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A Survey on the Electrification of

Transportation in a Smart Grid Environment

Wencong Su1, Student Member, IEEE, Habiballah Rahimi Eichi2, Student Member, IEEE,
Wente Zeng3, Student Member, IEEE, and Mo-Yuen Chow4, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract Economics and environmental incentives, as

well as advances in technology, are reshaping the
traditional view of industrial systems. The anticipation of a
large penetration of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
(PHEVs) and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) into the
market brings up many technical problems that are highly
related to industrial information technologies within the
next 10 years. There is a need for an in-depth
understanding of the electrification of transportation in
the industrial environment. It is important to consolidate
the practical and the conceptual knowledge of industrial
informatics in order to support the emerging electric
vehicle (EV) technologies. This paper presents a
comprehensive overview of the electrification of
transportation in an industrial environment. In addition, it
provides a comprehensive survey of the EVs in the field of
industrial informatics systems, namely: 1) Charging
Infrastructure and PHEV/PEV Batteries, 2) Intelligent
Energy Management, 3) Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), 4)
Communication Requirements. Moreover, this paper
presents a future perspective of industrial information
technologies to accelerate the market introduction and
penetration of advanced electric drive vehicles.
Index Terms Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV),
Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV), Electric Vehicle (EV),
Smart Grid, Charging Infrastructure, Battery, Vehicle-toGrid (V2G), Energy Management, Communication


CONOMIC and environmental incentives, as well

as advances in technology, are reshaping the
traditional view of industrial systems. Plug-in Hybrid
This work was supported in part by the National Science
Foundation, Award number: EEC-0812121 and ECS-0823952. This
work is a part of an ongoing project in collaboration of the FREEDM
systems center (Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and
Management) with ADAC (Advanced Diagnosis Automation and
Control) Lab at North Carolina State University and ATEC (Advanced
Transportation Energy Center).
Wencong Su, 2Habiballah Rahimi Eichi, 3Wente Zeng, and 4MoYuen Chow are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27606, USA
Mo-Yuen Chow is also with the Changjiang Scholars Program,
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
(e-mail:;;;, respectively)

Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

(PEVs) have received increasing attention because of
their low pollution emissions and high fuel economy. In
2007, on a net basis, the United States imported 58% of
what it consumed [1]. Most US imported oil comes from
unstable regions, which is a potential threat to US
national security. Ultimately, PHEVs/PEVs will transfer
energy demands from crude oil to electricity for the
personal transportation sector [2]. This shift would
reduce pollution and alleviate security issues related to
oil extraction, importation, and combustion. Along with
the utilization of grid power, PHEVs/PEVs also have the
potential to transfer power to the grid to alleviate peak
power demand and provide ancillary services to the grid
The US government puts a lot of effort into
accelerating the introduction and penetration of
advanced electric drive vehicles into the market. The US
Department of Energy projects that about 1 million
PHEVs/PEVs will be on the road by 2015 and 425,000
PHEVs/PEVs will be sold in 2015 alone. At this
penetration rate, PHEVs/PEVs would account for 2.5%
of all new vehicle sales in 2015 [4]. The Electric Power
Research Institute (EPRI) projects that 62% of the entire
US vehicle fleet will consist of PHEVs/PEVs by 2050
using a moderate penetration scenario [5].
However, there is an in-depth need to address the
potential problems caused by the emergence of
PHEVs/PEVs. For instance, Energy storage (i.e.,
batteries) is the key enabling technology for EVs. The
fuel efficiency and performance of novel vehicles with
electric propulsion capability are largely limited by the
performance of the energy storage system [6,
7]. Another emerging issue is that a large number of
PHEVs/PEVs connected to the grid simultaneously may
pose a huge threat to the quality and stability of the
overall power system [8]. Due to certain technical and
economical issues, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is still less
likely to become a reality in the short term [9]. Having
effective communications technologies will be critical to
the successful rollout of EVs [10].
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows:
Section II discusses the-state-of-the-art PHEV/PEV

charging facility and energy storage (e.g., battery)

technology; Section III investigates the impact of
integrating a large number of PHEVs/PEVs, and
describes the intelligent energy management system at a
public parking facility; Section IV describes the research
trends related to V2G technology; Section V presents
the specific communication requirements and the
challenges of mass marketing PHEVs/PEVs. In Section
VI, the authors summarize the paper.

