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Energy Levels & Energy Bands

Learn about : Energy band , Types Of Energy Bands , conduction band , Unoccupied Band
,Valence Band , Forbidden Band
(1) In an atom, electrons revolve round the nucleus in almost circular orbits of different radii
representing shells and subshells.
Energy of electron in each subshell is definite.
These definite energy values are called energy levels of the atom.The energy levels (values) of
electrons in outer shells are influenced by the presence of nuclei of other atoms.
Due to interatomic interaction, an energy E becomes E E with different energy values within
a small range on either side of E.
Thus each energy level line becomes broad (width = 2E ).
This broadened energy level (line) is called energy band
Different Types Of Energy Bands :
(1) Conduction Band (C). The top most partially filled band, is called conduction band. It is so
called because by accommodating more electrons in itself, the band provides mobility to
electrons and helps in conduction.
(2)Unoccupied Band (U). The top most completely empty band is called unoccupied band. It
represents a band of unoccupied energy levels which contain no electrons. When some electrons
reach it after gaining thermal energy, it behaves as a conduction band.
(3)Valence Band (V). The upper most completely filled band, is called valence band.
(4) Forbidden Band (F). The band separating a balance band and an unoccupied (or a
conduction) band, is called Forbidden band. The difference in the extreme energy levels of the
forbidden band, is called energy gap (Eg)
Band Theory Of Conductors , Insulators & Semiconductors

Learn about : Conductors , conduction band , Fermi level,Fermy


energy , insulators , Forbidden band , semiconductors
(1) Conductors (Metals). In case of conductors, the last occupied band of energy levels is only
partially filled. The available electrons occupy one by one, the lowest levels (Paulis exclusion
principle).
This leaves part of this band, called conduction band, unoccupied. The conduction band (C) and
the valence band (V) (lower completely filled band) overlap

Electrons of valence band move freely in partially filled conduction band.


The highest energy level occupied at absolute zero by electrons in partially filled conduction
band, is called Fermi level and the corresponding energy, is called Fermy energy.

Energy bands in conductors

Energy bands in insulators

(2) Insulators. In case of insulators, the empty conduction band (C) (unoccupied band) and the
valence band (V) have an energy gap (Eg) of about 6 eV as shown .
The band that separates two bands (C and V), is called Forbidden band (F).
Due to large energy gap, no electrons are promoted from valence band to empty conduction
band. Valence band remains completely filled.
An important example of insulator is diamond with energy gap of about 5.4 eV.
(3) Semiconductors. In case of semiconductors, the empty conduction band (C) (unoccupied
band) and the valence band (V) have an energy gap (Eg) of about 1 eV as shown in figure .
The band that separates the two bands (C and V) is called Forbidden band (F).
Common examples of semiconductors are Silicon (14) and Germanium (32) with energy gaps of
about 1.12 eV and 0.75 eV respectively.

Energy bands in semiconductors

Intrinsic semiconductor

Learn about : Intrinsic semiconductor , Electrons & Holes in an Intrinsic semiconductor ,


Intrinsic Conductivity
(a) Definition. A pure semiconductor material, is called an Intrinsic semiconductor.
Crystalline form of Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) are examples of intrinsic semiconductors.
(b) Covalent Binding. Germanium has 32 electrons distributed as 2, 8, 18 and 4. It has four
balance electrons. Each atom is surrounded by four atoms at equal distances from it, lying on the
four corners of a regular tetrahedron, the atom itself being at the centre.
Each one of the four valence electrons of an atom enters into covalent bond with one balance
electron with each of the four neighbouring atoms.
With these covalent bond, each atom behaves as if it has eight electrons in its outermost orbit,
leaving no electron free. The covalent binding thus provides a stable structure.
Electrons & Holes in an Intrinsic semiconductor

Due to covalent binding in Germanium, each atom behaves as if it has eight valence electrons.
The valence electrons occupy filled valency band (V) and the conduction band (C) remains
completely as shown in figure.
The two bands have an energy gap of 0.75 eV.
At absolute zero, intrinsic semiconductor behaves as an insulator.

