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Contents

Introduction

2

Chapter 1: Conceptual Background

3

1. 1. ST (Source Text) Analysis

3

1.2. Text-Typology

4

1.3. Parallel Corpora

5

Chapter 2 Translation Methods and Strategies

8

2.1. Types of Translation

8

2.2. Translation Methods and Procedures

9

2.2.1. Translation Methods

9

2.2.2. Translation Procedures

10

Chapter 3: Applications

13

3.1. Unit 1

13

3.2. Unit 2

15

3.3. Unit 3

17

3.4. Unit 4

19

3.5. Unit 5

21

References

23

Introduction

Introduction

Translation studies, a relatively young domain of research, has been acknowledged as an academic discipline which concerns itself with analyzing translation on different coordinates: “ ‘Translation studiesis now understood to refer to the academic discipline concerned with the study of translation at large, including literary and non-literary translation, various forms of oral interpreting, as well as DUBBNG and SUBTITLING[…]. ‘Translation studies’ is also understood to cover the whole spectrum of research and pedagogical activities, from developing theoretical frameworks to conducting individual case studies to engaging in practical matters such as training translators and developing criteria for translation assessment”. (Pym and Turk, 2005: 277). Translation studies has also its contribution to sharing wide-world knowledge: “Evidence from literature shows a spectacular perspective on the concept of translation, both synchronically and diachronically, translation theorization and practicalities providing a generous frame of intercultural communication worldwide, triggering dialogues between big and small countries as well.”(Dima, 2012: 117). „ A perfect interdiscipline, interfacing with a host of other fields” (Hatim, Munday, 2004: 169), translation studies has particularly contributed to the development of intercultural communication through the most complex of all linguistic acts, using its own methods, procedures, strategies and techniques, as Bell states, “we live in a changing world in which knowledge is expanding and information transfer is vital; therefore translation has become of utmost importance(1991: XVI), adapting frameworks and methodologies from other disciplines. The phenomenon of translation, as Manfredi (2008) calls it, has become crucial in a world rushing towards globalization. We should, therefore, say that whether for expressive, informative, persuasive and pedagogical purposes, communication nowadays relies heavily on translation. An incursion into the translation studies’ lab will reveal both the interactive desk where an array of concepts will help target-readers understand the way in which translation as a product has been processed, and the translator as the agent of this enterprise.

Chapter 1: Conceptual Background

The present chapter aims at presenting a selection of the most representative key concepts used in translation studies. These will be illustrated in the chapter of applications of the present course.

1. 1. ST (Source Text) Analysis

The Source Text (ST) is the input of any translation and bears the characteristics of the Source Language (SL) system, being for the translator “a pattern to write as he supposes the author would have done, had he lived in our age and in our country” (Munday 2001:23). ST analysis can be achieved along the following dichotomies:

a. Form /vs/ Content The form of any ST is shaped along its sentential arrangement according to the syntactic laws of the respective SL system. In English, word order is fixed, of the type SVO, the subject occupying the first position within the hierarchy of the terms gravitating around the Predicate: S>DO>IO, followed by adjuncts as non-terms. Nevertheless, this word order is subject to modifications dictated by pragmatic and rhetorical effects created by the speaker/writer of the message. The content of any ST to be translated is centered around the types of the contexts displaying the meaning and intentions of the message producer: local, sentential, topical or global: Translation, on the other hand, is a dynamic process which involves the manipulation of textual substance in one language to create textual substance in another language. Part of the production process in translation consists of matching units of meaning which arise in one culture with those of another culture before finding their textually and situationally appropriate linguistic expression”. (Nkwenti-Azeh 2005: 251). An important role is played by the lexical density of the text which can help the translator find out the type and number of both content and function words, the prominence of collocations etc. This can be done using, for example, the computer tool, textalyser.net., keeping in mind the fact that the translator should be careful in being as faithful as possible both to the form and the meaning of the original text. (Croitoru 2007, Dima 2009).

b. Denotation /vs / Connotation

This dichotomy is central to the translation process, it decides on the ST type and the methods and strategies of translating it. The meaning of words is first and foremost defined through their denotation. The concept of denotation is viewed in a larger sense as referring also to the grammar of words, their forms and sentential order, subordination and grammatical synonymy (Leviţchi, 1994: 47). Denotation comes first in a dictionary entry and it helps the translator find both the literal meaning of the word and its frequency of usage. Connotation comes second to denotation and it stands for the emotional associations that words or expressions may carry, in addition to their explicit or literal meaning. Understanding both denotation and connotation, the translator can raise himself, so to say, beyond words and sentences, searching for the true meaning in the originator’s message. Denotation and connotation can be analyzed within lexical/semantic fields which are precious instruments in finding instances of either appropriateness or

Introduction

inadvertencies between the SL and TL, or, to hint at non-equivalencies, in Ricoeur’s opinion: Not only are the semantic fields not superimposed on one another but the syntaxes are not equivalent, the turns of phrase do not serve as a vehicle for the same cultural legacies; and what is to be said about the half-silent connotations, which alter the best- defined denotations of the original vocabulary, and which drift, as it were, between the signs, the sentences, the sequences, whether short or long”. (Ricoeur, 2006: 6)

c. Core /vs/ Non-Core Words The concept of coreness can contribute to the translator’s registerial choice when recreating meaning in the TT. If the words in the ST have a high degree of coreness, it would be easier for the translator to get equivalence. In contrast, a lower degree of coreness would make the translator’s search for equivalent words more difficult, the necessary step to take is to resort to the dictionary.

