graph clf _r 21' = 6. Use your
graph to solve the simultneous equations:

27.

y=2r-6
r-2t,=6

(a)

28.

Complete the table of values for the given strai-eht lines.

(i) r'=:r'+7

(ii)

(b)
(c)

_r,=-_t+4
.r

t)

.v

On the same axes, drarv the graph of each line.


Use your graph to solve the simultaneous equations:
l
\=1r+7
I=-'r+4

({:00})

Marhematics Turor 2A

O Casr:o Publication.y Pte Ltd

29.

Solve the following simultaneous equations using the graphical method.

(d) 2-r+\'+6 =0
I

'

lo\
\5,

t"

lr'-7r'-9
)-,---l -.r

C)

4r+,- =12
l.
Y -+=
-1'
+

(m) 2.t+_y-4
,Y=,r+5.5

(b) l,=r-8

(c) -r-2t'=4

(e) r=)'-2
x-2! +2=0

(f)

(h) 7r+11'=)g
'11'- 3-r - 4

(i) .r+3rr+5 =0

(k) 3)'-.r+6 =0

(l)

3:;+-v-5

- 10-r = 0
x+2t,- 12

2r-3,r'+

=0

3x-8y=l)
x-5y+3=0

6y-2-r =15

(n) -r--r-= I
)r'+r'+1-0

3-r

(o)

41 1 51' =
7.r +

?[

$'=21

,&

Cust:o Publiccrtions Pte Ltd

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl.t ',(:OZ$

\/

(a)

30.

Given the equation

_\'

=2-

complete the table belolv.

-1

.)

v
(b)

r,

Using a scale of 2 cm to reprcsent

I unit on each axis,

drarv and label the graph of

)'=2-x'
From your graph, find
(i) the vnlue of -r'r,vhen -r =

(ii)

(c)

the value of

u,'hen,),= -1.8.

Given the ecluation.r = -2x + 3, complete the table belor.v.

x
v

(d)
(e)

2.-5.

Drarv and label the graph of _1, = -2t + 3 on the sarre axes
Hence, find the solution to the simultaneous cquations:

as

part (b).

3-r+3,r,=6

2l+t'=3

(a)

31.

Given the equation

2r'-

3-r

+ 6 = 0, compiete the table belolr,.

v
(b)

Draw the graph of 2y

3x + 6 = 0, using 1 cm to represent 1 unit on each axis, for

0<x<Band-3<y<10.
(c)

The graph of 2y - 3x + 6 = 0 cuts the r-axis at the point A and the y-axis at the point B.
Find the area of triangle AOB where O is the origin.

(d)

Onthesameaxes,drawthegraphofy=

2y-3x+6=0andy=

32. (a)

1r+4.Hence,solvethesimultaneousequations
J

lr++.

Given the equation x + 2y = 10, complete the table below.

0ls

ll0

v
(b)
(c)

Using a scale of 1 cm to represent 1 unit on the x-axis and 2 cm to represent I unit on


they-axis, draw the graph ofx +2y = lg.
Given the equation x - 3y = 0, complete the table belor,v.
.r

()

"v

(d)

.#\,

It30S,il

\./

Draw and label the graph of x

Mathematics Tutor 2A

3y = 0 on the same axes as part (b).

'.@

Casco Pwblications Pte

Ltd

(e)

Find the solution to the simultaneous equations:

r+2r.'=10

,t-3y=0
(0

Calculate the numerical value of the area enclosed by the lines with equations:

,r = 0,-r + 2y
33.

l0 = 0.-r

3-r

The diagram shorvs the graph of r, = -t + 2.


(a) On the same axes, draw the graphs of

(b)

(ii)

(i) ,),=2r-1,

3.Y+r=24.

Use your graph to solve the simultaneous equations:

(i)

(ii) y=x+2

_r,'=-r+2
..y-L.\-r
_ -)..

3y+x=24

.i'.:'

.i.....i....i...
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il

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I

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Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

.l
l
I

Variabl..

ii
ii

m
&w

(3)

Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations in Two Variables using the


Elimination/Substitution Method

34.

Use the

(a)

elimination method to solve the following simultaneous equations.

3r+y=3

(b)

x-Y =4

(c)

(e)

2x+7y=J)

5.r-3y= |
4x+3y=-lQ

(d)

-2x +9y =$

(0

4x+7y-9

2x+3y=l)

2x-5y =J

3x-5y=-J

7x-2y

3r-

=-ll
ll

10y =

,4,

{(:

'v

tO)

Marhematics Turor 24,

@ Casco Publications Pte Ltd

(g)

2x+3y-l

(h)

2x-3y=l$
3x+2y=l

4x

5x+2y=$

(i)

9"r+5y=13
3x

(k)

-2y

fl

6x+7y=J
-2y = 16

0)

-7y

-)

3x-5y--2

5a+ab=3t

7x

A Casco Publications Pte Ltd

+o + sb

=3i

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables

35.

Use the elimination method to solve the following simultaneous equations.

(a)

Jr+4y-22=0

(b)

4,r+5_r,-37=0

(c)

3x=2y-I0

2,r-5r,

(d)

6x-5y =-J

Y=2x-l

0.5-r

)
-)

=-l

0.4,1'

0.2_v+ 1.5"r=2

4x+y+nf, -0

(e)

-.Y + -11'=

(f)

tv

34

2x+y

-8

,zA

((: lZ)

\\**//
..gY

Mathematics Tu{or 2,t

@ Cus'r'o Publictttions Ptc

Lt(l

(g)

?v+1rr-3
3x _! _6

(h)

aa

(i)

x+y _ x-y
52

i*-tr+t2=0

(i)

Z(x

-3)
4x

+ 5y = 12

-7Y = )

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

l.
4(.;

1.^

-5)= J(3-y)

7x+4y-15=0

9x-!6y=15

(k)

lx+zy-10=0

(1)

3x+2(5

-))

11

2(x-1)-3y =2

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables

36.

Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneous equations.


(a)

(c)

.r+2y-3
3x*1'* l6

(b)

3r+2v=19

(d)

r-5_-v

(e)

rr

8-r-3-y=

,A
',U#/

Mathematics Tutor 24

)'=2r-J
7-v-2x= -19

(0
10

--1

-5-t+i,-7

--5

).-

3x-21,

2x=3y-5
21,+3x=5|

t'@',Casco

Publications Pte Ltd

(g)

2x+3t=5

(h)

(i)

?r'=

1r-

5-ri;-81

C)

-J

xy^
2x-y =2

Casco Publicatiotts Pte

Ltd

2x-1t=1.7

lr' .5r'=)1!
*- l

=O

(l)

+-1

]a-\b=41
5a+3b=0

3.r+4,v=8

!x+3y+9=0

I'-"-2=o

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl.,

37

Use either the elimination nlethod or the substitution method to solve the fbllorving
simuItaneous equrtions.

(a)

2x+3y=)$

(b)

2x

-Zx+5y=-l$

(d)

2Y=3x-5
5x*6y= lQ

.1
2x-3y = -L1

(f)

7x+7y +8 =0
2x-3y+13=0

3r-y-17 =0

(c)

6x+7y

(e)

={

3x=2y

qt I

Mathemarics Tutor 2,A

-3y =Q
3x+2y=J

':,@'Casco Publications Ptu

Ltd

(g)

5-r-6.y =_-6+

(h)

2.r-5y=

fr-2r'=-, '21

(i)

3-r+2v=0

(i)

5r-lr'-19

(k) I+l=+-l1A-)
3-r-Y = 3

@ Casco Pttblicatiotts Pte Lt{l.

]=6x+9

3.2-r-2.5,r'=:l
0.8-t

(ll

11

1.5-r'= 8

x+]

23

)v

36

-tl

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variabl",

(m) 2r -

(o)

3-t'

3,r

5-r'

x+y 3x+y
-=
3x+4y=4

52
(q) :-..
l!
)3
- +xY

K3tA)
\srrz

=16

-5

(n)

(p)

(r)

3(2x

y) - 2(x + 2Y) = lQ
5x -9Y - 12 =0

;.1 =Jr+3r+26=0

la.

3y) = 3(2y

3x

* l) = x + v + 2

=14

MarhematicsTutor 2A

*$.:;Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

-:,

Find the perimeter of each of the follorving flgures.

All

lengths are given in centimetres.

(3,r

['+

6) crr

(3-r

tt/ ------=--------(i.r \'+ +) crl

l) cm

"

,4

/:r-r)
| ,

\z

(5.r +

_r'

+ 7) cm

(r + 2_r'+ 2) crn

ABCD is a rectangle.

ABC is an equilateral triangle.

(c)

(d)

tcm

B
ABCD is

q.,Casco Publications Pte Ltd

-.r,) cm

(3,r

-,r.) crn

parallelogram.

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables

39.

If

-1 are the solutions to the simultaneous equations:


ax-bY=71
3x + bt'= 5a

= 3 and

rr =

Find the values of a and b.

I
I

i
I

I
I

40.

4l

If

r=2and-r=-l

GiventhatAr2 +

arethesolutionsof theequation

!
1

rt +p-r+(l=O,flndthe

values

of pandtl

=-r'.where AandBareconstantsancl-t=2ancl-r = l0,shorvthat

8A + B =20.
Given also that.r = I and ) = -1, form another cquation in A and B.
Hence solve the pair of simultaneous equations to llnd the value of A and the value of B.

{{320}}

\/

Mathematics Tutor 2A

O Casco PubLir:ations Ple Ltd

(4)

Solving Word Problems involving Simultaneous Linear Equations in


Two Variables

rl.

is 20 ye ars
Paula is -r years old ancl her olcler brother. Marc is -I years old. The sttm clf their ages
ancl the diffbrence betr'veen their ages is 4 years'
Form t',vo equations connecting.r and -1''

(a)

(b)ontl-resameaxes,drar,vthegraphsofthesetrvoequations.
(c) From vour graph. find thc age s of Paula and Marc'

43.

The concert tickets for two adults and three children cost a total of $48 '
(a) Using $x to represent the cost for an adult ticket and $y the cost for a child ticket, show

that2x+3Y={3.

(b)
(c)

44.

The same concert tickets for one adult and two children cost a total of $28. Write down
another equation involving x and y'
cost for an
Solve the two simultaneous equations graphically and hence write down the
adult ticket and the cost for a child ticket'

Science test. His total marks were 150' F{e


obtained 20 more marks in Mathematics than in Science'
(a) Using r to represent his Mathematics marks and y to represent his Science marks, write
down two equations connecting x and y'
(b) Find his marks for Mathematics and his marks for Science using a graphical method'

Jonathan sat

fbr a Mathematics and a

@'Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variabl",

'\#
dm

45.

The diagram shows a regular hexagon ABCDEF. Given that AB = (3r + 2y - 7) cm,
3g = (5x - 3)' + 17) cm and the perimeter of the hexagon is 540 cm, find the values of x and _r.

otB
(3,r +

21

7) cm
i
i

4(t.

In the diagram, ABCD is atrapezium.BC =(2x- 4-r,) cm,4p =(4x +l') cm,AE= 3 cm.
BE = 4 cm ancl the area of the trapezium is 54 cmr. Fincl the values of x and -r,.

(,1,r +

y) crn

I
I

i4cm

(2.t

47.

4.r) crn

Sandra pays for a dress that costs $125 using five-dollar and ten-dollar notes. She uses 16 notes
altogether. How many notes of each value does she use?

/:G.
{{:ZZ})

&4{/

Mathematics Tutor 2A

Cosi-o Publicatiotts Pte Ltd

-+g.

5 years ago.Toby rvas 4 times as old as his sister, Sheryl.In 5 years'time.Toby

rvillbe tr'vice

as old as Sheryl. Find their present ages.

+9.

Mr McDonald has some ducks and goats in his farm. If he counted a total of 94 legs

50.

A marine tish exhibition is held at the Singapore Expo. The entrance f-ees tor 5 adults and
6 children are $70 rvhile the entrance fees for 4 adults and 7 children are 567. Hou'much

and

30 heads. find the number of ducks and the number of goats in his farm.

woultl a family of 3 adults and 5 children need to pay?

5l

and $5
The excursion f-ees fbr adults antl senior citizens for a tour to an organic farm r'vere $9
total
If
the
men.
respectively. One-third of the adults and trvo-fifth of the senior citizens were
total number
cost of the excursion f-ees were $751 and '15 men rvere in the tour group' find the
of people ',vho 'nvent for the excursion.

@ Casco Publicutions Pte

Ltd

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variabl",

52.

The sum of tlvo integers is three times their clifference. Thrice the smaller integer exceeds the
Iarger integer by 4. Fincl the integers.

53.

The sum of the digits of a trvo-digit number is 14. Trvice the tens digit increased by trvo equals
fbur times the units digit. Find the number.

-5r1.

A trvo digit number is such that the sum of its digits is one-seventh of the number.
rvill be decreased by 36. What is the number?

If

the di.eits

are reversed, the number

55.

A fiaction is such that r,vhen 9 is added to the numerator. it becomes

Half the sum of

-1

the numerator and denominator is 28. Find the fraction.

'ffi

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Cas<-o Publications Pte

Ltd

lf both the numerator

56.

hecomes

tl f

.1-! .

decreased by

5'/

Uottr the numerator and the denominator of the same fraction nr.

and the denominator of a fraction are each increased Uy

the fraction becomes

9
11

. the

.*.t

Find the original fiaction.

Three cyclists Andy. Brizrn and Charles cycled from Torvn A to Tori tl B u hich u its
Andy cycled at zrn average speed of x km/h.

(a)
(b)
(c)

friiction

km apart.

Brian cycled at r km/h slor,ver than Ancly. The journey took him JS mlnuie .. \\'-rite clou'n
and simplify an equation in terms of .r and )' to represent thts infornlatiott.
Charles cycled at 1, km/h faster than Andy. The journey took hirn 3l r-njnutes. Write
down and simplity an equation in terms of ,r and )' to represent this itttormatitlu.
Solve the tr,vo equations for r and 1- and find how long Andy took to cvcle iror.n Tou'n rl
to Tor.vn B. Give your answer correct to the nearest minute.

t
$

-$

:.!.9::,

C as

P ub li c ati on

s P t e Lt d

Chapter 6:LinearEquations in Two Variabl".

58.

The cost, C dollars. of usin_q a handphone is given by the fbrmula

Q=p*Qn,
where z is the number of units of time durin-e r,vhich the hanclphone is used.
Marc has to pay $-54 if he uses 300 units and $78 if he uses -500 units.
(a) Write dorvn trvo equations in terms of p and c1.
(b) Solve these simultaneous equations to find the values of p and q.
(c) Find the number of units r"rsed by Marc if he htrs to pay 568.40

59

The number of diagonals . D , that can be drarvn in a polygon is given by the formula

D=Xnz+Yn,
where n is the number of sides.

(a)

By considering the number

of- diagonals

in a triangle and a quadrilateral. show that

3X+Y=0and8X+2Y=1.

(b)
(c)

A
Qpl

Solve these simultaneous equations to find the values of X and


Hence, flnd the number of diagonals in an octagon.

Mathematics Tutor 2A

I.

@ Cusco Publicotions Pte

Ltd

THINKTNG S](ILLS GORNER


1.

{-ook at the diagrams belor.v and lind the values of ,r and l'.

/,k r'\

r,k ft l:
x
xg>:;\ )(,__i1
A,:---\
A^
(-)Zll
l:_.ry:-::
erz4\ e9r

2.

