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Commercialization of Goat Farming and


Marketing of Goats in India
Book October 2007

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Commercialization of Goat Farming and


Marketing of Goats in India

Shalander Kumar
Principal Investigator

Final Project Report


ICAR Ad-hoc Research Scheme
(2004-2007)

CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ON GOATS


Makhdoom, Farah 281122, Mathura

INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH


New Delhi

2007

Dr. N.P. Singh


Director, CIRG, Makhdoom, Mathura

FOREWORD
The goats have become steadily important in the rural economy particularly in
the arid, semi-arid and mountainous regions of the country. At present the population of
goats in India is more than 124 million. It accounts for more than 25% of the total
livestock population in the country and contributes Rs. 1,06,335 million annually to the
national economy and provides food and nutrition security to the millions of marginal
and small farmers and agricultural labourers. However, the productivity of small
ruminants is low because they are maintained under extensive system on natural
vegetation on degraded common grazing lands and tree lopping. Therefore, rearing of
goats under intensive and semi-intensive system using improved technologies will be
crucial for realizing their full potential.
Responding to the market signals the goat production system has been slowly
moving from extensive to intensive system of management. However, in the absence of
any systematic study there have been questions from the entrepreneurs, progressive
farmers and even researchers on economic viability and sustainability of commercial
goat farming under intensive system. Moreover, the efficient marketing and
remunerative prices of output are the pre-requisite for the development of any
enterprise. The marketing of goats, which is totally unorganized, has been least studied.
Hence a research Project entitled commercialization of goat farming and marketing of
goats in India was undertaken in this institute with funding from the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research, New Delhi as an ICAR Ad-hoc research scheme. The Project has
generated comprehensive information on understanding the emerging commercial goat
production system, economic viability, prospects and constraints of commercial goat
farming in the country. This information would be useful in making appropriate
developmental strategy for commercialization of goat farming as well as prioritizing
research. The information generated on marketing of goats right from the villages to
terminal markets and exports and from butchers and slaughterhouses to meat consumers
would again be very useful in formulating policy interventions for improving the goat
marketing in the country. The information generated in the Project will thus be useful to
all those engaged in the development of goat sector in the country. The project has
directly contributed in strengthening the linkages among the commercial goat farmers.
The Principal Investigator has worked successfully for accomplishment of the objectives
of the Project and deserves praise and appreciation. I wish to congratulate the research
workers for their good work and successful completion of the Project.

August 2007

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was undertaken considering the growing importance of goat
enterprise in the livestock economy of the country. The study is the result of a research
project entitled Commercial goat framing and marketing of goats in India, which was
sanctioned as an ICAR Ad-hoc research scheme. I am grateful to the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research, New Delhi for sanctioning the research project and releasing the
grant in time to execute the project. The support and guidance from Dr. J.P. Mishra,
Assistant Director General (ESM), ICAR, New Delhi during the execution of this project
is thankfully acknowledged. I feel privileged to extend my sincere thanks to Dr. N.P.
Singh, Director, CIRG, Makhdoom for his support, encouragement, guidance and
blessings at every stage of the project. I extend my sincere thanks to Dr. R.K. Vaid, who
was co-worker in the initial phase of the project, for enthusiastically participating in the
project. The contributions of Mr. A.D. Upadhyay and Mr. Surendra Singh (Research
associates) are thankfully acknowledged. I extend my thanks to Dr. R.L. Sagar for
extending cooperation as Head of the Extension education and socio-economics (EESE)
section. My thanks are also due to all the staff of the EESE section for their cooperation.
Thanks are due to Mr. Jagdish Singh for typing assistance. I acknowledge with gratitude
the help and cooperation extended by Mr. V.K. Vidyarthi, Mr. Ashok Kale, Mr.
Nimbkar, Mr. Narayan Rao Deshpandey, Mr. Kishor Arya and all commercial as well as
traditional goat farmers and the market functionaries during this study.