1.2. Text-Typology According to Webster’s Third New International Dictionary the word translation first entered the English vocabulary via Middle English translacioun, coming from Middle French or Latin translation. In point of meaning, the dictionary makes three derived distinctions from the more general meaning ‘an act, process or instance of translating’:

a. a rendering from one language or representational system into another “~ is an art that involves the re-creation of a work in another language for readers with a different background” (Malcolm Cowley); also: the product of such a rendering;

b. the removal, transfer, or conveyance from one place or condition to another;

c. a change or alteration to a different substance, form or appearance: transformation,

transmutation, conversion(1996: 2429). Out of all these meanings we have selected the first one on purpose and underline the connection with the text-type as being representational for a linguistic system to be translated into a representational text-type belonging to another linguistic system: “According to Reiss (1977/1989) each text-type is identified by its semantic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic features (see Nord 1996:84), which influence the way a text is translated and also serve as a basis for translation criticism. In the case of each text-type, these features reflect the primary function which the text serves, and which, she argues, should be preserved in the translation(as quoted in Dictionary 2014:56). There have been given various classifications of text-types, but we have chosen the one which has a strict connection with text-translation, as found in the Dictionary of Translation Studies 2014. Thus, text-types could be expressive, informative, operative and multi-medial. Expressive texts comprise an aesthetic component, as the speaker/writer “exploits the expressive and associative possibilities of the language in order to communicate his thoughts in an artistic, creative way” (Reiss, 1977/1989:109, as quoted in Dictionary 2014: 56). In Nord’s opinion, the translator should try to produce an analogous aesthetic effect, as well as reproducing the semantic content of the original (1996:83, as quoted in Dictionary 2014:56). Examples of expressive text- types belong primarily to literary genres: poetry, novel, biography etc. Operative texts are distinguished by their functionality reflected in the written language. They include messages which have as a main purpose to persuade the receiver to undertake a certain course of action, for instance, read a book, learn to cook, buy a house, apply for a job etc. In operative texts “both content and form are subordinated to the extralinguistic effect which the text is designed to achieve” (Nord 1996: 83, as quoted in Dictionary 2014: 117). In the same line of thought, Reiss

considers that a translator’s main aim should be the production of a TT with an equivalent persuasive force to that of the original and the same basic semantic content, political manifestos, advertisements and sermons, being some examples of operative texts (1977/1989:111, as quoted in Dictionary 2014: 117). Informative texts have as a main aim to convey information, so a translator should concentrate on establishing semantic equivalence ( Reiss & Vermeer 1984:157, as quoted in Dictionary 2014:79). Among this kind of texts, there are included reference works, business letters, official documents and academic articles. Multi-medial texts are characterized by the fact that the verbal content overlaps with elements from other media, for instance, songs, comic strips, plays, and writing for radio or television are all examples of this type […] and the translator of such texts will need to ensure that the translation is equally suited as the original for use in the relevant medium(Reiss 1977/1989:111, as quoted in Dictionary 2014: 109). The features of these texts are presented in the table below, synthesized in Munday 2001:74).

Text types

Informative

Expressive

Operative

Language

Represent objects and facts

Express sender’s attitude

Make an appeal to the text receiver

function

Language

Logical

Aesthetic

Dialogic

dimension

Text focus

Content-focused

Form-focused

Appellative-

focused

 

transmit referential content

transmit aesthetic form

elicit desired

TT should

response

 

‘Plain prose’,

‘Identifying’ method, adopt perspective of the ST author

‘Adaptive’

Translation

method

explicitation as

required

equivalent

effect

Table 1: Features of text-types identified by Reiss

1.3. Parallel Corpora

Parallel corpora represent a sound basis for the theory and practice of translation and an effective means to emphasize the points of contrast between the syntactic and semantic behavior of text-types in translation. We have chosen as an illustration the linguistic material analyzed in Dima 2011, a fragment from the short story Breakfast at Tiffany’s by Truman Capote, text which is of an expressive, including the description of the physical qualities of the major character, Holly Golightly. The parallel corpus delineated is described below:

a. The ST is an online variant of Breakfast at Tiffany’s as mentioned in the Corpus Sources. b. The first Romanian version (TT1), entitled Sandvişuri cu diamante belongs to Catinca Ralea and was published in 1967 in the volume Harfa de iarbă şi alte povestiri, Universal Literature Publishing House, Bucharest.

Introduction

c. The second Romanian version (TT2) has been translated as Mic dejun la Tifanny

by Constantin Popescu and is included in the volume Mic dejun la Tifanny şi alte povestiri, published in 2006, Universe Publishing House, Bucharest.

d. The two Romanian versions belong to different periods of time, fact which has

influenced the selection of vocabulary in both translations.

e. One Romanian variant has been translated by a female, the other by a male. We

aim at identifying the equivalents which make the difference.

f. We have presented the corpus by aligning the sentences in both Romanian versions and the English text above.