Solve the fbllorving simultaneotts equations.

x+2
(a) y_ 3=, I
x-L 2
v-E 5

(c)

(b)

43
x+

2x-5
3y+l -

84

x+y + x-y
103
x+y

,@:Casco Publications Pte

x-y

Ltd

-+-rJ
-

tI -- f1')
-

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variabl",

3.

Solve the simultaneous equations to flnd the positive values of a and b.

-24b2 =98
57a3 -28b1 =393
l9ct3

4.

When the digit 6 is r'vritten to the right of er two-digit number to make it a three-digit number,
the nerv number is 888 more than the ori-einai two-digit number. Find the original nurnber.

5.

Tr,vo positive integers are such that their difference, their sum and their product are in the ratio

I :2:6.lrind

ffi

the integers.

MathematicsTutor2,+

Ca

Casco Publit:tttiot'rs Pte Ltd

6.

r km/h for 30 minutes and y km/h for 20 minutes. He found that he had
covered a distance of 20 km. Peter travelled 40 km at x km/h and 45 km at y km/h. Peter took

Daniel travelled
1

i)

hours to complete his journey. Find the possible values of x.

The product of trvo numbers is

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

2
3

and the sun-r of their reciprocals is

59

Find the trvo numbers.

Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two

Variabl-

B.

At the bird park, Anna

saw some flamingoes. Some were standing on 2 legs, some were


standing on I leg and some were roosting. There were half as many flamingoes roosting as
there rvere standing. If she counted 99 flamingoes and a total of 100 legs, {ind the number of
flamingoes standing on one leg.
(Assume that a flamingo standing on one leg is counted as having one leg and a flamingo
roosting is counted as having no legs.)

9.

There are 50 multiple-choice questions in a Mathematics Quiz.

3 marks are awarded for each con'ect answcr.


2 marks are deducted for each wrong answer.
No marks are deducted for questions left unansr.vered.
Given that Jonathan obtained 80 marks in the quiz, find the greatest number of questions he
ansr'vered correctly.

l(::o))
\E/

Mathematics Tutor 24

@ Cnsco Publications Pte

Ltd

Gongruence and

Similarity
aaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaa

a aao

a a a a a a a a a aa aaa

aaaa

a aa ioa

a too

a a a a aa a a aaaa

a a aa

Targets
.
.
.

Identify congruent and similar flgures.


Match the sides and angles of tlvo congruent polygons.
State the properties of similar polygons.

Enlarge and reduce a piane

Drar,v simple scale drar'vings.

Solve problems involving consmence and similarity.

f?D

fi_rr"ri'e

b1' a scale factor.

Congruent Figures

l.

Figures that are congruent har.- the same shape and the same size.
I A11 the figures belos are congruent.

E.-e.

8.5.2

The figures below do not have the same shape, so they are not congruent.

The figures below have the same shape but not the same size, so they are
not congruent. (The two flgures are similar.)

E.g.

MathematicsTutor2A

@ Casco

Publittttions Pte Lnl

t'{

rt
I

2.

Il two iigures are congruent. lhen


(a) all their coresponding angles are equal

and

r\ /\

(bl

all their corresponding sides are equal.

X. *^t

o/

It LABC is congruentto LPQR,

LA= LP
LB -- L8

AB=PQ
.

Corresponding angles
arc equa l.

LC=LR
WE WritE

BC=QR

^n

l'-

Corresponding sides
are equal.

AC=PR

AABC: APQR.
'=' means 'is congruent to'

J.

When naming congruent triangles, make sure that the vertices of one figure
correspond to the vertices of the other figure.
One lvay is to use the matching diagram to show hor'v the corresponding vertices
match.

LABC: LPQR
Llr

rll

We can also say

or

LBCA: LQRP

We cannot say LABC: AQPR

or

AACB: LPRQ.

or

ABCA: APQR.

E.g.

6cm

rD Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

8cm

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

.{ =-X=-5-l'-l
- Y=90' I

-B
_L

.'. LABC

.7
= LL=-'tl'-O ,)

anglc-: rre equal,

and LXYZ are consrlrent and we write

.Teacherts

f-"

The three pairs of conespondin,*

LABC: LXYZ.

One rvay to check rvhether itvo figures are cotlgruent is to


place one figure on top of tl-re clther'. If they are congruent. both
figures will {it exactly on top of each other.

Congruence and Transformation

1.

To decide ivhcther tlvo figures are congrllent. we can position one on top clf the
other by rnaking three different moves.

(a)
(b)
(c)

A slide is a translation.
A turn is a rotation.
A flip is a reflection.

Trtrnslation

Rotation

Reflection

figure by sliding, turning or flipping, we make

transformation

2.

When we lrove
of the figure.

J.

L nder a transformation, an object is transformed onto its image.

4.

.\n object

A.

Translation

5.

In a translation, every point in the ligure slides the same distance and the same

anci its image are

congrllent under

translation.

rot:ttion and a reflection.

direction.
6.

,4,
Wp

We use a slide aror,v (also called a translation vector) to shorv the direction and
distance of the movement.

Mathematics Tutor 2A

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

1.

In the diagram
M to l{.
E.g.

belor.v.

A'B'C'D' is the image of ABCD under a translation from


ABCD is moved 3 units to the
2 units up onto A'B'C'D'.

AA'=BB'=CC'=DD'=MN
AA, II BB, II CC' II DD' II MN

The slide an'or,v (translation vector) shor.vs


that the slide rnoves ABCD 3 units kr the
right and 2 rurits rrp.

From the cliagram, we can see that ABCD is congruent to its image A'B'C'D' rnder
a translation.

B.

Rotation

8.

In geometry, rotating a figure means turning the figure at a point. This point is
called the centre of rotation. The flgure is rotated in a clockwise or anticlockwise
direction through the same angle called the angle of rotation.
E.g.

AABC is mapped onto AA'B'C'


under a 180o clockrvise rotation
about the point O.

LAOA'= IBOB'= LCOC' =

l80o

OA = OA', OB = OB' and OC = OC'

From the diagram, we can see that LABC is congruent to its image LA'B'C' tnder
a rotation.
In general,
e

Casco Publicotions Pte Ltd

figure is congruent to its image under a rotation.


Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

C.

Reflection

9.

In geometry, a reflection is a transformation in rvhich


called the line of reflection.

10.

In the diagram,l\A',B',C',is the image of AABC under a reflection in the line X)'.

ligure is flipped over a line

The points A and A' are equidistant


from the line X)'. i.e. 2 units.

B and B' are both 3 units from the


line XI.
C and C' are both
line XI.

I unit fiom

the

Also, AA' is perpendicular to XY,


BB' is perpendicular to XI and
CC' is perpendicular to XY.

From the diagram, we can see that AABC is congruent to its image LA'B'C'.

.e-.&*

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
State rvhich of the following figures are congruent. giving a reason for your answer.

l,QJ9

Mathematics Tutor 24

@ Casr:o PtLblicatittns Pte

Ltd

SOLUTION:

A,B,c andD

are congrlrent because they have the same shape ancl size.

B can be obtained fiorn A by a reflection.


C can be obtained fiom A by a rotation.
Dcan beobtainedfromAbyatranslation.i.e.moveA l0unitstotherightancl 2units
dor,vn.

F and 11 are congruent because they have the same shape


fiomFbyareflection.

ancl size.

can be obtainecl

G does not have the same shape as the rest of the triangles.
.'. G is not congruent to any of the triangles.

t has the same

shape as .F but not the same size.


.'. 1 is not congruent to F but it is similar to F.

%,.

WORKED EXAMpLE 2:

It LABC = LPQR, find the missing sides

,1

and angles.

cm

SOLUTION:

AB=PQ=23cm
QR=BC=4cm
PR=AC=3.1 cm

LC= LR = 35"

-A=180"-50'-35"(L
=

9-5o

LP=LA=95"
LQ= LB=50o

L'ast-o Publicutions Pte

Ltd

sum of

A)

If trvo triangles

are congruent then the


corresponding sides and corresponding
angles of the trvo triangles are equal.

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

A"--.

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
State whether the following pairs of figures are congruent.

If

so, explain r.vhy.

(a)AP

5cm

(b)

(c)

5cm

SOLUTION:

(a) LA = 180" - 40" =

60" (1_ sum of A)

80o

ZR = 180'

80'

40'

(L

sum of A1

= 60"

LA=LP=80"
LB = LQ= 40'
LC=LR=60"
AB = PQ = 4.40 cm

gC=eR=5cm

AC

PR = 3.26 cm

.'. Since LABC and LPQR have the same shape and size, AABC

,,r \\

LPQR.

.1;e;:

it338 $l Mathematics Tutor 2A

Qt Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(b)

LH = LI (base /s
180')

of isos. A)

120"

= 30o

LI

= LH =30"
LW = LV (base Zs of isos. A)
= 30o
LU = 180" - 30'- 30' (Z sum of A)
= 120'

LG =L[]=120"
LH = LV =30"

LI

= LW=30"

GH=UV=4cm
HI =

VW = 6.93 cm

GI:UW=4cm
.'. Since
(c)

LGHI

and AUVW have the same shape and size,

LJ = 780' - 90' - 36 (L

sum of

A)

sum of

A)

LGHI: LUWV.

= 54"

LZ = 180' - 90' - 41' (L


=16
Since two of the angles in
is not congruent to AXYZ.

%-.

LJKL do not correspond to that rn LXYZ, LJKL

woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
In the diagram, AABC is congruentto LDCE. Given that LACB = 20o, LCDE = 50o,
AB = 2.68 cm. BC = 6 cm and DE ='7 .36 cm. llnd
(a) LBAC,
(b) LCED,
(c) LDCE,
(d) the length of CD,
(e) the length of AC,
(f't the length of AE.

@ Casco Publications Pte

Lt(l

Chapter 7: Congruence and Sim;larity

,A
Wp

SOLUTION:

(a)

LBAC = LCDE =

(b)

LCED = LBCA = 20o

50o

(:

t
+

(c)

LDCE = 180o - 50" - 20' (L sum of A)


= 110"

(d)

CD = BA = 2.68 cm

(e)

AC = DE = 7.36 cm

(0

CE=BC=6cm
AE=AC-CE
=1.36-5
=

II

1.36 cm

We can Llse congruent shapes to form tessellations under different transttlrrnatiorts.

ln

a tessellation, a shape is repeated to cover a flat surtace. The shape must fit
together so that there are no overlapping shapes or gaps betr,veen the shapes.
Examples of shapes that tessellate are shor.vn beklnv

ffi
rectiutgles

re-eular hexagons

equiltrteral triangles

Examples of shapes that do not tessellate arc shorvn belou,.

rcgular octagons

{fl:+O}) Mathematics Tutor

\/

24.

circles

O Casco Priltlica.tious Ptc [,td

re

Similar Figures

1.

Two flgures are similar if they have exactly the same shape, although they may or
may not have the same size. If they have exactly the same shape and size, then they
are congruent.

E.g.

2.

l.

The diagrams belorv shorvs three arrolvs which are similar. The three arrows
have the same shape but are different in size.

II two triangles are similar. then


(a) all their corresponding angles are equal. and
(b) the ratios of all their corresponding sides are equal.

It AABC is similar to APQR,

LA= LP

LB=I-Q +
LC=LR

then

Cor-responding AB
anglcs are

equal.

PQ

BC
QR

AC
PR

Ratio of their

cone:ponding sidc:
are equal.

Since there is no standard notation for sirnilarity, we just r.vrite


LABC and APQR are similar.

Ca.rco PubLication.s Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

E.g. AABC is similar

tt't

LXYZ.

gz'

A
cnrz/

,/

53"1-

A'AAJ
) -1

l-1cnr

.
+cm

I )n
L

8 cn'r

lA

= LX=53" )
B = 1-Y=37o I
LC = rZ=90" )
1

AB 5 1-)
xY l0 2t
BC4lI
Y7 8 -t I
!

AC]II

xz-6-2-)
(h"..- -\&N

sirnilar tliarrgle\ arc equal.

colr. sides of sirnilal triangles are equal.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Given that LABC is similar to APQR, find

(a)
(b)

LQPR,
the length of AC.

a/

'?--16\\ \c

SOLUTION:

(a)

LABC is similar to LPQR. (Given)


LQPR= LBAC
= 1l0o

(tll,PR_AC =t- AB
PQ
AC

IJ

1.5

t2

-=
AC=
_t

,^.
\4

f(:+23

x7.5
l2
CIn
5cm

Marhemarics Turor 2A

O Casco Piltlittttions Pte Ltd

-).

If tr.vo quadrilaterals are similar, then


(a) all their corresponding angles are equal,

(bt

and

the ratios of all their corresporrclins sides arc equal.

lf quadrilateral ABCD is similar to quaclrilateral peRS,


t

then

/A-./D
t t
Lt
-

LB = tQ-

AB IIC CD
^-J --an0
PQ = QR- RS -

LC=LR

AD

Rt

/-D = LS
4.

WoRKED EXAMPLE 2:
In the diagran, ABCDE

ancl

peRSZ are similar.

Find

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

LBCD.
the length of
the len-eth of

pe.

,r_-_______--7,

,RS,

\\

(b)

LIIC:D = LQRS
= 4-5o

!9 = at?
AB BC
lQ_6

6fi
pe =

+sX
6cm

8cm

SOLUTION:

(a)

./ 1.5 cm

\1s

the length ot DE.

Match thc vcrlices.


figures are equal.

A B
lrlr^

l)

t.

Ittli
+++++
POR.!r

f "u

= 4.5 cm
.. ('ctsco Public:ctti.on.s pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

r\

RS_0R

(c)

CD

Ralio of corr. sides of sirnilar

BC

ligures are equal.

RS_6

5.4 8
6
R,S=:x
5.4
tt
=

4.0-5 CIn

DE

(d)

BC

.sr

oR

1.5

DE;
-

DE=

1.5

=2cm

%,

WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Are

LABC

and

LMNL similar?

9.3 cm

Scm B

72 cm

SOLUTION:

LC = 180" - 30'=

LM =
=

I 10'

(L

sum of

A)

(L

sum of

A)

r10"

180"

I10'

40"

30o

LA=LM=30"1
/ R = ,/ A/= ll0' !
LC = LL=40" )
l

MN 12 t --)
AB - NL 9.-l
\
-t
BC- 6:-"''
ML 11.55 l --,
AC fi.1 I.I

LARC and LMNL have corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides in the sanre
ratio.

.'. LABC is similarr to AI,INL.

/A\

(:++)

\w

Mathematics Tutor 24

e) ()o.sco Pt.tblicotions Pte Ltd

For trvo triangles to be similar, lve just need to shorv that all
corresponding angles are equal OR all pairs of corresponding
sides have the same ratio.

<H"
--.:

5.

Conditions fbr trvo triangles to be similar:

6.

Conditions for trvo polygons rvith fbur or morc

side s

to be similar:

WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
In the diagram. APQR is similar to APIX.
Find

(a) LPR}.
(b) LPYX.
(c) the iength of QX.
SOLUTION:

12.,,/\','ot^

(a)

LPQR is similar

LPRQ =
=

to LPYX. (Given)

zpXI-S$ffiffi

65"

(b) LPYX = LPQR


=40"

Cttst:o Pttblicutions Pte Ltd

. triangles.ate

Corr.

Match tl-rc verticcs.