August 2007

Dr. Shalander Kumar


Principal Investigator

A BRIEF ABOUT THE PROJECT


Project detail

1. Name of the ICAR Ad-hoc Commercialization of Goat Farming and


research scheme
Marketing of Goats in India.
2. Sanction No.
3. Date of start
4. Date of termination
5. A. Name of the Institute
B. Division/Dept./Station
6. Total grant sanctioned
7. Funding agency
Principal Investigator
Name
1. DR. SHALANDER KUMAR
Co-Investigators
Name
1. DR. R.K.VAID
2. DR. V. RAJKUMAR

3039021113 dated: 22-9-2004


1st October 2004
31st March 2007
Central Institute for Research on Goats,
Makhdoom, Farah- 281122, Mathura, U. P.
Extension Education and Socio-Economics Section
Rs. 8.16915 Lakhs
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (AP Cess)
Designation
Sr. Scientist (Agricultural Economics)
Designation
Scientist, Vet.
Public Health
Scientist, LPT

Remark
He was associated in the project only
for the first one year and then he got
transferred to NRCE.
He was associated in the project only
for the first six months and then he
proceeded on study leave. He could
not take up any work in the project.

Highlights of the Project


The project has generated comprehensive information on understanding the emerging
commercial goat production system, economic viability, prospects and constraints of
commercial goat farming in the country. The information has also been generated on
marketing system of goat and its products, right from the villages to terminal markets
and exports and from butchers and slaughterhouses to meat consumers. The project has
made an important direct contribution in strengthening the linkages among the
commercial goat farmers in the country. Due to our efforts in this project, initial linkages
were created among the commercial goat farmers of different states that in turn resulted
in creation of large demand of good quality breeding goats of commercial farmers for
breeding purpose. Consequently the farmers who were earlier getting market rate of Rs.
55 to Rs. 65 per kg of live body weight for their goats started getting a price of Rs. 110
to Rs. 150 per kg of live body weight and started earning good profit. At the same time
the traders do not pay premium price even for the pure breed goats. The increased
prices of breeding goats due to strengthened linkages have not only created large
opportunities and interest for private investment in commercial goat farming projects but
have also encouraged the existing commercial goat farmers to produce good quality
pure breed animals (germ plasm) of different goat breeds, which would be critically
important for the development of goat enterprise in the country.

CONTENT
Number
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
1.
2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.6
3.4.7
3.4.8
3.4.8.1
3.4.8.2
3.4.9
4.
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.24
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.29
4.2.10
4.2.11
4.2.12
4.2.13

Title
Foreword
Acknowledgements
A brief of the Project
Acronyms
INTRODUCTION
METHODOLOGY
Traditional goat farmers:
Commercial goat farmers:
Market functionaries
Other information from the selected markets
Organization of workshop
COMMERCIAL GOAT FARMING
Growth and Distribution
Contribution at National Level
Preliminary Information on Commercial Goat Farms
Distribution goat breeds and flock size
Marketing of goats
Constraints and diseases
Commercial Goat Farming
Socio-economic status
Flock size, breed and investment pattern
Feed and fodder
Miscellaneous expenditure
Production of kids
Level of awareness and adoption of improved technologies by commercial goat
farmers
Mortality and morbidity losses due to diseases
Economics of commercial goat farming
Returns
Income from other sources
Constraints in commercial goat farming
MARKETING OF GOATS AND THEIR PRODUCTS
Scenario
Psychology of the farmer
Marketing channels
Middlemen
MARKETING OF GOATS IN UTTAR PRADESH
Socio-economic profile of traditional goat farmers
Composition of sale of live goats
Marketing channels
Reasons and purpose of sale of live goats
System of price fixation in village
Village to nearby weekly market
Goat Milk
Live goat markets and market functionaries in Uttar Pradesh
Market functionaries
Purchase and sale of goats by traders
Marketing cost incurred by petty traders
Trade of males for Eid festival
Pricing of live-goats in the livestock market

Page No.

1-2
3-5
3
4
5
5
5
6-33
6
6
7
9
9
10
11
11
14
17
19
19
20
24
25
28
30
30
34-79
34
34
35
36
37
37
38
39
42
42
43
44
45
48
49
50
50
50

4.2.14
4.2.15
4.2.16
4.2.17
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8
3.4.9
3.4.10
3.4.11
3.4.12
3.4.13
3.4.14
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.5
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.1.1
4.6.1.2
4.6.1.2
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.8
4.8.1
4.8.2
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.4
5.5
5.6
6.
6.1
7.