ST Corpus: Truman Capote’s Breakfast at Tiffany’s

Sample Analysis 1

ST1:“I went out into the hall and leaned over the banister, just enough to see without being seen. She was still on the stairs, now she reached the landing, and the ragbag colors of her boy's hair, tawny streaks, strands of albino-blond and yellow caught the hall light.

TT1: Sandvişuri cu diamante by Catinca Ralea ( page 379-380)

TT2: Mic dejun la Tifanny by Constantin Popescu ( page 17)

Am ieşit pe palier si m- am aplecat peste rampă, atât cât să pot vedea fără să fiu văzut. Era incă pe scară; dar curând ajunse pe palier. Lumina de pe palier se reflecta în culorile variate ale părului ei de băiat cu şuviţe decolorate de soare, unele de un blond albicios, altele galbene.

Am ieşit pe palier şi m-am aplecat peste balustradă ca să-i pot zări fară să fiu văzut. Holly era pe scară şi ajunsese la palierul ei, iar părul ei în toate culorile, tăiat băieţeşte, cu şuviţe arămii, de un blond aproape alb, sau galbene, lucea în lumina din hol.

The viewer who is the author himself, starts watching without being seen, fact which makes the description focalized on Holly and her physical qualities: ST: I went out into the hall and leaned over the banister, just enough to see without being seen/ TT1: Am ieşit pe palier si m-am aplecat peste rampă, atât cât să pot vedea fără să fiu văzut. / TT2: Am ieşit pe palier şi m-am aplecat peste balustradă ca să-i pot zări fară să fiu văzut. In Ralea’s translation of this first clause there is a shift in the word order introducing Holly’s appearance, due to the fact that Romanian is much more flexible than English. Fronting of Lumina de pe hol as an equivalent to hall light placed at the end of the ST operates as a syntactic device marking the circumstances of the writer’s watching. It is the pivotal word anticipating Holly’s description into Romanian, acting both as an instrument and location. In Popescu’s translation of the clause the ragbag colors of her boy's hair, tawny streaks, strands of albino-blond and yellow, caught the hall light, the complex NP centered around the noun păr and its metonymical counterpart şuviţe follow the ST determination ordering, but unlike in the ST, the translator has chosen to unload the sentence by selecting a single translational equivalent for streaks and strands.

And has been translated by sau supposing that the translator might have imagined that the evening dark made the colors not so clear. Instead of tăiat băieţeşte as an equivalent for her boy’s hair, we think that tuns băieţeşte could have also been a good variant obtained by domestication from the Romanian expression a se tunde băieţeşte. Popescu’s translation stands for a male’s direct way in expressing thoughts and making evaluations. His variant is a case of semantic translation, keeping to all the facets of meaning implied by the writer. In Ralea’s translation the genitival construction her boy’s hair has been rendered by părului ei de băiat followed by the use of the participial construction decolorate de soare as an equivalent for tawny. We could say that Ralea’s translation bears the female mark of gentleness and love of explicitness through thematization which “consists in arranging words in a particular way so that readers will pay attention to specific key concepts in the sentence. This aim could be achieved by marking specific words instead of others in a sentence and this procedure could be regarded as being a way for the author to express his or her ideology”(Leonardi:

2007: 102).

Sample Analysis 2

ST2: For all her chic thinness, she had an almost breakfast-cereal air of health, a soap and lemon cleanness, a rough pink darkening in the cheeks.

Cu toată silueta ei subţire şi elegantă, avea un aer sănătos de om care mănâncă bine dimineaţa, un aer îngrijit, care amintea de săpun şi de lămâie şi o roşeaţă violentă care-i întuneca obrajii.

Cu toată silueta ei elegantă, fata avea un aer de om sănătos, care mănâncă zdravăn dimineaţa, un aspect îngrijit, care te ducea cu gândul la săpun şi lămâie, iar în obraji îi stăruia o notă trandafirie.

The sentential context ST2 has been translated almost similarly in both variants, being an occasion for the author to express her/ his esthetic evaluation of what she/he is looking at or a commentary on the effect the sight has on her/him. The ST metaphorical adjunctions have been rendered into Romanian with a slight change in the translators’ lexical choice for rendering the expression had an almost breakfast-cereal air of health. Popescu translates by a grammatical shift, using the adverbalized adjective zdravăn modifying the verb mănâncă, while Ralea prefers domestication using the Romanian expression a mânca bine with a temporal specification dimineaţa. Both translators use addition and shift to render the meaning of health, but while Popescu uses the noun om modified by the adjective sănătos, Ralea uses it to modify aer, which she reiterates in aer îngrijit, for the sake of symmetry. We can still notice some difference in the Romanian equivalents to a rough pink darkening in the cheeks. Popescu’s translation is more poetical and mild in tone, a subjective evaluation coming from admiring young females with rosy cheeks e.g. iar în obraji îi stăruia o notă trandafirie. Ralea’s translation o roşeaţă violentă care-i întuneca obrajii tries to be nearer the ‘cold’ meaning of the ST modifier epithet rough and the participle darkening as a means of intensifying the character’s powerful reaction at external stimuli.(Dima 2011: 305-308)

Introduction

Chapter 2. Translation Methods and Strategies

2.1. Types of Translation The translation process includes certain stages which the translator follows taking into account the text-type and target users. Thus, a diachronic view on the matter will reveal the fact that specialists in translation studies have focused on the function of translation and its typology. Terms, such as general /vs/ specialized translation, pragmatic translation, literary translation, academic translation, professional translation, semantic translation, communicative translation etc. occur in the majority of the studies according to the aim of the research and the domain of specialization: “A complete theory of translation […] has three components:

specification of function and goal; description and analysis of operations; and critical comment on relationships between goal and operation”. (Kelly, 1979: 1) The synthesis in Table 2 shows the variety of labels attributed to translation by some of the scholars interested in translation issues.