A. Charging Infrastructure
The charging infrastructure is a critical component
necessary to accommodate and support the successful
rollout of EVs. A recent Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT) report concludes that creating a
nationwide infrastructure for EVs appears to be a bigger
challenge than producing affordable batteries to power
the cars [11]. This section provides an overview of the
charging infrastructure requirements for PHEVs/PEVs
in single-family residential, multi-family residential and
commercial situations.
According to the Society of Automotive Engineers
(SAE) [12, 13], all EVs produced by US automakers
must follow SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended
Practice J1772 standard.
According to [14], other applicable SAE standards
SAE J2293, which establishes the requirements for
EV and the off-board electric vehicle supply
equipment (EVSE) used to transfer electrical energy
to an EV from a utility in North America.
SAE J2847, which provides requirements and
specifications on the necessary communication
between PHEV and power grids.
SAE J2836, which supplies use cases for
communications between PHEVs and power grids.
SAE J2894, which provides the charging equipment
operational recommendations for power quality.
Chargers and associated cords fall into three
categories by voltage and power levels, as shown in
Table I. It is important to mention that the standard
charging level varies depending on the locations (e.g.,
North America, Europe). For instance, the SAE J17722009 connector can supply 16.8 kW (240V, 70A), while
the VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 connector in Europe provides
up to 43.5 kW (400V, 63A, three-phase). Therefore,
Table I illustrates the US standard EV charging level.
Assuming a 90% overall energy efficiency, Table II
compares the typical charging times of a variety of EVs.

Voltage (VAC)
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3





Both Level 1 and 2 charging stations convert the

utilitys alternating current (AC) power into the direct
current (DC) power through the vehicles on-board
charger. At the other end of spectrum, Level 3 (formerly
referred to as DC fast charging) provides electricity
from AC to DC through an off-board charger, so DC
power is delivered directly to the vehicle.


120 V and
12 Amps

240 V and
32 Amps

480 V and
100 Amps

3h 5m
6h 10m
12h 20m
18h 30m

1h 10m
2h 20m
3h 30m
5h 50m

1h 34m
3h 17m

The Level 1 charging uses a standard 120-volt singlephase outlet for a three-prong connection, which is the
most common U.S. grounded household outlet. Typical
current ratings for these receptacles are between 15 and
20 amps. Depending on the battery type and capacity, it
can take 3-20 hours to fully recharge a PHEV/PEV
battery. Since the standard electrical outlets are available
almost everywhere and the charging time is relatively
long, Level 1 charging is particularly suitable for
overnight charging.
Level 2 is typically described as the primary and
standard method for both private and public charging
facilities, and specifies a single-phase branch circuit
with typical voltage ratings from 208 VAC to 240 VAC.
According to the SAE J1772 standard, Level 2 charging
allows for maximum current up to 80-amp AC with a
100-amp circuit breaker. A more typical peak current
would be 32 amps AC with a branch circuit breaker
rated at 40 amps. This provides approximately 7.68
kilowatts (kW) with a 240 VAC circuit.
Level 3 charging is a higher-voltage, fast-rate DC
charging for commercial and public applications and is
intended to perform in a manner similar to a commercial
gasoline service station, in that recharge is rapid [14].
Level 3 charging would significantly reduce the
charging time, enabling long distance travel. The
maximum current specified is 400 amps. The off-board

charger is serviced by a three-phase circuit at 208 VAC,

480 VAC, or 600 VAC.
References [14, 15] give the detailed charging
scenarios in single attached or detached garages,
carports, multi-family dwellings, commercial fleets,
public charging stations, and curbside chargers in terms
of power consumption, estimated cost, installation
requirements, and safety issues. Most PHEV/PEV
charging is expected to take place in public charging
facilities. Several studies compare the charging
infrastructure in detail [16].
B. PHEV/PEV Battery Technology
Since PHEV/PEV technology is promising for
automotive applications due to fuel economy and the
reduction of green-house gas emissions, and possible
utility applications, various aspects of PHEV/PEV
technology such as battery storage, and battery state
monitoring are active areas of research in the automotive
industry [6, 7, 17]. Accordingly, Axsen et al. [18]
provided a report to evaluate the technical goals of the
state-of-the-art battery technology in PHEV. According
to the authors, Fig. 1 presents Ragone plots of these
chemistries in order to compare different types of
battery technologies. The light grey bands present the
power and energy capabilities, and tradeoffs, of leadacid, nickel-cadmium, NiMH, ZEBRA, and Li-Ion
chemistries. This report discussed the development of
advanced batteries for PHEV applications in details.
There are three major PHEV battery goals from three
different sources: 1) the US Advanced Battery
Consortium (USABC) by Pesaran et al. [19]; 2) the
Sloan Automotive Laboratory at MIT by Kromer et al.
[20]; 3) the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) by
Duvall [21]. A lot of contingencies based on many
assumptions can be found among the batterys goals.

USABC goals [19] consider five major categories:

