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PROBLEMS INVOLVING RATE OF CHANGE / OPTIMIZATION

1. Find the rate of change of the volume of a sphere with respect to its radius when its radius is 5m.

2. If pressure P and the volume V of a gas are connected by the relation PV = k, where k is constant. Find the rate
of change P with respect to V.

3. The distance fallen by a free falling body from rest is given by s= 2 2 . Find the rate of change of the distance
with respect to time (or velocity) after 5 second.

Problems involving Velocity & Acceleration.

4. An object moves along a line in such a way that it position at time t, is s(t) = t3 - 6t2 + 9t + 5 in ft.
a. Find the velocity and acceleration at t = 4 sec.

Problems involving rate of change.

5. It is estimated that t months from now, the population of a certain community will be P(t) = t2 +20t +800.
a. At what rate will the population be changing with respect to the time 15 months from now?

b. How much will the population actually change during the 16th month.

Percentage rate of change

Q(t) = a certain quantity
Q'(t) = is the rate of change of the quantity
()
100 = %
()

6. At what % rate will the population be changing with respect to time 16 months from now?

Marginal Cost, Marginal Revenue and Marginal Profit.

7. A manufacturer estimates that when x units of a commodity is produced, the total cost will be at
1
1
C(x) = 2 + 3 + 98 pesos and that all units will be sold when the price is P(x) = 25 pesos per units.
8
3
a. Find the marginal cost of producing the 9th unit.

c. Find the revenue derived from the sale of 9 units.

d. Find the marginal revenue derived from the sale of 9th unit.

f. At what level of production is profit maximized

Let P(x)= represents a parabola that opens upward.

g. What should be the price 1 unit for maximum profit?

8. Find two positive numbers whose sum is 64 and whose product is a maximum.

9. A balloon is released at a point 150 m from an observer who is on level ground. If the balloon goes straight up
at the rate of 80 m/sec, how fast is the distance from the observer to the balloon increasing when the balloon is
50m high.

10. Water is stored in a tank in the shape of an inverted cone of height 10 ft and diameter 6 ft. Express the
volume of water in the tank as a function of the height h of the water level.

11. Find the area of the largest rectangle that can be enclosed with 200m of fencing

12. A particles position (in inches) along the x axis after t seconds of travel is given by the equation
x = 24t2 t3 + 10
(a) What is the particles average velocity during the first 3 seconds of travel?

(b) Where is the particle and how fast is it moving after 3 seconds of travel?

(c) Where is the particle and how fast is it moving after 20 seconds of travel?

(d ) When is the velocity of the particle 0? What is the particles position at that instant?

(e) Describe the motion of the particle during the first 20 seconds of travel?

13. The height (in feet) at any time t (in seconds) of a projectile thrown vertically is h(t) = 16t2 + 256t.
(a) What is the projectiles average velocity for the first 5 seconds of travel?

(b) How fast is the projectile traveling 6 seconds after it is thrown? How high is it?

(c) How fast is the projectile traveling 10 seconds after it is thrown? How high is it?

(d) When is the maximum height reached by the projectile? What is its maximum height?

(e) When does the projectile return to the ground and with what velocity?

14. The demand q for a certain commodity expressed as a function of its selling price p is
q(p) = 200p 100p2 + 5000 units. At what rate is q changing with respect to p when the selling price is \$5? Is
demand increasing or decreasing at this price?

15. The position of a moving object after t minutes of travel is s(t) = 2t3 27t2 + 84t + 25 feet.
(a) What is the objects average velocity during the first 2 minutes?

(b) Where is the object and how fast is it moving after 1 minute of travel? 5 minutes? 10 minutes?

(c) What is the acceleration of the object after 1 minute? 5 minutes? 10 minutes?

(d ) When is the velocity of the object is 0? What is the objects position at that time?

16. Gas is escaping from a spherical balloon at the rate of 2 ft3 / min. How fast is the surface area shrinking when
the radius is 12ft.

17. Water is being pumped into a conical tank at the rate of 100 ft3/min. The height of the tank is 20 ft and its
radius is 5 ft. How fast is the water level rising when the water height is 10 ft?

18. Determine the maximum area of a rectangular piece of land that can be enclosed by 1200 m of fencing

19. The dimensions of a box are: a, (a - 1) , (a + 4) inches.

a. Find how fast the surface area s increases as a increases

b. Find how fast the volume increases as a increases.

20. A spherical balloon is inflated with gas at the rate of 800 cubic centimeters per minute. How fast is the radius
of the balloon increasing at the instant that the radius is 30 centimeters?