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IndiaintheEighteenth

CenturyBahadurShah1(1707-12)

MuzamsucceededAurungzebafterlattersdeathin1707
HeacquiredthetitleofBahadurShah.
Thoughhewasquiteold(65)andhisrulequiteshorttherearemanysignificantachievementshe
made
HereversedthenarrowmindedandantagonisticpoliciesofAurungzeb
MadeagreementswithRajputstates
GrantedsardeshmukhitoMarathasbutnotChauth
ReleasedShahuji(sonofSambhaji)fromprison(wholaterfoughtwithTarabai)
TriedtomakepeacewithGuruGobindSahibbygivinghimahighMansab.AfterGurusdeath,
SikhsagainrevoltedundertheleadershipofBandaBahadur.Thisledtoaprolongedwarwiththe
Sikhs.
MadepeacewithChhatarsal,theBundelachiefandChuraman,theJatchief.
Statefinancesdeteriorated

JahandarShah(1712-13)

DeathofBahadurShahplungedtheempireintoacivilwar
Anotedfeatureofthistimewastheprominenceofthenobles
JahandarShah,sonofBahadurShah,ascendedthethronein1712withhelpfromZulfikarKhan
Wasaweakrulerdevotedonlytopleasures
ZulfikarKhan,hiswazir,wasvirtuallytheheadoftheadministration
ZKabolishedjizyah
PeacewithRajputs:JaiSinghofAmberwasmadetheGovernorofMalwa.AjitSinghofMarwar
wasmadetheGovernorofGujarat.
ChauthandSardeshmukhgrantedtoMarathas.However,Mughalsweretocollectitandthen
handitovertotheMarathas.
ContinuedthepolicyofsuppressiontowardsBandaBahadurandSikhs
Ijarah:(revenuefarming)thegovernmentbegantocontractwithrevenuefarmersandmiddlemen
topaythegovernmentafixedamountofmoneywhiletheywereleftfreetocollectwhateverthey
couldfromthepeasants
JahandharShahdefeatedinJanuary1713byhisnephewFarrukhSiyaratAgra

FarrukhSiyar(1713-19)

OwedhisvictorytoSaiyidBrothers:HussainAliKhanBarahowandAbdullahKhan
AbdullahKhan:Wazir,
HussainAli:MirBakshi
FSwasanincapableruler.Saiyidbrothersweretherealrulers.
SaiyidBrothers
KnowntheIndianHistoryasKingMakers

adoptedthepolicyofreligioustolerance.Abolishedjizyah(again?).Pilgrimtaxwas
abolishedfromanumberofplaces
Marathas:GrantedShahujiswarajyaandtherighttocollectchauthandsardeshmukhiof
thesixprovincesoftheDeccan
Theyfailedintheirefforttocontainrebellionbecausetheywerefacedwithconstant
politicalrivalry,quarrelsandconspiraciesatthecourt.
NoblesheadedbyNizam-ul-MulkandMuhammadAminKhanbegantoconspireagainst
them
In1719,theSaiyidBrotherskilledandoverthrewFS.
Thiswasfollowedbyplacing,inquicksuccession,oftwoyoungprinceswhodiedof
consumption
MurderoftheemperorcreatedawaveofrevulsionagainsttheSB.Theywerelooked
downasnamakharam
Now,theyplaced18yearoldMuhammadShahastheemperorofIndia
In1720,thenoblesassassinatedHussainAliKhan,theyoungeroftheSB.AbdullahKhanwas
alsodefeatedatAgra

MuhammadShahRangeela(1719-1748)

Weak-minded,frivolousandover-fondofalifeofease
Neglectedtheaffairsofthestate
Intriguedagainsthisownministers
NaizamulMulkQinQulichKhan,thewazir,relinquishedhisofficeandfoundedthestateof
Hyderabadin1724
HisdeparturewassymbolicoftheflightofloyaltyandvirtuefromtheEmpire
HeriditarynawabsaroseinBengal,Hyderabad,AwadhandPunjab
MarathasconqueredMalwa,GujaratandBundelkhand
1738:InvasionofNadirShah

NadirShahsInvasion(1738)

AttractedtoIndiabyitsfabulouswealth.ContinualcampaignshadmadePersiabankrupt
Also,theMughalempirewasweak.
Didntmeetanyresistanceasthedefenseofthenorth-westfrontierhadbeenneglectedforyears
ThetwoarmiesmetatKarnalon13thFeb1739.Mughalarmywassummarilydefeated.MStaken
prisoner
MassacreinDelhiinresponsetothekillingofsomeofhissoldiers
Plunderofabout70crorerupees.CarriedawaythePeacockthroneandKoh-i-noor
MScededtohimalltheprovincesoftheEmpirewestoftheriverIndus
Significance:NadirShahsinvasionexposedthehiddenweaknessoftheempiretotheMaratha
sardarsandtheforeigntradingcompanies

AhmedShahAbdali

OneofthegeneralsofNadirShah
RepeatedlyinvadedandplunderedIndiarightdowntoDelhiandMathurabetween1748and
1761.HeinvadedIndiafivetimes.
1761:ThirdbattleofPanipat.DefeatofMarathas.
AsaresultofinvasionsofNadirShahandAhmedShah,theMughalempireceasedtobean
all-Indiaempire.By1761itwasreducedmerelytotheKingdomofDelhi

ShahAlamII(1759

AhmedBahadur(1748-54)succeededMuhammadShah
AhmedBahadurwassucceededbyAlamgirII(1754-59)
1756:AbdaliplunderedMathura
AlamgirIIwassucceededbyShahJahanIII
ShahJahanIIIsucceededbyShahAlamIIin1759
ShahAlamspentinitialyearswanderingforhelivedunderthefearofhiswazir
In1764,hejoinedforceswithMirQasimofBengalandShuja-ud-DaulaofAwadhindeclaringa
warupontheBritishEastIndiacompany.ThisresultedintheBattleofBuxar
PensionedatAllahabad
ReturnedtoDelhiin1772undertheprotectionofMarathas

DeclineoftheMughalEmpire

After1759,Mughalempireceasedtobeamilitarypower.
Itcontinuedfrom1759till1857onlyduetothepowerfulholdthattheMughaldynastyhadon
themindsofthepeopleofIndiaasasymbolofthepoliticalunityofthecountry
In1803,theBritishoccupiedDelhi
From1803to1857,theMughalemperorsmerelyservedasapoliticalfrontoftheBritish.
ThemostimportantconsequenceofthefalloftheMughalempirewasthatitpavedwayforthe
BritishtoconquerIndiaastherewasnootherIndianpowerstrongenoughtouniteandholdIndia.

SuccessionStates

ThesestatesaroseasaresultoftheassertionofautonomybygovernorsofMughalprovinceswith
thedecayofthecentralpower
Bengal,Awadh,Hyderabad

HyderabadandtheCarnatic

FoundedbyNizam-ul-MulkAsafJahin1724
TolerantpolicytowardsHindus
AHindu,PuranChand,washisDewan.
EstablishedanorderlyadministrationinDeccanonthebasisofthejagirdarisystemonthe
Mughalpattern

Hediedin1748
NawabofCarnaticfreedhimselfofthecontroloftheViceroyoftheDeccanandmadehisoffice
hereditary
SaadutullahKhanofCarnaticmadehisnephewDostAlihissuccessor

Bengal

1700:MurshidQuliKhanmadetheDewanofBengal
Freedhimselfofthecentralcontrol
FreedBengalofmajoruprisings
Threemajoruprisingsduringhistime:SitaramRay,UdaiNarayanandGhulam
Muhammad,andthenbyShujatKhan,andfinallybyNajatKhan
Carriedoutfreshrevenuesettlement.Introducedthesystemofrevenue-farming.
Revenuefarmingledtotheincreaseddistressofthefarmers
LaidthefoundationsofthenewlandedaristocracyinBengal
MQKdiedin1727.SucceededbyShuja-ud-din.
1739:AlivardiKhankilledanddeposedShuja-ud-dinsson,SarfarazKhan,andmadehimselfthe
Nawab
AllthreeNawabsencouragedmerchants,bothIndianandforeign.
Safetyofroadsandrivers.ThanasandChowkiesatregularintervals.
Maintainedstrictcontrolovertheforeigntradingcompanies
They,however,didnotfirmlyputdowntheincreasingtendencyoftheEnglishEastIndia
Companytousemilitaryforce,ortothreatenitsuse,togetitsdemandsaccepted.
Theyalsoneglectedtobuildastrongarmy

Awadh

1722:SaadatKhanBurhan-ul-Mulk
SuppressedrebellionsanddisciplinedtheZamindars
Freshrevenuesettlementin1723
DidnotdiscriminatebetweenHindusandMuslims.Thehighestpostinhisgovernmentwasheld
byaHindu,MaharajaNawabRai
Diedin1739.SucceededbySafdarJung.
SJsreignwasaneraofpeace
madeanalliancewiththeMarathasardars
CarriedoutwarfareagainstRohelasandBangashPathans
Organizedanequitablesystemofjustice
DistinctcultureofLucknowdevelopedduringhisperiod

Mysore

HaidarAli,in1761,overthrewNanjarajandestablishedhisownauthorityoverMysore
1755:EstablishedamodernarsenalatDindigalwiththehelpofFrenchexperts
ConqueredBidnur,Sunda,Sera,CanaraandMalabar
HeconqueredMalabarbecausehewantedaccesstotheIndianOcean

SikhsimtransformedintoamilitantreligionduringGuruHargobind(1606-45),thesixthguru.
GuruGobindSinghwagedconstantwaragainstthearmiesofAurangzebandthehillrajas
AfterGuruGobindSinghsdeath(1708),leadershippassedtoBandaSingh(BandaBahadur)
HestruggledwiththeMughalarmyfor8years
Puttodeathin1715
BandaBahadurfailedbecause
Mughalcentrewasstillstrong
UpperclassesandcastesofPunjabjoinedforcesagainsthim
Hecouldnotintegratealltheanti-Mughalforcesbecauseofhisreligiousbigotry
AfterthewithdrawalofAbdalifromPunjab,Sikhswereagainresurgent
Between1765and1800theybroughtthePunjabandJammuundertheircontrol
Theywereorganizedinto12misls
RanjitSingh
ChiefoftheSukerchakiaMisl
CapturedLahore(1799)andAmritsar(1802)
ConqueredKashmir,PeshawarandMultan
PossessedthesecondbestarmyinAsia
Tolerantandliberal
FakirAzizuddinandDewanDinaNathwerehisimportantministers
knowntostepdownfromhisthronetowipethedustoffthefeetofMuslimmendicants
withhislonggreybeard
Negativepoint:HedidnotremovethethreatofBritish.Heonlyleftitovertohis
successors.Andso,afterhisdeath,whenhiskingdomwastornbyintenseinternal
struggle,Englishconqueredit.

Marathas

MarathaFamilies
PeshwaPune
GaekwadBaroda
BhosleNagpur
HolkarIndore
Scindia-Gwalior
Themostpowerfulofthesuccessionstates
Couldnotfillthepoliticalvacuumbecause
MarathaSardarslackedunity
Lackedtheoutlookandprogrammewhichwerenecessaryforfoundinganall-India
empire
Shahuji
SonofSambhaji
ImprisonedbyAurungzeb
Releasedin1707
CivilwarbetweenShahuandhisauntTarabaiwhoruledinthenameofherinfantson

Introduction

Indiannationalmovement:Oneofthebiggest.Inspiredmanyothers.
GandhianPoliticalStrategyveryimportant.
ElementsofGandhianStrategycanbeseenintheSolidarityMovementinPolandbyLech
Walesa
WHYISTHEINDIANNATIONALMOVEMENTUNIQUE

IntheIndiannationalmovement,theGramscianperspectiveofwarofpositionwassuccessfully
practiced.
Itprovidestheonlyhistoricalexampleofasemi-democraticordemocratictypeofpolitical
structurebeingsuccessfullyreplacedortransformed.
Statepowerwasnotseizedinamomentofrevolution,butthroughprolongedpopularstruggleon
moral,politicalandideologicalreserves.
Itisalsoanexampleofhowtheconstitutionalspaceofferedbytheexistingstructurecouldbe
usedwithoutgettingcooptedbyit.
Diverseperspectivesandideologies
WHYSTUDYNATIONALMOVEMENT?