Linguists

Criteria of classification

 

Translation Typology

Jean Delisle (1980)

function of the source text

-

- pragmatic translation

- literary translation

 

degree of specialization in the source text

-

- general translation

- specialized translation

general purpose of translating

-

- academic translation

- professional translation

 

- transcoding

-

translation approach

-

translation

Peter Newmark (1981, 1988 and 1991)

function of the source text

-

-

translation of an

expressive text

   

-

translation of an

informative text

 

- translation of narration

-

style of the source text

- translation of description

- translation of discussion

- translation of dialogue

- content or subject matter of the source text

- scientific-technological

translation

 

-

institutional-cultural

translation

-

literary translation

general purpose of translating

-

translation for language teaching

-

-

translation for

professional purposes

-

translation approach

-

semantic translation

-communicative

translation

Barbara Snell and Patricia Crampton (1983)

- content, degree of style, and function of the source text

-

literary translation

translation of promotional and

-

 

instructional material

-

translation of

informatory material

- general purpose of translating

-

non-commercial

translation

 

-

professional translation

function of the translation

-

-

translation for

publication

 

-

translation for

information

degree of style involved in the translation

-

-

literary translation

-

translation of

 

informatory material

-

translation of

promotional and instructional material

direction of the translation

-

-

translation into the

mother tongue

 

-

translation out of the

mother tongue

- medium of translation

-

written translation

oral (or spoken word) translation

-

Table 2. A Synthesis of Translation Types

2.2. Translation Methods and Procedures

A research on translation methods and procedures will be a demanding pursuit since the opinons are different among specialists. Still, there are some authors whose studies have influenced much the development of the discipline of translation studies: Tyler, Nida, Catford, Venuti, Newmark, Baker, to quote just a few.

2.2.1. Translation Methods

Newmark asserts that there is an essential difference between translation methods and translation procedures: “while translation methods relate to whole texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of language”. (1998/2001: 78). It is still Newmark to quote when listing methods of translation which have been used frequently in translation studies.(1998/2001: 80):

word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation, semantic translation, addaptation, free translation, idiomatic translation, communicative translation.

Word-for-word translation: the SL word order is preserved and the words are translated by their most common meanings, out of context. e.g. And she seized her bag and coat and ran upstairs to the nursery. Şi-şi lua/înşfăcă haina şi geanta şi fugi pe scări spre camera copilului.

Introduction

Literal translation: the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated out of context. It is the easiest and simplest form of translation. It occurs whenever word-for-word translation is possible without breaking (grammatical) rules in the target language. A SL text mechanically reproduced in a TL text can:

- distort the grammatical and stylistic patterns of the receptor language. - distort the message (misunderstanding). e.g. I like things that appeared;then one is sure. Imi plac lucrurile care se văd; atunci eşti sigur.

Faithful translation attempts to produce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. e.g. I liked them--I felt, quite as their friends must have done--they were so simple; and I had no objection to them if they would suit. Imi plăceau, îmi dădeam seama, cum, desigur, plăceau prietenilor lor. Erau atât de simpli. Şi nu aveam nici o obiecţie împotriva lor, dacă s-ar fi potrivit.

Semantic translation which differs from 'faithful translation' only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text. e.g. The reason that solar power is not used widely today is that solar energy is more expensive to use than other forms of energy. Energia solară nu este folosită pe scara larga în zilele noastre, deoarece este mai costisitoare decât alte forme de energie.

Adaptation is the freest form of translation, and is used mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten.

e.g. Sir Toby: Will you encounter the house? my niece is desirous( that) you should enter, if your trade be to her. Doreşti să intri? Nepoata mea doreşte. Aşa că , dacă ai treabă cu dînsa,

pofteşte.

Free translation produces the TL text without the style, form, or content of the original.

Idiomatic translation reproduces the 'message' of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original. e.g. I had seized their type- I had already setttled what I would do with them. Le-am descifrat tipul- ştiam deja ce-aş putea “scoate” din ei.

Communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership

2.2.2. Translation Procedures

Among translation procedures, Newmark (1988) includes: transference, naturalization, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, lexical synonymy, through- translation, modulation, paraphrase

Transference or transcription is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL

text.

e.g. They knew that I was do the first of the books, “ Rutland Ramsay”… Ştiau că eu făceam primul volum, “ Rutland Ramsay”…

Naturalization adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology of the TL. e.g. Then, everybody came to the meeting. Apoi, toată lumea a venit la meeting.

Cultural equivalence means replacing a cultural word in the SL with a TL

one. e.g. He took his A-level in 2000.

A luat bacalaureatul in anul 2000.