power, energy, life, safety, and cost. The PHEV-10
power capacity target is 830 watts per kilogram (W/kg)
and the PHEV-40 power target is 380 W/kg. The
corresponding energy density is 100 Wh/kg and 14
Wh/kg. Also the targeted costs for the batteries are
$200-$300 per kilowatt hour (Kwh). There are inherent
tradeoffs between these main categories:1) higher power
density is subject to higher voltage; and 2) higher
voltage reduces the longevity and safety of the battery
and increases the cost. On the other hand, increasing the
energy density of the battery will lead to a decrease in
the power density. Regarding the battery technologies,
two major categories of battery chemistries are close to
meeting the PEV goals: Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH)
and Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion).
Cao et al. [22] discussed the battery management
systems and electronic requirements for the PHEV
battery. EPRIs goals for PHEV-20 are achievable by
using current NiMH technology, while the performance
goals for the USABC and MIT are way beyond current
Li-Ion technology capabilities. Gao et al. [23] compared
these two types of batteries considering all electric range
and charge depletion range operations. Kim et al. [24]
designed a Battery Management System (BMS) for
large-scale battery packs. Manenti et al. [25] proposed a
BMS architecture based on cell redundancy. Table III
compares some categories of NiMH and Li-Ion battery
chemistries reported in [18]. Li-Ion technologies hold
the promise of much higher power and energy density
goals, because they use light weight material, have the
potential for high voltage, and are expected to have
lower costs. The NiMH battery could play a temporary
role in a less demanding design but it is probable that
falling Li-Ion battery prices may disqualify NIMH from
even this role. The drawback of Li-Ion batteries,
however, is their lack of longevity and need for safety.
Table III
NiMH vs. Li-Ion Battery Technologies

Power Density (W/kg)

Energy Density (Wh/kg)
Cycle Life (cycles)

Fig. 1. Battery Potential and PHEV Goals (Ragone Plots) [18]



The stumbling block to introducing all-electric

vehicles on the road today is the fact that the batteries
are not up to the task to mimic all of the conveniences
that we have come to expect from vehicles powered by
internal combustion engines. The issues with the
commercially available batteries in the vehicle
application include, but are not limit to: 1) Battery

energy and power densities need to be further improved;

2) Battery life is an issue; 3) Battery safety must be
assured, especially during fast charging and in hot
weather; 4) Battery cost needs to be significantly
reduced; 5) The power electronics technologies that
interface the battery with the grid and the motor must be
further improved to increase efficiency and reduce
A large market penetration of PHEVs/PEVs imposes
additional stress on the industrial systems. Large
numbers of PHEVs/PEVs have the potential to threaten
the stability of the existing system. For complex
electrical networks, intensive information exchange
facilitates intelligent energy management.
There are approximately 250 million cars in the
United States. By the year 2020, if 10% of US vehicles
will be some form of PHEV or PEV and each vehicle
has a storage capacity of 20 KWh, 500 GWh is both a
threat to today's utility and an opportunity. If not utilized
properly, it will drive up the peak demand and may
cause grid instability. If used wisely, these vehicles can
become a distributed energy storage device (DESD) for
the utility and hence can be dispatched to lower the peak
demand, delay the construction of new power plants. A
number of papers have focused on the impact of the grid
integration of PHEVs/PEVs in a Smart Grid
Fernandez et al. [26] evaluated the impact of different
levels of PEV penetration on the distribution networks
investment and incremental energy losses. Lopes et al.
[27] studied the integration of EVs into power systems
in terms of the technical operation of the grid and the
electricity market. According to the authors, the
proposed framework covered two major domains: the
grid technical operation and the electricity markets
environment. Several simulations were presented in
order to illustrate the potential impacts/benefits caused
by the grid integration of EVs. Shao et al. [28] analyzed
the impact of electricity rates based on time-of-use on
distribution load shapes with PHEV penetration. Qian et
al. [29] modeled and analyzed the load demand due to
EV battery charging in distribution systems. Mitra et al.
[30] designed and implemented a real-time wide area
controller to improve the stability of the power system
with PHEVs. Clement-Nyns et al. [31] evaluated the
impact of charging PHEVs on a residential distribution
grid. Su et al. [32] evaluated the impact of the
integration of PHEVs/PEVs into power grids under a
variety of charging scenarios. Roe et al. [33] presented
an investigation into various aspects of how PHEVs
could impact the electric power system and focused on

the infrastructure of the power system. Dyke et al. [34]

established a series of well-defined EV loads that they
subsequently used to analyze their electrical energy
usage and storage in the context of more electrified road
Depending on the locations of the charging facility,
the control of PHEV charging can be categorized into
two groups: 1) home charging; 2) public charging.
Most PHEV/PEV charging is expected to take place
in public charging facilities. The aggregate load in a
public charging facility needs to be managed carefully in
order to avoid interruptions when several thousand
PHEVs/PEVs are introduced into the system over a
short period of time (e.g., during the early morning
hours when people arrive at work). In order to
maximize customer satisfaction and minimize
disturbances to the grid, a sophisticated controller will
need to be designed properly to regulate multiple battery
loads for a cluster of PHEVs/PEVs. This controller must
take into considerations real-world constraints (e.g.,
communication and infrastructure variations among
individual vehicles). The controller must also
accommodate the differences in energy capacity, as well
as the number of PHEVs/PEVs in the parking deck. As
the massive adoption of EVs, proceeds, energy
management systems at public charging stations may
allow the utility to control charging times in order to
maximize the effectiveness and utilization of existing
Fig. 1 schematically illustrates an envisioned
architecture of a large-scale PHEV/PEV enabled
charging infrastructure in a Smart Grid environment. As
shown in Fig. 1, the proposed system consists of three
major subsystems: 1) The Traditional Power Utility and
Local-scale Renewable Energy Resource; 2) An
Intelligent Grid Aggregator/Operator; 3) PHEV/PEV
with On-board Battery Management System, Battery
Chargers and Customers. It is important to mention that
the two-way electrical energy flow and communications
network are represented by the black arrow.
The following section will focus on the second
subsystem, which is embedded in the solid red block as
shown in Fig. 1. The energy management system needs
to not only handle static optimization (e.g., single
objective optimization given a certain constraints), but
will also handle multi-objective optimization (e.g.,
multi-objective energy scheduling: Minimizing energy
usage, Minimizing peak demand, Minimizing charging
cost, Maximizing customer preference and etc.),
dynamic optimization (e.g., plug-and-play operation),
and predictive optimization (e.g., N-time step ahead