ThepaththatIndiahasfollowedsince1947hasdeeprootsinthestruggleforindependence.
OUTSTANDINGFEATURESOFTHEFREEDOMSTRUGGLE

Valuesandmodernidealsonwhichitwasbased
Visionoftheleaders:democratic,civillibertarianandsecularIndia,basedonaself-reliant,
egalitariansocialorderandanindependentforeignpolicy
ThemovementpopularizeddemocraticideasandinstitutionsinIndia
Thestrongcivillibertariananddemocratictraditionofthenationalmovementwasreflectedinthe
constitutionofindependentIndia.
Pro-poororientation
Secular
Anon-racist,anti-imperialistoutlookwhichcontinuestocharacterizeIndianforeignpolicywas
thepartofthelegacyoftheanti-imperialiststruggle.
Indiasfreedomstrugglewasbasicallytheresultoffundamentalcontradictionbetweenthe
interestsoftheIndianpeopleandthatofBritishcolonialism.

Revoltof1857

DuringtheGovernor-GeneralLordCanning
May11,1857.TheMeerutincident.CaptureofDelhi.ProclaimingBSJazarastheemperor.
AlmosthalftheCompanyssepoystrengthof232224optedoutoftheirloyaltytotheir
regimentalcolours.
Kanpur:NanaSaheb;Lucknow:BegumHazratMahal;Bareilly:KhanBahadur;Jagdishpur
(Ara):KunwarSingh;Jhansi:RaniLakshmiBai
OnlytheMadrasarmyremainedtotallyloyal.Sikhregimentaswellremainedlargelyloyal.

Causesfortherevolt
TherevoltwasaresultoftheaccumulatedgrievancesofthepeopleagainstCompanysadministration
andaloathingforthecharacterandpoliciesofthecolonialrule.Thecausescanbeclassifiedassocial,
economic,religiousandmilitary.<Inclassnotes>
WHYDIDTHESEPOYSREVOLT?

TheconditionsofserviceintheCompanysarmyandcantonmentsincreasinglycameinto
conflictwiththereligiousbeliefsandprejudicesofthesepoys.
Theunhappinessofthesepoysfirstsurfacedin1824whenthe47thRegimentofBarrackpur
wasorderedtogotoBurma.TothereligiousHindu,crossingtheseameantlossofcaste.The
sepoysrefused.Theregimentwasdisbandedandthosewholedtheoppositionwerehanged.
TherumorsabouttheGovernmentssecretdesignstopromoteconversionstoChristianity
furtherexasperatedthesepoys.
Thegreasedcartridges
Theywerealsounhappywiththeemoluments
Discriminationandracism
MiserybroughttothepeasantsbytheBritishrule.E.g.thelandrevenuesystemimposedin
Oudh,whereabout75000sepoyscamefrom,wasveryharsh.
Theciviliansalsoparticipated
AfterthecaptureofDelhi,aletterwasissuedtotheneighboringstatesaskingforsupport.
AcourtofadministratorswasestablishedinDelhi
Ill-equipped,therebelscarriedonthestruggleforaboutayear
Thecountryasawholewasnotbehindthem.Themerchants,intelligentsiaandIndianrulers
notonlykeptaloofbutactivelysupportedtheBritish.
AlmosthalftheIndiansoldiersnotonlydidnotrevoltbutfoughtagainsttheirown
countrymen.
Apartfromacommonlysharedhatredforalienrule,therebelshadnopoliticalperspectiveor
definitevisionofthefuture
DelhifellonSeptember20,1857.
RaniofJhansidiedfightingonJune17,1858
NanaSahebescapedtoNepalhopingtorevivethestruggle.
KunwarSinghdiedonMay9,1958
TantiatopecarriedonguerrillawarfareuntilApril1959afterwhichhewasbetrayedbya
zamindar,capturedandputtodeath.

ImportantPersonsrelatingtotheRevolt
BahadurShahZafar:BSZwasthelastMughalemperorofIndia.
NanaSaheb
RaniLakshmiBai
KunwarSingh

NawabWajidAliShah
BirjisQadr:ThesonofWajidAliShahandtheleaderoftherevoltinLucknow.
ShahMal:HebelongedtoaclanofJatcultivatorsinpargananBaroutinUP.Duringtherevolt,he
mobilizedtheheadmenandcultivatorsofchauraseedes(84villages:hiskinshiparea),movingatnight
fromvillagetovillage,urgingpeopletorebelagainsttheBritish.
MaulviAhmadullahShah:MaulviAhmadullahShahwasoneofthemanymaulviswhoplayedan
importantpartintherevoltof1857.1856,hewasseenmovingfromvillagetovillagepreachingjehad
(religiouswar)againsttheBritishandurgingpeopletorebel.hewaselectedbythemutinous22ndNative
Infantryastheirleader.HefoughtinthefamousBattleofChinhatinwhichtheBritishforcesunder
HenryLawrenceweredefeated.
BegumHazratMahal:
Chapter2:CivilRebellionsandTribalUprisings

Thebackboneoftherebellions,theirmassbaseandstrikingpowercamefromtherack-rented
peasants,ruinedartisansanddemobilizedsoldiers
CAUSES

ThemajorcauseofthecivilrebellionswastherapidchangestheBritishintroducedinthe
economy,administrationandlandrevenuesystem.
Therevenueswereenhancedbyincreasingtaxes.
Thousandsofzamindarsandpoligarslostcontrolovertheirlandanditsrevenueeitherduetothe
extinctionoftheirrightsbythecolonialstateorbytheforcedsaleoftheirrightsoverland
becauseoftheirinabilitytomeettheexorbitantlandrevenuedemanded.
Theeconomicdeclineofthepeasantrywasreflectedintwelvemajorandnumerousminor
faminesfrom1770to1857
Thenewcourtsandlegalsystemgaveafurtherfilliptothedispossessorsoflandandencouraged
therichtooppressthepoor.
Thepolicelooted,oppressedandtorturedthecommonpeopleatwill.
TheruinofIndianhandicraftindustriespauperizedmillionsofartisans
Thescholarlyandpriestlyclasseswerealsoactiveinincitinghatredandrebellionagainstforeign
rule.
VeryforeigncharacteroftheBritishrule
REBELLIONS

From1763to1856,thereweremorethanfortymajorrebellionsapartfromhundredsofminor
ones.
SanyasiRebellion:(1763-1800)
Chuaruprising(1766-1772&1795-1816);RangpurandDinajpur(1783);Bishnupurand
Birbhum(1799);Orissazamindars(1804-17)andSambalpur(1827-40)andmanyothers

CHAPTER4&5
Whydidnationalmovementarise?

Indiannationalismrosetomeetthechallengesofforeigndomination
TheBritishruleanditsdirectandindirectconsequencesprovidedthematerialandthemoraland
intellectualconditionsforthedevelopmentofanationalmovementinIndia.
ClashofinterestbetweentheinterestsoftheIndianpeoplewithBritishinterestsinIndia
Increasingly,theBritishrulebecamethemajorcauseofIndiaseconomicbackwardness
EveryclassgraduallydiscoveredthattheirinterestsweresufferingatthehandsoftheBritish
Peasant:Govttookalargepartofproduceawayaslandrevenue.Lawsfavouredthe
Zamindars
Artisans:Foreigncompetitionruinedtheindustry
Workers:Thegovernmentsidedwiththecapitalists
Intelligentsia:TheyfoundthattheBritishpolicieswereguidedbytheinterestsofBritish
capitalistsandwerekeepingthecountryeconomicallybackward.Politically,theBritish
hadnocommitmentofguidingIndiatowardsself-government.
Indiancapitalists:thegrowthofIndianindustrieswasconstrainedbytheunfavourable
trade,tariff,taxationandtransportpoliciesofthegovernment.
Zamindars,landlordsandprincesweretheonlyoneswhoseinterestscoincidedwith
thoseoftheBritish.Hencetheyremainedloyaltothem.
Hence,itwastheintrinsicnatureofforeignimperialismanditsharmfuleffectonthelivesofthe
Indianpeoplethatledtotheriseofthenationalmovement.Thismovementcouldbecalledthe
nationalmovementbecauseitunitedpeoplefromdifferentpartsofthecountryasneverbefore
forasinglecause.

Whatfactorsstrengthenedandfacilitatedthenationalmovement?
AdministrationandEconomicUnificationofthecountry
Introductionofmoderntradeandindustriesonall-Indiascalehadincreasinglymade
Indiaseconomiclifeasinglewholeandinterlinkedtheeconomicfateofpeoplelivingin
differentpartsofthecountry.
Introductionofrailways,telegraphandunifiedpostalsystembroughttogetherdifferent
partsofthecountryandpromotedcontactamongpeoplelikeneverbefore.
ThisunificationledtotheemergenceoftheIndiannation
WesternThoughtandEducation
AlargenumberofIndiansimbibedamodernrational,secular,democraticandnationalist
politicaloutlook
Theybegantostudy,admireandemulatethecontemporarynationalistmovementsof
Europeannations
Thewesterneducationpersedidnotcreatethenationalmovement.Itonlyenabledthe
educatedIndianstoimbibewesternthoughtandthustoassumetheleadershipofthe
nationalmovementandtogiveitademocraticandmoderndirection
Moderneducationcreatedacertainuniformityandcommunityofoutlookandinterests
amongtheeducationIndians.
RoleofPressandLiterature
Largenumberofnationalistnewspapersappearedinthesecondhalfofthe19thcentury

TheycriticizedthepoliciesoftheBritishgovernmentandputforththeIndianpointof
view
Nationalliteratureinformofessays,novelsandpoetryalsoplayedanimportantrole.
BamkinChandra,Tagore:Bengali;BhartenduHarishchandra:Hindi;Lakshmikanth
Bezbarua:Assamese;VishnuShastriChiplunkar:Marathi;SubramanyaBharti:Tamil;
AltafHusainHali:Urdu
RediscoveryofIndiaspast
TheBritishhadloweredtheselfconfidenceoftheIndianthroughthepropagandathat
Indiansareincapableofself-government
NationalistleadersreferredtotheculturalheritageofIndiatocounterthispropaganda.
TheyreferredtopoliticalachievementsofrulerslikeAshoka,Chandragupta
VikramadityaandAkbar.
However,somenationalistswenttotheextentofglorifyingthepastuncritically.They
emphasizedontheachievementsofancientIndiaandnotmedievalIndia.This
encouragedthegrowthofcommunalsentiments.
Racialarroganceoftherulers
EnglishmenadoptedatoneofracialsuperiorityintheirdealingswiththeIndians
FailureofjusticewheneveranEnglishmanwasinvolvedinadisputewithanIndian.
IndianskeptoutofEuropeanclubsandoftenwerenotpermittedtotravelinsame
compartmentasEnglishmen

RiseofIndianNationalCongress
PredecessorsofINC
EastIndiaAssociation
ByDadabhaiNaorojiin1866inLondon
TodiscusstheIndianquestionandtoinfluencetheBritishpublicmentodiscussIndian
welfare
BranchesoftheassociationinprominentIndiancities
IndianAssociation
SurendranathBanerjeeandAnandaMohanBosein1876,Calcutta
Theaimofcreatingstrongpublicopinioninthecountryonpoliticalquestionsandthe
unificationoftheIndianpeopleonacommonpoliticalprogramme
PoonaSarvajanikSabha
JusticeRanade,1870
MadrasMahajanSabha
Viraraghavachari,AnandCharloo,GSubramanianAiyer,1884
BombayPresidencyAssociation
PherozshahMehta,KTTelang,BadruddinTyabji,1885
Theseorganizationswerenarrowintheirscopeandfunctioning.Theydealtmostlywithlocal
questionsandtheirmembershipwereconfinedtoafewpeoplebelongingtoasinglecityor
province
IndianNationalCongress
IndianNationalCongresswasfoundedon28December1885by72politicalworkers.AOHume
wasthefirstsecretaryandwasinstrumentalinestablishingtheCongress
FirstsessioninBombay.President:WCBonnerjee
WiththeformationofINC,theIndianNationalMovementwaslaunchedinasmallbutorganized

manner
TheCongressitselfwastoservenotasapartybutasamovement
Congresswasdemocratic.ThedelegatestoINCwereelectedbydifferentlocalorganizationsand
groups
Sovereigntyofthepeople
In1890,KadambiniGanguli,thefirstwomangraduateofCalcuttaUniversityaddressedthe
Congresssession
SafetyValveTheory
TheINCwasstartedundertheofficialdirection,guidanceandadviceofLordDufferin,
theViceroy,toprovideasafe,mild,peacefulandconstitutionaloutletorsafetyvalvefor
therisingdiscontentamongthemasses,whichwasinevitablyleadingtowardsapopular
andviolentrevolution.
DoesthesafetyvalvetheoryexplaintheformationofCongress?
Thesafetyvalvetheoryisinadequateandmisleading
INCrepresentedtheurgeoftheIndianeducatedclasstosetupanationalorganizationtoworkfor
theirpoliticalandeconomicdevelopment
Anumberoforganizations,asmentionedabove,hadalreadybeenstartedbytheIndianstowards
thatend
HumespresenceinCongresswasusedtoallayofficialsuspicions