Functional equivalent requires the use of a culture-neutral word. (1988: 83) e.g. Sarmalele sunt bucate tradiţionale româneşti. Stuffed cabbage rolls is a traditional Romanian dish.

Lexical synonymy is a "near TL equivalent." (1988: 84), where a precise equivalent may not exist. e.g. The control tower presented an ultimatum to the pilot. Turnul de control i-a dat un ultimatum pilotului.

Through-translation is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organizations and components of compounds. It can also be called: calque or loan translation. (1988: 84) e.g. Security Council of United Nations Consiliul de Securitate al Naţiunilor Unite

Modulation a semantic procedure that changes the category of thought, the focus, the point of view and the whole conceptualization.

e.g. I had taken Mrs. Prest into my confidence; without her in truth I should have made but little advance, for the fruitful idea in the whole business dropped from her friendly lips.

O alesesem pe doamna Prest drept confidentă; fără ea, sincer să fiu, n-aş fi

rezolvat mare lucru, pentru că ea a binevoit să-mi sugereze soluţia inspirată de toată povestea aceasta.

Paraphrase - sometimes called periphrasis, is a translation procedure whereby the translator replaces a word in the source text by a group of words or an expression in the target text. e.g. He paid some attention to the management of his collieries in the Midland counties, excusing himself for this taint of industry on the ground that the one advantage of having coal was that it enabled a gentleman to afford the decency of burning wood on his own hearth. Se ocupa într-o oarecare măsură de administrarea minelor sale de cărbuni din regiunile centrale ale ţării, găsind drept scuză pentru această urmă de slăbiciune pentru industrie faptul că singurul avantaj de a fi proprietarul unei mine era acela că îi îngăduia unui gentleman să-şi permită decenţa de a arde lemne în propriul său cămin.

Introduction

Some authors use other terms and classifications, overlapping with or distinguishing from those of Newmark’s, but what is important to emphasize is the fact that all have had their contribution to the development of translation studies.

Chapter 3: Applications

UNIT 1

Romanian ST

În mileniul internautic, globalizant şi repezit în care te afli, călătoria şi-a pierdut frisonul iniţiatic. Aşternerea la drum nu mai are aplomb picaresc sau sâmbure de mister. Totul s-a redus la o deplasare eficientă, cu economie de timp şi abundenţă de mijloace. Nimeni nu mai pleacă în direcţii incerte, nimeni nu mai caută sensuri pitite în mecanica paşilor. Călătorul de azi e o vietate decisă, care trebuie să ajungă repede din punctul A în punctul B. El are un aer posac, preocupat sau febril, în funcţie de agenda zilei. Stilistica voiajului, fie el de plăcere sau de afaceri, a sărăcit metodic, pe măsură ce s-a îmbogăţit recuzita tehnică. Autobuzele, trenurile, avioanele şi metrourile transportă cohorte de pasageri plecaţi, vorba lui George Bernard Shaw, „la întâlniri cu ei înşişi, la care se tem să nu întârzie". Ei bine, de ce să îngădui, tu, nesimţitule, posomoreala ulcerantă a acestor veşnici hoinari? Chiar nu poţi face nimic? Ba vezi bine că poţi, dacă ştii să-ţi alegi instrumentele şi momentul optim al intervenţiei.

Radu Paraschivescu, Nesimţitul călător în Ghidul nesimţitului, p 10

A.

Source Text Analysis

1.

Read and specify the text type.

2.

Analyse the words according to their frequency of usage.

3.

Delineate lexical fields within the text.

4.

Find synonymic series and distinguish among the components.

5.

Explain the meaning of posomoreala ulceranta.

B.

Source Text Translation

1.

Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentences.

În mileniul internautic, globalizant şi repezit în care te afli, călătoria şi-a pierdut frisonul iniţiatic.”

a. In the rushy, globalizing, web surfing millennium where we live, the journey has lost its initiatic tremor.

b. Our hasty, globalizing and web-dominated millennium has caused journeys lose

their initiatory enthusiasm.

c. In the impetuous, globalizing and internet-governed millennium where we live, journeys have lost their initiatory enthusiasm.

2.

Translate the text into English.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

Introduction

English ST

As for the acquaintance which is to be sought in travel, that which is most of all profitable, is acquaintance with the secretaries and employed men of ambassadors; for so in travelling in one country he shall suck the experience of many: let him also see and visit eminent persons in all kinds, which are of great name abroad, that he may be able to tell how the life agreeth with the fame; for quarrels, they are with care and discretion to be avoided: they are commonly for mistresses, healths, place, and words; and let a man beware how he keepeth company with choleric and quarrelsome persons; for they will engage him into their own quarrels. When a traveller returneth home, let him not leave the countries where he hath travelled altogether behind him; but maintain a correspondence by letters with those of his acquaintance which are of most worth; and let his travel appear rather in his discourse than in his apparel or gesture; and in his discourse, let him be rather advised in his answers, than forward to tell stories: and let it appear that he doth not change his country manners for those of foreign parts; but only prick in some flowers of that he hath learned abroad into the customs of his own country.

Francis Bacon, Of Travel

A. Source Text Analysis

1. Read and specify the text type.

2. Provide the modern spelling of the text.

3. Discuss the differences between the synonymic pairs: acquaintance and relative;

travel and journey.

4.