Power Plant

Multi-objective Optimization
Real-time Large-scale Optimization
Dynamic Optimization
Predictive Optimization

Solar PV

Smart Charging

Wind Farm

PHEV Battery Model

Real-time Monitor
Energy Storage

Fig. 2. Envisioned System Structure of a Large-scale PHEV/PEV

Enabled Charging Infrastructure in a Smart Grid Environment

A. Intelligent Energy Management

Through intelligent energy management of
PHEVs/PEVs, utilities can also reduce the need for
expensive new generation, transmission, and distribution
facilities by shifting and controlling the load demand
caused by EVs. To achieve intelligent energy
management at public charging facilities, a number of
objective functions can be formulated depending on user
preference. For example, the objective could be to
maximize customer benefits by following demand side
management [35, 36]. Su et al. [8, 37] formulated the
objective function as the maximization of the average
State-of-Charge (SOC) for all vehicles at the next time
step. According to authors, the proposed function aims
to ensure some fairness in the SOC-distribution at each
time step. This even-hardness will help to ensure that a
reasonable level of battery power is attained, even if the
vehicles depart early. The authors proposed a suite of
algorithms to achieve the optimal power allocation.
Galus et al. [38] proposed the multi-agent-based energy
hub system for PHEV integration and managed
recharging behavior for a large number of PHEVs
considering dynamic prices. Clement-Nyns et al. [31]
put the objective function to minimize power losses and
voltage deviations in distribution systems. Sortomme et
al. [39] devised three objective functions, namely,
minimizing losses, maximizing load factor, and
minimizing load variance. The coordinated charging of
PHEVs can minimize the impact on distribution
systems. Saber et al. [40] originated a unit commitment
problem to minimize both the operational cost and the
emission cost by considering certain system constraints.
Hutson et al. [41] formulated an objective function to
maximize profits for the vehicle owners while satisfying
both the system and the vehicle owners constraints. Su

et al. [42] proposed the computational intelligencebased energy scheduling at a municipal PHEV/PEV
parking deck via multi-objective optimizations (i.e.,
minimizing peak demand, minimizing charging cost,
and maximizing user preference).
B. Providing Ancillary Services
The aggregated EV load can offer ancillary services
such as voltage control, frequency regulation, regulation
reserve, spinning reserve, and non-spinning reserve [43].
Ancillary services support the transmission of electric
power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of
the control areas and transmitting utilities within those
control areas to maintain reliable operations of the
interconnected transmission system (Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission). Han et al. [44] proposed an
optimal V2G aggregator for frequency regulation
services. Sortomme et al. [45] recommended
unidirectional regulation algorithm for use by an
aggregator. According to the authors, regulation can be
performed by an individual EV by varying its charge
rate around a set point called the preferred operating
point (POP), which is scheduled with the system.
Hajimiragha et al. [46] suggested a new technique to
analyze the electricity and transport sectors within a
single integrated framework in order to realize an
integration of PHEVs into the electric grid, considering
the most relevant planning uncertainties. Guille et al.
[47] proposed a Model Predictive Control (MPC)
framework to manage and allocate additional control
reserve capacity from PHEV fleets.
C. Supporting Renewable Energy
As EVs enable load-shaping to increase the
utilization of installed generation capacity, they also
enable greater adoption of intermittent energy sources
by scheduling electrical loads to coincide with periods
of strong wind or sun [9]. According to Kempton et al.
[48], EV will serve the majority of needs for integrating
wind energy into the power system. Markel et al. [49]
proposed a variety of fleet control methods. One of the
charging schemes, renewable-energy-signal charging, is
based on the premise that the plug-in fleet can be
charged exclusively using renewable energy; with plugin vehicles acting as energy sink. This paper also
highlighted the limitations and opportunities for
renewable energy resources to fuel EVs in the future.
Guille et al. [47] estimated the positive effect of EV on
wind power operations.
V2G technology is a most promising opportunity in
EV adoption. V2G allows the EV fleet to feed energy

directly back into the power grids. An efficient power

transaction between the vehicle and the grid requires
exchanging a lot of information between the vehicle, the
charging station, and the utility. This information
includes not only technical data such as the state of the
battery but also economic data about the price of the
power and statistical information about its availability.