WhywasthereaneedforanAll-Indiaorganization?
VernacularPressAct,1878
IlbertBill(1883)whichwouldallowIndianjudgestotryEuropeanswasopposedbythe
Europeancommunityandwasfinallyenactedinahighlycompromisedstatein1884.
TheIndiansrealizedthattheycouldnotgettheIlbertbillpassedbecausetheywerenotunitedon
allIndialevel.HenceneedforINCwasfelt.
Inordertogivebirthtothenationalmovement
Creationofnationalleadershipwasimportant
Collectiveidentificationwascreated
AimsofINC
Promotionoffriendlyrelationsbetweennationalistpoliticalworkersfromdifferentpartsofthe
country
Developmentandconsolidationofthefeelingofnationalunityirrespectiveofcaste,religionor
province
Formulationofpopulardemandsandtheirpresentationbeforethegovernment
Trainingandorganizationofpublicopinioninthecountry

ThefirstmajorobjectiveoftheIndiannationalmovementwastopromoteweldIndiansintoa
nation,tocreateanIndianidentity
Fullerdevelopmentandconsolidationofsentimentsofnationalunity
Effortsforunity:Inanefforttoreachallregions,itwasdecidedtorotatethecongress
sessionamongdifferentpartsofthecountry.ThePresidentwastobelongtoaregion
otherthanwherethecongresssessionwasbeingheld.
Toreachouttothefollowersofallreligionsandtoremovethefearsoftheminorities,a
rulewasmadeatthe1888sessionthatnoresolutionwastobepassedtowhichan

overwhelmingmajorityofHinduorMuslimdelegatesobjected.
In1889,aminorityclausewasadoptedintheresolutiondemandingreformoflegislative
councils.Accordingtotheclause,whereverParsis,Christians,MuslimsorHinduswerea
minoritytheirnumberelectedtothecouncilswouldnotbelessthantheirproportionin
thepopulation.
Tobuildasecularnation,thecongressitselfhadtobeintenselysecular
Thesecondmajorobjectiveoftheearlycongresswastocreateacommonpoliticalplatformor
programmearoundwhichpoliticalworkersindifferentpartsofthecountrycouldgatherand
conducttheirpoliticalactivities.
Duetoitsfocussolelyonpoliticalissuescongressdidnottakeupthequestionofsocial
reform.
SincethisformofpoliticalparticipationwasnewtoIndia,thearousal,training,organizationand
consolidationofpublicopinionwasseenasamajortaskbythecongressleaders.
Goingbeyondtheredressalofimmediategrievancesandorganizesustainedpolitical
activity.

Contributionofearlynationalists
Earlynationalistsbelievedthatadirectstruggleforthepoliticalemancipationofthecountrywas
notyetontheagendaofhistory.Onagendawas:
Creationofpublicinterestinpoliticalquestionsandtheorganizationofpublicopinion
Populardemandshadtobeformulatedonacountry-widebasis
Nationalunityhadtobecreated.Indiannationhoodhadtobecarefullypromoted.
EarlynationalleadersdidnotorganizemassmovementagainsttheBritish.Buttheydidcarryout
anideologicalstruggleagainstthem.(ImportantfromaGramscianperspective)
Economiccritiqueofimperialism
Economiccritiqueofimperialismwasthemostimportantcontributionoftheearly
nationalists
TheyrecognizedthattheessenceofBritisheconomicimperialismlayinthe
subordinationoftheIndianeconomytotheBritisheconomy
TheycomplainedofIndiasgrowingpovertyandeconomicbackwardnessandthefailure
ofmodernindustryandagriculturetogrow
Theywantedthegovernmenttopromotemodernindustriesthroughtariffprotectionand
directgovernmentaid
PopularizedtheideaofswadeshiandtheboycottofBritishgoods
Theypropoundedthedrainofwealththeoryanddemandedthatthisdrainbestopped
Demandedreductionoftaxesandlandrevenue
Condemnedthehighmilitaryexpenditure
Constitutionalreforms
Theywereextremelycautious.From1885to1892theydemandedtheexpansionand
reformoftheLegislativeCouncils
Duetotheirdemands,theBritishpassedtheIndianCouncilsActof1892
Theyfailedtobroadenthebaseoftheirdemocraticdemands.Didnotdemandtherightto
voteforthemassesorforwomen
Administrativeandotherreforms
TheydemandedIndianisationofthehighergradesoftheadministrativeservices.
Theyhadeconomicpoliticalreasonsforthis.Economically,appointmentofBritishonly
toICSmadeIndianadministrationcostlybecausetheywerepaidveryhigh.Politically,
appointmentofIndianswouldmaketheadministrationmoreresponsivetoIndianneeds

Demandedseparationofthejudicialfromexecutivepowerssothatthepeoplemightget
someprotectionfromthearbitraryactsofthepoliceandthebureaucracy.
Urgedthegovernmenttoundertakeanddevelopwelfareactivitiesandeducation
DefenseofCivilRights
Methodsofworkofearlynationalists
Dominatedbymoderatestill1905
Methodofmoderates:Constitutionalagitationwithinthefourwallsofthelaw,andslow,orderly
politicalprogress.Theirworkhadtwoprongeddirection:
TobuildastrongpublicopinioninIndiatoarousethepoliticalconsciousnessand
nationalspiritofthepeople,andtoeducateandunitethemonpoliticalquestions
TheywantedtopersuadetheBritishgovernmentandBritishpublicopiniontointroduce
reformsalongdirectionslaiddownbythenationalists.
In1889,aBritishCommitteeoftheINCwasfounded.In1890thiscommitteestartedajournal
calledIndia.
Whatabouttheroleofthemasses?
Thebasicweaknessoftheearlynationalmovementlayinitsnarrowsocialbase.
Theleaderslackedpoliticalfaithinthemasses.
Hence,masseswereassignedapassiveroleintheearlyphaseofthenationalmovement.
Evaluation

Thebasicobjectivesoftheearlynationalistleadersweretolaythefoundationsofasecularand
democraticnationalmovement,topoliticizeandpoliticallyeducatethepeople,toformthe
headquartersofthemovement,thatis,toformanall-Indialeadershipgroup,andtodevelopand
propagateananti-colonialnationalistideology.
Veryfewofthereformsforwhichthenationalistsagitatedwereintroducedbythegovernment
Itsucceededincreatingawidenationalawakeningandarousingthefeelingofnationhood.It
madethepeopleconsciousofthebondsofcommonpolitical,economicandsocialinterestsand
theexistenceofacommonenemyinimperialism
TheyexposedthetruecharacteroftheBritishrulethroughtheireconomiccritique.
Allthiswastobecomeabaseforthenationalmovementinthelaterperiod.
WHYHUME?

Theleadersassumedthattherulerswouldbelesssuspiciousandlesslikelytoattackapotentially
subversiveorganizationifitschieforganizerwasaretiredBritishcivilservant.
Gokhalehimselfstatedexplicitlyin1913thatifanyIndianhadstartedsuchamovementthe
officialswouldnthaveletithappen.

CHAPTER6:Socio-religiousreforms

Thesocio-religiousreformsarealsoreferredtoastheIndianrenaissance
Thesocio-culturalregenerationinnineteenthcenturyIndiawasoccasionedbythecolonial
presence,butnotcreatedbyit.
FormationoftheBrahmoSamajin1828.
ParamhansaMandali,PrathnaSamaj,AryaSamaj,KayasthSabha:UP,SarinSabha:Punjab,
SatyaSodhakSamaj:Maharashtra,SriNarayanaDharmaParipalanaSabha:Kerala
AhmadiyaandAligarhMovements:Muslims,SinghSabha:Sikhs,RehnumaiMazdeyasan
Sabha:Parsees
Theirattentionwasfocusedonworldlyexistence.
Theideaofotherworldlinessandsalvationwerenotapartoftheiragenda.
Atthattimetheinfluenceofreligionandsuperstitionwasoverwhelming.Positionofpriests
strong;thatofwomenweak.
Castewasanotherdebilitatingfactor
Neitherarevivalofthepastnoratotalbreakwithtraditionwascontemplated.
Rationalismandreligiousuniversalisminfluencedthereformmovement.
Developmentofuniversalisticperspectiveonreligion
LexLociActpropsedin1845andpassedin1850providedtherighttoinheritancestral
propertytoHinduconvertstoChristianity.
Theculturefacedathreatfromthecolonialrule.
CHAPTER7

First,theIndianintellectualsco-operatedwiththeBritishinthehopethatBritishwouldhelp
modernizeIndia.
However,therealityofsocialdevelopmentinIndiafailedtoconformtotheirhopes.
ThreepeoplewhocarriedouttheeconomicanalysisofBritishIndia:
DadabhaiNaoroji:thegrandoldmanofIndia.Bornin1825,hebecameasuccessful
businessmanbutdevotedhisentirelifeandwealthtothecreationofnationalmovement
inIndia
JusticeMahadevGovindRanade:HetaughtanentiregenerationofIndiansthevalueof
modernindustrialdevelopment.
RomeshChandraDutt:aretiredICSofficer,publishedTheEconomicHistoryofIndiaat
thebeginningofthe20thcenturyinwhichheexaminedinminutedetailtheentire
economicrecordofcolonialrulesince1757.
TheyconcludedthatcolonialismwasthemainobstacletoIndiaseconomicdevelopment.
ThreeaspectsofdominationofBritish:trade,industry,finance
Theproblemofpovertywasseenasaproblemofnationaldevelopment.Thisapproachmade
povertyabroadnationalissueandhelpedtounite,insteadofdivide,differentregionsand
sectionsofIndiansociety.
Theearlynationalistsacceptedthatthecompleteeconomictransformationofthecountryonthe
basisofmoderntechnologyandcapitalistenterprisewastheprimarygoaloftheireconomic
policies.
Becausetheirwhole-teddevotiontothecauseofindustrialization,theearlynationalistslooked
uponallotherissuessuchasforeigntrade,railways,tariffs,financeandlabourlegislationsin
relationtothisparamountaspect.(andhencetheobsessionofNehruwithindustrialization)
HowevergreattheneedofIndiaforindustrialization,ithadtobebasedonIndiancapitalandnot

foreigncapital.
Theearlynationalistssawforeigncapitalasanunmitigatedevilwhichdidnotdevelopacountry
butexploitedandimpoverishedit.
ExpenditureonrailwayscouldbeseenasIndiansubsidytoBritishindustries.
Amajorobstacleintheprocessofindustrialdevelopmentwasthepolicyoffreetrade
Highexpenditureonthearmy
Draintheorywasthefocalpointofnationalistcritiqueofcolonialism.
AlargepartofIndiaacapitalandwealthwasbeingtransferredordrainedtoBritainin
theformofsalariesandpensionsofBritishcivilandmilitaryofficialsworkinginIndia,
interestonloanstakenbytheIndiangovernment,profitsofBritishcapitalistsinIndia,
andtheHomeChargesorexpensesoftheIndianGovernmentinBritain.
Thisdrainamountedtoone-halfofgovernmentrevenues,morethantheentireland
revenuecollection,andoverone-thirdofIndiastotalsavings.
TheDraintheorywasputforwardbyDadabhaiNaoroji.Hedeclaredthatthedrainwas
thebasiccauseofIndiaspoverty.
Throughthedraintheory,theexploitativecharacteroftheBritishrulewasmadevisible.
Thedraintheorypossessedthemeritofbeingeasilygraspedandunderstoodbyanation
ofpeasants.Noideacouldarousepeoplemorethanthethoughtthattheywerebeing
taxedsothatothersinfarofflandsmightliveincomfort.
Thisagitationoneconomicissuescontributedtotheunderminingoftheideological
hegemonyofthealienrulersoverIndianminds.
Thenationalisteconomicagitationunderminedthemoralfoundationsinculcatedbythe
BritishthatforeignruleisbeneficialforIndia.

CHAPTER8:FreedomofPress

On29thJanuary1780,theHickeysBengalGazetteortheCalcuttaGeneralAdvertizerwas
published.ItwasthefirstEnglishnewspapertobeprintedintheIndiansub-continent.
Thepresswasthechiefinstrumentofforminganationalistideology

TheresolutionsandproceedingsoftheCongresswerepropagatedthroughpress.Trivia:nearly
onethirdofthefoundingfathersofcongressin1885werejournalists.