;qik,

.g*I.'.

l-s

PQR

{++
ti
ttt

'

PYX

of .similar

tdanglesare'i4nai.

-"

Chapter'

7:

Congruence and Similarit-v lq34slJ

PX PY
PR PQ
PX 27
812
PX=!1
xB
12

(c)

=18cm
QX = PX- PQ

=18-12
=6cm

-%^

woRKED EXAMpLE 5:
In the diagram, AAPQ is similar to LABC. AQ = 12 cm, PB = 6 cm, BC = 12 cm and
QC = 4 cm. Find the values of r and y.

4cm
C

SOLUTION:
LAPQ is similar to LABC. (Given)

PQ _AQ

BC
.r

AC

12
-=_

Ratio o1'corr'. sides of


similar triangles are equal.

AP

AB-AQ
AC

tl
16

x=9x12
16
=9cm

4]'=

3(,t,

+ 6)

4I=3)+18
.-r

(6h

Mathematics Tutor 2,q

18 cm

Q) Casco Public:aticuts Pte

Ltcl

_7_.4

!]milarity and Enlargement


1.

An enlargement or a reduction of a ligure is simiiar to the original

2.

The scale factor of an enlargement or recluction is the ratio of a pair of corresponcling


sides of the enlarged or reducecl figure to the originai figure.

Scalc

lae

tor

[-cngih ol l sitle ol redueedrenlar.Scd IlSure


_
.
= Length
of the conesponding side of the original figure

E.g. 1 AA'B'C' is an enlargement

of

LABC rvith a scale factor of 2.

:l

:ii'

I'

lr

l il

i'
:

lr 14.

ir

i:

:':l

ti

::
il

_: I

i::i

:-l

:;
i...i

.lri

i'

\l

:lJr

:11
,il;

l:

i1

il

-.t

-:

;- i

.ri
ii

-ii

.'l

_:J

llil;rl
B, B,C,
AB BC
-=_=_=
A,

E.g.2 P'Q'R'S'is

P,Q, _ Q,R,
PQ

Casco Publications Pte

il

;'

fi_eure.

QR

Ltd

li-r
ii

,* ,,ll

A,C,
AC
a reduction of PQRS

R,S,
R,S

P, S,

PS

with a scale factor of

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

E.g.3

3.

In general, if LA'B'C'is an enlargement of AABC, then

/\.,
/-"
B

A,B, B,C,
=

Scalclactot'.0= ng

If the scale factor of

A,C,
AC

an enlargement is greater

than 1, the image

is

enlargcd.

If the scale factor of an eniargement

is between 0 and

l.

the

irr,

age is

reduced.

If the scale factor of

an enlatgeiltcnt is equal

to I, thc image is

congruent to the original ligure.

,#\
,(:+S],

\4',

Mathematics Tutor 24.

(O Cusco

Pttblicatious Ptt: Ltd

E.g.4 AAPQ is an enlargement of LABC rvith of scale factor of 3.

4.

In the example sholvn, notice that the orignal figure and its image have the
shape.
.'. A figure and its image under an enlargement are similar.

%,

woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
In the dia-eram, LLXY is an enlargement of ALMN with a scale factor of

If LM = 6 cm

(a)

and LN

--)

5 cm, Iind the length of-

(b)

LX,

NY.

6cm

SOLUTION:

(a) # =Scale factor


tx3
6-2
LX=1x6
2
=9cm

(b)

rr - S.ul" factor
I,N
LY3
5"2
LY

: x5
2
1

= 7.5 cm

NY = LY- LN
5
-7{
= 2.5 cm
E

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity

'%n,

WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
The diagrams belor.v are not drar,vn to scale. Parallelogram PQRS is a recluction ofparallelogram ABCD. AB = 12.5 cm. BC = 20 cm, AE = 10 cn-i and QR = 8 cm.
Find
(a) the scale factor of- redLtction,
(b) the length of PQ.
(c) the area of parallelogram PQRS.

SOLUTION:

8cm

20 cm

(a)

Scale factor

QR

BC

PQ

(b)

AB

PQ

'208

=?s
12.5
,)

PO= 1x12.5
5

-)

(c)

=5cm

Pr

- S"u1" factor
AE
PT2
10-5
)
PT= I xl}
5
=4cm

Teae$rer's

Tip

Area of parallelogram PORS


= Base x Height

=8x4
=3lcm

MathematicsTutor24

.Arr-:a
2

=Scale factor

tli'i;lr;rili'i,cgr"lnr -,.'l---:+r------ 7
.,n
x i:lcillirt
/,"
/'

= IJase
= !;

';,..

ji

,;

",*,
f,f.,+&.-_--r

,/

,.-.

!b'Casco Publications Pte Ltd

E}

Similarity and Scale Drawing


1

A scale drawing is an enlarged or reduced drarving of actual objects. W'e use scalc
drar,vings to sholv objects that are too large or too small to be shorvn in their actual
sizes.

E.g.

Maps and floor plans are cxamples of scale drarvings.

2.

The scale factor of a scale clrarving is the rtrtio of a length of the drarving to the
corresponding len-9th of the actual ob.iect. We can also call the scale factor of a
scale drarving as the scale.

J.

The scale of a drar,ving is usually rvritten as I : rz. It means that


sczrle drawing represents an actual length of l units.

r-rnit length on the

WORKED EXAMPLE 1:

A model of the Merlion is made. If the height of the model is zl.3 cm and the
height of the Merlion is 8.6 nT, find the scale f'actot of the mode1.

actual

SOLUTION:
Scale factor =

Height of model
of Merlion
4.3 cm

1cm
1cm
1

.'. The scale factor of the model is

tsco Publications Pte

Ltd

: 200.

,A

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity (t35 I I)

\rlz

%,

woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
A plan of a football lield is drarvn using a scale of I : 600. The actual dimensions of the
fleld is 90 m by 54 m. Find the perimeter of the field on the drarving.

SOLUTION:

Actual
600cm +

Plan

1cm

6m ---------- lcm

lm
Length

--------*

oi

1.6

fielcl on drawing = g0

*I

cm

=15cm
Width ol'tield on drawinu = Jzt v

cm

=9cm
Perimeter of field on drawing = 2(Length + Width)
= 2(15 + 9)

=48cm

%*

woRKED EXAMpLE o:
The length and r,vidth of a rectangular clockface are 24 mm by 16 mm. A scale drawing
of the clockface is made. On the scale drawing, the length of the clockface is'12 mm.
Find

(a)
(b)

the scale of the drar'ving in the form I : n,


the r.vidth of the clockface on the drawing.

SOLUTION:

(a)

Scale of drawing

='72mm

24 mm

= lmm

:+

= lmm

-mm

12
1

--)

-1
t.
-f

.'. The scale of the drawing is


(b

) Actual
a-- +
lmm *
16mm
1

I : {.
J

Drawing

lmm
3mm

3mmx16=48mm

.'. The rvidth of the clockface on the drawing is 48 mm.

ff.3SZ)

\/

Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Casco PLrblicatiorts Pta

Lttl

%.

woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
The diagram shor'vs the floor plan of an apafiment, drarvn using a scale
3

crn

3.5

crn

of I cm to 2 m.

3.5 cm

2.5 cm

5.3 cnr

2.5 crr

2cm

Find the actual

(a)
(b)
(c)

Iength of Bedroom 2,
dimensions of Bedroom 3.
total area of the apartment.

SOLUTION:

(a)

Actual length of Beclroom 2

=3x2m
=6m

(b)

Actr-ral length of Bedroom 3

=2.5x2m
=5m
Actual rvidth of Bedroom

=2x2m
=4m
.'. The actual dimensions of Bedroom

(c)

are5mby4rn.

Actual length of the apartment

=(3+3.5+3.-5)x2n'r
= l0x2m
= 20

rrt

Actual rvidth of the apartment

=-5.3x2m
= 10.6 m
Actual area of the apartment
= 20 x 10.6
= 212 mr
P

rr

ll

tuti o tts Pte Lttl

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

i(:S#l
\3d/

@8"

WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
A rectangular flshing pond ABCD is such that AB = 30 m and BC
(a) Drarv a plan of the pond, using a scale of I : 2-50.
(b) Measure the length of AC on the plan.
(c) Hence, estimate the actual length of AC.

= l6 m.

SOLUTION:

(a) Actual
250cm ---------2.5

lm *-

Plan

I cm
1cm

I a*

2..5

Length of pond on pJan =

-10

{ .,,

= 12cm
Width of pond orr plan = 16 x

* .-

= 6.;l cnr
Fishing Pond Plan
D

16 rn

30m

Scale :

(b)
(c)

I :250

By measurement, the length of AC on the plan is 13.6 cm.


Plan

Actual

1cm*

2.5m

13.6cm

13.6x2.5m=34m

.'. The estimate of the actual length of AC is 34 m.


-

/A'

((:s+))

\/

Mathematics Tutor 2A

(a Cosco PLrbl.ications Pte LtLl

Tutorial
1i
l.

Congruent Figures
Ale each of the follorving pairs of figures congruent? Give tr reason tor your answer. Determinc
rihich transtormation (translation. rotatiotr or reflection) shorvs that the trvo figurcs are
congruent.

, l.iico

Publictttions Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

,A\

,qy

2.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Given that

LPQR: ARSI.

complete the follorving statements.

(i)

LRPQ:

riit

tiiit

ARfS =

(iv) AsrR:

AQPR =

Given that AABC is congruent to ADEC, complete the follorving statements.

(i)

AB=DE=-cm

(ii)

BC=

=-Cm

(iii)

CD=

=_cm

(iv)

LBAC =

(v)

LDCE =

(vi)

LDEC =

Given that quadrilateral ABCD is congruent to quadrilateral PQRS, complete the


fbllowing statements.

3cm

,^'
\/

({:SO)

(i)

AB = PQ=

(ii)

CD=

=_cm

(iii)

QR=

=_cm

(iv)

LBCD =

(v)

LPQR =

Mathematics Tutor 2,t

@ Cal;r:o Publ.ication.t Ptr:

Ltd

.\re the following pairs of figures congruent? If so, state why and write dor.vn the statement of
J,rlgrueflce . If not, explain why.

4.7 cm

G Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity

ffi

1.

In each of the folloiving, AABC is congruent


lengths are gir en in eerrtimetres.

to LPQR. Find

the value of each unknor,vn. AII

(a)

(c)

(d)

a
1..5

(e)

(f)
A

5.87,/\,
,/\
gL--------)C
o

,^\
\4

K.tSS)

Mathemarics Tutor

2,t

@ Cttsco PubliL:ation.y Pte

Lt(l

(i)

U)

(k)

PR

12.6

cn

Ptrblicotions Pte Lttl

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

5.

In each of the following, ABCD: PQRS. Find the value of each unknorvn. A11 lengths
given in centimetres.

are

(b)

(d)

/A
i(:OO)
\.!{/

Marhematics Tutor 24

@ Custo Public'atiorts Pte

Ltd

Any square can be divided into:

N-=Z
i\
,/

txl
i/ \l

ll
I

two congruent
re

ctangles

tw0 congruent
triansles

Wilte True (T) or False (F) tor each


I

a)

ot-

tour congruent

eight congruent

triangles

triangles

the follor'ving statements.

T
tr
tr

Any parallelogram can be divided into four congruent triangles.

(b)

Any parallelogram can be divided -into three congruent parallelograms.

(c)

Any rhombus can be divided into four congruent triangles.

(d)

Any rhombus can be divided into two congruent rhombuses.

(e)

A pair of congruent triangles can be fbund rn a regular pentagon.

rf)

A regular hexagon can be divided into two pairs of congruent triangles.

tr
tr

Given that parallelogram ABCD is congruent to parallelogram PQRS, LQPS =


-{B = 6 cm and QR = 12 cm,lind

(A)

LABC,

(b)

LADC,

(c)

(d)

PQ,

050,

BC.

The cliagram shorvs the recycle logo. The cycle of arrows represents an endless reuse of
r-naterials. Describe the transformation (translation, rotation or reflection) that shows that the
three arrows are congruent.

ffi
G Cssco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity

g.

In

diagram, LPQRand ARIS are con-sruent. LQPR = 30o. LRST

thc-

RS

(b)

CD =

11.

\/

(0
(ii)

L\TR,
the length ot PT.

What can you conclucle about lines PQ and SR?

3.1) cm.

LEDC. Given that LACB = 70", LCED = 80', AC = 2 cm

find

LABC:,

ancl

the length of BE.

In tlre diagram, LABC and AADC are congruent. Given that


AD=9 cmand BC=5.9 cm.find
(a) LACB,
(b) the perimeter of quadlilateral ABCD.

((:oz}]

PQ=1.8 cm and

Find

ln the diagram. LABC

(a)
(b)

40o,

11.,1 cm.

(a)

10.

Marhematics Tutor 2A

BAD

=60o..

ADC

-20o,
D

At Casco Prhli<:ations Pte Ltd

.\C = 4 cm and
(a) LBGF.

(b)

= 66", LACB = LAFE -

90",

the length of EF.

ln the diagram,AB = DC,AC = DB and AC intersects DB atE. BC =


DE = 9 cm. LBCA = 3-5' and LCDB =20".
,r1) Name a triangle that is con.qruent to triangle ABC.
b)
Find the length of AE.
'

,.)

AAEF. Given that LBAC


the area of AABC = 18 cm2. find

Tn the diagram, LABC

Find 1DCB.

5cm

-5

cm, CE

=3

cm,

In the cliagram , ABCD is a rectangle and BEFD is a straight [ne. Given that LAEB: LCFD.
.\EB = LCFD = 90o, AE = 8.811 cm, BD = 17 cm. EF = 7 .06 cm, find the area of ABCF.
,rir.ing yollr answer correct to 3 signiltcant fi-eures.

PrtltIicotions Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity

15.

In the diagram, LABC and A,AED are congruent. Given that AB = 12 cm,.BX = 8 cm.
DE = 35 cm, LDAC = 37o and LACB = 19o, flnd
A

(a)
(b)

16.

LAYE,
the area of LAXC.

In the diagram, LABE: LEFD,AB =7 cm,DE=24 cm, LBAE = 90o, and LABE =74"
Find

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

the length of EF,


the area of ADEF,

7cm

LEDF,
LBCF.

/";iilda\
1g

36431 Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

In the diagram, triangles ABC, ADC and ADE are congruent. Given that LACB = LACD =
I-AED = 90o, LBAE = 101.1o, AE = 6 cm and the area of quadrilateral ABDE is 36 cmt. find

ia)
(b)

'

1-CDE,
the length of BD.

In the diagram,

AAEG, LDFG and LHBG are congruent. Given that LEAG = 30",

47o and FG = 5 cm. find


-DFG =
ra)
the length of EG,

b)
IC)
I

I_EGF,

LBGH.

Ptblications Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

(2)

Similar Figures and Objects

t9.

In each of the follorving, LABC is similar to APQR. Find the value of each unknor.vn. All
lengths are civen in centimel.res.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

*An

,L,\.

(e)

6
3

6m

trP:

B1

(f)

LQ

Mathematics Tutor 24

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(h)

1.2

(i)

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(l)

(m)

(n)

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\o
-5r 1 -

ChapterT: Congruence and Similarity

20.

In each of the following, quadrilateral ABCD is similar to quadrilateral PQRS. Find the value
of each unknown. All lengths are given in centimetres.