Explain the meaning of but only prick in some flowers.

B.

Source Text Translation

1.

Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence.

When a traveller returneth home, let him not leave the countries where he hath travelled altogether behind him;”

a. Când un calator se întoarce acasă, nu-l încurajaţi să dea uitării locurile pe care le-a

zut.

b. La întoarcerea acasă, încurajaţi-l pe cel care a călătorit să vorbească despre

locurile vizitate. c. Odata întors acasă, aminteşte-i călătorului de locurile pe care le-a văzut şi nu-l lăsa să le uite.

2.

Translate the text into Romanian.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

UNIT 2

Romanian ST

Dar pentru că te-am văzut iubitor de curse de cai, ca şi mine, dă-mi voie să fac o comparaţie care are să-ţi dovedească definitiv, dacă mai era nevoie, că nu aş putea

Ştii că sunt, în general luate, două categorii de cai.

Cei pretendenţi la marile premii clasice şi cei care se mulţumesc să-şi încerce norocul numai în handicapuri modeste. Se întâmplă însă în unii ani că se găseşte pe hipodrom câte un cal cu sânge foarte aristocratic şi cu toţi muşchii necontenit gata de întrecere, care câştigă toate premiile mari, nelăsând celor care sunt abia cu puţin inferiori lui

nici unul. Fiecare dintre aceşti cai nenorocoşi ar putea câştiga orice handicap, rareori însă, sau din pricina regulamentelor, sau a mândriei proprietarilor, aleargă în aceste curse. Aşa că ei nu se aleg în unii ani cu nici un premiu. Ei bine, într-un orăşel de provincie, toate fetele frumoase sunt faţă de cea mai frumoasă - chiar când deosebirea e tot aşa de mică - în situaţia acestor nenorocoşi candidaţi. Cea mai

Eram

frumoasă recoltează toate visurile, toate ambiţiile adolescenţilor din oraş [

deci, în strâmtul şi proaspătul nostru orăşel de munte, cea mai frumoasă fată, iubită de elevii liceului, curtată de tinerii magistraţi şi obiectul cavalerismului ofiţerilor din garnizoană.

deveni niciodată scriitoare [

].

].

Camil Petrescu, Patul lui Procust, p 8/19

A.

Source Text Analysis

1.

Read and specify the text type.

2.

Explain the meaning of handicap in the text.

3.

Find instances of words changing from denotative to connotative meaning.

3.

Build up synonym essays for frumoasa and beautiful. Use dictionaries.

B.

Source Text Translation

1.

Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:

„Se întâmplă însă în unii ani că se găseşte pe hipodrom câte un cal cu sânge foarte aristocratic şi cu toţi muşchii necontenit gata de întrecere”

a. It so happens that in certain years, on the horse racing track, there may appear a horse of a most noble breed and a great conformation ready for confrontation.

b. In certain years, it happens to find on the show ring a horse of an outstanding

bloodline and a great bone ready for competition.

In some years, there can be found on the hippodrome a horse of a most noble breed and with steel in his muscle always ready for competition.

c.

2.

Translate the text into English.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

Introduction

English ST

A young member of the band turned her head at the exclamation. She was a fine and handsome girl--not handsomer than some others, possibly--but her mobile peony mouth and large innocent eyes added eloquence to colour and shape. She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the only one of the white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment. As she looked round Durbeyfield was seen moving along the road in a chaise belonging to The Pure Drop, driven by a frizzle-headed brawny damsel with her gown-sleeves rolled above her elbows. This was the cheerful servant of that establishment, who, in her part of factotum, turned groom and ostler at times. Durbeyfield, leaning back, and with his eyes closed luxuriously, was waving his hand above his head, and singing in a slow recitative-- […] Tess Durbeyfield at this time of her life was a mere vessel of emotion untinctured by experience.

A.

Source Text Analysis

1.

Read and specify the text type.

2.

Find archaic words in the text and provide modern equivalents.

3.

Explain the meanings of chaise and ostler using English dictionaries.

4.

Find antonyms for innocent, cheerful, slow.

B.

Source Text Translation

1.

Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:

“Tess Durbeyfield at this time of her life was a mere vessel of emotion untinctured by experience” a. La acest moment din viaţa ei, Tess Durbeyfield cunostea pentru prima dată adevăratele sentimente şi emoţii.

b. Pe vremea aceea, Tess Durbeyfield vibra ca un cristal, datorită unei sensibilităţi

nealterate de experienţă.

c. La vârsta ei, Tess Durbeyfield strălucea asemenea unei comori nepreţuite de sensibilităţi nealterate de experienţa vieţii.

2.