Mainnewspapersandeditors

TheHinduandSwadesamitran:GSubramaniyaIyer
KesariandMahratta:BGTilak
Bengalee:SNBanerjea
AmritaBazarPatrika:SisirKumarGhoshandMotilalGhosh
Sudharak:GKGokhale
IndianMirror:NNSen
VoiceofIndia:DadabhaiNaoroji
HindustaniandAdvocate:GPVarma
TribuneandAkhbar-i-AminPunjab
InduPrakash,DnyanPrakahs,KalandGujaratiinBombay

SomPrakash,BanganivasiandSadharaniinBengal

Newspaperwasnotconfinedtotheliterates.Itwouldreachthevillagesandwouldbereadbya
readertotensofothers.
Readinganddiscussingnewspaperbecameaformofpoliticalparticipation.
NearlyallthemajorpoliticalcontroversiesofthedaywereconductedthroughthePress.
Oppose,oppose,opposewasthemottooftheIndianpress.
Thesection124AoftheIPCwassuchastopunishapersonwhoevokedfeelingsofdisaffection
tothegovernment.
TheIndianjournalistsremainedoutside124Abyadoptingmethodssuchasquotingthesocialist
andanti-imperialistnewspapersofEnglandorlettersfromradicalBritishcitizens
TheincreasinginfluenceofthenewspapersledthegovernmenttopasstheVernacularPressAct
of1978,directedonlyagainstIndianlanguagenewspapers.
Itwaspassedverysecretively
Theactprovidedfortheconfiscationoftheprintingpress,paperandothermaterialsofa
newspaperifthegovernmentbelievedthatitwaspublishingseditiousmaterialsandhad
floutedanofficialwarning.
Duetotheagitations,itwasrepealedin1881byLordRipon.
SNBanerjeewasthefirstIndiantogotojailinperformanceofhisdutyasajournalist.

BGTilak

ThemanwhoismostfrequentlyassociatedwiththestruggleforthefreedomofPressduringthe
nationalistmovementisBalGangadharTilak.
In1881,alongwithGGAgarkar,hefoundedthenewspapersKesariandMahratta.
In1893,hestartedthepracticeofusingthetraditionalreligiousGanapatifestivaltopropagate
nationalistideasthroughpatrioticsongsandspeeches.
In1896,hestartedtheShivajifestivaltostimulatenationalismamongyoungMaharashtrians.
Hebroughtpeasantsandfarmersintothenationalmovement.
Heorganizedano-taxcampaigninMaharashtrain1896-97
PlagueinPoonain1897.
PopularresentmentagainsttheofficialplaguemeasuresresultedintheassassinationofRand,the
ChairmanofthePlagueCommitteeinPoona,andLt.AyerstbytheChaphekarbrotherson27
June1898.
Since1894,angerhadbeenrisingagainstthegovernmentduetothetariff,currencyandfamine
policy.
Tilakwasarrestedandsentencedto18monthrigorousimprisonmentin1897.Thisledtocountry
wideprotestsandTilakwasgiventhetitleofLokmanya.
Tilakwasagainarrestedandtriedon24June1908onthechargeofseditionunderarticle124A.
Hewassentencedto6yearsoftransportation.Thisledtonationwideprotestsandclosingdown
ofmarketsforaweek.Later,in1922Gandhiwastriedonthesameactandhesaidthatheis
proudtobeassociatedwithTilaksname.

CHAPER9

TheIndianCouncilsActof1861enlargedtheGovernor-GeneralsExecutiveCouncilforthe
purposeofmakinglaws.
TheGGcouldadd6-12memberstotheExecutiveCouncil.Thiscametobeknownasthe
ImperialLegislativeCouncil.Itdidnthaveanypowers.
DespotismcontrolledfromhomewasthefundamentalfeatureofBritishruleinIndia.
TheIndiansnominatedtothecouncilwerenotrepresentativeofthenationalistmovement.
DespitetheearlynationalistsbelievingthatIndiashouldeventuallybecomeself-governing,they
movedverycautiouslyinputtingforwardpoliticaldemandsregardingthestructureofthestate,
fortheywereafraidoftheGovernmentdeclaringtheiractivitiesseditiousanddisloyaland
suppressingthem.
Till1892,theyonlydemandedreformsinthecouncil.

CHAPTER10:TheSwadeshiMovement:1903-1908

NationalistMovement1905-1918
Reasonsforthegrowthofmilitantnationalism(thisisdifferentfromrevolutionaryterrorism)
Disillusionmentofthenationalistswithmoderatepolicies
ThemoderatesthoughtthattheBritishcouldbereformedfromwithin
PoliticallyconsciousIndianswereconvincedthatthepurposeoftheBritishrulewastoexploit
Indiaeconomically
ThenationalistsrealizedthatIndianindustriescouldnotflourishexceptunderanIndian
government
Disastrousfaminesfrom1896to1900tookatollofover90lakhlives
TheIndianCouncilsActof1892wasadisappointment
TheNatubrothersweredeportedin1897withouttrial
In1897BGTilakwassentencedtolongtermimprisonmentforarousingthepeopleagainstthe
government
In1904,theIndianOfficialSecretsActwaspassedrestrictingthefreedomofthePress
Primaryandtechnicaleducationwasnotmakinganyprogress
Thus,increasingnumberofIndiansweregettingconvincedthatself-governmentwasessentialfor
thesakeofeconomic,politicalandculturalprogressofthecountry
GrowthofSelf-respectandself-confidence
Tilak,AurobindoandPalpreachedthemessageofself-respect
Theysaidtothepeoplethatremedytotheirconditionlayintheirownhandandtheyshould
thereforebecomestrong
SwamiVivekanandasmessages
Growthofeducationandunemployment

InternationalInfluences
RiseofmodernJapanafter1868
DefeatoftheItalianarmybytheEthiopiansin1896andofRussiabyJapanin1905explodedthe
mythofEuropeansuperiority
ExistenceofaMilitantNationalistSchoolofThought
PartitionofBengal

WiththepartitionofBengal,IndianNationalMovemententereditssecondstage
On20July,1905,LordCurzonissuedanorderdividingtheprovinceofBengalintotwoparts:
EasternBengalandAssamwithapopulationof31mnandtherestofBengalwithapopulationof
54mn.
Reasongiven:theexistingprovinceofBengalwastoobigtobeefficientlyadministeredbya
singleprovincialgovernment
ThepartitionexpectedtoweakenthenervecentreofIndianNationalism,Bengal.
ThepartitionofthestateintendedtocurbBengaliinfluencebynotonlyplacingBengalisunder
twoadministrationsbutbyreducingthemtoaminorityinBengalitselfasinthenewproposed
BengalproperwastohaveseventeenmillionBengaliandthirtysevenmillionOriyaandHindi
speakingpeople.
Thepartitionwasalsomeanttofosterdivisiononthebasisofreligion.
Risley,HomeSecretarytotheGoI,saidonDecember6,1904oneofourmainobjectsisto
splitupandtherebyweakenasolidbodyofopponentstoourrule.
thenationalistssawitasadeliberateattempttodividetheBengalisterritoriallyandonreligious
grounds

TheSwadeshiMovement
TheSwadeshimovementhaditsgenesisintheanti-partitionmovementwhichwasstartedto
opposetheBritishdecisiontopartitionBengal.
Massprotestswereorganizedinoppositiontotheproposedpartition.
Despitetheprotests,thedecisiontopartitionBengalwasannouncedonJuly19,1905
Itbecameobvioustothenationaliststhattheirmoderatemethodswerenotworkingandthata
differentkindofstrategywasneeded.
SeveralmeetingswereheldintownssuchasDinajpurPabna,Faridpuretc.Itwasinthese
meetingsthatthepledgetoboycottforeigngoodswasfirsttaken.
TheformalproclamationoftheSwadeshimovementwasmadeon7August1905inameeting
heldintheCalcuttatownhall.Thefamousboycottresolutionwaspassed.
TheleaderslikeSNBanerjeetouredthecountryurgingtheboycottofManchesterclothand
Liverpoolsalt.
ThevalueofBritishclothsoldinsomeofthedistrictsfellbyfivetofifteentimesbetween
September1904andSeptember1905.
Thedaythepartitiontookeffect16October1905wasdeclaredadayofmourningthroughout
Bengal.
Themovementsoonspreadtotheentirecountry.
Militantnationalists
TheextremistswereinfavorofextendingthemovementtotherestofIndiaandcarrying
itbeyondtheprogrammeofjustSwadeshiandboycotttoafullfledgedpoliticalmass
struggle.Themoderateswerenotaswillingtogothatfar.
Thedifferencesbetweentheextremistsandmoderatescametohadin1907Suratsession

wherethepartysplitwithseriousconsequencesfortheSwadeshiMovement.
InBengal,theextremistsacquiredadominantinfluenceovertheSwadeshimovement.
Theyproposedthetechniqueofextendedboycottwhichincluded,apartfromboycottof
foreigngoods,boycottofgovernmentschoolsandcolleges,courts,titlesandgovernment
servicesandeventheorganizationofstrikes.
AurobindoGhose:Politicalfreedomisthelifebreathofanation.
Boycottandpublicburningforeigncloth,picketingofshopssellingforeigngoods,
becamecommoninremotecornersofBengalaswellasinmanytownsacrossthe
country.
Themilitantnationslists,however,failedtogiveapositiveleadershiptothepeople.They
alsofailedtoreachtherealmassesofthecountry,thepeasants.
Themovementalsoinnovatedwithconsiderablesuccessdifferentformsofmassmobilization
suchaspublicmeetings,processionsandcorpsofvolunteers.
TheSwadeshBandhabSamitisetupbyAshwiniKumarDutt,aschoolteacher,inBarisalwasthe
mostwellknownvolunteerorganization.
DuringtheSwadeshiperiod,traditionalfestivalswereusedtoreachouttothemasses.The
GanapatiandShivajifestivalswerepopularizedbyTilak.Traditionalfolktheatressuchasjatras
werealsoused.
Anotherimportantaspectwasthegreatemphasisgiventoself-relianceorAtmasaktiasa
necessarypartofthestruggleagainstthegovernment.
Self-reliancewasthekeyword.Campaignsforsocialreformswerecarriedout.
In1906,theNationalCouncilforEducationwassetuptoorganizetheeducationsystem.
Self-reliancealsomeantanefforttosetupSwadeshiorindigenousenterprises.
Markedimpactintheculturalsphere
ThesongscomposedbyRabindranathTago,MukundaDasandothersbecamethe
movingspiritfornationalists.
RabindranathsAmarSonarBangla,writtenatthattime,wastolaterinspirethe
liberationstruggleofBangladeshandwasadoptedasthenationalanthemofthecountry
in1971.
NandalalBose,wholeftamajorimprintonIndianart,wasthefirstrecipientofa
scholarshipofferedbytheIndianSocietyofOrientalArtfoundedin1907.
Thesocialbaseofthenationalmovementwasnowextenedtoincludecertainzamindarisection,
lowermiddleclassandschoolandcollegestudents.Womenalsoparticipatedinlargenumbers.
Drawback:WasnotabletogarnerthesupportofthemassofMuslims,especiallythemuslim
peasantry.TheBritishpolicyofcommunalismresponsibleforthis.
Bymid-1908,themovementwasalmostover.Themainreasonswere:
Thegovernment,seeingtherevolutionarypotentialofthemovement,camedownwitha
heavyhand.
Thesplitofthecongressin1907hadweakenedthemovement.
Themovementlackedaneffectiveorganizationandpartystructure.
Themovementdeclinedpartiallybecauseofthelogicofthemassmovementsitself
theycannotbeendlesslysustainedatthesamepitchofmilitancyandself-sacrifice.
Theanti-partitionmovement,however,markedagreatrevolutionaryleapforwardforIndian
nationalism.
ThedeclineofSwadeshiengenderedtheriseofrevolutionaryterrorism.
Assessingthemovement
Culturalimpact
SocialImpact

Economicimpact
RoleofstudentsandWomen
AllIndiaaspectofthemovement
Frompassiveprotesttoactiveboycott