Brun

(e)a

12.-5 -

(h)
A

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Mathematics Tutor 2A

-)"

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.9

i{3683i

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Find the value of each unknor.vn in the following pairs of similar objects belolv.
_siven in centimetres.
(a)

All

lengths are

(b)

*--20.....-

(c)

G Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity

22.

In each of the fbllorving. LABC is similar to AAPQ. Find the value of each unknorvn. All
lengths are given in cerrtimetres.
(a)

(b)

A/

9 86

(d)

(e)

ffi

MathematicsTutor2A

(f)

@ Casco Publiccttiorts Pte

Ltd

(g)

(i)
C

0)

(1)

aLtsco PLtblic1tiorts Pte

Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity

ffi

Determine whether LABC and LPQR are similar.

A11 lengths are

given in centimetres.

(a)
A
.8

\p

(e)

t(

ffi

MathematicsTutor2A

O Ca.rr-o Publicution.s Pte Ltd

l+.

25.

Which of the following pairs of figures are ahvays similar'l Fill in the boxes with Yes / No.

(a)

Any trvo equilateral triangles.

(b)

Any tr.vo rectangles.

(c)

Any two squares.

(d)

Any two isosceles triangles.

(e)

Any trvo rhombuses.

(D

Any two circles.

(e)

Any two regular pentagons.

(h)

Any tr'vo kites.

E
L]
E
E
E
E
[]

[]

The diagram shows a rectangle ABCD measuring 24 cmby 12 cm.It is surrounded by a border
of width 4 cm. Are rectangles ABCD and PQRS similar?

l2 cm
21 cm

ll

Thedimensionsof rectangleEFGH are 16cmby l2cm.GiventhatrectangleEFGHis similar


to rectangle WXYZ,flnd
(a) the length of rectangle WXYZ if its width is 9 cm,
(b) the width of rectangle WXYZ if its length is 24 cm.

,:J@*'
1 CusCo Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity it373ji

.\*f,

21.

In the diagram. ABCD is ii square of

BC:QR=J:12.flnd

(a)
(b)

side 3.5 cm. Given that PQRS

AD

the lcngth of PQ.


the area of square PQRS.

is also a square and

P,S

llrl

BC

28.

In the diagram, AABC is similar fi APQR. Given that


LPQR is 141 crnt. find the length of BC.

29.

In the diagram, LPQR and APZS


PT = l0 cm, flnd the length of 7R"

MathematicsTutor2A

are

ArB

= 5 cm, QR =21cm and the area of

similar. Given that P.S = B cm, S0 = 22 cm and


P

@'Citsco Publication.s Pte Ltd

:t

In the diagram, AABC is similar to LACD. Given that AC = 36 cm and AD = 18 cm. find the
length of DB.
C

l8 cm l)

31.

In the diagram, ARSyis similar to LTUV and

(a)
(b)

the length of RS,


the length of W.

sv
UV
-=

Find

-)

T
32.

In the diagram, LABC is similar to L'ZAX. Given that AZ = XZ =


BC =7 cm, flnd the length of AX.

I0 cm,AB

12cm

= AC = 14 cm and
A

In the diagram, the shadows of a tree and a boy coincide. The boy is 1.5 m tall and his shadow
is 6 m long. The tree is 42 m from the boy. Given that APztB is similar to LPCD, flnd the
height of the tree.

G Casco Publications Pte Ltd

ChapterT: Congruence and Similarity

34.

In the diagram, AABC is similar to LDCE. Given thatAB = 12 cm,AE = 9 cm, CD =8 cm and

DE = l0 cm, find
(a) the length of AC,
(b) the length of BC.

12 cm

35.

In the diagram, LADE is similar to AABC. Given that AD = 9 cm, AE = 12 cm and EC =

18

cm, flnd
(a) the ratio DE: BC,
(b) the length of BD.

12cm

36.

In the diagram, AABC is similar to ADAC. BC = 20 cm and CD = B0 cm.

Find
(a) the length of AC,
(b) LBAD.

A,

({:zo})

\/

Mathemarics Tutor 2A

@ Casco Publicotion.s Pte

Lttl

37.

\.

In the diagram. PQR is a triangle. S lies on PQ such that LPQR= / PRS.


(a) Name a triar-rgle that is similar to triangle PQR.
(b) Given that PS = 8 cm and SQ = 10 cm, find the length of PR'

In the diagram. triangles ABC and CDE are similar. AB =


BC = 45 crn. AC intersects DE at the point F-.

(a)
(b)
(c)

Find the value

of

$CA

18.7-5 cm,

BD = 15 cm and

Find the length ot DE.


Write dor'vn another pair of similar triangles.

E Casco Publications Pte Ltd

Chapter7: Congruence and Similarity

39.

In the diagram,PT = 12 cm. TQ=8 cm.QV = 9 cm and UR = 14.1cm. Find


(a) thc length of TU,
(b) the len_gth of WV,
(c) the length of StrV.

40.

trn the dia-{ram. PQRS

is a trapezium. PQ is parallel to SR. PQ = 12 cm, PT = 7.5 cm,

QT = 9 cm and IR = 10 cm. 1-PQT = 39o and LSTR = 93".


Name a tr:iangie that is similar to triangle PQI.
Find the length of SR.

(a)
(b)
(c)

Find ZIRS.

MathematicsTutor24

:@,

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

-11.

In the diagram,PVQ,WUQ,VUTS and PWZR are straight lines. PQ is parallel to SR and


parallel to QR.VU =9 cm,UT = 12 cm,7S = 15 cm and IR = 13.5 crn.
(a) Name a triangle that is similar to triangle Iil'UI.
(b) Find the length ot WT.
p

ll.

In the diagram. triangles ABC and LMN are similar. AII =


MN =7.2 cm and lN= 8 cm. Find
(a) the length of BC,

(b)

the value of

(..t

I,zS

+ 5) cm. AC = 12 cm, LM = -r crrl,

r.

"7.2cn

Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

is

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

43

vase
The trvo vases are similar. The height of the smaller vase is I 6 cm and that of the larger

is 20 cm.
(a) The base raclius of the smaltrer vase is 3 cm. Find the base radius of the larger vase'
(b) The circumterence of the top of the iarger vase is 40 cm. lr-jnd the circutnt-erence tlf the
top of the smallcrr vase.

.4.

l(rcuancl
Intheiliagrarn,cylinclerszl,BandCare similar.Theheightsof cylindersAandBare
respectiYely'
cm
17.-5
2:l cm respectively. The bese radir.rs of cylinclcrs A and C are 7 cm and
Find
(a) the base radius of CYlinder B,
(b) the height of CYlinder C.
^l.::---__)

'...in,."]l
"'l[.=J lL_]

/cm

t7

45

larger bottle is 2.8 cm


The diagram shows two similar water bottles. The diameter of the cap of the
and the diameter of the cap of the smaller bottle is 2'1 cm'
If the base radius of the larger bottle is 5 cm, lind the base radius of the smaller bottle'
If the larger bottle is 5 cm taller than the smaller botttre, flnd the height of the smaller

(a)
(b)

bottle.

i$:so}t

\$rdl

Matlrematics Tutor' 2A

C.asr:o Publ.icrrtions Pt

Ltd

(3) Similarity and Enlargement


16.

Find the scale factor in each of the foliolving pairs of similar figures.

All

lengths are given in

centimetres.
(a)

(c)

(d)

(il.t.t

(r)

l-

Ca,gco Publit:atiot'r.y Pte

Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

ffi

47

Drarv an enlargement of triangle ABC using a scale factor of 2"

48.

Drar.v an enlargement

19.

Drarv an enlargement of trapezium ABCD using a scale factor of 2.5.

of triangle PQR using a scale factor of

ri

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Drarv a recluction of figure ABCDE using a scale factor

50.

-i

Drarv a recluction of figure PQRST using a scale factor

.-. Cas<:o

Publictttions Pte LtLl

of

of

]2

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

52.

In the dia-9ram, AABC is enlarged to APBR. Find


(a) the scale factor.
(b) the length of QR.

belolv are not drar,vn to scale. Quadrilateral PQRS is enlarged to quadrilateral


WXYZ usin-el a scale fhctor of 3. Find
(a) the length of WX,
(b) the length of PS.

-53. The ciiagrarns

3.6

/ffi'

i(384$i

Mathematics Tutor 2A

A) Cusco PultliL:utiorts Pte Ltcl

54.

In the cliagram. APQR is reduced to I\XYZ.

(al
(b)

Find the scale lactor.


Find the length of PQ.

-55.

Iir the diagram, AABC is enlarged onto AA'B'C' usin-u a scale factor of
(a) the length of AB,
(b) the length of B'C'.

2.-5. Fincl

N.
\/

A.

\/+ s ,^

16

Cost:o Publicotions Pte Lt(l

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

ffi

56.

Inthediagram,quadrilateralPQRSisreducedtoquadrilateralP'Q'R'S'
fr. Find

(a)
(b)
(c)

57.

usinga scalefactorof

the value offt,


the length of P'S',
the length of QR.

Inthediagram,LPQ'R' isanenlargementof APQRwithascalefactorof 3.Giventhat


PQ = 5 cm and Q'R' = I2 cm, find
(a) the length of PQ',

(b)

,At
W

the length of QR.

Mathematics Tutor 24

O {irst:o Publications Pte Ltd

58.

In the diagram, LAB'C'is

reduction of AABC with a scale factor of

Given that

AB = 10 cm and AC' = 16 cm. find


(a) the length of AB',
(b) the length of AC.

59.

In the diagram, LLM'N' is an enlargement of LLMN r,vith a scale factor of k. Given that
LM = 4 cm. ML( = l0 ctn and LN= B cm. lind
(a) the value of k,
(b) the length of Ll{' .

@ Casco Publicatiorts Pte

Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

iL387jf
*f?

60.

In the diagram, pentagon ABCDE is enlar-eed to pentagon AB'C'D'E'. Given that AB = 18 cm,
BC = 11cm and B'C' = 27.3 cm.llnd
D,
(a) the scale factor of the enlargement,
(b) the length of BB'.

61.

In the diagram, triangle BED is enlarged to triangle ABC. AB = 10.8 cm, BC = 6.4 cm and
DE = 1.8 crn. AC intersects BD at X. Find
(a) the scale factor of the enlargement,
(b) the area of triangle BED.

10.8 cm

/2ffi

QS'

Marhematics Tutor

24

Crrsr.'o PLLblit'ations Pte

Ltd

62.

Parallelogram PQRS is enlarged to parallelogramWXYZ.Find


(a) the scale flactor,
(b) the length of PQ,

(c)

the area of parallelogram PQRS.

i6 cm
t ,I
6/ T

_-_'

lp

lJ.4 cm

63.

25.2 cm

Trapezium ABCD is reduced to trapezium PORS. Find


(a) the scale factor.
(b) the length of QR,
(c) the area of trapezium PQRS.

10 cm
R

@ Ca,sco Publications Pte

Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity

ffi

(4)

Similarity and Scale Drawing

64.

In a photograph, the length of a sofh seat is 6 cm and its height is 2.5 cm. lf the actual length
of the sofa seat is 1.8 m, find the actual height, in m, of the sofa seat.

65.

A basketball court measures 26 m long and l4 m r,vide. It is represented by a rectangle 6.5 cm


long on a plan. Find

(a)
(b)

66.

67

the scale of the plan,


the rvidth, in cm, of the rectangle on the plan.

An antique circular pendant is drarvn using a scale of 3 : l.


(a) The actual diameter of the pendant is 2.8 cm. Find the diameter, in cm. of the pendant
on the dralving.
(b) The length of a symbol on the pendant in the drawing is 1 .2 cm. Find the actual length,
in cm, of the symbol.

The ligure below shorvs a bus drar,vn to a scale of


giving your answer in metres.

I : 100. Find the actual height of the bus,

EEEt]
E[]EE
r_"$f

Mathematics Tutor 2A

Q Casco Publicatiorts Pte Lt(l

68.

A garage is drarvn to a scale of 1 : 50" The length of the garage on the drawing is l5 cm. Find
(a) the actual len-eth of the garage, giving )'our ans\ver in metres,
(b) the length on the drar,ving, in cm, of the garage drawn to a scale of 1 : 30.

69.

The len-eth and the diameter of a calligraphy pen are I 5 cm and


of the pen is l0 cm shorter on the drar'r,ing. F'ind
(a) the scale of the drar,ving in the form 1 : rr.
(b) the diameter, il.r cn-r, of the pen on the drar,ving.

70.

(a)

Make a scale drarving of


a scale

(b)

(c)

of I

a rectangular

1 .-5

cm respectively. T'he length

piot of land rvith dimensions I2 m by 8 m. using

: 200.

field rvhich is I20 m long and 64 m rvicle. using a


scale of 1 cm to 20 rn. Use your scale drar,ving to lind the actual distance, in m. betu een
the opposite corners of the held.
A rectangular sho'nvroom ABCD has length AB = [0.-5 m and rvidth BC = 6.3 m.
(i) Draw a plan of the showroom. usiug a scale of 1 : 150.
(ii) A sculpture. S. is located at the intersection of the diagonals AC and BD. Measure
the distance, in cm, of AS on the plan. giving your answer correct to I decimal
Make a scaie drarving of

a rectangular

place.

(iii)

I{ence, estimate the actual distance, in rn, of AS.

@ Casco Publicotiou.s Pte

Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

ffi

7T,

The dia-eram shorvs three of the rvorld's tallest buildings. The actual height of the Petronas
Torvers is 452 m. On a soale drar,ving, its height is 9.04 crn. 1
1.,1.Find
,"
i
j
ll the actual height of Taipei l0l is 508
find its height. in cm. on the same drawing

the,",,";;;;ffi;ffi,;";#

(a)
(b)

(c)

""''

.i
r

m.

as

thePetronasTowers.

If the height of Sears Tower on the same drawing


is 10.54 cm. find its actual height in metres.

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101

Pctronas To*'crs

72.

A model of a sportscar is 1 8 cm long. The actual sportscar is 3 .6 in iong. Find


(a) the scale used in the forrn [ : n.
(b) the height, in cm. of the model if the actual height of the sportscar is I .2 m.
(c) the arca, in rnr, of the actr-ral windscreen of the sportscar if the area of the rvindscreen of
tlre model is f 1.5 cmr.

t3.

The ditrgram shorvs the floor plan of an apartment drar,vn using a scale of
(a) Find the actual dimensions of

(i)
(ii)

(b)

Bedroom l,
the kitchen.

3cm

Find the actual area of I cm

(i)
(ii)

Balcony

- Cnl
Bechoom I

the living roorr,


the apartment.

Bathroonl

/5 crrt

Bcdloon-r 2

1.5 crn

I-ir.'ing loom

oiqlng
room"
3cm

Mathematics Tutor 24

.-) Cm

; 200.

0.7-5 crn

2.15 cm

,A
,qp

I .-5 cr-n

II

Kirclen ll::*
lroom
2.5 cm

I.-5 cm

1cm

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

1,1..

The diagram shorvs the iloor plan of an apartmeilt drai,vn using a scale
The dimensions of Bedroom 1 on the plan are 3 cm by 2 cm.
(a) Find the actual dimensions of

(i)
(ii)
(b)

Balcony i.
Bedroom 2.

Find the actual area of


(i) the kitchen,

(ii)

of I to

4.5 cnr

Baicony

1cm

1.5 m"

1.-5

cm

Kitchen
Bath-

2.5 cm

foom

the apartmcnt.
2cm

Bedroom

a
2.5 cm

Bedroom, I

Liuing

,oo,

rlllL
I

Balcony 2

75.