Seasonal variation in price of goats


Traders perception on market conditions
Farmers behavior in weekly markets
Constraints faced by farmers in goat market
MARKETING OF GOATS IN RAJASTHAN
Socio-economic profile of traditional goat keepers
Composition of sale of live goats
Marketing Channels
Reasons and purpose of sale of live goats
System of Price fixation in village
Village to nearby weekly market
Goat Milk
Live goat markets and market functionaries in Rajasthan
Market functionaries
Purchase and sale of goats by traders
Marketing cost incurred by petty traders
Trading of males for Eid festival
Pricing of live goats in the livestock market
Constraints faced by farmers in the goat market
MARKETING OF GOATS BY COMMERCIAL FARMERS
Type of sales
Marketing Channels
Advertisement, publicity and marketing strategy
Reasons and purpose of sale
System of sale
Weekly markets to city slaughterhouses
MARKETING OF GOATS IN TERMINAL MARKET
A case of trading of live goats in Deonar livestock market, Mumbai
Market charges
Pricing of animals
Constraints and malpractices
Inter state movement of animals
Trade in Small Kids
Trading of breeding goats
Trading of goat and its meat by the butchers
Trading of goat skins
Market for intestine
EXPORT OF GOATS AND ITS PRODUCTS
Export of goat and sheep meat
Demand scenario
Export of live goats and sheep
Type of animals demanded by importers
System of export of live goat and sheep
Competitors in the international market
Constraints and issues in export of live goats and sheep and their meat
Suggestions for improvement in export performance of live goat and sheep and
their meat
EXPLORING POSSIBILITIES FOR STRENGTHENING LINKAGES AMONG THE
Impact of strengthened linkages among the commercial goat farmers
CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
References
Annexure

52
52
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54
55
57
59
60
61
62
63
65
66
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67
68
69
69
70
71
72
72
73
73
74
74
74
74
75
75
75
76
77
79
79
80-85
80
81
82
82
82
83
83
85
86-95
95
96-105
105
106-107

LIST OF TABLES
Number Title
2.1
Selected districts, blocks, villages and number of Goat keepers
2.2
Commercial goat farms covered under the study
Commercial goat farming
3.1
Population growth rate of major livestock species in India
3.2
Contribution of small ruminants to the Indian Economy
3.3
Distribution of goat farms in to flock size categories
3.4
Experience in commercial goat farming
3.5
Size of operational land holding
3.6
Farmers access to training on goat farming
3.7
Size and composition of the goat flock
3.8
Composition of goats on commercial farms
3.9
Farmers perception on size of flock
3.10
Level and pattern of capital Investment
3.11
Type of labour engaged on goat farms
3.12
Source of Concentrate Feed
3.13
Source of Fodder
3.14
Feeding of concentrate mixture
3.15
Concentrate available in different categories
3.16
Storage of feed and fodder on goat farms
3.17
Feed cost on commercial goat farms
3.18
Miscellaneous expenditure on commercial goat farms
3.19
Number of kid born per farm
3.20
Details of kids born and reared
3.21
Body weight of goat at different age as recorded by farmers
3.22
Adoption of technology of direction of goat shed
3.23
Availability of floor space per goat
3.24
Type of material used in the goat shed
3.25
Adoption of housing management practices
3.26
Use of recommended feeding and watering devices
3.27
Source of breeding stock
3.28
Awareness and use of mineral mixture
3.29
Awareness level of farmers about annual preventive goat health schedule
3.30
Farmers adoption level of annual preventive goat health schedule
3.31
Age of breeding buck on goat farms
3.32
Details of breeding of goats
3.33
Breeding performance of goats
3.34
Level of adoption of different management practices
3.35
Status of use of farm records on commercial farms
3.36
Status and losses due to disease/ ailments in goat Per farm
3.37
Category wise status and losses due to disease in goat Per farm
3.38
Mortality and production losses due to diseases
3.39
Cost and returns from goat farming on different categories of commercial farms
3.40
Cost of goat rearing
3.41
Returns from goat farming
3.42
Annual net returns per goat and related indicators
3.43
Income from other sources
3.44
Major constraints faced by commercial goat farmers
3.45
Constraints related to feed
3.46
Constraints related to fodder
3.47
Constraints related to veterinary service
3.48
Constraints related to breeding stock
3.49
Constraints related to marketing
3.50
Constraints related to credit

Page No.
3
4
6
7
11
12
12
12
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
17
17
18
18
19
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
24
25
25
26
27
29
29
30
31
32
32
32
33
33
33