Translate the text into Romanian.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

UNIT 3

Romanian ST

Aprinse lampa cu abajur de mătase bleu şi trandafiri mici din catifea. Din patul de bronz, pictat cu îngeraşi, te aşteptai să răsară o scufiţă cu panglici şi dantele. În bufetul vienez cu două vitrine, modern prin anii '80-'90, un instantaneu al epocii ar fi surprins sticle de apă de Vichy, flacoane de colonie Cuir de Russie, pastilele întăritoare ale doctorului Blow sau elixirul bunicilor Cristal de munte. Berzele de argint susţineau cîndva o tipsie unde tineri domni de acum o jumătate de veac îşi lăsau cărţile de vizită, pendula anunţa orele de bal sau de primire, în oglindă, îngălbenită acum, se reflectau chipuri gingaşe într-o cascadă de bucle, zulufi, pene şi flori, umeri goi, coborîţi după cum cercau canoanele frumuseţilor contemporane cu Eugenia de Montijo. În scrinul de cireş lustruit, lenjeria delicată, lucrată în mînăstiri, emana arome dulci, mitenele fine de antilopă albă adăstau alături de dantela scumpă Valenciennes ori mai modestă de Bruxelles Melania Lupu trase mînerul de bronz şi scoase o jumătate de cozonac, un borcan de dulceaţă şi cîteva pastile de ciocolată pe care motanul le prinse din zbor.

Rodica Ojog-Braşoveanu, Bună seara, Melania, p.4

A.

Source Text Analysis

1.

Read and specify the text type.

2.

Explain the meanings of mitene and adastau.

3.

Find synonyms for frumusetilor contemporane.

B.

Source Text Translation

1.

Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:

„Din patul de bronz, pictat cu îngeraşi, te aşteptai să răsară o scufiţă cu panglici şi

dantele”

a. Out of the bronze bed, painted with cherubs, you were expecting a ribboned, embroidered nightcap to turn up.

b. Out of the bronze bed on which little angels were painted, you might have

expected a ribbonned, laced nightcap to turn up.

c. A nightcap trimmed with ribbons and lace might have appeared from the bronze bed painted with cherubs.

2.

Distinguish among nightcap, bonnet, hood.

3.

Translate the text into English.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

English ST

Laura put back the receiver, flung her arms over her head, took a deep breath,

Introduction

stretched and let them fall. "Huh," she sighed, and the moment after the sigh she sat up quickly. She was still, listening. All the doors in the house seemed to be open. The house was alive with soft, quick steps and running voices. The green baize door that led to the kitchen regions swung open and shut with a muffled thud. And now there came a long, chuckling absurd sound. It was the heavy piano being moved on its stiff castors. But the air! If you stopped to notice, was the air always like this? Little faint winds were playing chase, in at the tops of the windows, out at the doors. And there were two tiny spots of sun, one on the inkpot, one on a silver photograph frame, playing too. Darling little spots. Especially the one on the inkpot lid. It was quite warm. A warm little silver star. She could have kissed it.

A. ST Analysis

1. Read and specify the text type.

a. Comment on the use of auditory images in the text.

b. Distinguish between tiny and little.

c. Explain the meaning of were playing chase in Little faint winds were playing chase, in at the tops of the windows, out at the doors.

B. Source Text Translation

1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:

“The house was alive with soft, quick steps and running voices”.

a.

Intreaga casă era animată de paşi uşori, repezi şi voci neîntrerupte.

b.

Intreaga clădire era un freamăt de paşi uşori, grăbiţi, de crâmpeie de glasuri.

c.

Casa răsuna de paşi uşori, grăbiţi şi glasuri fremătătoare.

2.

Translate the text into Romanian.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

UNIT 4

Romanian ST

Bunicul e gata îmbrăcat, cu pălăria de pai negru, mănuşile de aţă şi bastonul de trestie în mână. Poarta din faţă e deschisă. A tras la scară trăsura muscalului. Calul face ni-ha-ha-ha. Cânii din mahala s-au stârnit la lătrat. Perdelele albe se leagănă uneori cu atâta avânt ondulat că ajung până departe în odaie.

— Potaie, să nu te mişti de-acasă! Te las paznicul avutului nostru. E mare

cinste pentru un neisprăvit ca tine, vorbeşte bunica, în timp ce-şi încheie mănuşile lungi cu bumbi de sidef. Miroase stins a liliac pe sfârşite, şi proaspăt (foarte aproape

de nară), a apă de flori, a papier d'Armenie, a paciuli, a vetiver, a afion. Toate acestea se revarsă din sertarele bunicei. Mai miroase şi a bomboane acre. Nepotul prizează cu dinadins, până la strănut.

Ce-i cu nasul tău? Ai gutunar?

Îmi miroase a bomboane englezeşti

— Păreri, zice bunica şi închide sertarul. Hai, Alecule!

Trăsura cu bunicii pleacă: la doamna Boù. Un ultim strănut de râs, şi nepotul

rămâne singur, de capul lui, „paznicul avutului bunicilor".

Ionel Teodoreanu, Bunicii. Cele patru anotimpuri, p. 5

A.

Source Text Analysis

1.

Read and specify the text type.

2.

Explain the meanings of gutunar.

3.

Identify foreign words in the text and explain their usage by the author.

B.

Source Text Translation

1.

Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:

„Nepotul prizează cu dinadins, până la strănut”.

a.

The nephew is smelling until he starts sneezing.

b.

The nephew inhales until he sneezes.

c.

The nephew keeps smelling and ends in sneezing.

2.