RevolutionaryTerrorism

Revolutionaryyoungmendidnottrytogenerateamassrevolution.Insteadtheyfollowedthe
strategyofassassinatingunpopularofficials
1904:VDSavarkarorganizedAbhinavBharat
NewspaperslikeTheSandhyaandYugaantarinBengalandtheKalinMaharashtraadvocated
revolutionaryideology
KingsfordIncident:In1908,KhudiramBoseandPrafullaChakithrewbombatacarriagethey
believedwascarryingKingsford,theunpopularjudgeofMuzaffarpur.
AnushilanSamitithrewabombattheViceroyLordHardinge
Centresabroad
InLondon:ledbyVDSavarkar,ShyamajiKrishnavarmaandHarDayal
InEurope:MadamCamaandAjitSingh
Theygraduallypeteredout.Itdidnothaveanybaseamongthepeople

CHAPTER11:TheSplitintheCongress

Moderatesweresuccessfultosomeextent.
Moderatesfailedinmanyaspects.Why?
Theycouldnotacquireanyrootsamongcommonpeople.
Theybelievedthattheycouldpersuadetherulerstochangetheirpolicies.However,their
achievementinthisregardwasmeager.
Theycouldnotkeeppacewiththeevents.Theyfailedtomeetthedemandsofthenew
stageofthenationalmovement.
TheBritishwerekeenonfinishingtheCongressbecause:
Howevermoderatetheleaderswere,theywerestillnationalistsandpropagatorsof
anti-colonialistideas.
TheBritishfeltthatmoderatesledcongresscouldbefinishedoffeasilybecauseitdidnot
haveapopularbase
Intheswadeshimovement,allsectionsofINCunitedinopposingthePartition
However,therewasmuchdifferencebetweenthemoderatesandtheextremistsaboutthe
methodsandscopeofthemovement
TheextremistswantedtoextendtheSwadeshiandBoycottmovementfromBengaltothe
restofthecountryandtoboycotteveryformofassociationwiththecolonialgovernment
ThemoderateswantedtoconfinetheboycottmovementtoBengalandeventheretolimit
ittotheboycottofforeigngoods
AftertheSwadeshimovementtheBritishadoptedathreeprongedapproachtodealwith
congress.Repression-conciliation-suppression.
Theextremistswerereppressed
Themoderateswereconciliatedthusgivingthemanimpressionthattheirfurther
demandswouldbemetiftheydisassociatedfromtheextremists.Theideawastoisolate
theextremists.
Oncethemoderatesandextremistswereseparatetheextremistscouldbesuppressed

throughtheuseofstateforcewhilethemoderatescouldlaterbeignored.
ThecongresssessionwasheldonDecember26,1907atSurat,onthebanksoftheriverTapti.
TheextremistswantedaguaranteethatthefourCalcuttaresolutionswillbepassed.
Theyobjectedtothedulyelectedpresidentoftheyear,RashBehariGhose.
Therewasaconfrontationwithhurlingofchairsandshoes.
Thegovernmentlaunchedamassiveattackontheextremists.Newspapersweresuppressed.Tilak
wassenttoMandalayjailforsixyears.
Theextremistswerenotabletoorganizeaneffectivealternativepartyortosustainthe
movement.
After1908thenationalmovementasawholedeclined.
Themoderatesandthecountryasawholeweredisappointedbythe1909Minto-Morleyreforms
ThenumberofindirectlyelectedmembersoftheImperialandprovinciallegislative
councilswasincreased.
SeparateelectoratesforMuslimswereintroduced.
WiththesplitofCongressrevolutionaryterrorismrose.
In1904VDSavarkarorganizedAbhinavBharatasasecretsocietyofrevolutionaries
InApril1908,PrafullaChakiandKhudiramBosethrewabombatacarriagewhichtheybelieved
wasoccupiedbyKingsfordtheunpopularjudgeatMuzzafarpur.
AnushilanSamityandJugantarweretwomostimportantrevolutionarygroups.
Anassessmentofthesplit
Thesplitdidnotproveusefultoeitherparty
TheBritishplayedthegameofdivideandrule
ToplacatethemoderatestheyannouncedtheMorley-Mintoreformswhichdidnotsatisfy
thedemandsofthenationalists.TheyalsoannulledthepartitionofBengalin1911.

Morley-MintoReforms,1909

IncreasedthenumberofelectedmembersintheImperialLegislativeCouncilandtheprovincial
council
However,mostoftheelectedmemberswereelectedindirectly
Thereformedcouncilsstillenjoyednorealpower,beingmerelyadvisorybodies.
IntroducedseparateelectoratesunderwhichallMuslimsweregroupedinseparate
constituenciesfromwhichMuslimsalonecouldbeelected.Thiswasaimedatdividingthe
HindusandMuslims.Itwasbasedonthenotionthatthepoliticalandeconomicinterestsof
HindusandMuslimswereseparate.
Thislaterbecameapotentfactorinthegrowthofcommunalism
ItisolatedtheMuslimsfromtheNationalistMovementandencouragedseparatist
tendencies
Therealpurposeofthereformswastoconfusethemoderatenationalists,todividenationalist
ranksandtocheckthegrowthofunityamongIndians
ResponseofModerates
Theyrealizedthatthereformshadnotgrantedmuch
However,theydecidedtocooperatewiththegovernmentinworkingthereforms
Thisledtotheirlossofrespectamongthenationalistsandmasses

GrowthofCommunalism

Definition
Communalismisthebeliefthatbecauseagroupofpeoplefollowaparticularreligion

theyhave,asaresult,commonsecular,thatis,social,politicalandeconomic
interests.
Secondstage:Secularinterestsoffollowersofonereligionaredissimilarand
divergentfromtheinterestsofthefollowersofanotherreligion
Thirdstage:Theinterestsofthefollowersofdifferentreligionsorofdifferent
religiouscommunitiesareseentobemutuallyincompatible,antagonisticandhostile.
Communalismisnotaremnantofthemedievalperiod.Ithasitsrootsinthemoderncolonial
socio-economicpoliticalstructure.
DivideandRule
After1857,BritishinitiallysuppressedIndianmuslims.However,afterthe
publishingofHuntersbookTheIndianMussalmantheyactivelyfollowedthe
policyofdivideandruleandhencestartedsupportingtheMuslims.
TheypromotedprovincialismbytalkingofBengaldomination
Tiredtousethecastestructuretoturnthenon-brahminsagainstBrahminsandthe
lowercasteagainstthehighercastes.
Itreadilyacceptedcommunalleadersasauthenticrepresentativesofalltheir
co-religionists.
ReasonsforgrowthofcommunaltendenciesinMuslims
Relativebackwardness:educationallyandeconomically<incomplete>

MuslimLeague

1906byAgaKhan,theNawabofDhaka,andNawabMohsin-ul-Mulk
Itmadenocritiqueofcolonialism,supportedthepartitionofBengalanddemandedspecial
safeguardsfortheMuslimsingovernmentservices.
MLspoliticalactivitiesweredirectednotagainsttheforeignrulersbutagainsttheHindusand
theINC.
TheiractivitieswerenotsupportedbyallMuslims
ArharmovementwasfoundedatthistimeundertheleadershipofMaulanaMohamed
Ali,HakimAjmalKhan,HasanImam,MaulanaZafarAliKhan,andMazhar-ul-Haq.
Theyadvocatedparticipationinthemilitantnationalistmovement.

MuslimNationalists

ThewarbetweenOttomanEmpireandItalycreatedawaveofsympathyforTurkey
DuringthewarbetweenOttomanempireandItaly,IndiasentamedicalmissionheadedbyMA
AnsaritohelpTurkey.
AstheBritishwerenotsympathetictoTurkey,thepro-CaliphsentimentsinIndiabecame
anti-British
However,themilitantnationalistsamongmuslimsdidnotacceptanentirelysecularapproachto
politics
Themostimportantissuetheytookupwasnotpoliticalindependencebutprotectionofthe
Turkishempire.
ThisapproachdidnotimmediatelyclashwithIndiannationalism.However,inthelongrunit
provedharmfulasitencouragedthehabitoflookingatpoliticalquestionsfromareligiousview
point.

HinduCommunalism

SomeHindusacceptedthecolonialviewofIndianhistoryandtalkedaboutthetyrannicalMuslim
ruleinthemedievalperiod
OverlanguagetheysaidthatHindiwasthelanguageofHindusandUrduthatofMuslims.
PunjabHinduSabhawasfoundedin1909.ItsleadersattachedtheINCfortryingtouniteIndians
intoasinglenation.
ThefirstsessionoftheAllIndiaHinduMahasabhawasheldinApril1915underthe
presidentshipoftheMaharajaofKasimBazar.
Ithoweverremainedaweakorganizationbecausethecolonialgovernmentgaveitfew
concessionsandlittlesupport.

CHAPTER12:WorldWarIandIndianNationalism

IncreasingnumberofIndiansfromPunjabwereemigratingtoNorthAmerica.
TheBritishgovernmentthoughtthattheseemigrantswouldbeaffectedbytheideaofliberty.
Hence,theytriedtorestrictemigration.
TarakNathDas,anIndianstudentinCanada,startedapapercalledFreeHindustan.
TheHindiAssociationwassetupinPortlandinMay1913.
UndertheleadershipofLalaHarDayal,aweeklypaper,TheGhadarwasstartedanda
headquarterscalledYugantarAshramwassetupinSanFransisco.
OnNovember1,1913,thefirstissueofGhadarwaspublishedinUrduandonDecember9,
theGurumukhiedition.
In1914,threeeventsinfluencedthecourseoftheGhadarmovement:
ThearrestandescapeofHarDayal
TheKomagataMaruincident
Outbreakofthefirstworldwar
GharaditescametoIndiaandmadeseveralattemptstoinstilltheIndianpopulationtorevolt.
However,thiswasofnoavail.
TheGhadarmovementwasverysecularinnature.
Ghadarmilitantsweredistinguishedbytheirsecular,egalitarian,democraticandnon-chauvinistic
internationalistoutlook.
ThemajorweaknessoftheGhadarleaderswasthattheycompletelyunder-estimatedtheextent
andamountofpreparationateverylevelorganizational,ideological,strategic,tactical,financial
thatwasnecessarybeforeanattemptatanarmedrevoltcouldbeorganized.
Italsofailedtogenerateaneffectiveandsustainedleadershipthatwascapableofintegratingthe
variousaspectsofthemovement.
Anotherweaknesswasitsalmostnon-existentorganizationalstructure.
Someimportantleaders:BabaGurmukhSingh,KartarSinghSaraba,SohanSinghBhakna,
RahmatAliShah,BhaiParmanandandMohammadBarkatullah.
InspiredbytheGhadarParty,700soldiersatSingaporerevoltedundertheleadershipofJamadar
ChistiKhanandSubedarDundeyKhan.Therebellionwascrushed.
Otherrevolutionaries:JatinMukharjee,RashBihariBose,RajaMahendraPratab,LalaHardayal,
AbdulRahim,MaulanaObaidullahSindhi,ChampakaramanPillai,SardarSinghRanaand
MadameCama