3.51
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23
4.24
4.25
4.26
4.27
4.28
4.29
4.30
4.31
4.32
4.33
4.34
4.35
4.36
4.37
4.38
4.39
4.40
4.41
4.42
4.43
4.44
4.45
4.46
4.47
4.48
4.49
4.50
4.51
4.52
4.53

Credit facilities availed from institutional sources


Marketing of goats in Uttar Pradesh
Composition and flock size of goats
Farmers educational status
Size of operational land holding
Composition of sale of goats
Reasons for sale of early-age kids
Market Channels adopted by the farmers for sale of goats in different categories
Reasons for selling of goat in the village itself
Farmers perception on low price of their goats
Reasons for sale of goats
Purpose of sale of adult animals
Method of price fixation
Criteria of price fixation
Age-group wise price of goats in Uttar Pradesh
Transportation of goats by farmer for marketing
Detail of transporting goats to market
Farmers perception on existing goat marketing system
Demand and destination for farmers goat milk
Goat milk production in farmers flock
Access to Veterinarians Services
Credit availed by farmers for goat rearing
Profile of livestock markets of Uttar Pradesh
Number of arrival of goats per market day
Volume of trade of goats
Infrastructure in livestock markets
Transportation facilities
Annual income of the markets
Support system available at the market
Market functionaries and their participation
Experience of marketing functionary
Distribution of marketing functionaries in social groups
Educational status of marketing functionary
Reasons for selecting a market by farmer seller
Purchase of goats
Sale of goats by traders
Marketing margin of middlemen
Destination of sale of live goats by traders
Purchase and sale of males for festivals
Unit of sale of goats
Method of price fixation of live goats
Basis of price fixation
Season wise average price of farmers goats
Price of male /female goat during last year
Change in goat trade during last five years
Farmers behaviour while selling goats in weekly market
Constraints faced by farmers in goat markets
Marketing of goats in Rajasthan
Composition and flock size of goats
Farmers educational status
Size of operational land holdings
Distribution of goat keepers as per land ownership
Composition of sale of goats
Reasons for sale of early-age kids
Market Channels adopted by the farmers for sale of goats in different categories
Reasons for selling of goat in the village itself

33
37
38
38
38
39
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
43
44
44
44
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
47
47
47
47
48
48
48
48
49
49
49
49
50
50
51
51
51
52
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
55
56
56
57
59

4.54
4.55
4.56
4.57
4.58
4.59
4.60
4.61
4.62
4.63
4.64
4.65
4.66
4.67
4.68
4.69
4.70
4.71
4.72
4.73
4.74
4.75
4.76
4.77
4.78
4.79
4.80
4.81
4.82
4.83
4.84
4.85
4.86
4.87
4.88
4.89
4.90
4.91
4.92
4.93
4.94
4.95
4.96
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.1
6.2

Farmers perception on low price of their goats


Reasons for sale of goats
Purpose of sale of adult animals
Unit of sale and purchase of goats
Criteria of price fixation
Age-group wise price of goats in Rajasthan
Farmers preferred season of sale of goats
Farmers perception on existing price level of goats
Access to Veterinarians Service
Demand and destination for farmers goat milk
Goat milk production in farmers flock
Profile of livestock markets Rajasthan
Number of arrival of goats per market day
Marketing infrastructure
Volume of trade of goats
Transportation facilities
Annual income of the markets
Support system available at the market
Market functionaries and their participation
Experience of marketing functionary
Distribution of marketing functionaries in social groups
Educational status of marketing functionary
Purchase of goats
Sale of goats
Marketing margin of the middlemen
Destination of sale of live goats by traders
Purchase and sale of males for festivals
Unit of sale and purchase of goats
Method of price fixation
Basis of price fixation (percent traders)
Constraints faced by farmers in goat markets
Marketing of goats by commercial farmers
Type of goat and its product sold by commercial farmers
Traits of goat having bearing on its price
Place of sale of live goats
Marketing channels adopted in sale of live goat
Agencies of sale of live goats
Reasons for sale of goats at farm
Advertisement and publicity methods adopted by the commercial farmers
Reason for sale of goats
Purpose of sale of goats
Method of sale/purchase
Price and composition of purchase of goats by butchers
Butchers/ meat-sellers cost and returns from a goat of 30 kg body weight
Export of goat and sheep meat from India
Preferences of exporters of live goats
Export of live goat and sheep from India
Commercial goat farms in India
Linkages of farmers with other goat farmers