Even at room temperature, electrons from valence band gain sufficient thermal energy to break
the covalent bonds figure and enter the conduction band. The conduction band becomes partially
filled as shown in figure .
The number of electrons in conduction band increases with the rise in temperature.
The electrons leaving the valence band to enter conduction band, leave behind an equal number
of vacant sites near the top of the valance band as shown in figure .

These vacant sites are called holes. These holes, representing an electron vacancy, have a
positive charge.
In intrinsic semiconductor the number of holes in valence band equals the number of free
electrons in conduction band.
Intrinsic Conductivity

When an electric field is applied to an intrinsic semiconductor, electrons in valence band gain
energy and they move to fill up the empty energy levels produced by the presence of holes.
On gaining further energy, they enter conduction band. Thus electrons are set in motion and
some current flows. This gives some moderate electrical conductivity to the semiconductor. The
electrical conductivity of pure semiconductors, is called intrinsic conductivity.
In electrical conductivity of pure semiconductors, electrons and holes have equal contribution.
The semiconductor has both types of charge carriers (electrons with negative charge and holes
with positive charge) in equal number.
Extrinsic Semiconductor

Learn about : Extrinsic Semiconductor , n-type Semiconductor & its working , P -type
Semiconductor & its working
(a) Definition. An impure semiconductor, made deliberately impure, by adding to it some
impurity element, is called an extrinsic semiconductor. Its electrical conductivity becomes more.
(b) Description. Germanium has 4.52 x1022 atoms per cm3. An addition of only one impurity
atom per million (106) Ge atoms, is sufficient to give desired conductivity to it.
The process of deliberately adding suitable impurity atom to the intrinsic semiconductor, is
called doping. The impure semiconductor is called doped semiconductor .
n type Semiconductor :

(a) Preparation. An n-type Ge is obtained by adding a small quantity (one-millionth part) of a


pentavalent impurity like phosphorous (15), Arsenic (33), Antimony (51), Bismuth (83) to a Ge
crystal. Generally Arsenic (As) is taken for this purpose.

(b) Working. Each impurity atom donates one (fifth) free electron and becomes donor impurity
atom figure . The energy level of this excess electron is only slightly less (0.01 eV) than the
lowest energy level of the conduction band as shown in figure .
These free electrons (1 per impurity atom and 4.52 x 1016 per cm3), considerably increase the
extrinsic conductivity.
Since electrons with negative charge help in current conduction, the impure Ge is called n-type.
p type Semiconductor :

(a) Preparation. A p-type Ge is obtained by adding a small quantity (one millionth part) of a
trivalent impurity like Boron (5), Aluminium (13), Gallium (31), Indium (49) or Thalium (81) to
a Ge crystal. Generally Indium (In) is taken for this purpose.

(b) Working. Each impurity atom accepts one electron (to make its valence electron number four)
and becomes acceptor impurity atom creating one hole as shown in figure .

The energy level of this hole is slightly more than the highest energy level of the valence band as
shown in figure .
These holes (1 per impurity atom and 4.52 x 1016 per cm3) considerably increase the extrinsic
conductivity.
Since holes with positive charge help in current conduction, the impure Ge is called p-type.
P-N Junction & P-N Junction Diode

Learn about : P-N Junction & P-N Junction Diode , Depletion layer & Junction Potential
Barrier
(a) Preparation. When a p-type Ge crystal is grown over an n-type Ge crystal (or vice-versa),
the common surface of the two types, is called a junction.
The compound crystal forms a semiconductor device, called junction diode (semiconductor
diode) as shown in figure (a) . Figure (b) is the symbol of a diode. The p-side is known as the
anode and the n side is known as the cathode

Depletion layer & Junction Potential Barrier

(1) Depletion layer. Near the junction, opposite types of free charge carriers (electrons in n-type
and holes in p-type) come in close contact. They diffuse into each others regions and get
neutralized. Thus a layer is formed about the junction (with junction) in the middle which does
not have any type of free charge carrier. This layer is called depletion layer. It is shown shaded
between two dotted lines in figure (a).
(2) Junction Potential Barrier. Due to neutralisation of free charge carriers at the junction ends,
the junction end of n-type develops a positive potential and the same of p-type develops a
negative potential.