CHAPTER13:TheHomeRuleMovement

Afterbeingreleasedin1914,Tilaksoughtre-entryintoCongress.AnnieBesantandGokhale
supported.ButfinallyPherozshahMehtawonandTilakwasnotadmitted.
TilakandBesantdecidedtostartthehomerulemovementontheirown.
Inearly1915,AnnieBesant(andSSubramaniyaIyer)launchedacampaignthroughhertwo
newspapers,NewIndiaandCommonweal,andorganizedpublicmeetingsandconferencesto
demandthatIndiabegrantedself-governmentonthelinesoftheWhitecoloniesafterthe
War.FromApril1915,hertonebecamemoreperemptoryandherstancemoreaggressive.
AttheannualsessionoftheCongressinDecember1915itwasdecidedthattheextremistsbe
allowedtorejointheCongress.TheoppositionfromtheBombaygrouphasbeengreatly
weakenedbythedeathofPherozshahMehta.
TilakandAnnieBesantsetuptwodifferenthomeruleleagues.
TilaksleaguewastoworkinMaharashtra(excludingBombaycity),Karnataka,thecentral
provincesandBerarandAnnieBesantsleaguewasgiventhechargedoftherestofIndia.
Tilakwastotallysecularinnature.Therewasnotraceofreligiousappeal.Thedemandfor
HomeRulewasmadeonawhollysecularbasis.
Homeruleismybirthright,andIwillhaveit
TheBritishwerealiensnotbecausetheybelongedtoanotherreligionbutbecausetheydid
notactintheIndianinterest
Tilaksleaguewasorganizedintosixbranches,oneeachinCentralMaharashtrra,Bombay
city,Karnataka,andCentralProvinces,andtwoinBerar.
On23rdJuly1916,onTilakssixtiethbirthdaythegovernmentsentanoticeaskinghimto
showcausewhyheshouldnotbeboundoverforgoodbehaviorforaperiodofoneyearand
demandingsecuritiesofRs60000
TilakwasdefendedbyateamoflawyersledbyMohammadAliJinnah.Hewon.Tilakused
theopportunitytofurthertheHomeRulemovement.
InBesantsleague,themainthrustofactivitywasdirectedtowardsbuildingupanagitation
aroundthedemandforHomeRule.Thiswastobeachievedbypromotingpoliticaleducation
anddiscussion.
LucknowPact:1916intheCongressSessionatLucknow.AlsoknownasCongressLeague
Pact.Extremistswereacceptedbackincongress.AnagreementwasreachedbetweenMuslim
LeagueandCongress.
TheturningpointinthemovementcamewiththearrestofAnnieBesantinJune1917
Therewaswideagitationandmanyleadersjoinedtheleague.
Thegovernmentagreedtograntselfrulebutthetimingforsuchachangewastobedecided
bythegovernmentalone.
Afterthegreatadvancein1917,themovementgraduallydissolved.
Themoderateswerepacifiedbythegovernmentsassuranceofreformsafter
Besantsrelease.
ThepublicationofschemeofgovernmentreformsinJuly1918furthercreated
divisions.Manyrejecteditwhileotherswereforgivingitatrial.
Later,TilakwenttoEnglandtofightacase.WithBesantunabletogiveafirmlead,
andTilakawayinEngland,themovementwasleftleaderless.
Achievementsofthemovement
TheachievementoftheHomeRulemovementwasthatitcreatedagenerationofardent
nationalistswhoformedthebackboneofthenationalmovementinthecomingyears.
TheHomeruleleaguesalsocreatedorganizationallinksbetweentownandcountrywhich

weretoproveinvaluableinlateryears.
Bypopularizingtheideaofself-government,itgeneratedawidespreadpro-nationalist
atmosphereinthecountry.
ThemovementsettherightmoodfortheentryofMahatmaGandhiandtakethe
leadership.

LucknowPact(1916)

Nationalistssawthattheirdisunitywasaffectingtheircause
TwoimportantdevelopmentsattheLucknowSessionofCongress
ThetwowingsoftheCongresswereagainunited
TheCongressandtheMuslimLeaguesanktheirolddifferencesandputupcommon
politicaldemandsbeforethegovernment.
INCandMLpassedthesameresolutionsattheirsessions,putforwardajointschemeofpolitical
reformsbasedonseparateelectorates,anddemandedthattheBritishGovernmentshouldmakea
declarationthatitwouldconferself-governmentonIndiaatanearlydate.
Thepactacceptedtheprincipleofseparateelectorates
Mainclausesofthepact
Thereshallbeself-governmentinIndia.
Muslimsshouldbegivenone-thirdrepresentationinthecentralgovernment.
Thereshouldbeseparateelectoratesforallthecommunitiesuntilacommunity

demandedjointelectorates.
Asystemofweightageshouldbeadopted.
ThenumberofthemembersofCentralLegislativeCouncilshouldbeincreasedto
150.
Attheprovinciallevel,four-fifthofthemembersoftheLegislativeCouncils
shouldbeelectedandone-fifthshouldbenominated.
Thesizeofprovinciallegislaturesshouldnotbelessthan125inthemajor
provincesandfrom50to75intheminorprovinces.
Allmembers,exceptthosenominated,shouldbeelecteddirectlyonthebasisof
adultfranchise.
Nobillconcerningacommunityshouldbepassedifthebillisopposedby
three-fourthofthemembersofthatcommunityintheLegislativeCouncil.
ThetermoftheLegislativeCouncilshouldbefiveyears.
MembersofLegislativeCouncilshouldthemselveselecttheirpresident.
HalfofthemembersofImperialLegislativeCouncilshouldbeIndians.
TheIndianCouncilmustbeabolished.
ThesalariesoftheSecretaryofStateforIndianAffairsshouldbepaidbythe
BritishgovernmentandnotfromIndianfunds.
OfthetwoUnderSecretaries,oneshouldbeIndian.
TheExecutiveshouldbeseparatedfromtheJudiciary.

Evaluation
Asanimmediateeffect,theunitybetweenthetwofactionsofthecongressandbetween
INCandMLarousedgreatpoliticalenthusiasminthecountry
However,itdidnotinvolveHinduandMuslimmassesandwasbasedonthenotionof
bringingtogethertheeducatedHindusandMuslimsasseparatepoliticalentitieswithout
secularizationoftheirpoliticaloutlook

ThepactthereforeleftthewayopentothefutureresurgenceofcommunalisminIndian
politics.
Montagu-ChelmsfordReforms
ProvincialLCenlarged.Moreelectedmembers
Dyarchy
Somesubjectswerereservedandremainedunderthedirectcontrolofthe
Governor;otherssuchaseducation,publichealthandlocalself-governmentwere
calledtransferredsubjectsandweretobecontrolledbytheministersresponsible
tothelegislature.
Atthecentre,thereweretwohousesoflegislature.
Responseofnationalists
INCcondemnedthereformsasdisappointingandunsatisfactory
Someothers,ledbySurendranathBanerjea,wereinfavourofacceptingthe
governmentproposals.TheylefttheCongressatthistimeandfoundedtheIndian
LiberalFederation
Evaluation
Thegovernorcouldoverruletheministersonanygroundsthatheconsidered
special
ThelegislaturehadvirtuallynocontrolovertheGovernor-Generalandhis
ExecutiveCouncil.
Thecentralgovernmenthadunrestrictedcontrolovertheprovincialgovernments

RowlattAct

March1919
ItauthorizedtheGovernmenttoimprisonanypersonwithouttrialandconvictioninacourtof
law.

CHAPTER14:Gandhisearlycareerandactivism

GandhiwasthefirstIndianbarristertohavecometoSouthAfrica.
HewasfacedwithvariousracialdiscriminationswithindaysofhisarrivalinSA.
HeledtheIndianstruggleinSA.
ThefirstphaseofGandhispoliticalactivitiesfrom1894-1906maybeclassifiedasthe
moderatephase.
HesetuptheNatalIndianCongressandstartedapapercalledIndianOpinion.
By1906,Gandhiji,havingfullytriedtheModeratemethodsofstruggle,wasbecoming
convincedthatthesewouldnotleadanywhere.
Thesecondphase,begunin1906,wascharacterizedbytheuseofpassiveresistance,
Satyagraha.Therewasnofearofjails.
SouthAfricapreparedGandhijiforleadershipoftheIndiannationalstruggle:
HehadtheinvaluableexperienceofleadingpoorIndianlabourers.
SAbuiltuphisfaithinthecapacityoftheIndianmassestoparticipateinand
sacrificeforacausethatmovedthem.
GandhijialsohadtheopportunityofleadingIndiansbelongingtodifferentreligions.

SouthAfricaprovidedGandhijiwithanopportunityforevolvinghisownstyleofpoliticsand
leadership.
GandhireturnedtoIndiaonJanuary9,1915
HefoundedtheSabarmatiAshraminAhmedabadin1916
Initiallyhewaspoliticallyidle.Hespenthistimestudyingthesituationofthecountry.
Hewasdeeplyconvincedthattheonlyviablemethodofpoliticalstrugglewassatyagraha.
Duringthecourseof1917andearly1918,hewasinvolvedinthreesignificantstrugglesin
ChamparaninBihar,inAhmedabadandinKhedainGujarat.Thecommonfeatureofthese
struggleswasthattheyrelatedtospecificlocalissuesandthattheywerefoughtforthe
economicdemandsofthemasses.
ChamparanSatyagraha(1917)
PeasantryontheindigoplantationsinChamparan,Biharwasexcessivelyoppressed
bytheEurpoeanplanters.
OntheinvitationofthepeasantshewenttoChamparanandbegantoconducta
detailedinquiryintotheconditionofthepeasantry
ThegovernmentwasforcedtosetupacommitteewithGandhiasoneofthe
members.Thesufferingsofthepeasantswasreduced.
Othersinthismovement:RajendraPrasad,Mazhar-ul-Haq,JBKriplani,Narhari
ParekhandMahadevDesai.
AhmedabadMillStrike(1918)
Disputebetweenworkersandmillowners
Gandhiadvisedworkerstogoonanon-violentstrike.Hehimselftooktofast
Ownersyieldedandgavea35percentincreaseinwagestotheworkers
KhedaSatyagraha(1918)
DespitecropfailureinKhedathegovernmentinsistedonfulllandrevenue
Gandhiadvisedthepeasantstowithholdpayment.
Govtissuedinstructionsthatrevenueshouldbecollectedfromonlythosefarmers
whocouldaffordtopay
SardarVallabhbhaiPatelplayedamajorroleinthissatyagraha.
Impactoftheseearlyexperiences
BroughtGandhijiinclosecontactwiththemasses
Heidentifiedhislifeandmanneroflivingwiththelifeofthecommonpeople
Hehadthreemainaims
Hindu-MuslimUnity
Fightagainstuntouchability
Raisingthesocialstatusofthewomen
Gandhijisfirstmajornation-wideprotestwasagainsttheRowlattBillsin1919.Heformed
theSatyagrahaSabhawhosememberstookapledgetodisobeytheActandthustocourt
arrestandimprisonment.
Satyagrahawaslaunched.Theformofprotestfinallydecidedwastheobservanceofa
nation-widehartalaccompaniedbyfastingandprayer.
However,protestsweregenerallyaccompaniedbyviolenceanddisorder.
InPunjab,thesituationwasparticularlyviolent.GenralDyerwascalledtocontrolthe
situation.On13April,BaisakhiDay,GeneralDyerorderedtoopenfireonunarmedcrowdin
JallianwalaBagh.Thegovernmentestimatewas379dead,otherestimateswereconsiderably
higher.
Gandhiji,overwhelmedbythetotalatmosphereofviolence,withdrewthemovementon18
April.

Differencebetweenearliermethodsofstruggleandsatyagraha
Earlier,themovementhadconfineditsstruggletoagitation.Theyusedtohold
meetings,demonstrate,boycottetc
ThroughSatyagrahatheycouldactnow.
Thenewmovementreliedincreasinglyonthepoliticalsupportofthepeasants,
artisansandurbanpoor.
Gandhijiincreasinglyturnedthefaceofnationalismtowardsthecommonman
JallianwalaBaghMassacre
OnApril13,1919alargecrowdhadgatheredinAmritsartoprotestagainstthearrest
oftheirleaders,Dr.SaifuddingKitchlewandDr.Satyapal
GeneralDyeropenedfire
Widespreadcriticism.Tagorereturnedhisknighthood.

CHAPTER15:NonCo-operationMovement

Montagu-ChelmsfordReforms1919:Dyarchy
Inasystemcalled"dyarchy,"thenation-buildingdepartmentsofgovernmentagriculture,
education,publicworks,andthelikewereplacedunderministerswhowereindividually
responsibletothelegislature.Thedepartmentsthatmadeupthe"steelframe"ofBritishrule
finance,revenue,andhomeaffairswereretainedbyexecutivecouncillorswhowere
nominatedbytheGovernor.
TheHunterCommitteereportpraisedtheactionsofgeneralDyer.
KhilafatMovement
ForsupportofTurkey
KhilafatCommitteeformedundertheleadershipofAliBrothers,MaulanaAzad,Hakim
AjmalKhanandHasratMohani
ThepromisesmadetotheKhilafatCommitteewerenotkeptaftertheWorldWar.
TheAll-IndiaKhilafatConferenceheldatDelhiinNovember1919decidedtowithdraw
allcooperationfromthegovernmentiftheirdemandswerenotmet.
OnJune91920,theKhilafatCommitteeatAllahabadunanimouslyacceptedthe
suggestionofnon-cooperationandaskedGandhijitoleadthemovement.
KhilafatmovementcementedHindu-Muslimunity
GandhijilookedupontheKhilafatagitationasanopportunityofunitingHindusand
Mohammedansaswouldnotariseinahundredyears
Thenon-cooperationmovementwaslaunchedonAugust1,1920.LokmanyaTilakpassedaway
onthesameday.
Peoplecountrywideobservedhartalandtookoutprocessions.
ThecongressmetinSeptemberatCalcuttaandacceptednon-co-operationasitsown.
Theprogrammeofnon-cooperationincluded:
Surrenderoftitlesandhonors
Boycottofgovernmentaffiliatedschoolsandcolleges,lawcourts,foreignclothand
couldbeextendedtoresignationfromgovernmentservices.
Masscivildisobedienceincludingthenon-paymentoftaxes.
Nationalschoolsandcollegesweretobesetup
Panchayatsweretobeestablishedtosettledisputes