59
59
60
60
60
61
61
61
62
62
62
63
63
63
64
64
65
65
65
65
66
66
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67
67
68
68
68
68
69
70
70
71
71
71
71
72
72
72
73
78
78
81
82
83
86
93

LIST OF FIGURES
Number
Figure 3.1:
Figure 3.2:
Figure 3.3:
Figure 3.4:
Figure 3.5:
Figure 3.6:
Figure 3.7:
Figure 3.8:
Figure 3.9:
Figure 3.10:
Figure 3.11:
Figure 3.12:
Figure 3.13:
Figure 3.14:
Figure 3.15:
Figure 3.16:
Figure 4.1:
Figure 4.2:
Figure 4.3:
Figure 4.4:
Figure 4.5:
Figure 4.6:
Figure 4.7:
Figure 4.8:
Figure 6.1:

Title
Educational status of commercial goat farmers
Distribution of commercial goat farms according to size

Distribution of goat population across the goat keepers


Major constraints faced by commercial goat farmers
Health related problems in Commercial goat rearing
Level of prophylaxis on commercial goat farms
Main occupations of commercial goat farmers
System of management of commercial goat farms
Distribution of entrepreneurs in social groups
Educational status of commercial goat farmers
Distribution of goat breeds on commercial farms in different states
Composition of different cost on goat farms
Annual cost of rearing a goat on commercial farms
Source of annual returns on commercial goat farms
Annual net returns per goat on commercial farms
Annual net returns per doe and related indicators
Marketing channels of goats
Share of different age groups in total sale of goats in Uttar Pradesh
Channels of goat marketing adopted by traditional farmers in Uttar
Pradesh
Percentage of goats sold through different marketing channels in Uttar
Pradesh
Methods of price fixation of live goats in the market
Share of different age groups in total sale of goats in Rajasthan
Channels of goat marketing adopted by traditional farmers in Rajasthan
Percentage of goats sold through different marketing channels in
Rajasthan
State-wise distribution of identified commercial goat farms

Page No.
8
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10
10
13
13
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14
15
26
26
27
27
30
36
39
41
41
51
56
58
58
86

ACRONYMS
AI
Artificial insemination
APEDA
Agricultural and processed food products export development authority
CIRG
Central Institute for Research on Goats
ET
Enterotoxaemia
FMD
Foot and mouth disease
HS
Hemorrhagic septicemia
ICAR
Indian Council of Agricultural research
NGO
Non Governmental Organization
PPR
Peste des Petits ruminants (a viral goat disease)
SWSAZSouthwestern semiarid zone (of Uttar Pradesh)
ESAZ
Eastern semiarid zone (of Rajasthan)
Doe
Female breeding goat

1.

INTRODUCTION

Goats play an important role in the rural economy at national level. More than
70 percent of the landless agricultural labourers and marginal and small farmers of the
rural India rear them. The socio-economic value of goat rearing as compared to other
livestock species has been immense, for the poor farmers. The low input, high
fecundity, easy marketing and unprejudiced social acceptance of their products are few
of many advantages of this enterprise that provides assured higher income. Goats are
also among the main meat-producing animals in India, whose meat (chevon) is readily
preferred irrespective of caste, creed and religion. They produce a variety of products,
mainly meat, milk, skin, fiber and manure. The goats are particularly useful in the
semiarid, arid and mountainous regions, where they can sustain on sparse vegetation
and extreme climatic conditions. Further, wherever irrigation facilities are poor, one can
generally find large areas of waste and other common property land; on which the small
ruminants of rural resource-poor households can survive. A major part of their fodder
requirement is met through such waste and other common property lands. It has been
argued that these rural households have often developed highly efficient agricultural and
livelihood systems that make the most rational and conservative use of the scarce
resources available to them (Barbier, 1989). The rural poor who cannot afford to
maintain a cow or a buffalo find goat/ sheep as the best alternative source of
supplementary income and milk. This is one reason why poor rural households maintain
a few number of goats. Unlike a cow or buffalo, a few goats can be maintained easily
and can be easily sold in the years of drought. Therefore this sector assumes critical
importance in rain fed areas, high altitudes as well as in wasteland and fragile zones
having low agricultural productivity. However the productivity of goats under the
prevailing extensive production system is very low. It is mainly because the animals are
reared on natural vegetation on degraded common grazing lands, wastelands, stubbles
and tree lopping. Even these degraded grazing resources are shrinking continuously.
Moreover the adoption of improved production technologies/ management practices in
the farmers flock is very low. Therefore, rearing of goats under intensive and semiintensive system using improved production and processing technologies for
commercial production will be needed for realizing their full potential. Responding to
market signals the goat production system is slowly but surely moving from extensive to
semi-intensive and intensive system of management. However, in the absence of any
systematic study, there have been questions from the entrepreneurs, progressive farmers
and even researchers on economic viability and sustainability of commercial goat
farming under intensive system.
Marketing plays an important role in the development of any sector including
goats. An efficient marketing system can ensure a reasonable price to producer and
minimize unnecessary costs and margins and benefits all sections of the society. A study
of marketing system is necessary to understand the complexities involved and
identification of bottlenecks with a view to provide efficient services in the transfer of
goods from producers to consumers. However marketing of goats and their products is
one of the most neglected areas in India. As a result it suffers from many drawbacks such
as multiplicity of middlemen adding very little utility and their very high margins,
avoidable marketing costs, unnecessary transportation and mortality of animals during
transit and hindrance in exports on account of poor quality and lack of information.