Translate the text into English.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

English ST

It never occurred to me in those days to write about Holly Golightly, and probably it would not now except for a conversation I had with Joe Bell that set the whole memory of her in motion again. Holly Golightly had been a tenant in the old brownstone; she'd occupied the apartment below mine. As for Joe Bell, he ran a bar

Introduction

around the corner on Lexington Avenue; he still does. Both Holly and I used to go there six, seven times a day, not for a drink, not always, but to make telephone calls:

during the war a private telephone was hard to come by. Moreover, Joe Bell was good about taking messages, which in Holly's case was no small favor, for she had a tremendous many. Of course this was a long time ago, and until last week I hadn't seen Joe Bell in several years. Off and on we'd kept in touch, and occasionally I'd stopped by his bar when passing through the neighborhood; but actually we'd never been strong friends except in as much as we were both friends of Holly Golightly. Joe Bell hasn't an easy nature, he admits it himself, he says it's because he's a bachelor and has a sour stomach. Anyone who knows him will tell you he's a hard man to talk to. Impossible if you don't share his fixations, of which Holly is one.

Truman Capote, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, p.2-3

A. ST Analysis

1. Read and specify the text type.

a. Specify elements of textual cohesion and coherence.

b. Distinguish between the uses of past perfect.

c. Explain the meaning of „ Joe Bell hasn't an easy nature, he admits it himself, he says it's because he's a bachelor and has a sour stomach”.

B. Source Text Translation

1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:

“Both Holly and I used to go there six, seven times a day, not for a drink, not always, but to make telephone calls: during the war a private telephone was hard to come by”.

a. Aveam obiceiul ca, împreună cu Holly, să mergem acolo de şase, şapte ori pe zi,

nu neapărat ca să bem, ci mai ales ca să dea ea telefoane; în timpul războiului era greu să-ţi instalezi telefon acasă.

b. Impreună cu Holly obişnuiam să mergem acolo de şase sau şapte ori pe zi, nu ca să

bem ceva, ci pentru a da telefoane: deoarece în timpul războiului cu greu aveai telefon acasă. c. Atât eu cât şi Holly ne duceam acolo de şase, şapte ori pe zi, nu ca să bem ci ca să dăm un telefon: în timpul războiului era greu sa obţii legătura la telefoanele

particulare.

2.

Translate the text into Romanian.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

UNIT 5

Romanian ST

Dar Ester, în vremea cînd mergeam la tanti Aura, era o fată vioaie şi foarte deşteaptă, care citea tot timpul cărţi groase, prăjindu-se la soare în remorca vechiului camion. Cu cît se bronza mai mult, cu-atît se umplea mai tare de pistrui. Avea pistrui pe tot corpul, pe toată pielea ei roşcată, dar mai ales pe umeri, pe spate şi sub ochi, în jurul nasului. Uneori vorbea puţin behăit şi avea tendinţa să-şi înfunde capul între umeri, dar cusururile astea erau compensate de frumuseţea părului auriu-purpuriu care-i venea pînă la brîu, de privirea verde a ochilor ei înţelept-jucăuşi. Ea desena complicatele şotroane în formă de melc, cu pătrăţele faste şi căsuţe periculoase, pe care, dînd cu ciobul şi bolborosind repede cuvinte ciudate:„ânkara-nânkara-astarot- ţefirah-sabaot-sabaot-sabaot", trebuia să le parcurgem sărind într-un picior.

Mircea Cartarescu, Nostalgia, p199

A.

Source Text Analysis

1.

Read and specify the text type.

2.

Explain the meaning of vorbea puţin behăit.

3.

Find synonyms for cusururi.

B.

Source Text Translation

1.

Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:

Cu cît se bronza mai mult, cu-atît se umplea mai tare de pistrui”.

a.

The more tanned, the more freckled she got.

b.

More tanned, more freckled.

c.

The more tanned she got, the more freckled.

2.

Translate the text into English.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

English ST

For Robyn and Charles week-ends were for work as well as recreation, and the two activities tended to blend into each other at certain interfaces. Was it work or recreation, for instance, to browse through the review pages of the Observer and the Sunday Times, mentally filing away information about the latest books, plays, films, and even fashion and furniture[…]. A brisk walk in Wellington boots to feed the ducks in the local park was, however, definitely recreation […]. Robin had a stack of essays to mark, and Charles was reading a book on deconstruction which he had

Introduction

agreed to review for a scholarly journal. The gas fire hissed and popped in the hearth. A harpisichord concerto by Haydn tinkled quietly on the stereo. Outside, as the light faded from the winter sky, melting snow dripped from the eaves and trickled down the gutters. Robyn, looking from Mario Russell’s overdue assessed essay on Tess of the D’Urbervilles (which was actually not bad, so perhaps the modeling job was turning out to be a sensible decision), caught Charles’s abstracted gaze and smiled.

David Lodge, Nice Work, p. 177

A.

ST Analysis

1.

Read and specify the text type.

a.

Comment on the degree of text formality.

b.

Identify cases of parenthetical elements in the fragment.

B.

Source Text Translation

1.

Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:

“A harpisichord concerto by Haydn tinkled quietly on the stereo”

a. Dinspre combina stereo se auzeau acordurile în surdină ale unuia dintre concertele pentru clavecin de Haydn.

b. Combina stereo emitea acordurile tăcute ale unui concert de clavecin de Haydn.

c. Acordurile unui concert pentru clavecin de Haydn răsunau încet dinspre combina

stereo.

2.

Translate the text into Romanian.

C.

Translation Awareness

a.

Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.

b.

Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.

c.

Comment on the dictionaries used.

References

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Introduction

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