Hand-spinningandweavingwasencouraged
PeoplewereaskedtomaintainHindu-Muslimunity,giveupuntouchabilityandobserve
strictnon-violence.
ChangesinCongresstoattainthenewobjective:
AttheNagpursessionin1920changesintheConstitutionofCongressweremade.
Thegoalofcongresswaschangedfromtheattainmentofself-governmentby
constitutionalandlegalmeanstotheattainmentofSwarajbypeacefulandlegitimate
means.
TheCongressnowhadaWorkingCommitteeoffifteenmemberstolookafteritsdayto
dayaffairs.
Provincialcongresscommitteeswerenoworganizedonalinguisticbasis.
Mahallaandwardcommitteeswereformed.
Themembershipfeewasreducedto4annasayearstoenablepoortobecomemembers.
Thiswasnotwithoutoppositionhowever.Somemembersstillbelievedinthetraditional
methods.LeaderslikeJinnah,GSKhaparde,BipinChandraPalandAnnieBesantleft
congressduringthistime.
Gandhiji,alongwiththeAlibrother,undertookanationwidetourtoaddresspeople.
Thousandsofstudentsleftgovernmentschoolsandjoinednationalschools.
Themostsuccessfulitemoftheprogrammewastheboycottofforeigncloth.
Picketingoftoddyshopswasalsoverypopular.
Studentsletgovernmentschoolsandcolleges.ITwasduringthistimethatJamiaMiliaIslamiaof
Aligarh,theBiharVidyapith,theKashiVidyapithandtheGujaratVidyapithcameintoexistence.
LawyerssuchasDeshbandhuCRDas,MotilalNehru,RajendraPrasad,SaifudiinKitchlew,C
Rajagopalachari,SardarPatel,TPrakasamandAsafAligaveuptheirlegalpractice.
TilakSwarajyaFundwasstartedtofinancetheNCM.
In1921,KhilafatCommitteeissuedaresolutionthatnomuslimshouldserveintheBritishIndian
army.
ThevisitofthePrinceofWaleson17thNovember1921wasobservedasadayofhartalallover
thecountry.
TheCongressVolunteerCorpsemergedasapowerfulparallelpolice.
ByDecember1921,thegovernmentfeltthatthingsweregoingtoofarandannouncedachange
ofpolicybydeclaringthevolunteercorpsillegalandarrestingallthosewhoclaimedtobeits
members.
Thousandsofpeasantsandtenantsparticipatedinthemovement.
InPunjab,theAkalimovementtoremovecorruptmahantsfromtheGurudwaraswasstarted.
Assam:Teaplantationworkerswentonstrike. Midnapore:peasantsrefusedtopayUnion
Boardtaxes.
Guntur(Chirala):AgitationledbyDuggiralaGopalakrishayya
Malabar:Mohlahs(muslimpeasants)createdapowerfulanti-zamindarimovement.
Asthegovernmentrefusedtoyield,Gandhijiannouncedthatmasscivildisobediencewould
begininBardolitaluqaofSurat.
However,inChauriChaura,Gorakhpuron5February1922crowdsetfireonapolicestationand
killedsomepolicemen.Onhearingthis,Gandhijidecidedtowithdrawthemovement.
Thecongressworkingcommitteeratifiedhisdecision.Thus,onFebruary12,1922,the
non-cooperationmovementcametoanend.
AssessingtheWithdrawal:
SomescholarssaythatGandhijiwithdrewthemovementbecausehewantedtoprotect
theinterestsofthepropertiedclass.
Somearguethattherewasnologicwhyasmallincidentshouldleadtowithdrawalofthe

movementitself.
However,governmentcoulduseChauriChauratojustifyitsrepressionofthemovement.
Ifmovementwasstartedatthattime,itwouldhavebeendefeatedduetotherepressionof
thegovernment.
Gandhijiwasprotectingthemovementfromlikelyrepression,andthepeoplefrom
demoralization.
Massmovementstendtoebbinsometime.Hence,withdrawalisapartofthestrategyof
massmovements.
Gandhijiwastriedin1922andsentencedtosixyearsimprisonment.
Heinvitedthecourttoawardhimthehighestpenaltythatcanbeinflicteduponmefor
whatinlawisadeliberatecrime,andwhatappearstobethehighestdutyofacitizen.
Positivesoutofthenon-cooperationmovement:
CongressstartedcommandingthesupportandsympathyofvastsectionsoftheIndian
people.
MillionsofIndiansbecamepoliticallyinvolved.Womenweredrawnintothemovement.
Muslimsparticipatedheavilyandcommunalunitywasmaintained.
Strengthenedthenationalmovement.Nationalistsentimentsandthenationalmovement
hadreachedtheremotestcornersoftheland.
Peoplegainedtremendousself-confidenceandself-esteem.

CHAPTER16:PeasantMovements

Threeimportantpeasantmovementsoftheearlytwentiethcentury:
KisanSabhaandEkamovementsinAvadhinUP
MappilarebellioninMalabar
BardoliSatyagrahinGujarat
TheUPKisanSabhawassetupinFebruary1918throughtheeffortsofGauriShankarMishra
andIndraNarainDwivediwiththesupportofMadanMohanMalviya.
ByJune1919,ithadestablishedabout450branchesin173tehsilsoftheprovince.
InAugust1921,Mappila(Muslim)tenantsrebelled.Theirgrievancesrelatedtolackofany
securityoftenure,renewalfees,highrentsandotheroppressivelabndlordexactions.
Theno-taxmovementwaslaunchedinBardolitaluqofSuratdistrictinGujaratin1928.

CHAPTER17:TheWorkingClassMovements

Thereweresomeworkingclassmovementsinsecondhalfof19thcentury.However,theywere
impulsiveandnotverywellorganized.
Theearlynationalistshadalukewarmattitudetowardsthequestionofworkers.Thiswarbecause
initiallyCongresswantedtofocusonissueswhichwereofcommonconcerntoallthepeopleof
India.
TherewasadifferenceinattitudeofthenationaliststowardsworkersinindigenousandEuropean
enterprises.
ThemostimportantfeatureofthelabourmovementduringtheSwadeshidayswastheshiftfrom

agitationandstrugglesonpurelyeconomicquestionstotheinvolvementoftheworkerwiththe
widerpoliticalissuesoftheday.
TheAllIndiaTradeUnionCongress(AITUC)wasfoundedin1920.
IN1918GandhifoundedtheAhmedabadTextileLabourAssociation.
TheAITUCinNovember1927tookadecisiontoboycotttheSimonCommissionandmany
workersparticipatedinthemassiveSimonboycottdemonstrations.
Alarmedbyworkersmovement,thegovernmentenactedrepressivelawslikethePublicSafety
ActandTradeDisputesActsandarrestedtheentireradicalleadershipofthelabourmovement
andlaunchedtheMeerutConspiracyCaseagainstthem.
Thelabourmovementsufferedamajorsetbackpartiallyduetothisgovernmentoffensiveand
partiallyduetoashiftinstanceofthecommunistledwingofthemovement.
Fromtheendof1928,thecommunistsstoppedaligningthemwiththenationalmovement.
CommunistsgotisolatedwithintheAITUCandwerethrownoutinthesplitof1931.
BY1934,thecommunistsre-enteredthemainstreamnationalistpolitics.
TheworkingclassofBombayheldananti-warstrikeon2October,1939.
WiththeNaziattackontheSovietUnionin1941,thecommunistschangedtheirpolicyandasked
thepeopletosupportthealliedforcesinsteadofholdinganti-warstrikes.
ThecommunistsdissociatedthemselvesfromtheQuitIndiamovementlaunchedin1942.
Thelastyearsofcolonialrulealsosawaremarkablysharpincreaseinstrikesoneconomicissues
alloverthecountrytheallIndiastrikeofthepostandtelegraphdepartmentemployeesbeing
themostwellknownamongthem.

CHAPTER18:StrugglesforGurudwaraReformandTempleEntry

TheAkalimovement
ThemovementarosewiththeobjectiveoffreeingtheGurudwarasfromthecontrolofignorant
andcorruptpriests(mahants).
Apartfromthemahants,aftertheBritishannexationofPunjabin1849,somecontroloverthe
GurudwaraswasexercisedbyGovernment-nominatedmanagersandcustodians,whooften
collaboratedwithmahants.
Thegovernmentgavefullsupporttothemahants.ItusedthemtopreachloyalismtotheSikhs
andtokeepthemawayfromtherisingnationalistmovement.
TheagitationforthereformofGurudwarasdevelopedduring1920whenthereformersorganized
groupsofvolunteersknownasjathastocompelthemahantsandthegovernmentappointed
managerstohandovercontroloftheGurudwarastothelocaldevotees.
TensofGurudwaraswereliberatedwithinanyear.
TomanagethecontrolofGoldenTempleandotherGurudwarastheShiromaniGurudwara
PrabandhakCommitteewasformedinNovember1920.
Feelingtheneedtogivethereformmovementastructure,theShiromaniAkaliDalwas
establishedinDecember1920.
TheSGPCandAkaliDalacceptedcompletenon-violenceastheircreed.
TherewasaclashbetweenthemahantandtheAkalisoversurrenderingthegurudwaraat
Nanakana.Thisledtokillingofabout100akalis.
TheNankanatragedyledtotheinvolvementofSikhsonalargescaleinthenationalmovement.
KeysAffair:InOctober1921,thegovernmentrefusedtosurrenderthepossessionfothekeysof
theToshakhanaofthegoldentempleoftheAkalis.Thisledtoprotests.LeaderslikeBabaKharak
SinghandMasterTaraSinghwerearrested.Later,thegovernmentsurrenderedthekeystokeep
theSikhsfromrevolting.

GurukaBaghgurudwarainGhokewalawasunderdisputeasthemahantthereclaimedthatthe
landattachedtoitwashispersonalpossession.Whenfewakaliscutdownatreeonthatlandthey
werearrestedonthecomplainofthemahant.Seeingthisthousandsofakaliscameandstarted
cuttingdownthetrees.About4000akaliswerearrested.Later,thegovernmentdidntarrestbut
startedbeatingthemupseverly.Butthealakiskeptturningup.Ultimatelythegovernmenthadto
surrender.
TheakalimovementmadeahugecontributiontothenationalawakeningofPunjab.
However,themovementencouragedacertainreligiositywhichwouldbelaterutilizedby
communalism.
In1923,theCongressdecidedtotakeactivestepstowardstheeradicationofuntouchability.
Thebasicstrategyitadoptedwastoeducateandmobilizeopinionamongcastehindus.
ImmediatelyaftertheKakinadasession,theKeralaProvincialCongressCommittee(KPCC)took
uptheeradicationofuntouchabilityasanurgentissue.
KPCCadeicedtoorganizeanprocessiononthetempleroadsinVaikom,avillageinTravancore,
on30March1924.
Duringtheprocessions,thesatyagrahiswerearrestedandsentencedtoimprisonment.
OnthedeathofMaharajainAugust1924,theMaharanireleasedtheSatyagrahis.
GandhijivisitedKeralatodiscusstheopeningoftemplewithMaharani.Acompromisewas
reachedwherebyallroadsexceptfortheonesintheSankethanofthetemplewereopenedtothe
harijans.
InhisKeralatour,Gandhididntvisitasingletemplebecauseavarnaswerekeptoutofthem.
Theweaknessoftheanti-castemovementwasthatthroughitarousedpeopleagainst
untouchabilityitlackedastrategyofendingthecastesystemitself.