Understanding of the marketing system adopted by the emerging commercial


goat farmers is also important. To maintain the tempo and pace of increased goat
production through technological interventions, an assurance of remunerative prices to
the goat farmers is a pre-requisite. This assurance can be given by developing an
efficient marketing system. Availability of marketing services to the producers further
affects the transactions cost. Therefore understanding the process of commercialization
of goat production, which is currently on, would play a crucial role in attracting the
entrepreneurs for the development of goat enterprise in the country. It has been
observed that some entrepreneurs have been successful in commercial goat farming
while some other fails. Success in commercial goat farming by some entrepreneurs
could be due to their better marketing strategies and better management of their flock
using scientific knowledge. Study of constraints in marketing and commercialization of
goat production and success stories there in, would provide very useful information for
guiding the development of this sector. Socio-economic aspects in general and
marketing of goats in particular are one of the least studied areas. Further no information
was available on socio-economic aspects of commercial goat farming under semi
intensive and intensive system of production in the country. This study was planned to
address some of the issues related to marketing of goat and its products from farmers
level to terminal markets and commercialization of goat farming in the country and to
evolve a suitable policy framework for this otherwise neglected sector of the livestock
economy. The present study initiated in response to these concerns. The focus of the
study was on: (i) The status, economics and prospects of commercialization of goat
production and constraints therein. (ii) Understanding the complete marketing system of
goats and their products including marketing services and exports and its constraints. (iii)
The possibilities for evolving linkages among the commercial goat farmers and other
stakeholders and to suggest suitable development strategy for commercialization and
marketing of goats.
The outline of this report is as follow: Chapter 1 gives the background and need
of the study on commercial goat farming and marketing of goats in the country. Chapter
2 describes the design and sampling of the surveys undertaken for this study. Chapter 3
presents the status of commercial goat farming in the country. Prevailing production
systems, economic viability and constraints of commercial goat production have been
analyzed in this chapter. Chapter 4 presents analyses of marketing system of goats and
their products. Goat marketing from villages to terminal markets; from butchers and
slaughterhouses to meat consumers; by traditional as well as commercial goat farmers
and its constraints are part of this chapter. Chapter 5 presents the analysis of prospects of
exports of goat and its products. Chapter 6 documents the efforts made for strengthening
the linkages among commercial goat farmers and other stakeholders and its impact on
commercialization of goat production. Finally conclusions and policy implications are
discussed in chapter 7. Some tables of data related to commercial goat farming and
marketing of goats is available in the annexure to this report.

2.