vehicle fleets in Germany and 4.2% in Sweden

participating in power regulation, the total demand for
regulating the power is achievable. Dyke et al. [56]
evaluated the impact of increasing electrification of
private road vehicles on local loads in U.K.
Subsequently, the potential integration of vehicle and
residential via V2G technology was investigated. In
addition, Brooks [57] demonstrated V2G application for
A. V2G Market
California vehicles and estimates that the annual gross
Kempton et al. [50] formulated mathematical value provided by PHEVs in a regulating power market
equations to calculate the capacity for grid power from lies between $3038 and $5038. White et al. [58], using
vehicle fleets. The authors evaluated revenue and costs data from the New York Independent Systems Operator
for these vehicles to supply electricity to four electric (NYISO) for the eastern region of New York state, the
markets (base-load power, peak power, spinning authors proposed a dual-use program of V2G regulation
reserves, and regulation). According to the authors, V2G on a daily base and peak reduction on days that have a
power cannot compete with the low price of the base- high electricity demand. The other study by Han et al.
load power market. Moreover, it is cost-effective in the [44] proposed an aggregator for V2G frequency
peak power market in particular cases when the peak regulation that makes it more efficient. Mitra et al. [30]
power is unusually high and the energy capacity of the proposed a Wide Area Controller (WAC) for providing
fleet can support that power for 3-5 hours. Nonetheless, damping to three generators in a 12-bus power system
the engineering rationale and economic motivation for with PEVs. The authors showed the improvement on the
V2G power in spinning reserves and the regulation stability of the power system with the integration of
market are compelling. These results are mainly based PEVs using transient simulations and Prony analysis.
on several case studies, particularly an investigation on Saber et al. [40] proposed Particle Swarm Optimization
the California electric power market reported by (PSO) based method to solve the Unit Commitment
Kempton et al. [51]. The revenue and cost evaluation in (UC) considering both the cost and the reduction of
this study is more comprehensive and accurate than the emissions. According to the authors, a balanced hybrid
earlier methods, using the avoided costs by Kempton et PSO optimizes the number of V2G-enabled vehicles in a
al. [52] and the retail time-of-use rates by Kempton et al. large-scale parking lot. The authors also discussed the
[53]. The avoided cost of the utility is equal to its least- real-world implementation of UC with V2G. Sortomme
cost generation options. All the assessing costs and et al. [45] proposed an algorithm for unidirectional
revenues in these studies are based on the current regulation. They formulated an aggregator profit
conventions of the power market. Sovacool et al. [54] maximization algorithm with optional system load and
investigated the idea that the obstacles to V2G transition price constraints analogous to the smart charging
are not merely technical but more related to social and algorithms. Su et al. [59] achieved the optimal energy
cultural values, business practices, and political interests. management for PHEV/PEV enabled charging facilities
These socio-technical difficulties can easily be with Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) capability. According to the
discovered by reviewing the history of other energy authors, the objective is to maximize the net revenue of
transitions, especially in the history of renewable energy all vehicles over a period of 24 hours, considering
technologies [54].
energy transaction, regulation incentives, battery
degradation cost and additional operating cost.
B. V2G Services
Renewable Energy: V2G facilitates the easy
Ancillary Services: Spinning reserves and frequency
of renewable energy resources by scheduling
regulation are the best current market for V2G. In these
process to coincide with
cases, although the payment for the supplied power is
or sun. Intermittency of
not noticeable, the vehicles are paid because of their
can be managed either by
availability to the grid (capacity payment). Considering
of V2G, backup is
the fact that vehicles are in use only for only about 4%
cell and hybrid
of the day time, being paid for the other 96% gives a
is delivered by
considerable benefit to the owner [50]. Also, the fast
charging/discharging rate of the battery makes V2G a
the load
promising alternative for frequency regulation of the
peak is
grid [50]. A case study in Sweden and Germany by
Andersson et al. [55] shows that with only 5.5% of the

integrate PV into the grid is to meet peak load by

shifting it a few hours backward to the solar peak using
V2G support. Kempton et al. [3] estimated that to
support 162GW, 1/5 of the USs total electric demand
with PV, 23 million vehicles (13% of the fleet), need to
be available for V2G. For wind, intermittency is more
complicated and it has a lot of fluctuations. Kempton et
al. [3] investigated the required V2G capacity to support
regulation, operating reserve and base-load power with
wind energy in the US. Lund et al. [60] developed
Danish power system with combined heat and power
(CHP). According to the authors, adding EVs and V2G
allows the integration of higher levels of wind electricity
without excess electric production, and greatly reduces
carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Galus et al. [61]
aggregated the EV battery storage representing a V2G
system for long-term simulations. According to the
authors, the regulation needs from conventional
generators are significantly minimized by the faster
regulation characteristics of the EV battery storage.
Pillai et al. [62] introduced a new business model called
Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) that creates a
market for co-ordinated production and consumption of
renewable energy. This model transforms EVs into
distributed storage devices using V2G distributed power
C. V2G Challenges
Although V2G is a promising concept, the following
two major issues might delay its real-world
implementation in the short term: 1) a two-way
communication enabled system infrastructure; and 2) an
unproven business model and economic justification. As
discussed in Section II, EV battery technology is not
charging/discharging modes. The high opportunity cost
of batteries prevents V2G from becoming a reality.
Two-way power flow control is the key enabling
technologies that will make V2G come true. A reliable
two-way communication network is greatly needed to
enable V2G technology. DeForest et al. [9] discussed
the unproven economic justification for the utilities and
the customer. According to the authors, it is not clear yet
whether the economic incentives justify V2G from the
utilitys perspective. According to the authors, there are
several issues (e.g., battery technology, lack of support
for Smart Grid technologies, the complexity of the
distribution system required) that prevent the
deployment of V2G. Madawala et al. [63] proposed a
bidirectional inductive power interface to facilitate V2G
technology. Quinn et al. [64] compared the impact of
the communication architecture on the V2G ancillary
services in terms of the availability, reliability, and value
of vehicle-provided ancillary services.