Thus a potential difference is developed at the junction, which is represented by a fictitious


battery BF. This potential difference prevents free charge carriers of the two sections from
diffusing towards the junction for recombining.
This potential difference is called junction potential barrier. Its value lies between 0.1 eV to 0.3
eV.
Biasing Of Junction

Learn about :Biasing of the junction , Forward biasing , Reverse biasing


(a) Definition. Applying an external potential difference on the faces of a junction, is called the
biasing of the junction.
It is done by connecting the outer ends of the two sections of the junction diode to the positive
and the negative terminals of a battery (source of potential difference).
(b) Types. It has two types :
(1) Forward biasing
(2) Reverse biasing
(1) Forward biasing. It is done by connecting the outer end of n-type to the negative terminal
and the outer end of p-type to the positive terminal. It makes the free charge carriers from each
section to move forward towards the junction (hence the name).
Forward biasing decreases width of the depletion layer as well as junction potential barrier. It is
so because some neutralized charge carriers get deneutralised.
(2) Reverse biasing. It is done by connecting the outer end of n-type to the positive terminal and
the outer end of p-type to the negative terminal. It makes the free charge carries from each
section to move in reverse direction away from the junction. (hence the name).
Reverse biasing increases width of the depletion layer as well as the junction potential barrier. It
is so because more free charge carriers get neutralised.
Junction diode Characteristics

Learn about : Junction diode Characteristics , Forward Bias Characteristic , Reverse Bias
Characteristic

(a) Definition. Graphs drawn between bias voltage and circuit current of a junction diode, are
called characteristics of the diode. They reveal the character (way of behaviour) of the junction
diode.
(b) Types. These are of two types :
(1) Forward Bias Characteristic. This is obtained by plotting a graph between forward bias
voltage and circuit current.
(2) Reverse Bias Characteristic. This is obtained by plotting a graph between reverse bias voltage
and circuit current.
Forward Bias Characteristic :

(a) Arrangement

(b) Characteristic.

(c) Result. In forward biasing, a small increase in bias voltage increases current by large amount.
Hence the junction resistance for forward bias V/I is very small.
It is hardly 10 ohms.
Reverse Bias Characteristic :

(a) Arrangement

(b) Characteristic. It is shown in figure . At a reverse bias of about 25 V (called Zener voltage
Vx) the breakdown takes place and current rises suddenly. Normally diodes are operated at lower
bias voltage.

(c) Result. In reverse biasing, a large increase in bias voltage increases current by small amount.
Hence, the junction resistance for reverse bias is very large. It is about 10,000 ohms.
Note : Width of depletion layer decreases in forward bias and increases in reverse bias
Junction Diode as Rectifier

Learn about : Junction Diode as Rectifier , Half-wave rectifier & its working , Full-wave
rectifier & its working
(a) Principle. A rectifier is a device, which converts alternating current and voltage into directcurrent and voltage. It makes use of the fact that p-n junction conducts when forward biased and
does not conduct when reverse biased (i.e. unidirectional characteristic)
(b) Types:
It has two types :
(1) Half-wave rectifier
(2) Full-wave rectifier

Half-wave rectifier :

(a) Arrangement.

(b) Working. The applied alternating voltage and half-wave rectified current are shown in figure.
(c) Result. Voltage developed by the half-wave rectified current across the load resistance (RL) is
too much fluctuating and hence serves no useful purpose.
Full-wave rectifier :

(a) Arrangement.

Two junction diodes Full-wave rectifier


(b) Working. The applied voltage and full-wave rectified current are shown in figure (c) Result.
Voltage drop across load resistance (R1) is less fluctuating. It is made smooth by using filter
circuits consisting of chokes and capacitors.