CHAPTER19:TheyearsofStagnation

Gandhijiwasarrestedin1922andsentencedto6yearsofimprisonment.Theresultwasthe
spreadofdisintegration,disorganizationanddemoralizationinthenationalistranks.
AfteradefeatoftheirresolutionofeithermendingorendingintheCongress,CRDasand
MotilalNehruresignedandformedtheCongress-KhilafatSwarajPartyinDecember1922.
Itwastofunctionasagroupwithinthecongress
Howtocarryonpoliticalworkinthemovementsnon-activephases.Theswarajistssaidthat
workinthecouncilwasnecessarytofillthetemporarypoliticalvoid.Theno-changersbelieved
otherwise.
Majorno-changers:SardarPatel,DrAnsari,RajendraPrasad
Theno-changersopposedcouncil-entrymainlyonthegroundthatparliamentaryworkwouldlead
totheneglectofconstructiveandotherworkamongthemasses,thelossofrevolutionaryzeal
andpoliticalcorruption.
Despitethedifferences,hetwogroupshadalotincommon.
TheneedforunitywasverystronglyfeltbyalltheCongressmenafterthe1907debacle.
Bothrealizedthattherealsanctionswhichwouldcompelthegovernmenttoacceptthe
nationaldemandswouldbeforgedonlybyamassmovement.
BothgroupsfullyacceptedtheleadershipofMahatmaGandhi.
Inthesessionheldin1923,thecongressmenwerepermittedtostandascandidatesandexercise
theirfranchiseintheforthcomingelections.
GandhijiwasreleasedonFebruary5,1924.HedidnotagreewiththeSwarajists.However,
slowlyhemovedtowardsanaccommodationwiththeswarajists.
On6November1924,GandhijibroughtthestrifebetweentheSwarajistsandno-changerstoan

end,bysigningajointstatementwithDasandMotilalthattheSwarajistsPartywouldcarryon
workinthelegislaturesonbehalfoftheCongressandasanintegralpartoftheCongress.This
decisionwasendorsedinBelgaum.
TheSwarajistsdidwellintheelectionsandwon42outof101seatsintheCentralLegislative
Assembly.
InMarch1925,VithalbhaiJPatelwaselectedashePresident(speaker)oftheCentralLegislative
Assembly.
TheachievementoftheSwarajistslayinfillingthepoliticalvoidatatimewhenthenational
movementwasrecoupingitsstrength.
Theyalsoexposedthehollownessofthereformsof1919
AfterthepeteringoutoftheNCMcommunalismtookstronghold
EvenwithintheCongress,agroupknownasresponsivists,includingMadanMohan
Malviya,LalaLajpatRaiandNCKelkar,offeredcooperationtothegovernmentsothat
theso-calledHinduinterestsmightbesafeguarded.

CHAPTER20:BhagatSingh

Thesuddensuspensionofthenon-cooperationmovementledmanyyoungpeopletoquestionthe
verybasisstrategyofnon-violenceandbegantolookforalternatives.
Allthemajornewrevolutionaryleadershadbeenenthusiasticparticipantsinthenon-violent
non-cooperationmovement.
TwoseparatestrandsofrevolutionaryterrorismdevelopedoneinPunjab,UPandBiharandthe
otherinBengal.
RamprasadBismil,JogeshChatterjeaandSachindranathSanyalmetinKanpurinOctober1924
andfoundedtheHindustanRepublicanAssociationtoorganizearmedrevolution.
InordertocarryouttheiractivitiestheHRArequiredfunding.Themostimportantactionofthe
HRAwastheKakoriRobbery.
OnAugust9,1925,tenmenheldupthe8-DowntrainfromShahjahanpurtoLucknowatKakori
andlooteditsofficialrailwaycash.
ThegovernmentarrestedalargenumberofyoungmenandtriedthemintheKakoriConspiracy
Case.
AshfaqullaKhan,RamprasadnBismil,RoshanSinghandRajendraLahiriwerehanged,four
othersweresenttoAndamanwhileseventeenothersweresentencedtolongtermimprisonment.
NewrevolutionariesjoinedtheHRA.TheymetatFerozshahKotlaGroundatDelhion9and10
September1928,createdanewcollectiveleadership,adoptedsocialismastheirofficialgoaland
changedthenameofthepartytotheHindustanSocialistRepublicanAssociation.
LalaLajpatRaidiesinalathi-chargewhenhewaslaedingananti-SimonCommission
demonstrationatLahoreon30October1928.
On17December1928,BhagatSingh,AzadandRajguruassassinated,atLahore,Saunders,a
policeofficialinvolvedinthelathi-chargeonLalaLajpatRai.
InordertoletthepeopleknowaboutHSRAschangedobjectivesBhagatSinghandBKDutt
wereaskedtothrowabombintheCentralLegislativeAssemblyon8April1929againstthe
passageofthePublicSafetyBillandtheTradeDisputesBill.
Heaimwasnottokillbuttoletpeopleknowoftheirobjectivesthroughtheleaflettheythrew.
Theywerelaterarrestedandtried.
Thecountrywasalsostirredbythehungerstriketherevolutionariestookasaprotestagainstthe
horribleconditionsinjails.
On13thSeptember,the64thdayoftheepicfast,JatinDasdied.

BhagatSingh,SukhdevandRajguruweresentencedtobehanged.Hesentencewascarriedout
on23March,1931.
BhagatSinghwasfullysecular.
ThePunjabNaujawanBharatSabhaorganizedbyhimactedonsecularlines.
InBengal,afterthedeathofCRDas,theCongressleadershipinBengalgotdividedintotwo
wings:oneledbySCBoseandtheotherbyJMSengupta.TheYugantargroupjoinedforces
withthefirstwhiletheAnushilanwiththesecond.
SuryaSenhadactivelyparticipatedinthenon-cooperationmovement.Hegatheredaroundhima
largebandofrevolutionaryyouthincludingAnantSingh,GaneshGhoshandLokenathBaul.
ChittagongArmouryRaid

NCERTChapter13

Emergenceofsocialisminthe1920sinthenationalistranks
JLNehruandSCBose
Raisedthequestionofinternalclassoppressionbycapitalistsandlandlords
MNRoybecamethefirstIndiantobeelectedtotheleadershipoftheCommunist
International
MuzafferAhmedandSADangeweretriedintheKanpurConspiracyCase
1925:CommunistPartyofIndiawasformed
AllIndiaTradeUnionCongress
VariousStrikes:Bombaytextilemills,Jamshedpur,Kharagpur
BardoliSatyagraha(1928)
PeasantsundertheleadershipofSardarPatelorganizednotaxcampaign
IndianYouthwerebecomingactive
FirstAllBengalConferenceofStudentsheldin1928presidedbyJLNehru
HindustanRepublicanAssociation:1924
KakoriConspiracyCase(1925)
Four,includingRamPrasadBismilandAshfaqullaKhanwerehanged.
HindustanSocialistRepublicanAssociation(1928)
On17thDecember1928,BhagatSingh,AzadandRajguruassassinatedSaunders
BhagatSinghandBKDuttthrewbombintheCentralLegislativeAssemblyon8April
1929toletthepeopleknowoftheirchangedpoliticalobjectives
ChittagongArmouryRaid:1030,SuryaSen
Participationofyoungwomen

SimonCommission(1927)
IndianStatutoryCommissionchairedbySimontogointothequestionoffurtherconstitutional
reform
AllitssevenmemberswereEnglishmen.ClementAttleewasoneofthemembers.
LordBirkinheadwasthesecretaryofstateatthattime
AtitsMadrassessionin1927INCdecidedtoboycottthecommissionateverystageandin
everyform
MLandHinduMahasabhasupportedCongress
NehruReport,1928
Dominionstatus
ContainedBillofRights

Nostatereligion
Federalform
Linguisticallydeterminedprovinces
Noseparateelectorates
AllPartyConvention,heldatCalcuttain1928,failedtopassthereport
Muslimleaguerejectedtheproposalsofthereport
Jinnahdraftedhisfourteenpoints
HinduMahasabhaandSikhLeaguealsoobjected
PoornaSwaraj
ResolutionpassedattheLahoresessionin1929
On31December1929,thetri-colorwashoisted
On26January1930,IndependenceDaywascelebrated

CivilDisobedienceMovement
StartedbyGandhion12thMarch1930withtheDandiMarch.ReachedDandionApril6.
DefianceofforestlawsinMaharashtra,CentralProvinceandKarnataka.Refusaltopay
chaukidaritaxinEasternIndia.
Wideparticipationofwomen
KhanAbdulGaffarKhanorganizedKhudaiKhidmatgars(akaRedShirts)
Nagaland:RaniGaidilieu
FirstRTC,1930
Congressboycotted
Gandhi-IrwinPact,1931
Governmentagreedtoreleasethepoliticalprisonerswhohadremainednon-violent
Righttomakesaltforconsumption
Righttopeacefulpicketingofliquorandforeignclothshops
CongresssuspendedtheCivilDisobedienceMovement
AgreedtotakepartinthesecondRTC

AugustOffer(1940)
AftertheWWIIbegan,BritishsoughtcooperationfromIndia.AugustOfferofferedthreeproposals.
Firstly,itcalledforanimmediateexpansionofViceroysExecutiveCouncilwiththeinclusionofIndia
representatives;secondly,anadvisorybodywiththemembersfromBritishIndiaandIndianprincely
stateswhichweresupposedtomeetatconsequentintervalswasestablishedandthirdly,twopractical
stepsweredecidedtobetakeninwhichitwastocomeatanagreementwiththeIndiansontheformof
thepostrepresentativesbodyshouldtakeandthemethodsbywhichitshouldcometoaconclusion.It
furtherplannedtodrawouttheprinciplesandoutlinesoftheConstitutionitself.
Congressdidnotaccepttheoffer.

CRFormula
C.Rajagopalachari'sformula(orC.R.formulaorRajajiformula)wasaproposalformulated
byChakravarthiRajagopalacharitosolvethepoliticaldeadlockbetweentheAllIndiaMuslim

LeagueandIndianNationalCongressonindependenceofIndiafromtheBritish.C.Rajagopalachari,a
CongressleaderfromMadras,devisedaproposalfortheCongresstooffertheLeaguethe
MuslimPakistanbasedonplebisciteofallthepeoplesintheregionswhereMuslimsmadeamajority.
AlthoughtheformulawasopposedevenwithintheCongressparty,Gandhiuseditashisproposalinhis
talkswithJinnahin1944.However,Jinnahrejectedtheproposalandthetalksfailed.
TheCRformulaentailed[43][44]
i.TheLeaguewastoendorsetheIndiandemandforindependenceandtoco-operatewiththe
CongressinformationofProvisionalInterimGovernmentforatransitionalperiod.
ii.AttheendoftheWar,acommissionwouldbeappointedtodemarcatethedistrictshavinga
Muslimpopulationinabsolutemajorityandinthoseareasplebiscitetobeconductedonall
inhabitants(includingthenon-Muslims)onbasisofadultsuffrage.
iii.Allpartieswouldbeallowedtoexpresstheirstanceonthepartitionandtheirviewsbeforethe
plebiscite.
iv.Intheeventofseparation,amutualagreementwouldbeenteredintoforsafeguarding
essentialmatterssuchasdefence,communicationandcommerceandforotheressentialservices.
v.Thetransferofpopulation,ifanywouldbeabsolutelyonavoluntarybasis.
vi.ThetermsofthebindingwillbeapplicableonlyincaseoffulltransferofpowerbyBritainto
GovernmentofIndia.

WavellPlan&ShimlaConference
InMay1945,LordWavell,theViceroyofIndia,wenttoLondonanddiscussedhisideasaboutthefuture
ofIndiawiththeBritishadministration.Thetalksresultedintheformulationofaplanofactionthatwas
madepublicinJune1945.TheplanisknownasWavellPlan.
ThePlansuggestedreconstitutionoftheViceroy'sExecutiveCouncilinwhichtheViceroywastoselect
personsnominatedbythepoliticalparties.Differentcommunitieswerealsotogettheirdueshareinthe
CouncilandparitywasreservedforCast-HindusandMuslims.Whiledeclaringtheplan,theSecretaryof
StateforIndianAffairsmadeitclearthattheBritishGovernmentwantedtolistentotheideasofallmajor
Indiancommunities.YethesaidthatitwasonlypossibleiftheleadershipoftheleadingIndianpolitical
partiesagreedwiththesuggestionsoftheBritishGovernment.
TodiscusstheseproposalswiththeleadershipofmajorIndianparties,Wavellcalledforaconferenceat
SimlaonJune25,1945.LeadersofboththeCongressandtheMuslimLeagueattendedtheconference,
whichisknownastheSimlaConference.However,differencesarosebetweentheleadershipofthetwo
partiesontheissueofrepresentationoftheMuslimcommunity.TheMuslimLeagueclaimedthatitwas
theonlyrepresentativepartyoftheMuslimsinIndiaandthusalltheMuslimrepresentativesinthe
Viceroy'sExecutiveCouncilshouldbethenomineesoftheparty.Congress,whichhadsentMaulana
Azadastheleaderoftheirdelegation,triedtoprovethattheirpartyrepresentedallthecommunitiesliving
inIndiaandthusshouldbeallowedtonominateMuslimrepresentativeaswell.Congressalsoopposed

theideaofparitybetweentheCast-HindusandtheMuslims.Allthisresultedinadeadlock.Finally,
WavellannouncedthefailureofhiseffortsonJuly14.ThustheSimlaConferencecouldn'tprovideany
hopeofproceedingfurther.

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