Due to the nature of V2G challenges for the actual

commercial deployment at this stage, there are several
intermediary steps that can be achieved, before this
vision comes to fruition. The potential three stages are
as follows:
Smart Charging (V1G): The vehicle charging rate is
controlled remotely based on grid conditions and user
preferences. The benefits include: 1) Time-Of-Use/RealTime-Price based charging to minimize the overall
charging cost; 2) Reduce additional load at peak times
(load as spinning reserve); 3) Allow easier grid
integration of intermittent renewable resources such as
wind and solar.
Vehicle to Building (V2B): In addition to V1G, the
charger would be able to feed power back to the
charging facility to which it is plugged in. V2B brings
additional benefits: 1) Provide back-up power; 2) Ensure
high power quality for buildings; 3) Supply power to
building when grid power is costly.
Vehicle to Grid (V2G): At the final stage, V2G
allows for the vehicle to feed power back directly to the
grid. Such a system would require constant bidirectional communication between the charger and the
grid. As mentioned in previous section, V2G offers: 1)
Grid-stabilizing ancillary services (reactive power and
voltage control, loss compensation, energy imbalance;
2) Allow easier integration of renewable resources by
ensuring high power quality from the resource; 3)
Supply power to grid when economically viable.
The communication infrastructure of smart grid has
been recently investigated in [65-69]. In general, the
communications network can be categorized as: Wide
Area Network (WAN), Field Area Network (FAN), and
Home Area Network (HAN). Depending on the
locations of the charging facilities (e.g., home, public
parking lot), the needed network architecture is related
with FAN and HAN. FAN form the communications
facility for the distribution system. The electrical sensors
and smart meters on the PHEV/PEV charging stations
can monitor and exchange information with the control
center through FAN. These applications can be
categorized as either field-based or customer-based with
different critical requirements [70]. HAN is basically
implemented on the customer domain to enable Smart
Grid functionalities such as Demand Side Management
and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). AMI is
able to monitor the electric energy consumption in realtime and control a variety of devices and appliances
communication. For a customer standpoint, AMI allows
customers to access their energy consumption in real-

time. For a utility perspective, AMI collects the realtime energy usage and price information to enable Smart
Gird applications.
A. Communication Needs
The report [10] by US Department of Energy gives an
extensive overview of Smart Grid benefits and
communication needs. Especially one section of this
report addresses the specific challenges and
opportunities presented by Electric Vehicles.
Recharging the PHEV/PEV batteries represents an
additional large load demand to the electricity grid, but
this can be scheduled to reduce charging cost and peak
demand [38]. A reliable communication network is
needed to enable the successful integration of a large
number of PHEVs/PEVs. In order to make utility
customer rates or programs available specifically for
customers with PHEVs/PEVs, the utility must offer
special services for these customers. These services
include being able to: enroll, register, and initially set up
communications between a vehicle and the utility, or an
Alternative Energy Supplier (AES) (one-time setup);
repeatedly re-establish communications for each
PHEV/PEV charging session (repeat communications
and re-binding); provide PHEV/PEV charging (and
other) status information to customer information
channels (e.g., web, display devices); and correctly bill
PEV customers according to their selected rates or
programs [71]. As with in-home charging, public
charging will need to match supply and demand,
potentially with high speed and accuracy as opposed to
in-home charging, as vehicle owners will likely want to
avoid a long delay once the vehicle is plugged-in [10].
The following section will mainly focus on the
communication requirements for public charging
facilities. It is estimated that the bandwidth for both load
balancing and billing purposes will be between 9.6
kilobits per second (kbps) and 56 kbps [10].
B. Possible Communication Protocols
In [49], three wireless technologies as well as
broadband over power line (BPL) were briefly
compared in terms of interference issues, power
consumption, and security merits. A variety of
communication protocols can achieve reliable, two-way
communication networks. Since PHEVs/PEVs can be
recharged at various locations (e.g., home, office
parking lot), its critical to maintain the compatibility of
communication technologies [10]. Unfortunately,
communication technology options are unproven yet for
automotive applications. There is neither a well-defined
industry-wide codes nor a standard for communication
between EVs and the power grid at this stage. Based on