(b) Full-wave rectified current (electron current)


Ripple & Ripple factor

A.C. components are present in Rectifier output these are known as ripple & they are measured
in a factor which is ripple factor.
Zener diode

Learn about : Zener diode , zener diode as constant voltage device


A properly doped crystal diode which has sharp Break down voltage is known as Zener diode.

(a) Principle. It works on phenomenon of Zener breakdown at reverse voltage, for which large
changes in diode current produce only a small change in diode voltage.
(b) Arrangements. It is a junction diode specially made to work only in breakdown region. It is
used in a circuit shown in figure

(c) Working. As the input voltage (VI) is increased, reverse diode current (I) increases slowly.
Output voltage (Vo) also increases.
Just when VI reaches a certain value, current I increases suddenly as shown in figure , but output
voltage (Vo) becomes constant as shown in figure .
This constant output voltage, is called zener voltage (Vz). The current is called Zener current (Iz).

(d) Theory. The value of zener voltage depends upon circuit resistance R. The relation is Vo = VI
IR
Before breakdown, as VI is increased, I increases by lesser amount. Hence Vo increases. At
breakdown and afterwards , I increases by large amount, keeping (VI IR) constant . It makes Vo
constant.
The breakdown phenomenon is reversible and harmless so long as the safe operating temperature
is maintained.
(e) Application. The zener diode is used as a constant voltage device. It provides a constant
input voltage when input voltage exceeds zener voltage. Thus we can use zener diodes for
making constant voltage power supplies.
Junction Triode (Transistor)

Learn about : Junction Triode (Transistor) , n-p-n transistor , p-n-p transistor


(a) Introduction. When a thin layer of one type Ge is grown between two comparatively broad
sections of other type Ge, the arrangement forms a semiconductor device called Junction Triode
or simply Transistor.
(b) There are two types of transistors :
(1) n-p-n transistor
(2) p-n-p transistor
(1) n-p-n Transistor
(a) Construction. It is formed by growing a thin layer of p-type Ge over a highly doped n-type
Ge crystal. Then a thicker layer of lightly doped and broad n-type layer is grown over p-type thin
layer.
This first n-type section is called Emitter (E). The thin layer is called Base (B), the third section
is called Collector (C) as shown in figure

The transistor has two junctions. One is emitter-base junction and the other is base-collector
junction, which has comparatively larger area than emitter-base junction. Each junction has its
depletion layer and junction potential barrier.
Figure shows symbols of an n-p-n and a p-n-p transistor. Arrow in emitter represents direction of
flow of positive charge in the emitter.
(b) Working. A transistor can be used in three ways :
(1) Common base circuit
(2) Common emitter circuit
(3) Common collector circuit.
Transistor in Common Base Circuit

Learn about : Transistor in Common Base Circuit & its working

(a) Circuit Diagram.


Emitter-base junction is forward biased. Base-collector junction is reverse biased.

(b) Working. Forward bias on emitter-base junction enables the charge carriers from emitter to
cross emitter-base junction. Movement of charge carriers in emitter section constitutes Emitter
Current (IE).
In base region some charge carriers get neutralized with their opposite type. This causes some
current to flow in or out of base. This current is called Base Current (IB).
Remaining charges cross the base-collector junction and flow in collector region. Flow of these
charges constitutes Collector Current (IC).
In all cases, IE = IC + IB
In n-p-n transistors, IC = 0.98 IE , IB = 0.02 IE
In p-n-p transistors, IC = 0.95 IE , IB = 0.05 IE
Note : Ib is more in p-n-p transistors due to slow movement of holes velocity in base region
velocity 43 cm s-1 at 27C , as compared to that of free electrons which is 93 cm s-1 at same
temperature.
Characteristics Of a Transistor

Learn about : Characteristics Of a Transistor ,Input Characteristics or Emitter


Characteristics , Output Characteristics or Collector Characteristics
(a) Definition. Graphs drawn between bias voltage and current in the circuit, are called
characteristics of a transistor. They reveal the character (way of behaviour) of the transistors.
(b) Types. These are of two types :
(1) Input Characteristics or Emitter Characteristics (in common base circuit).