The diagram shor,vs the floor plan of the ground floor of a 2-storey bungaJon cLunn using

scaleo['l:250.

(a)
(b)

Find the actual dirnensions of


(i) the dining room.
(ii) lhe livinr roottt.
Fintl thc actuaI area oi
2.8
(i) the kitchen,

(ii)

1 cn-r

cm

3cm

2 cn'r

1cm

the garage.

2.5 cm

5.5 crn

@ Ca,sco

Pthlicatiorts Pre Ltd

Chapter 7: Congruence and

Similarity

THINI(ING S](ILLS G(,RNER


1.

In the diagram, ABCD and DEFG are both squares.


Name a pair of congruent triangles.

2.

(a) If the ratio of corresponding

sides of tu,o similar triangles is

what is the ratio of their

perimeters in terms of k?
(b)

In how many ways can you drarv a straight line to divide a parallelogram into trvo
congruent parts'/

J.

Mr Tan put up three poles AB. C D and EF vertically in his garden. The heights of the poles are
in the ratio 1 : 3 : 7 .If he looks from the ground level. the top of the three poles are in line. If
the distance between Pole AB and Poie CD is 8 rn, find the distance betr'veen Pole CD and Pole
EF.

K:q+)

\,{u

Marhemarics Tutor

24

Casco PLrblicatiorts Pte l.,td

+.

The diagram shows squares macle up of 25 dots each. Find 8 different ways to divide the
square into 4 congruent parts. An example has been done for you.

(a).

(c).

(b).

aaaoa

aaoaa

ooaao

aoaaa

aaaaa

aaaaa

aaaoa

oaaoo

(d).

(e).

oaaaa

aaoaa

aoaaa

oaoaa

aoaao

aaooa

aooaa

aoaaa

aaaoa

aaoao

oaoaa

aaoaa

(0. . . .

5.

(g).

(h).

aaaaa

aaaaa

aaaao

aaaaa

oaaaa

aoaaa

aoaaa

aaoaa

aoaoa

aaaao

aaaaa

oaaoo

The diagram shorvs a roofing frame PpS made r-rp of steel bars. The frame is shapecl like an
isosceles triangle and the vertical bars are equally spaced into 1B parts.If the height of PR is
2 m, find the sum of the lengths of all the vertical steel bars.

@ Cosco Publicatior;s Pta

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Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

6.

James wants to determine the distance across a river to the pier directly in front of him. He starts
at point X and walks along the edge of the river bank to point )/. 33 m arvay. Along the lvay, he

from l'. From point I. he r.valks arvay ,18 m perpendicularly fiom


the river bank until the point Zwhen he observes that the tree and the pier across the river are
in line. Calculate the distance across the river.
passes by a tree rvhich is 6 m

Pier

Not to scale

7.

'.i

"J,

Marc is on the beach r.vith his father. He spots a srvimmer drorvning. He shouts to his f-ather
rvho is -50 rn due rvest of him. His father is l0 m nearer to the jetty than Marc. If his father runs
straight to the jetty and uses the boat to reach the srvimmer, he rvill travel a total distance of
161 m. At the same time. Marc spots a man ridin-e on a jetski. The man is 53 m further ar.vay
fr"om the jetty than Marc. The man on the jetski is due east of the sr,vimmer. Horv f'ar must the
man on the jetski travel to rescue the srvimmer'l

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Mathematics Tutor 2.A

O Ca.irtr Publictttions Pte Ltd

Mid-Year Examination
Specimen Paper A
Paper

,,

Marks
/s0

Time: t hour

ALL

the questions.

, Lrlking must be clearly shown.

(a) Find the HCF of l2ctzb),9erb2c ancl 36(ab)3c.


rh i
tf t t .2-5' * 8.7-5' = 5ft. lincl the value of ft.

Answer: (a)

k-

l2l

Ansrver: (a)

l2l

(b)

t1l

(b)

It is given that r

a)
(b)
(

tur+b

],

= 2.r.

Erpress r in terms of o,l:s and,-v.


Hence, evaluate ,r rvhen o = 2, b =

-. Cosco Publiccttions Pte Ltd

12)

and r' = 5.

Mid-Year Examination A: Paper

, ffi
\\-.ry-//

Simplify the following expressions.


(a) (2x + 3)(3x - 4) - 2x(2x - 5)
(b) (3,r - 2.y)r - (2x + 3-r,)'?

-).

4.

Anslver: (a)

t2)

(b)

l2l

It is given that ,y is directly proportional to the positive square root of .r and that

,)'

= 6 rvhen

x=4.

(a)
(b)

,A ]l

{[4

]8

\d

Write dorvn an equation connecting ,r and _y.


Find the value of r r'vhen t' = 15.

Mathematics Tutor 2A

Ansr'ver: (a)

tzl

(b)

tll
@ Ca,sr:o Publication,s Pte

Ltd

Inthediagram,triangle ABCis congruenttotriangle PAQ.GiventhatAP = 15 cm, QB=4.5


cnr irnd LAPQ = 35', flnd

(a)
rb)
c)
(

the length of BC,

LACB,
the area of triangle ABC.

cm

Answer: (a) BC =

(b) LACB

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"ill

(c)

Mid-Year Examination A: Paper

[1]

cm' ttl

/A

\s/

([+tO]J

6.

Factorise the follorving expressions.


(a) Jx) - l9x + 12
(b) 4ax) - 3b + IZbxz - a
(c) (5x + 51')r - (r + f)(;t - t)

Ansr.ver: (a)

tll

(b)

t3l

(c)

l2l

In the diagram, quadrilateral ABCD is similar to quadrilateral PQRS. Find the values of
and

xo

-1'.

Anslver: iro =

"

v'\L420Jl Mathematics Tutor 24.

l2l
l2l

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

Solve the simultaneous equations using the elimination method.

8x-31'={$
7x-5Y={J

Answer:

t3l

Express each of the following as a single fraction in its simplest form.


r+1
)t - 5 x+2

32

(b)

,i).

6r' - -1 x
--:-r' -lx+2

l- -

Ansr,ver: (a)

t2)

(b)

t3l

Answer: (a)

Lzl

(b)

I2l

Solve the following equations.

(a) 2r(3x-4)*3(7 + 5x) + 3 =0


(b) 36-(r-3)'=0

'1-

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Mid-Year ExaminationA: Paper

,A

I K42l)
\g

The diagram shows triangle ABC inwhich AD = 5 cm, BC = 12 cm, CE = 6 cm, DE =


and BC is parallel to DE. Calculate
(a) the length of BD,
(b) the length of AE.

11.

.5 cm

l2 cm

Answer: (a) BD =

cm

(b) AE =

12.

Given that (2x

1X.r + h) = 2x2 + kx

[2]

cm l2l

3, find the values of /z and ft.

Answer: h =
t-_

A_

t3l

,*
i&422

$) Mathematics Tutor 2A

@ Casco Public'ation:t Pte

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in the diagram, the curve -y = --rr - 2.r + B cuts the x-axis at P and Q and,the -v-axis at R.
(a) Write down the coordinates of P, Q and R.
1b) Find the equation of the line of symmetry forthe curve-), = -x2 -2x + 8.
(c) State the coordinates of the maximum point of the curve.

Ansr,ver: (a) P =

O_
R_

Casco Publications Pte Ltd

tzl

(b)

t1l

(c)

t1l

Mid-YearExaminationA: Paper

Mid-Year Examination
Specimen Paper A

Marks
/s0

Paper 2
Answer

All

Time:

hour 15 minutes

ALL

the questions.
working must be clearly shown.

1.

A map is drawn to a scale of I : 20 000. On the map, the distance between two villages A and
B is 8 cm and the area of a lake is 300 cm2.
Calculate
(u) the actual distance, in kilometres, between A and B,
t1l
(b) the area, in square centimetres, which represents the lake on a second map with a scale

of1:50000.

2.

J.

(a)

Expand

(b)

1
Giventhatx+ 1 = 8, find the value of ,r2 +
x

Factorise

i{424}i

(,.

t3l

l2l

+)'
2

Q5f - D' -9

Mathematics Tutor 2A

completely.

t2l

t3l

O Casr:o Publications Pte Ltd

Solve the l'ollowing equations.


2(x - 3)(r + 5) = 5(,r - 3)(.r

(a)
,
(Dl

-1.r-|
=
93.r1

- l)

t3l

t3l

5.

A rectangular photograph measuring 24 cmby 20 cm has


area of the border

(a)
(b)

is

uniforrn border of width x cm. The

i8',the area of the photograph.

Form an equation in ,r and show that it reduces to


Find the width of the border.

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-r2

+ 22r - 15 = O.

t3l

l2l

Mid-Year Examination A: Paper

,A'
K+ZSI\

6.

(a)

Durians are sold in three different grades. Grade A durians cost $5 each, Grade B durians
cost $9 each and Grade C durians cost $16 each. Jonathan bought x number of Grade A
durians and thrice as many Grade B durians. He bought eight less of Grade C durians
than Grade A durians. If he spent $400 altogether, how much did he spend on Grade C
durians?
t3l

(b)

Given thatP= 6),'-

x-2xy + 3 and Q=9y +2x* 3.fy-

6,express

in terms of y.

t4l

1.

16,r + 3.

(a)

Factorise 5x2

(b)

The area ol a triangle is given

t, (#

cm-.Ii

( 5r-t)
its base is
[ : ,* J cm.

find its height, giving your ans\ver in tenns of ,r.

A
$3p)

Mathematics Tutor 24

l2l
t4l

@ Cnsco Publicatiorts Pte

Ltd

S.

Apieceofwireis benttofomarectangle ABCDin rvhich Xg = (5x-)) cm,


gg = (3x + ], + 2) cm. CD = (2x + r' + 1) cm and AD = (2.1' + -rr + 5) cm.

(a)
(b)

Find the perimeter of the rectangle.


tsl
giving
circle,
The same piece of wire is re-bent to form a circle. Find the radius of the
vour answer in terms of zr.
l2l

(2-v+-r+5)cm

(5,r

+y+

y) c

(3,r +

g.

_v

1)cm

+ 2) cm

Answer the whole of this question on a sheet of graph paper.


(a) Using a scale of 2 crn to represent I unit on each axis, drar,v the graphs of the follor,ving

equationsfor0<r<4.

(i) r=*-fx+.t
(ii) zr-iy=6
(b)

t'11

Hence,solvethefollorvingsimultaneousequations)'=-+.r+3

and3.r-2r =6

graphically.
(c)

encloseclby the

12)

On the same axes. dralv the graph of .r - 1 = 0. Hence, {ind the area of the triangle

Cosco Publications Pte Ltd

linesr'=-1r+3,3x

2.v=6andx-

1=0.

Mid-Year Examination A

t2l

Paper

Mid-Year Examination
Specimen Paper B
Paper

Marks
ts0

Time: t hour

ALL the questions.


A1l working must be clearly shown.
Answer

1.

Simplify each of the following.


(a) 3(2x + 5) - 2(8 - 3x)
,12 _50

3x'-I7x+10

Ansr,ver: (a)

(b)

2.

tfl \\

(a)
(b)

l.t428}j

Simplify

r'-

(,

+,yX;r

_**-

tll

t3l

-y).

Using your answerfrom part (a),evaluate the value of 38 9712- 38 980 x38 914.

Mathematics Tutor 2A

Answer: (a)

l2)

(b)

I1t

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3.

Make

l.

the subject of the formula.

I + ,ry-:

- -l.r-2

Answer:

t3l

Answer:

l3l

Solve the simultaneous equations using the substitution method.

x+2y + I =0

l,Zr*15)=3r'-5
5

,&\

,,s

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Mid-Year Examination B: Paper

x\

1 ip2glJ
\\-#,/
\..5.2

5.

Given that y is inversely proportional to the cube of x and that ,- = | p when ,r = 2. Find the
4',
value of 1'when

r=

:.
I

Give your answer in terms of p.

Answer:

6.

i{430}j

(a)

Civen that (x -.r')r =

(b)

civennat{

Mathematics Tutor 2,A

and

fi= I

4xt = I5, find the value of (2x - 3)')'

nrA the numerical value of

t3l

5)''.

Answer: (a)

t3l

(b)

121

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7.

Factorise the following expressions.

(a)
(b)

8.

5a2

(3jr

llob

y)2

12b2

9r2

Answer: (a)

t2)

(b)

tzl

Answer: (a)

tzl

(b)

t3l

Solve the following expressions.

(a) 3x'-11-r-8=13-9x
3
(b)-=- 2r+l
l-,

9.

r - J

In the diagram, triangle PQMis congruent to triangle RSM. Find


(a) the length of PS,
(b) LPQM.

cm l2l

Answer: (a) PS=

'

(b) LPQM =

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Lt(l

Mid-Year Examination B: Paper

[1]

10.

In the diagram, flgure ABCDE is reduced to flgure APQRS. Given that Ap = 14 cm,
PQ= 16 cm and BC =36 cm, find
(a) the scale factor of the reduction,
(b) the length of BP.

Answer: (a)

I2l

(b) BP =

11.

A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 50 000. The actual area of a train station

cm

12)

t : 12 tm'. Calculate

the area on the map which represents the station, giving your answer in square centimetres.

Answer:

cmt

131

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Zr&q\
tl!
\\

[432Jr

Mathemarics Tutor 2A

t2.

(a)

One number is six times another number. The sum of their reciprocals is

2I

Find the

-l

tr,vo numbers.

(b)

13.

(a)

l6 men took 9 days to build a lO-km railr,vay track. How long rvould it take 20 men to
build a 25-km railr,vay track?

Complete the table of values for 2y

-3

l2l

(b)

days [3]

7 = O.

3.5

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-x-

Answer: (a)

Ltd

i1l

Mid-Year Examination B: Paper

/rq\

/d

\\

i&133}]
\\r**d?*
v

(b)

i{434$l

On the axes provided below, draw the graph of 2y

Mathematics Tutor 2A

-x-

7 = 0.

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Ltd

(c)

Hence, solve the simultaneous equations graphically.

2!-r-J
2x+y-

=0
I

Ansrver: (c)

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I'te Ltd

Mid-Year Examination B: Paper

12l

/4,

, K]#,
.'ry

Mid-Year Examination
Specimen Paper B

Marks
/s0

Paper 2
ALL

the questions.
working must be clearly shown.

Answer

All

Time: t hour 15 minutes

l.

2.

Simplify the following.


2r) - 5.r - {9r - [-3-r2 + 1l (-r - -5)l]

tzl

.
(b)

t3l

(a)

8r'r'
2 l.r r'-=-X-

.rt - 4r't

7r'-

-r''

24

2.n'

'

The diagram shows part of a floor plan of a house. The actual length of the living room is 9 m.
Find
2cm
3cm
(a) the scale of the floor plan,
t1l
(b) the actual width of the living room, t1l
(c) the actual area of the kitchen.
tzl
2.5 crn

,rard\

lf+:O})
'a-.4'

Mathematics Tutor 2A

Cusco Publicilirms Pte Ltd

3.

4.

Given

thatr=

(a)
(b)

the value of ft.


the other solution of the equation.

3 is asolution to the equation

3r2-1k+ l)x+fr=0,find
t1l
L2l

In the diagram, parallelograms ABCD and PpRS are similar.


(a) Find the length of RS.
(b) Find the area of parallelogram ABCD.

tll
[-1 ]

iScm

@ CcLst:o Publication.s Pte Ltcl

Mid-Year Examinalion B: Paper

,ft.
L43U

5.

6.

ffi - 3q = 2, express q in terms of a. b and c.

(a)

Given that

(b)

Hence or otherwise, find the value of 4 when a =

(a)

Express the following as a single fraction in its simplest form.

l9A')

-10,6 =

Itt

and c =

t4l

4.

t1l

34'rI

try-;7-i7-1,.1'
(b) (i)
(ii)

r'*d*\\

i{438

tll

3x'- 4x - 4.
Hence, solve the equation:
Factorise

1-3;_4rJ
(c)

tzl

Solve the equation

}l Mathematics Tutor 2A.

3
Z_
15-12

l2l

=o
x-"

12x

* 10rry + 8y = Q.

t3l

@ Cast:o Pttblit:ations Pte

Lrtl

7.

Inthediagram,ABisparallel toCDandCP isparallelto,SB. PAC,AQB,CRD,PQRS andBDS


are straight lines. PA = 6 cm, AC = 8 cm, AQ= 4'8 cm and RD = 4 cm' Find
(a) the length of CR,
tzl
(b) the length of QB,
t1l

(c)

8.

the length of SD.

t21

The diagram shows an isosceles trian,sle PQR. PQ = (7.r


QT = (6x - 5)' + 14) cm and IR - ('1.r -.r') cm.
(a) Form two equations in -r and 1'.
t3l
(b) Find the values of ,r and -i'.
t3l
PQR.
(c) Find the perimeter of triangle
t1l

- 1) cm, PP= (-3x + 5-y + 9) cm.

+9)cm

(7.r +

(6.r

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5y

1zl

crn)

(4x

Mid-Year Examination

-,)') cm

B:

Paper

9.

Answer the whole of this question on a sheet of graph paper.


The table below shows some values of x and the corresponding values of y for the function

! =-t +2x+3.
x

-1

-5

-5

(a)
(b)
(c)

(d)

i{440})
.lW/

Find the values of

and

q.

t1l

Usingascale of 2cmtorepresent l unitoneachaxis,drawthegraphofy

for-2<x<4.
From the graph, flnd
(i) the equation of the line of symmetry,
(ii) the coordinates of the maximum point,
(iii) they-intercept.
Use the graph to solve the equation -f + 2x + 3 =

Marhematics Turor 2A

=-x'+2x+3
t3l
t1l
t1l
t1l
t2l

1.

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

;>
trPt

;zz
,a__,
r--ffi 3-qrifr;
.
.

(1)

Chapter 1: Proportion
Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions

Scales and Maps

1.

Given that2 cm on a map represents 5 km on the ground, calculate


(a) the actual distance, in km, between two post offlces which are 3.4 cm apart on the map,
(b) the area, in cm2, on the map which represents a housing estate of area 35 km2.

2.

A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 50 000.


(a) The distance between two police stations is 14 km. Find the distance, in cm, between the
police stations on the map.
(b) On the map, a forest has an areaof 30 cm'z. Calculate the actual area of the forest in km2.

3.

A map is drawn using a scale of 1 cm to 2 km. Find


(a) the actual distance, in km, between two towns which arc3.2 cm apart on the map,
(b) the length, in cm, of a road on the map which is 15 km long,
(c) the actual area, in km2, of a forest reserve which has an area of 20 cr* on the map,
(d) the R.F. of the map.

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Rewision E><ercise

Ltd

Revision Exercise

4.

The actual area of a park is 5.76 km'. It is represented by an area of 36 cm2 on a map. The map
is drawn to a scale of I cm to p km. Find the value of p.

5.

The scale of a map is I : -10 000. The dimensions of a rectangular field on the map is 8 cm by
6 cm.
(a) Find. in km. the actual perimeter of the fleld.
(b) Fincl. in kmr. the actual area of the iield.

6.

On a map, a length of 9 cm represents an actual distance of 6.3 km.


(a) Express the scale of the map in the tbrm I : r.
(b) Find the actual distance, in km, represented by 2.-5 cm on the map.
(c) The actual area of a town in 12.1-5 krnt. Find its area, in cm2, on the map.

ffi

MathematicsTutor2,t

Crr.rcr.r Publi<:tttions Pte

Lt(l

It is given that 2 cm on

(a)
(b)
(c)

8.

a map represents 5 km on the ground.

Write dolvn the scale of the map in the form I : n.


Find the length of a bridge on the map, in cm, if its actual length is 3 km.
Calculate the actual area of an orchard. in km2. if the area of the orchard on the map is
1.2 cm2.

The diagram below shows a rectangular courtyard PQRS drawn to a scale of 1 cm to


Find the actual
6.5 cm
(a) perimeter, in m,
(b) area, in mr,

lZm.

of the courtyard.
3.6 cm

9.

The R.F. of a map is

40 000

Find the actual area. in kmr. of a fclrest lvhich has an area of

24 cm) on the map.

'-

Cdsco Publicatiot'ts Pte

Lkl

Revision Exercise

10.

A map is drawn to a scale of I : 50 000.


(a) Find the actual distance, in km, betr,veen two towns r,vhich are24.6 cm apart on the map.
(b) The area of a reservoir on the map is l8 cmt. Find the area, in cm2, of the reservoir on a
second map whose scale is 1 cm to 3 km.

11.

A reservoir has an area of 14 km2. It is represented by an area of 3.5 cm2 on a map.


(a) Find the representative fraction (R.F.) of the map.
(b) A river is l2 km long. Find the length, in cm, of the river on the map.
(c) Fin<i tire area. in cm', of the reservoir drawn on a second map r.vhose scale is

12.

: 20 000.

A map is drawn to a scale of 5 cm to 2 km. An oil palm plantation has an actual area of 52kr* .
(a) Find the area, in cr#, of the plantation on the map.
(b) Find the area,incm2, of the plantation drawn on a second map whose scale is 1 : 250 000.

t I lU I Mathcmat ics Tutor 2A

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13.

Map A is drawn to a scale of 1 : 200 000.


(a) Town A is 19 km away from Town B. Find their distance apart, in cm, on Map A.
(b) Find the actual area, in km2, of a triangle of base 4 cm and height 1.5 cm on Map A.
(c) The scale of MapB is 1 :250 000. The area of aplotof land onMap B is 3.6 cm'. pind
the area, in cm2, of the plot of land on Map A.

14.

The actual area of a plot of land is 18 km2. It is represented by an area of 2 cr* on a map.
(a) Find the scale of the map in the form 1 : n.
(b) The length of a highway is 115 km 50 m. Find the length, in cm, of the highway on the
map.
(c) The area of a town is 0.4 cm'z on the map. Find the actual area, in knf , of the town.

O Casco Publications Pte Ltd

RevisionExercise,

Proportion

(2)
15.

16.

Match the formula with the correct description.


x.

)'=

(b)

y= -,
-x'

y varies inversely as the square of.lr.

(c)

y= 13Vi

y varies directly as the square root of .r.

(d)

Zxy

(e)

y-l--x-l

(0

J.rr

45x
8

y varies inversely as.r.

=9

as

y varies directly as the cube root of x.


y does not vary with

_ry

r.

It is given that y is directly proportional to x and thaty = 15 when x = 4. Find


(a) an equation connecting x andY,
(b) the value of y when x = 20,

(c)

t].

y varies directly

(a)

the value of x when

= 300.

It is given that y is inversely proportional to x and thaty


(a) a relation between x andY,

(b)
(c)

the value of y when x =3,


the value of x when ! = 15.

{ 122 } Mathemntics Tutor 2A

'&sP

- 6 when -r = 5. Find

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Ltd

Ir rs
that,r' is directly proportional to
-given

e)

(b)

9.

20.

and that v

128 lvhen -r = 4.

Find

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

a larv connecting x and y,

the value of -v rvhen -r = 3,


the value of .r rvhen ,y = 512, given that "r > 0.
Sketch the graph ofl against rr.

It is given that -l is inversely proportional to 12 and that,v = 5 rvhen

(a)
(b)
(c)

It

an equation connecting.r and


the value of .y rvhen r = 4.
the values of -u rvhen -)'= 80.

an equation connecting

tl

and

.r = 2. Find

r,

is given that r/ is directly proportional to (e

(a)
(b)
(c)

21.

rt

1)2 an<l that d =

45 when e = Z.Find

"

the value of r/ rvhen e = 6,


the values ol e rvhen cl =J2{).

Itis giventhatp

is inverselyproportional to the cube of q andthatp = 5 when q


value of qtvhenp =320.

Casco Publications Pte

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=Z.Findthe

Revision Exercise

,.-.;\

...".'

l[l23]
'\jz

22.

23

It is given thatyr is directly proportional to the reciprocal of r and that r'= 6 rvhen.r = 3. Find
the value of t r,vhen r = 12, given that l is positive.

Given that
rvher.r,

24.

-t'

is inversely proportional to (-r + 2) and that

-r

=2+.

= 5.

25.

Given that

./-r-

26.

It is given that,r is directly proportional to .r.

r, rvhen

(a)

(b)
(c)

124}}

\\*"//

= 2 u,hen .r = 3, find the value of

Itisgiventhat.l,isinverselyproportionalto(-r-1)andthat,t'=2f rvhen"r= l0.Findthevalue


of

:{

,r'

-1

is a constant and that

,=

nuhen

l'=

-54. flncl the value of -r rvhen

l,=

9.

Complete the table below.

--)

18

Write dor'vn an equation connecting y and.r.


Draw the graph of ,r against.r.

Marhematics Turor 2A

@) CcLsco

Publications Pte Ltd


=

=
'::

::

E:
:::"::':-:

--

Gir en that

_r'

is directly proportional to .",[ , find the values of

.r

56

and.

Gir,en that.y is inversely proportional to -rr, find the values of p and

29.

--)

18

2.88

'Ihe variables -r and v are connectecl by the equation

,r)'2

Cusco Publications Pte Ltd

q.

17

r.vhere

17

> 0.

= ,t, r.vhere ft is a constant. Pairs of

corresponding values are given in the table belolv. Calculate


(a) the value of [',
(b) the value of p,
(c) the value of r7 where r7 < 0.

32

-10

Revision Exercise

30.

The len-eth, 1, of a rectangle is inver-sely proportional to its breadth, b. trf its breadth is increased
by l00o/c. finci the percentage increirseiclecrease in its length.

31.

The cost of a train ticket, $C, is directly proportional to the distance, dl<rn, of the journey.
Given that C = $80 when d = 320 krn, find
(a) the cost of a train ticket from Singapore to Penang which are 581 km apart,
(b) the distance between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur if the train ticket costs $78.75.

32.

The cost each for a group of students to go for a science fair is inversely proportional to the
number of students in the group. Each student in a group of 85 needs to pay $12. Find the cost
each student needs to pay if 5 fewer students go on the trip.

33.

The length, / cm, of a simple pendulum is directly proportional to the square of its period,
/ seconds (i.e. the time taken to complete one oscillation). A pendulum with a period of
5 seconds is 620 cm long.
(a) Write down an equation connecting I and t.

(b)

fff^$;

\/

Calculate
(i) the length of the pendulum when its period is 3 seconds,
(ii) the period of the pendulum when its length is 155 cm long.

Mathematics Tutor 24

'A Casco Publications Pte Ltd

.--

The height of a cone. ft cm, is inversely proportional to the square of its base radius. r cm. for
a given volume.If the height of a cone is 6 cm lvhen its base radius is 2 cm, find the hei-eht of
a coue rvhen its base radius is 3 cm. Both cones have the same volume.

-l-i.

The ener-gy. E units. stored in an elastic band is directly proportional to the square of its
extentictll.r cm. lf thc energy stored is 10,1 units rvhen thc clastic band is extended by 2 cm.
calculate
(a) the energy stored rvhen the extension is 3 cm.
(b) the extension u,hen the energy stored is 650 units.

36.

(a)

If

8 men can assemble 28 cars in one day. horv many cars can 20 men assemble in onc

day'7

(b)

If l6 rvorkers can finish a job in three

hours. hor,v long rvould it take 5 rvorkers to tlnish

the same job?

i
I

:
=

e
=

=
E

Crz-rct;

Publicaions Pte Ltd

RevisionExercise

37.

It takes 12 rvorkers 64 days to build a greenhouse. If another 4 workers were to help, find the
number of days needed to build the greenhouse.

38.

(a)

It takes

10 workers 12 days to build a boat. How long would

it take 4 workers to build

the same boat?

39.

p is directly proportional to q2.It is known that p


the value of p when this value of q is halved.

(a)

Given that.y is directly proportional to the square of -r and that _v - 72 r,vhen -r = 3.


Express v in terms of r.
I 8 men take 10 hours to complete a job. Assuming that they work at the same rate, how
many men are needed to complete the same job in 6 hours?

(b)

i.Ll28JJ Mathematics Turor 24.

\YsZ

(b)

36 for a particular value of q. Find

@ Casc'r.t

Prhlicatiotts Pte Ltd

+0.

5 men can paint a boat in 4 days. Assume that all the rnen r.vork at the same rate.
(a) If one of the men did not turn up for rvork on the last day, horv many days rvould it take
the men to paint the boat?
(b) Horv long would it take I men to paint the same boat?
(c) Hor.v long would it take 2 men to paint 3 such boats?

4t.

(a)

.-r,

is directly proportional to.r-t.

lf

-r

is increased by |00%.hnd the percenta-se increase in

J'.

(b)

7 rvorkers take

(i)
(ii)

1-5

days to repair a bridge.

rvill it take 3 rvorkers to repair the same bridge?


The bridge is to be repaired in n days. Write dorvn, an expression, iu terms of n,
fbr the number of rvorkers needed to repair the bridge.
Hor.v long

O Casco Pttblittttktns Pte Ltd

RevisionExercise,

(3)
42.

#fr\
{&

Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions


Expand each of the following.

130}i

&ry

(a)

(2-r:

(c)

(5r--r')(-r+3-t,)

(e)

(-r

(g)

(i"

(i)

(2x

(b)

- l)(2,r + 1)

2Xr'

3,r

Mathematics Tutor

1)

(;r + y)(x

2,A,

1)

(d) (-1-,.)(:.,.)

,)'

- y)' -

(2r + 5)(3x

y)

(f)

(2.r:

(h)

l9

(3r + 2)(2 - 3-t)(9rr + 4)

5)l

- (l - 2-r)(5 + r)

{'osr:o Publfu:cttions Pte Lt(l

43.

Factorise each of the following.

(a) 3r'-

6)' + 24x.t2

(c)

2(cr + 2b:f

(e)

o.r + 3br

(g)

3ary

6ar

(i)

l\ap

8aq + 28bc1 - 35bp

3Qt + 2b)

- 4ut'- l2bt'

Cttst'o Publications Pte Ltd

3v + 6

(b) }p(q + r') + lOp)

(d)

3o

6b

4(o

2b))

(f) t)pq-2p+1-5q

(h) rnt+,nt-4m-4

U)

3rr.rr

3cr.r''

+ /r.r-'

/r.t''

RevisionExercise

44.

Factorise each of the following.

(a)

81

(c)

4-5.rr

(e)

i28a5

(b) 4.t.1-

),'

20-r

8rrr

(d) I -Slaa

(fl

9.rt

l'

1(X)

(h)

(i)

(;r+ l)'?*4

100-t2-r,2

I
1

C) a' - {.b * 21'

-:

=:

E:

(k)

x2

+ l4x + 1.3

E.

(l) rr-6-r+9

='.

:
E

E.

iE

,W#

Marhemarics Tutor

24

Casco Publir:ations Pte Ltd

C
E

=
F

=,

(m) rt

(n) 3r-+-5r-28

lLr - 45

(p)

6.11

(q) ts -2x-Bf

(r)

15r'- 26r + B

(s)

4,r2

(t) zf + ltrr,-

(u)

(2-r+ l)'-3(Zx + 1)-

1.2,r\,-Jtz

'O Casco Publiccrtion,s Pte Lt(l

18

(v)

-t' +

+ 2.r - 4

-t,''

2r-v

-1'2

RevisionExercise,

45.

Use algebraic rules to evaluate each of the follolving.

(b)

10961-962

(c) 7Br+312+1

(d)

806 x 794

(e)

1.0112-0.0ilr

(f)

23r

3000r-3005x2995

.
(h)

(a)

,4,

l[ I 34]J

9012

Marhemarics Tutor 24

138 + 9

47)
.
51-

.ll

102 + I

Cnsco Publications Pte

Lkl

46.

41

Expand and simplify

(a)
(b)

. (a)
(b)

,18. (a)
(b)

2(5x
9x2

1)2 ,

+7 *(2x-3)(4x+9).

Factorise 2-\'2 -'-t,),- 1r - 2y')2.


Expand and simplify (-5r, - 2)(v

Factorise r1 + 2x + 1 .
Hence, lactorise -r1 + 2l +

Cusco Publicatiitrts Pte

Lkl

,3)

- u(2t' -

).

I - i'r.

RevisionExercise,

49.

(a)

Simplify

(i)
(ii)
(b)

(-r

(x

- -r(r - cr12 - x(r 3)2

6).
2a).

LIse your answers from part (a) to

write dor,vn the value of 12

3351

50. (a)
(b)

Gil'en that ,rr - ,r't = 28 ancl .t - ), = 8, lind tlre value of 2-r + 2_v.
If ,rr + .r't = 6rl ancl .n, = -1 8. find the value of (2x - 2y)2

51.

that3p*Q=J

,f\

qy

Given

-n

340

12 330.

Mathematics Tutor 24

and5p2q) =

l80,findthevalue(s)of

1Spr +2q2.

Casco Pultl.ications I'te Ltd

%*

Rewision E><ercise 2

Chapter 3: Solving Quadratic Equations


Chapter 4: Graphs of Quadratic Functions
Ghapter 5: Simple Algebraic Fractions

(1)
1.

Solving Quadratic Equations


Solve the following equations.

(a)

3xr

(c)

(..r

12r = 0

2l

=4

(e) llx-21=l

, ^.]
(x-J)

@ Casco Publications Pte

4
9

Ltd

(b) 9-4,r2=0

(d) Zf-t+x+8=0

(fl 1-Zy- 15y2=6

(h)

x(Zx + 5) =

RevisionExercise,

(i) 3x'-J =20

C) (2.r-3Xr+5)=9

(k)

(l)

7y' = 5y

(n)

(2x _712 = 16

6x'

- 73x = 9x - 20

@) 2f +7x+3=0

(o) (5y+7)(3-))=0

(p) 3f +lLx+6=-3

(q)

(r)

6-12

14.t = 0

x(4x + 12)

=*g

,A

\r'

bsql)

Mathematics Tutor 2.A

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

(s) 4-r'-6(.r+ l) = 3r +'7

(t)

(u)

(v) x(2.r- 1l)=-5

(5,r

2)2

= 8(5r

trrt (2.r' -l)(.r'+11=

(V)

(.r

l)(,r;

4) = 40

2)

2(.2.t'

-1.1

2(r

3)(r + 1) = 5("r - 2)

(x) (.2x 1)r = (,r + 2)2

(z)

(x

1)' = 5(.r - 1)

Revision Exercise,

2.

Solve the equations below, expressing y in terms of -r.

(a)
(b)

3.

trf 2x)

4'.

If

,W

+ 4y2 =Q
25x'y:-30"ry+9=0
9xz

-5-r-r,

72xy

3yt = 0 r'vhere r' + 0, lind the possible values

one of the roots of the equation 3rr - px


other roo{ ol the etluation.

Mathemalics Tu(or 24

12

of

=0 is r = 3, find the value

of p. Hence {ind the

@"Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

i'.,,., p,r.trti, e inte gers is 3 and the product of these two integers is 108.

Fforl r$-o consecutive positive odd integers such that the square of their sum exceeds the sum
c,{

. ' . ::.
-:-

6eir

squares by 70.

A positive integer is 3 more than fbur times its rec-iprocal. Find thc inte-9er.

The sum. S. of the flrst n positive integers is given by the f'orrnula S =

)n@

+ t).

Find thc number of inteqers nceded to have a sum of 300.

RevisionExercise,

9.

The area of the rectangle is 53 cmt more than the area of the square. Find the value of .r.

,,

ll
10.

6terrr

(x-5)cm

i
(2r

-7) cttt

(-r-5)cm

The diagram shows a trapeziunr -\BCD t'here 4p = (7r -31 cm, BC=(r +2)cmand
3g = (2x + 4) cm. Given thar the area of the trapezium is 60 cmr, lind the height of the
trapezium.

(1r

B
11.

3) cm

(,.+2)cm

A cyclist started his journey at 08 00. He crclccl at a constant speed of -t km/h. After an hour.
he increased his speed by -5 km/h. He reached his destination at 12 00. Given that his average
speed fbr the rvhole journey rvas l9 kmih. hnd the value of -r.

MathematicsTutor2A

@ Casco Publications Pte

Ltd

----:: . Functions
_

=.,..i.-Jr.

,i.

Erptm,sfficrra[b

-:

the line of symmetry of the graph.


of the minimum point.
,_.i

The diagram shows a sketch of the curve y = (5 - x)(1 +


(a) the coordinates of A, B and C,
(b) the equation of the line of symmetry,
(c) the value of p, if the range of the graph is y ( p

''

Lrd

t'

r - ..:. O and the point K.

r). Find
.)'

Revisiorr Exercise

u-&r'\\
/,tr
l{ZSS }j
\ry/

14.

The cliagram shorvs the graph of

1'-

-rt + u.\ + b.

Find

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

15.

the equation of the line of symmetry of the curve.


the values of c and b.

the coordinates of the minimum point of the curve,


the range of values of "r for rvhich the gradient of the
uurve is positive.

The curve

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

_t

=6+

3-r

3-rr cuts the

r-axis at A and B. The curve cuts the,v-axis at C.

Find the coordinates of A. B and C.


Write dor.vn the equation of the line of symmetry.
Find the maximum point of the curve.
Given that the point D(4, /r) lies on the curve. find the value of

ft.

J'=o+J.r

,4.
{{zOO}

\\J/

Mathematics Tutor 2A

J.1

Cttsco Public:ations Pte Ltd

a.

, .i lllllletr\"
rrithe marimum point of the graph.
- : .:-'Lpr;1
"--31 lies on the curve and r < 0, find the value of r.

t '

Litious Pte

Ltrl

RevisionExercise,

17

The variables x and

of

"r and -y are

).,

are connected by the equation

given in the table belorv.

-1

-0.5

0.5

5.25

1.25

(a)
(b)
(c)

Find the values of o and b.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent
From your graph, find

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

the
the
the
the

3.5

4.5

-1

t.25

5.25

unit on each axis, draw the graph of r' = .-,.-r - 4r + 3.

value of -r'r'vhen r = -0.8,


values of ,r rvhen y =2,
coordinates of the minimum point on the curve,
equation of the line of symmetry.

The variables -r and -y are connected by the equation )' =


values of -t and 1' are given in the table belor,v.

18.

(c)

-1

-)

19

-1

I
(a)
(b)

5x

1 ancl some corresponding

the value(s) of -)' rvhen r = 2.6 ,


the minimum point,
the equation of the line of symmetry of the curve.

The table belorv gives some values of


\'= z - -1r - r l

Find the values of a and b.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 unit on the -r-axis and 1 cm to represent 1 unit on
the -r,-axis, dralv the graph of ,v = 2x2 - 5r + I tor -2 3 x < 4.
From your graph, flnd
(i) the value(s) of "r rvhen y = 10,

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

t9.

2x2

)c

!
(a)
(b)

4-t + 3. Sonte coresponding r altte:

) =.{r -

1.5
a

-1
,|

,)

-J
2

and the corresponding values

-1

Calculate the values of a and b.


Using a scaleof 2 cm to represent

of -l', where

1.5

1.15

l uniton each axis,drar,v

the graph of y

=2_ 3r'

x2

for-4.5<x<1.5.

(c)

From your graph, find


(i) the value of -v when x = 1.2,
(ii) the values of -r when j = 2.5,

(iii)

the greatest value of y.

-{::,
ig2623l Mathematics Tutor 2A
5-

".1/

@ Cosco

Publications Pte Ltd

r_...,.

.:

.,i oir

iutLl the con'e\pr)ltiling valuc of -t,

;s

','

\,.,i11- aarrri.ll(rnding

.1. line of symrnetry of the curve.

t)

- _..

i.i.

- ..,r- {raph of .\' = 2-r'

-n_q

_..

' - --:rt I rrnit ,)n the.\-e\is and 2 cm to represenl 5 uniLs on


--, =-l+2r-2.r-rfbr-3sr<3.

:,

=: -

8-r

+ 8 is shorvn belorv.

32

':.-.. lhe table above.


-: .i scale of 2 cm to represent 1 unit on the x-axis and 2 cm to represent 5 units on

-arrs. drar'v the graph of y = 2x2 -Bx + 8 for the tange -2<
and label on the graph the line of symmetry of the curve.
dor,vn the coordinates of the turning point.
From your graph, find
( i)
the values of x r,vhen J' = 20,
(ii) the vaiue of y when x = 3.5.

< 6.

- .,rt
-'\
ite

Lrn

The variables -r and ,\i are connected by the equation l' =

- +L (x - 1)(r + 3). Some

corresponcling

values of x and y are given in the table below.

(a)

(b)
r

-.7

-2.5

-3.5
t.125

-3

-2.5

0.875

Calculate the values of p and q.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent

the v-axis.drarv the graph


(c)
(d)
(e)

')

-i

0.-5

1.5

0.875

1.5

r.t25 -2.5

I unit on the x-axis and 2 cm to represent 0.5 unit on

of ., =-+

(.r

)(.{+ 3) lbr _-4< t <2.

Write down the greatest value of y urd ,n" corresponding value of -r when it occurs.
Draw and label the equation of the line of symmetry.
Given that the points (0.1 , b) and (a, b) lie on the curve, {rnd the values of a and b.

P,tit!icatiorts Pte Lt(l

Revision

Exercise,

23

The table gives some values of -r and the corresponding values of

t)

-1

--1

-1

-r,'

where

= ,{t

-5.r

p and q.
Usingascaleof2cmtorepresentlunitoneachaxis,clrarvthegraphofy=-r2-5.r+3

Calculate the values of

(a)

(b)

fbr0<.r<5.
Flom your graph,lind the minimum/maximum point.
Drarv and lvrite do'uvn the ecluation of the line of symmetry.
By clrar,ving another line. find the solutions to the equation xt

(c)
(d)
(e)

2.4.

The variables -r and -\'are connectecl by the equation,1' = 2-rr -x


values of x and r,are siven in the followine table.

-3

IJ

'7

(a)
(b)

-2

-i8

-1

5x + 3 =

28. Some corresponcling

'))

-28

Complete the table above.


Using a scale of 2 cm to represent I unit on the r-axis and 2 cm to represent 5 units on
the r,-axis, dlarv the graph of -r, = 2:t -.r - 28 for -4 < x < I
From your graph, find
.

(c)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(d)
(e)

25.

the value(s) of -v rvhen l' = - 10.


the value(s) of .y'11,6"n x = 1.5,
the smallest value t'rf 2.rr -.r - 28.
Drarv and label the line of symmetry of the curve.
Use yor graph to solve the equation 28 + r = 2x2.

The base and height of a triangle are ("r + 2) cm and

(a)
tbt
(c)

Shor,v

(-5

-,r)

cm respectively.

thatthe area.Acm',of thetriangleis given byA =

Drarv thegraph

ofA

=-].rt+ I l.t+.5

I\1 ]-r' + l1.r


2) + S'lcm'

lor-2<.r'S.5.

From your graph. flnd thJase unli tn. her-ght of the trian-ele that will give the maximum
area.

/4,

(flzo+}J Mathematics Tutor 2A


-{'/

et Casco Publications Pte Ltd

f,fr

ffi b rhom rry into tre air so that its height, fr metres, above the starting point after
{e ds is giren bl- the formula h = l6t - 4f
a,, L sing a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 second on the /-axis and 4 cm to represent 10 metres

A
x
r

(b)

the ft-axis, draw the graph of h = !6t * 4f for0 < I ( 5.


From your graph, find
(i) the time rvhen the ball is at its greatest height,
(ii) the greatest height reached by the ball,
(iii) the time interval when the ball is at a height greater than 10 m.

-ing

its on

--

The diagram shorvs a rectangular sheet of aluminiurn of lcngth (.r + 8) cm ancl rvidth
rectangular piece r.vith dimensions (,r + 2) cm by.r cm is then cut ctut.
(a) Shorv that the area, A cmt, of the remaining sheet of alurninium is -qiven by
4 = (40 + 3,r -,vt; cm'.

(b)
(c)

..

Ltd

cm. A

Llsing a scale of 2 cm to represent 0.5 cm on the.r-axis anci a scale of ? crr to represent


0.5 crn2 on the A-axis, drar'v the graph of A = zl0 + 3,r --rt for 0 < -t < 3.
From your graph, find
(i) the value of r for rvhich the area of the remaining sheet of aluminiun-r is rnlrinrun.t.
(ii) the values of ,r for which the area of the remaining sheet of aluminium is :11 cmr.

-rllLlm

s Pte

-5

(-r

P,LiJ

+ ll)

cn.r

RevisionExercise,

(3)
28.

Simple Algebraic Fractions


Simplify each of the following.

(a)

(b)

l2x''r.'3

----------;-;
-10.t-

)-

Sartt * 4urt
(c) ------;--;
4m- - n'

(e)

6a2b

- 8ab2
KW

(d)

x2

l6y2

3x2+2-ry-8y2

Zabc + 3bc'

(I)

Zab-4a+3b-6

Zbt')
3ar ..
X-

4ht t''

9rl-r

"

4a1b3c/\ 3bd2
,
-,8a 't'
-- 5orl

(i)

(2p + 3q)')

l{266}l

Y'

'

Mathematics Tutor 2.A

to Pr

b^
^

2u('

+ 15cr

3pq,

3xv * 5r+2r
,
(h)
lo- F 4r
6r',

at * ltt
3ab 5bt
- *;
u)
n " oar- tot,'

@ Casco Publictrtions Pte

Ltd

3n:

:-

.t -:. slnPlest

form.

(b) ^s6*6XX

2x
(c) 5.-2

(e)

x-2

(g)

)r- 1

3,t+1

-*

' . [,ttl

5.r
.
.J-r
(d)
.-= * 4.t-10
Ir+-5
-

,D:,

u**:

Ltd

lr-Fll

r-*-lx-18

3-x

RevisionExercise,

Solve the fbllorving equations.