the specific communication needs of EVs, a survey of

three potential solutions follows:
1) HomePlug: This allows for high-speed broadband
communications over low-voltage power lines [72].
HomePlug network has proven to achieve a theoretical
maximum data rate of 14 megabits per second (Mbps)
[71], which is much faster than ZigBee or a Cellular
network. In addition, since the power supplies to the
HomePlug devices are provided through the wall outlet
itself, HomePlug products do not require additional
batteries. Also, HomePlug is not subject to other
wireless traffic. This attribute is critical when thousands
of vehicles are plugged-in simultaneously.
2) ZigBee: This is a specialized protocol for small,
self-programming mesh network devices based on the
IEEE 802.15.4 wireless standard. ZigBee devices are
designed for low power consumption and are easy to
implement. Low cost (e.g., device cost, installation cost)
can facilitate the commercial deployment of the desired
communication networks at a large-scale charging
facility. ZigBees simplicity also allows for inherent
configuration. The redundancy of network devices
provides low maintenance [73]. Moreover, ZigBee can
operate at the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz), 915 megahertz
(MHz), and 868 MHz radio bands [74], maintaining a
relatively higher communication compatibility. There
are a large number of communication nodes per network
at a large-scale parking deck. ZigBees use of the IEEE
802.15.4 physical layer (PHY) of the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model and the link layer device
(MAC) allows the network to handle any number of
devices [73]. In addition, ZigBees data rate at 2.4 GHz
can reach around 250 kbps, which satisfies the estimated
bandwidth requirements for EV applications. In general,
vehicle owners would like to avoid long delays once
vehicles are plugged in. ZigBee devices can quickly
attach, exchange information, detach, and then go to
deep sleep [75]. The typical distance between vehicle
and charging station is less than the radio range of
ZigBee (i.e., 10 to 100 meters). Kulshrestha et al. [76]
proposed the communication architecture with ZigBee at
a large-scale municipal parking deck, followed by an
experimental testbed to demonstrate the communication
between the central controller, PHEV/PEV chargers, and
vehicles. Su et al. [77] further developed a digital
testbed allows to demonstrate the communications
capabilities for a PHEV/PEV enabled charging facility.
According to the authors, the future work is to explore a
variety of possible communication protocols (e.g.,
ZigBee, Bluetooth, HomePlug, Z-Wave, Cellular
Network) and to further analyze and evaluate the packet
delay, throughput and received signal strength.

3) Cellular Network: This is a widely available longrange wireless data network, making it a good option for
highly mobile devices such as PHEVs/PEVs [49]. A
cellular network requires more power consumption to
enable a long-range radio. However, since the
networking devices can be powered by an on-board
vehicle battery, such power consumption is fairly
acceptable. Both the Global System for Mobile
Communications (GSM) and the Code Division
Multiple Access (CDMA) network handle individual
user data rates above 100 kbps [78], which also satisfies
the estimated bandwidth requirements for the EV
application. Communication technology will also be
useful for billing purposes at public parking locations.
For the most part, commercial wireless providers have
good penetration in transit corridors and offer more than
sufficient capabilities to communicate billing
information [10]. Commercial cellular services may be a
viable option for billing purposes at public charging
C. Security Issues
In addition to certain bandwidth, reliability, and power
consumption requirements, security issues also need to
be considered when different wireless communication
technologies are applied [79]. For example, the wireless
billing security is viewed as a major concern for the
users. Moreover, the actual vehicles location needs to
be kept confidential for user privacy. Another security
issue is the unauthorized transaction by a third party or a
hacker. Thus, network security is of critical importance
in the communication network at public charging
facilities for PHEVs [80]. Morante et al. [81] proposed a
pervasive grid approach to define an infrastructure for
data acquisition in electric grid. Recently, quite a few
papers have investigated the problem of security issues
in communication networks of charging infrastructure
from different perspectives.
Vulnerabilities analysis: Traditional power grid
communications have relied predominantly on wired
communication to provide reliable and predictable
monitoring and control. However, the data transmission
in wireless networks is inherently public, which presents
a unique security threat at the PHY layer [49]. A lot of
work has been done recently to identify the threats and
vulnerabilities of wireless technologies and to
summarize their security performance [82]. Alcaraz et
al. [83] reviewed several wireless communication
standards and analyzed their security. They identified a
set of threats and potential attacks in their routing
protocols and provided recommendations and
countermeasures to help the industry protect its
infrastructure. Lu et al. [84] categorized the goals of
potential attacks against the smart grid communication