(2) Output Characteristics or Collector Characteristics (in common base circuit).


(1) Input Characteristics (Emitter Characteristics) of a Transistor (in common base circuit).
(a) Arrangement. It is shown in Figure .
(b) Characteristics. These are obtained by plotting graphs between emitter voltage (VE) and
emitter current (IE) for different constant collector voltage (VC). These are shown in figure
(c) Result. Since a small increase in emitter voltage increases emitter current by a large amount,
the input junction resistance is very small. It is hardly 10 ohms. (It is so because the input
junction is forward biased).

(2) Output characteristics (Collector Characteristics) of a Transistor (in common base circuit)
Arrangement.
It is shown in figure .
(b) Characteristics. These are obtained by plotting graphs between collector voltage (VC) and
collector current (IC) for different constant emitter current (IE). These are shown in figure above.
(c) Result. Since a large increase in collector voltage increases collector current by a small
amount, the output junction resistance , is very large. It is about 10,000 ohm. (It is so because the
output junction is reverse biased.)
Why the name Transistor ?

Learn about :Why the name Transistor ? , current gain ,Resistance gain
By forward biasing input junction (emitter-base junction) and reverse biasing output junction
(collector-base junction), a low resistance of forward biased junction can be transformed into a
high resistance of reverse biased junction.

Also by interchanging biases, a high resistance can be transformed into a low resistance. Hence
the junction triode is called TRANsformer of reSISTOR, which in short becomes
TRANSISTOR.
CURRENT GAIN OF A TRANSISTOR :

(a) Definition. The ratio of the change in output current to the change in input current in a
transistor, for a constant output voltage, is called current gain of the transistor.
(b) Types:
(1) In common-base transistor circuit. Emitter current is the input current and collector current is
the output current.
Hence, current gain = (IC/IE)VC= constant
It is represented by
(2) In common emitter transistor circuit. Base current is the input current and collector current in
the output current.
Hence, current gain = (IC/IB)VC= constant
It is represented by
RESISTANCE GAIN Of A TRANSISTOR :

(a) Introduction. Reverse biased junction of the output circuit offers the internal resistance (RO)
for output circuit.
For maximum power in output circuit, we may have load resistance RL = Ro (maximum power
theorem).
(b) Resistance gain. The ratio of the output circuit resistance (RO) and the input circuit resistance
(Ri) is called the resistance gain of the transistor.
(c) Value. As Ri = 10 ohm and Ro = 10,000.
Resistance gain = 1000.
Transistor as Amplifier

Learn about : Transistor as Amplifier , voltage gain , Power gain , Phase Relation
(a) Introduction. An amplifier is a device which converts low alternating current and voltage
variations into high current and voltage variation without distortion.
It is possible to use a transistor as an amplifier using its voltage and power gaining abilities.
(b) Types
These are of two types :
(1) Common Base Transistor Amplifier
(2) Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier
(1) COMMON BASE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
(a) Circuit diagram. It is shown in figure

(b) Working

(c) Phase Relation. Positive signal, less negative forward bias voltage, less negative IE. Less
negative output i.e. output increases which means positive change in output.
Negative signal will make negative change in output.

Thus output voltage is in phase with input voltage as shown in figure


Common emitter Transistor Amplifier

Learn about : Common emitter Transistor Amplifier


(a) Circuit diagram. It is shown in figure
(b) Working
(i) Voltage Gain similar expression
(ii) Power Gain similar expression.

Note. Since current gain in common emitter circuit is more than that in common base circuit,
common emitter amplifier is preferred.
(c) Phase Relation. A positive emitter to base signal becomes negative for base to emitter, the
output voltage has a phase opposite to that of input signal.
Thus output voltage is in antiphase with the input voltage as shown in figure