(a)

.r+l

2x-1

x3x
(C) --------=='

x+'2

(e)

l1
x x-l

{c)

(i)

x-I -

o
2.r +

r1

-1

1
_t

lr..

'- -o

-5.1 l

-1-1

,A\
{(ZOS}

Mathematics Tutor 2A

i-J

(o

*. r*

(h)

*- lt=,

(j) ,**

='

2,

x -l

@ Cttsco Publications Pte L:.

j'

. a=:==-Z
3b+2c
(e)
'
4b-5c

(g) p-

Ptt Ltri

3n

,,,,

' . ;.:icotious Pte Ltd

,,,ltltefoltlnla.

(I) y=x+ frLt


3

(h)

.rr:iaiar:,.

ti::t:oiaui

r:i:{it:

RevisionExercise,

32.

(a)

(b)

( 6-'\
Simpliiy[z.r+iJ*rlr-i.).
t_)
1 + 31
\:- ,. -,- 4

ExPrcss

u., a single

fraction.

.,

--)

-)

Given that

-r

2ct

+ 3 ?ncl 1- =

67r

I . express

r'-6

ffi

in terms of a. giving your ansrver in its

simplest form.

34. (a)

35.

Given thatZx=

(b)

Giventfrat

Given

ttut ffi

ffi

}f

, find the value of x 'nvhen

-; = l.nrathevalueof

-f- ,

nna the value

of

--r'

-4

arvhen b=

and t = 2.
B

andc='1.

6il

l{270$j

Mathen.ratics Tutor 2,A

@ Casco Pultlit:cttions Pte

Lt(l
=

i*d#i*t

Yry-J

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Revision E><ercise 3

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Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables


Chapter 7: Congruence and Similarity

(1)
1.

Linear Equations in Two Variables


(a)

Draw the graph of each of the fbllorving lines on the sarne axes. using a scale of 2 cm
to represent I unit on the -r-axis for -2 < "r ( 6 and I cm to represent I unit on the r'-axis
fbr --4 S ,v ( 12.

(i)

2.

2,t-.r'=0

(ii) -r+-)r-3

(iii) J,=1

(iv)

,),=-2

(b)

Name the frgure formed by these fbr-rr lines. Hence. find the area of this f,gure.

(a)

using a scale of 2 cm to represent


represent I unit on the -r'-axis for -8

I unit on the r-axis fbr *3 <,r < 3 and 1 cm to


( ( 12, drarv the follorving graphs on the same
_1,

axes.

(i) 1r=2-r+5

3.

(ii) .r=2!
2

(b)

Find the area of the tr:iangle bounded by these three lines.

(a)

Given the equation ]' =

,1-r

(iii)

--v

= -2-r

+ 3, complete the table belor.v.

v
(b)

Drarr the graph oi r = -|r


4

(c)
(d)

Given thatthe point(2p,2.1) is a solution to the equation.r + 41.= 11. finclthe r alue of p.
On the same axes. drar.v the graph of 3.r- 2-y = 1 . Hence solr'e the simultaneor_L_\ equations:

+ .t.

r+4r-=12
3-r-2_y= I

6m)
\/

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4.

(a)

The diagram shorvs the -uraph of 2-r

r+y-2.
(b)

3J

=u'

On the same axes' draw the graph of

Use the graphs to find the solution of the simultaneous equations:

2r-31,=24
'lr+t,=2

5.

Solve the following simultaneous linear equations graphically.

(a) ,{*-Y-zf
2x-1'=-1

(b) !=-2r+6

(c) 3r+,y-6=0

(d)

5x-,r'+ 14=0

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,=-1-r-2
,3
4-r

2-r

= l0
l0r,= 35

5.y

RevisionExercise,

6.

(a)
(b)
(c)

The eqLration of the line i is 5t'+ 26 = Br. Find the value of k, -qiven that the point
(l -2k,6) lies on the line 1.
Write dor,vn the equation of the vertical line that passes through the point (-5. -5)
The line ,r, = 8 meets the r,-axis at A. Write dor.vn the coordinates of A.

1.

The cliagram shows the lines r,vith equations 3-)'= 2.r -9,2,)'+ -{ *- 6, -r'= 3.2.r =.r
3v + 2-r = 9. Write dorvn the equation corresponding to each line.

8.

The cost of a mug and a plate are $.r and $-r, respectively.
(a) The cost of two mugs and a plate is $15 r,vhile the cost of one mug and two plates is
$16.-50. Form trvo equations connecting.r and -r.
(b) Draw the graphs of these trvo equations on the same axes.
(c) Hence, Iind the price of a mug and the price of a plate.

,raft,
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9.

Marc and Esther order piz.zafrom Pete's Pizza regularly. Esther lives 5 km further from Pete's
Ptzzathan Marc does.In a certain rveek. Pete's Pizza delivered rl times to Marc and 3 times to
Esther. The total distance travelled by the cielivery man to each of their houses for that rveek
r.vas 36 km.
(a) Marc lives x km fi'om Pete's Pizza and E,sther lives 1 km tiom Pete's Pizza. Using the
information given. lvrite trvo equations involving,r and 1'.
(b) On the satne axes, drarv the graphs of'the two equations.
(c) From your graphs,lind the distance that Marc and Estl-rer each live fiom Pete's Pizza.

10.

Mr Smith bought 2l0lightbulbs consisting


A bulbs una

I6

of Brand B bulbs

r.vere

tr,vo brancls,A anclB. He

fbuncltfrat

of Brand

faulty. The nr-rmber of lirulty bulbs for each brand

r'vas

the same.

(a)
(b)
(c)

Letting x and

be the number of defective Brand A and Brand B light bulbs respectively,

r'vrite dor,vn trvo equirtions in terms of -r and y'.


On the same axes, drar'v the graphs of these tr'vo equatirltts.

Hence, Iind the number of Brand A and Brand B light bulbs Mr Smith bought.

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Revision Exercise,

1l

Use the

elimination method to solve the follor.ving simultaneous equation\.

(a) 3x-2y * 3
1x-5y-9

(b) 2h+3k=22

(c)

(d) 7x-5r-8=0

- 4y = -4,
6-r+7r-=Jl
3.r

(e) 2x+y=4
3x-Y=

(g)

W.}f:l

11

- -13
3.r-rl-y-6=0
2x + 31'

Mathematics Tutor 2,{

3h+2k=28

4r=9y+23

(0 5r-6t'=21
2r

- 9i'=

1-5

(h) 'r - J'=+


25
3-r+1'-?

Qt

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12.

Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneous equations.

(a) 2x+31'=)

(b)

5,r-1'=g

(c)

4.r

2y =

1*r',-l
I
-.r

(e)

-[Q

- )' = 18
0.5r+2r"=19

(-s) 3r + 2.r =

15.-5

.ir-3.r=6.5

P tr b

Iic

ati ott.s

-t

(d)

te Ltd

-y

14

3r- ll

2.r+y

-5

3r-21'--45

2.5r

2-r:

(f)

51,+ 3.t =

2-5

2r=3),+4

(h)

9-r + 4.1,- 5

-r- 1r'=-10
3'

Revision Exercise

.let:'
\d/

{(+O:}

13.

Use either the elimination method or the substitution method to solve the following
simultaneous equations.

(a) 3r-7_y= I
5-r 2-t'= -8

(b)

(c)

3x-y - 4
-3x+4Y=-13

(d)

(e)

3x

-2y

(f)

=6

Y ^1

262

0.2r

_- 0.5_r,

13

1=0

2,1,

7,r + 2(91'- 4) = 0
ll.r - 6r,= 0

3-r

..

_*_=L_

-1 5
(g) -r-l-;,'\'=

+ 13
-5,r+3r,=0

-r =

5.r'

,,-

14.2

-5-

(h) 6.r--5(.r-l)=?-3
)tv+)t-lr'-J

i\.,

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/16
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14.

A piece of r.vire is bent to form a rectangle ABCD as shown below. Given Ihat AB = 3-r cm,
BC=2(.:" + 1)cm. CD=(), +4)cmandAD=(3I-2x-2) cm,lindtheareaof rectangle ABCD.
A

(3.r

2.r

2) crn

3; cm

(._r,+,1) crn

2(_r'+

15.

6.

l) crr

The sum of the numerator and the denominator of a fiaction is 13. When 3 is subtracted from
the numerator. the fraction becomes

Find the fraction.

Thc surn of the digits of a trvo-digit number is one quarter of the number. When the digits are
rer,ersed. the number lvill increase by I 8. Find the number.

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Revision

Exercise,

dh

(2)

Congruence and Similarity


In the diagram. AABE is congruenr

I7.

ABCD. Given that LABE


AB = 15.7 cm. AE = 20 cm and CD = 8 cm, find
(a) LCBD,
(b) the length of BC.
(c) the length of DE.

18.

ln the diagram. triangles ABC and CED are congruent. AB = 5.2 clm, BE = 4.3 cm.
EC = 5.2 crr and DF = 6.7 cm. IABC = 1-CED= 78" and LBAC = 7lo. F-ind
(a) the length of EF.
(b) LFCD.

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19.

In the diagram, triangle PQT and triangle RQS and congruent. PQR is a straight line.
(a) Find
O 5.2 crn
(i) the length ol PQ,
(ii) the length of R,S,
(iii) LTQS.
(b) Write dor,vn the name of the special
trian-ele QZS.

lt).

In the diagram,WXYZ is a rectangle. The points A. B, C and l) lie on ltrlX, WZ, XY and YZ
that AX = DZ and XC = BZ.

ia)
(b)

ilch

Shor.v that BW = CY.


Name a pair of congrltent triangles.

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Revision Exercise,

21.

[nthediagram,AABCiscongruentto\,DCB.GiventhatLBAC=90o, LACB=28o,AE=5..1
cm. BC = 17 cm, BD = 15 cm and CD = 8 cm, fincl
A
D
(a) LCBD,
(b) LBEC,
(c) LACD.
(d) the length of CE,
(e) the area of ABCE.
l7 cm

22.

ln the dia-uram, AADF : AHEC and thc parallel lines AH and CF are 8 cr.r-r apart. Given that
LAHC = 20o. I-ADF = 110" and the area of AADF is 76 cmr. hnd
(a) LHCE,

(b)
(c)
(d)

23.

LDAF,
LEGF.
the length of CE.

Qr-raclrilateral ABCD is similar to quadrilateral PQRS. Find the values of

t,

_r'o

and

:".

R;---.,
l"'
,"\ on+I\P
Yf
ocmf \..*\ n")s
/
\
\Y
l"

/\R

Ago"
B' t

-5cm

tWS

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L

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--

lri each of the following, AABC is sirnilar Io LAPQ. Find the value of each unknor'vn.
(b)

(a)

3 cn-r

,r cm

9.1 cm

(c)

,r cm

)cm
P

rltli cul ions

te Lttl

Revision Exercise,

25.

In the diagram, A,ABC is similar to AADE. AB = 8 cm, BE = 14 cm and AC = 12 cm.


(a) Find the ratio of DE to BC.
A
(b) Find the length of CD.

26.

In the diagram, AABC is similar to ABDC. Given that LABC =LBDC = 90o. AC =25 cm and
BC = 20 cm. find the lensth of CD.

27

In the dia.rram. AB is parallel to DC. AB = 20 cm. BE = 8 cm, DE = l6 cm and CE = 30 cm.


(a) Write dorvn a pair of similar triangles.
(b) Find the length of AE.

,1

/t\\
\w

K4t0J]

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l\.

In the diagram, LRSQ = LRPS. P"S = RS = 9 cm and PR = 13.5 cm.


(a) Write dor.vn a pair of similar triangles.
(b) Find the ratio QR : SR.
(c) Calculate the length of PQ.

13.5 crn

19.

Irrthediagram,ABll PQandBCll QR.AB=8 cm,PQ= lzlcm,XB=6cmandQR=16.8cm.


(a.) Name trvo pairs of similar triangles.

(b)

Find

(i)
(ii)

Prr bI

the length of BQ,


the length of BC.

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RevisionExercise,

30.

In the diagr am, AC is parallel to FG and AG is parallel to BD. AE =


E5 = 4.5 cm and FG = 12 cm.
(a) Name a triangle that is similar to LACE.

fh) Find
Find
(b)
(l)

CD

-==

Lh.

(ii)
(iii)

31

13

.5 cm, BD = 5.4 cm,

12 cm

the length of BC,


the length of AB.

The diagram shor,vs trvo similar cones A and B. The heights of Cone A and Cone B are | 2 cm
and 8 cm respectively.
(a) If the base radius of Cone A is 5 cm, Iind the base radius of Cone B.
(b) If the base circumference of Cone B is 20.9 cm, Iind the base circumference of Cone A.

t\

(_)

,A.

qp

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In the diagram below, AB is parallel to CD. Triangles ABE and DCE are similar. Find
(a) the length of AE,

(b)
(c)

the length of CE,


the scale factor of enlargement if triangle
DCE is the image of triangle ABE.

1-1. In the diagram, AABC

9cm

is enlarged to 1:A'B'C' using a scale factor of 3. Given

B'C' = 24 cm,find
(a) the length of A'B',
(b) the length of BC.

thatAB=9cm

and

A,

>\
t/

l>.
z+cn

//

B,

34.

In the diagram, quadrilateral ABCD is enlarged to quadrilateral ALMN. Given that

AB=12cm,AD =8cm andCD=BL= 9cm,find

(a)
(b)
(c)

the scale factor,


the length of .41/,
the length of MN.

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RevisionExercise,

35.

Parallelogram ABCD is enlarged to parallelogram PQRS using a scale factor

(a)
(b)
(c)

the length of PQ,


the length of AD,
the area of parallelogram ABCD.

of

Find

12 crn

7cm

36.

Trapezium ABCD is reduced to trapezium


(a) the scale factor,
(b) the length of AD,
(c) the length of WX,
(d) the area of trapezium ABCD.

WXW.Find

13.5 cm

8.4 cm

it4143]

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In the diagram, ligure ABCDE is enlarged to figure PQRST.


(a) Find the scale factor.
(b) Form two equations in x and,y.
(c) Solve these equations simultaneously to find the values of x and y.

l,cm

C5.2cmD

.':

The actual length

7.8cm

of a Monarch butterfly is 3.5 cm. The length of the butterfly on a scale

drarving is 14 cm.
la) Find the scale of the drawing in the form I : n.
(b) If the actual r.vingspread of the butterfly is 10 cm, find the r'vingspread of the butterfly on
the drarving.

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RevisionExercise,

39.

The diagram shows the floor plan of an apartment. The scale used is 1 cm to 1.5 m.
(a) Find the actual dimensions of
the dining room,
1.5 cm
3 cm
2.5 cm

(0
(iil

(b)

Bedroom

1.

Find the actual area of


the kitchen,

(i)
(ii)

Dirring

room I

Kitchen

Bedroom

the apartment.

Living

room

B.,lroo*

3cm

Bathroom
1.5 cm

40.

2.5 cm

A rectangular concert hall ABCD is 52 m long and 36 m wide.


(a) Draw a plan of the concert hall, using a scale of 1 : 400.
(b) Measure the distance of AC on the plan, giving your answer correct to 1 decimal place.
(c) Hence, estimate the actual distance of AC, giving your answer coffect to the nearest
metre.

,.;A:,

it4l6$l

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