networks into three types: network availability, data

integrity and information privacy. They then
qualitatively analyzed the impact and feasibility of the
three types of attacks.
Prevention: cryptography is the main scheme of
preventing malicious attacks in the communication
network. HomePlug and Zigbee use 128-bit Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES) encryption to secure data
transmitted across the physical network. AES encryption
is a 128-bit fixed-length block cipher, standardized in
2002 by the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) [85]. Improvement for HomePlug
security has been proposed in [86]. Cellular is more
likely to be at particular risk. The current security
protocol used in 3G networks is KASUMI, which is an
A5/3 block cipher. Alternative proposals for more
secure cellular data encoding schemes have been
proposed in the GSM network, such as the Rijndael
Algorithm, which is similar to AES [87].
Detection: The charging facilities must have the
ability to detect the attempt of an intruder to gain
unauthorized access to communication network in order
to avoid unauthorized transactions. In general, the
intrusion detection for smart grid communications falls
mainly into the cyber security field of SCADA and
power systems and has been well studied in the
literatures [88, 89].
Client privacy: In the PHEV charging scenarios, the
vehicles usually contribute data, such as location,
identity, usage patterns; payment information; and the
charging station to process this data. Therefore, the main
privacy concern is in the handling of clients personal
information [90]. For example, the EV charging reveals
the PHEVs location and distance travelled.
PHEVs/PEVs hold a lot of promise in terms of higher
energy efficiency, lower carbon emissions, energy
independency, and environmental responsibility. The
electrification of transportation is reshaping the
traditional view of industrial systems. Accordingly,
there is a growing need to address the implications of
this technology in industrial environments. The current
PHEVs/PEVs has been explored in this literature survey.
First, the authors gave a comprehensive overview of the
PHEV/PEV charging infrastructure requirements and
the state-of-the-art in battery technologies in the
industrial environment. Energy storage (i.e., the
PHEV/PEV battery) is the key enabling technology for
the electrification of transportation. The authors further
explored a variety of energy management systems.
Without a sophisticated energy management system at

the charging infrastructure, large numbers of

PHEVs/PEVs have the potential to threaten the stability
of the existing industrial system. The authors discussed
the conceptual and practical knowledge of V2G, which
allows for the electric vehicles to feed power back
directly to the grid. In addition, V2G can allow easier
integration of renewable resources and support the
stability of the grid by providing ancillary services. The
successful rollout of EVs also relies on advanced
communication technologies and industrial informatics
systems. The authors of this paper have presented an
overview of the appropriate information exchange
architectures and framework to facilitate the effective
integration of PHEVs/PEVs.
In order to analyze these technical topics and research
trends properly, this paper provides an overview of the
electrification of transportation in the field of industrial
informatics systems. Due to the limited pages of this
paper, the authors provide a survey of the following
technical topics: 1) PHEV/PEV Charging Facility and
PHEV/PEV Battery, 2) Intelligent Energy Management,
3) Vehicle-to-Grid, 4) Communication Requirements.
As a final conclusion, this literature survey gives a
general view of both the concepts and applications of
the electrification of transportation. However, the
research trends are not limited to the topics covered in
this paper. Due to the limited pages, the authors
apologize for not being able to list all the related
citations in this paper.
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Wencong Su (S06) is currently working
toward a Ph.D. degree in the Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering at
North Carolina State University. He received
his B.S. with distinction in Electrical
Engineering from Clarkson University in
2008 followed by a M.S. in Electrical
Engineering from Virginia Tech in 2009. He
also worked as a R&D engineer intern at
ABB U.S. Corporate Research Center in
Raleigh, NC, from May 2009 to August 2009. His current research
interests include Smart Grid, Grid Interaction of Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicles, Large-scale Optimization, Renewable Energy,
Microgrid, and Battery Modeling.
Habiballah Rahimi-Eichi (S08) received
the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical
engineering from Isfahan University of
University of Technology, Tehran, Iran,
respectively. He is a currently working
toward the Ph.D. degree in ADAC research
group at the Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering, North Carolina State
University. His research interests include
intelligent Energy Management System, PHEVs, market-based
optimization methods, auction theory, and smart grid.
Wente Zeng (S09) received his B.S. and
M.S. degree in Automation from Shanghai
Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China, in
2006 and 2009, respectively. He is currently
working toward the Ph.D. degree in
Electrical Engineering in the Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. He
has also been a part of the Advanced
Diagnosis, Automation, and Control (ADAC)
Laboratory at North Carolina State University since September 2009.
His current research interests include networked control system,
distributed control and system security.
Mo-Yuen Chow (S81M82SM93F07)
received the B.S. degree from the University
of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1982 and the
M.Eng. and Ph.D. degrees from Cornell
University, Ithaca, NY, in 1983 and 1987,
respectively. Upon completion of the Ph.D.
degree, he joined the Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh, and has
held the rank of Professor since 1999. Dr.
Chow's research focuses on fault diagnosis and prognosis, distributed
control, and computational intelligence. He has been applying his
research to areas including mechatronics, power distribution systems,
distributed generation, motors and robotics. Dr. Chow has established
the Advanced Diagnosis and Control Laboratory at NC State
University. He has published one book, several book chapters, and
over one hundred journal and conference articles. He is an IEEE
Fellow, and has received the IEEE Region-3 Joseph M. Biedenbach
Outstanding Engineering Educator Award the IEEE ENCS
Outstanding Engineering Educator Award. He is the Editor-in-Chief of
IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics.