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Design Paper: Introduction to 3G1X

Introduction to 3G1X
1.

SCOPE

This design paper is aimed at providing a brief introduction to CDMA 2000, in particular to the 3G1X
technology. A detailed description of the Alcatel-Lucent solution for the 3G1X technology is also
explained.

2.

INTRODUCTION

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), is a digital cellular technology that uses spread spectrum.
Unlike competing systems like GSM that use TDMA, CDMA does not assign specific timeslots to each
user. Instead, every channel is allocated a code that is spread across the available spectrum.
Qualcomm owns key patent for CDMA technology and manufactures chipsets for CDMA vendors.
CDMA 2000 1X (IS-2000) was recognized by the ITU (International telecommunications Unit 2000)
standard in November 1999. CDMA 1XRTT or 3G1X is the most spectrally efficient wide area network
technology for circuit-switched voice and it also supports packet data speeds up to 307 kbps in a
single 1.25 MHz channel. Another important feature of the CDMA technology is soft handoff. Soft
Handoff is a condition, when a mobile is simultaneously connected to two or more base station/cells
during a call. If the sectors are from the same physical cell site, it is referred as softer Handoff.

3.

SPREAD SPECTRUM

Spread spectrum uses wideband, noise-like signals that are hard to detect, intercept , or demodulate.
Spread spectrum signals are harder to jam than the narrow band signals. These signals are
intentionally made to be much wider than the information they carry to make them more noise-like.
These signals are hard to detect on narrow band equipment because the signals energy is spread over
a bandwidth of around 100 times the information bandwidth. Spread spectrum and narrowband
signals can occupy the same band, with little or no interference. Several different spread spectrum
techniques including Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency hopping spread spectrum
(FHSS). A detailed explanations of the types of Spread spectrum is beyond the scope of this design
paper.

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3DC 21151 2006 TQZZA

05/2007

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Design Paper: Introduction to 3G1X

4.

STANDARDS

3G1X is the initial 3rd generation implementation of an IS-95 based CDMA network that complies with
the recommendations for third generation wireless systems advanced by the ITU.
The 3GPP2 (Third generation Partnership program 2) is a global specification for the RTT (Radio
transmission technologies) supported by ATSI/TIA/EIA-41. It comprises North America and Asian
countries that are interested in developing global specifications for ANSI/TIA/EIA-41 cellular Radio
telecommunication Intersystem Operations network evolving to 3G. It is a collaborative effort
between five officially recognized SDOs(Standard Development Organization) comprising of

ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (Japan)

CCSA China Communications Standards Association (China)

TIA Telecommunications Industry Association

TTA Telecommunications technology Association (Korea)

TTC Telecommunications Technology committee (Japan)

Other key organisations relating to CDMA evolution include , the CDMA Development group (CDG) , IPV6
forum and the International 450 Association (IA 450) are the MRPs (Market Representation Partners)
who offers market advice to the 3GPP2 and bring out the market requirement.

4.1 CDMA World Market Share


The table shows the world subscriber market in CDMA technology :

The percentage distribution of subscribers per region can be shown as follows :

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Design Paper: Introduction to 3G1X

Figure 1 CDMA Regional Market Share

5.

LINK BUDGET

3G1X has a symmetrical forward and reverse link. The uplink and downlink data rates are 153 kbps.
Voice coverage for 3G1X carrier is essentially determined by link budget analysis. The cell footprint
or the cell area is first established using the reverse link, which takes into account the Mobile
transmit power. Forward link budget analysis focuses on ensuring that sufficient forward power is
available to support operations within the cell area dictated by the reverse link. Typical link budgets
definition and examples are covered in other specific CDMA related design papers.

6.

ALCATEL-LUCENT 3G1X SOLUTION

CDMA 2000 1XRTT is seen as an improvement over the previous cellular technologies due to a number
of reasons. It provides up to double the voice capacity of its second generation cellular system. 1X
RTT is much more efficient because it uses a pilot signal a frequency transmitted for control,
equalization , and reference purpose as well as more channels between fixed cell stations and
mobile users. CDMA 2000 1X RTT also has media and link access protocol, allowing for greater use of
data services than 2G systems. Voice and data users can coexist within the same 3G1X carrier.
Spectrum requirements for 3G1X are modest and identical to those for an IS-95 carrier. 3G1X requires
a 1.23 MHz carrier in the cellular band or a 1.25 MHz carrier in the PCS band, with a recommended
guard band of 270 KHz between the CDMA and the AMPS carriers in the cellular bands, and a guard
band of 625 KHz (~1/2 carrier) on either side of the PCS band. The guard band recommendations are
typical, and may be relaxed or expanded depending upon the specific wireless applications in
contiguous spectrum. In most cases, it is anticipated that the 270 KHz for the cellular band or 625
KHz for the PCS band should be sufficient.
The Alcatel-lucent approach for the 3G1X solution is as follows :

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Design Paper: Introduction to 3G1X

- 1xEV1xEV-DO Specific Elements


AAA

- Shared Elements

DNS,
DHCP

- 3G1X/IS3G1X/IS-9595-Specific
1xEV1xEV-DO
BS
(cell)
Dual-mode
BTS
1xEV-DO
(cell)

1xEV1xEV-DO
Flexent Mobility
Serv er

DODO-RNC

OMPOMP-FX

R-P
(A10/A11)

1xEV--DO EMS
1xEV
Flexent EMS
RCS

ECPC

SMSSMS-C

PDSN

3G-1x

HLR
3G3G-1x
BTS
(cell)

FPS
DCS

P
C
F

R-P
(A10/A11)

Figure 2 3G1X (showing EVDO overlay) Network Architecture

Key to Elements
EvDO - Evolution data only
Do RNC Data Only Radio Network controller
RCS Radio controller system
FPS = Flexent Packet switch
PDSN Packet Data Serving node
HLR Home location register.

The 3G1X network can be easily upgraded to the EVDO network just with the addition of the Do-RNC and few
hardware / software components in the existing base station. Most of the network elements can be shared
between 3G1X and EVDO technology.
The access and the core must be from ALU product portfolio, due
to proprietary software and interface issues. The Base station can be directly connected to the switch. The
traditional BSS or the RNC is not involved in the 3G1X architecture in the non-NAR markets. All the circuit
switch data traffic are diverted to the internet through the PDSN.

7.

CONCLUSION

CDMA 2000 technology offers a highly reliable and secure network. It has been designed to meet the
requirements of all morphology and mobility conditions including fixed wireless , wireless local loop

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Design Paper: Introduction to 3G1X

(WLL), limited mobility and full mobility type of applications in spectrum bands covering 450 MHz,
800 MHz, 1700 MHz, 1900 MHz and 2100 MHz.
The 3G1X CDMA standards provide a scalable network evolution path to high rate packet data
services.
Alcatel Lucents product portfolio supports the full range of solutions defined by the CDMA standards
End of DOCUMENT

Alcatel-Lucent File Reference

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3DC 21151 2006 TQZZA

05/2007

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All rights reserved. Passing on and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.