METHODOLOGY

The study in its sample has covered traditional goat farmers, commercial goat
farmers, butchers, traders, processors, and marketers (exporters) for primary survey.
Moreover, the data pertaining to various aspects of goat marketing was also collected
from secondary sources like website of Food and Agriculture organization (FAO),
statistics on foreign trade, APEDA etc.
2.1 Traditional goat farmers:
To understand the marketing of goats at village level, the traditional goat farmers
were covered under the study. More than two third area of the country comes under
semiarid regions. Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh being the first and third largest goat
keeping states were selected for the village level study. Southwestern semiarid zone of
Uttar Pradesh and Eastern semiarid zone of Rajasthan were selected randomly from the
two states. Two districts from the each selected zone and two development blocks from
each selected district were selected at random. Further one cluster of three villages from
each selected block was selected randomly. A random sample of 30 goat-keeping
households from each cluster was taken up on the basis of flock size. Thus a total of 240
goat keeping households selecting 120 households each from Rajasthan and Uttar
Pradesh were covered in the study. Information from the traditional goat farmers were
collected on the following aspects:
Socio - economic information of the goat keepers.
Objectives and purpose of marketing, agencies of destinations.
Marketing behavior and pattern
Marketing opportunities and status of marketing services
Marketing costs and prices of live animals their products and by products
Constraints, incentives and support and options for improvements
The details of selected districts, villages and number of goat farmers covered
under survey in the selected zones have been given in Table- 2.1. Survey of the
traditional goat keepers of Eastern Semiarid Zone (ESZ) of Rajasthan was completed this
year. Using stratified random sampling, two districts viz Ajmer and Jaipur districts in
eastern semiarid zone of Rajasthan, were selected. Further, two tehsils based on goat
population from each district were selected and then a cluster of villages with relatively
large population of goat was identified and selected from each selected tehsil with the
help of local officials. A sample of 30 goat-keeping households was taken from each
selected cluster of villages. Thus a total of 240 traditional goat keepers from 33 villages
from both the states, were covered for data collection. The data were collected using
personal interview method.
Table 2.1: Selected districts, blocks, villages and number of Goat keepers
Zone
South Western
Zone of UP

District

Blocks/Tehsil

Mathura

Baldev
Sahpau
Etmadpur
Fatehpur Sikari
Choumu
Sanbhar
Puskar
Pisagarh

Semiarid
Agra
Jaipur

Eastern Semiarid Zone of


Rajasthan
Total

Ajmer

No. of
Villages
4
4
4
5
3
4
4
5
33

No. of respondents
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
240

2.2

Commercial goat farmers:


In the last couple of years, a number of Commercial goat farms have come up in
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and
Bihar. Some of these commercial farms seemed to have adopted certain innovative
ways of marketing and created niche markets for themselves. Some others are still
searching better market for their goats. However the system of marketing adopted by
these goat farmers was studied.
Initially the efforts were made to identify commercial goat farms operating in
above-mentioned states and rapport was developed with these farms. Information on
extent and process of commercialization, marketing and constraints thereof were
solicited from all the identified farms through questionnaire. The questionnaire
responses were collected from 61 commercial goat farmers. Based on the preliminary
analysis of data of these 61 farms an initial view on commercial goat farming in the
country was formed. Finally a total of 18 Commercial goat farms from different states
were selected randomly for in-depth study (Table 2.2). The information from the
commercial goat farmers were collected on the following aspects:
Socio - economic information
Source of information for commercial goat farming
Incentives in commercial goat farming, level of technology adoption
Type of business - production / trader
Supports, constraints and opportunities in the process of commercialization
Marketing behavior and pattern and marketing strategy
Source of market information and type of competition
Price structure of live goats, products and by products in different seasons,
marketing costs and value addition
Type of market demand for goats & its products
Status of marketing services
Type of support needed for commercialization of goat farming
Constraints and opportunities in marketing of goats and their products
Table 2.2: Commercial goat farms covered under the study
Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Name of farmer
Kundan Singh Goat Farm
Vikash goat farm
Neeraj Katiyar goat farm
Adarsh Sheli Palan Prakalp
Pragati Agro Enterprizes
Boar Goat Farm
Jagdhani Goat farm
Dhan Raj Shiva Ji Rao Jakhtan, Dhakele, Baramati
Van Sheti & Stall fed Goat farming
Mani Agro Goat Farm
Osmanabadi Goat Farm
National Agro and Livestock Farm
Ekta Agronomic and Livstock
Bhende Goat Farm
Bosco Gramin Vikas Kendra, Kedgaon Ahmed Nagar
Madhu Farm, Jaipur
N. K. Dubey farm
CARE Livestock breeding farm

State
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
M. P.
M. P.
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
M.P.

No. of
does
21
40
25
17
85
160
50
78
46
520
60
36
32
205
275
700
20
43

Production
system
Semi-intensive
Semi-intensive
Semi-intensive
Intensive
Semi-intensive
Intensive
Intensive
Intensive
Intensive
Intensive
Semi-intensive
Semi-intensive
Intensive
Semi-intensive
Intensive
Intensive
Semi-intensive
Semi-intensive

2.3
2.3.1

Market functionaries
Butchers
To collect data on marketing cost, margins and price spread 10 butchers were
selected at random from block level and district level markets.
2.3.2

Traders / Commission agents/ Market functionaries


For in depth study of marketing system, a total of 35 traders involved in goat
marketing through different channels in the markets of different sizes and 2 traders
involved in goatskin trading were selected randomly. The traders were selected from the
following markets:
Edgah (Agra), Etah, Jaswant nagar, Behnai, Mathura, Choura (Kalpi) in Uttar
Pradesh
Ajmer, Jaipur and Balaheri in Rajasthan
Terminal market: Delhi Bakra mandi was visited to collect data on goat
trading. In formation were also collected from another terminal market of
Deonar livestock market, Mumbai.

2.3.3

Processors and marketers (Exporters)


To study the institutional arrangements and marketing constraints further, the
one goat meat processor and 2 meat exporters and 2 live goats exporters were
contacted and interviewed.
2.4

Other information from the selected markets


Buyers, sellers, commission agents etc.
Animal characteristics, prices, method of sale, purpose of buying and selling.
Information from slaughterhouses and industries based on goats.
Marketing infrastructure
Regulatory requirements for selling goat products in domestic and
international market.

2.5 Organization of workshop


The possibilities were explored for evolving linkages among the various
stakeholders involved in the development of goat enterprise including traditional
farmers, commercial goat farmers, processors, marketers and researchers. In that order
the commercial goat farmers spread over different parts of the country were identified
and contacted. A National Workshop was also organized to deliberate and plan on the
issue of integration and linkages in marketing and commercialization of goat
production.

3.

COMMERCIAL GOAT FARMING

The rural poor who cannot afford to maintain a cow or a buffalo find goat as the
best alternative source of supplementary income and milk. This is one reason why poor
rural households maintain a few number of goats. Unlike a cow or buffalo, a few goats
can be maintained easily and can be easily sold in the years of drought. Therefore this
sector assumes critical importance in rain-fed areas, high altitudes as well as in
wasteland and fragile zones having low agricultural productivity. However the
productivity of goats under the prevailing extensive production system is very low. It is
mainly because the animals are reared on natural vegetation on degraded common
grazing lands, wastelands, stubbles and tree lopping. Even these degraded grazing
resources are shrinking continuously. Moreover the improved production technologies/
management practices in the farmers flock are very low. Therefore, rearing of goats
under intensive and semi-intensive system using improved production and processing
technologies for commercial production has become imperative for realizing their full
potential.
3.1

Growths and Distribution


The goats during the last few decades have become steadily important in the
rural economy, particularly in the arid and semiarid regions. In 1951, the total number
of livestock in the country was 292.80 million. The goats constituted 16.12% of the total
livestock population. By 2003, there had been a big change. The total livestock
population had increased to 485 million. The number of goats, interestingly, had
increased to 124.36 million, forming 25.66 per cent of the total livestock population
(Table 3.1).
Table 3.1: Population growth rate of major livestock species in India
Species
Cattle
Buffalo
Sheep
Goat
Livestock

Population (million)
1951
2003
155.3
185.18
(53.04)
(38.18)
43.40
96.62
(14.82)
(19.92)
39.10
61.47
(13.35)
(12.67)
47.20
124.36
(16.12)
(25.66)
292.80
485.00

1972-82
0.76

Annual compound growth rate (%)


1982-92
1992-2003
0.61
- 0.99

1971-03
0.13

1.96

1.89

1.38

1.73

2.01

0.40

1.93

1.43

3.50

1.93

0.78

2.04

1.73

1.44

0.31

1.05

Source: Livestock Census, Govt. of India


Note: The figures in parentheses indicate percent to total livestock population

The number of goats has increased at the fastest rate among the major livestock
species. The increase in goat population from 47.2 million in 1951-52 to 124.36 million
in 2003 gave a mean rate of increment of 1.51 million per annum and annual
compound growth rate of 1.92 percent. Combining the annual growth rate with mean
slaughter rate of around 40 percent and mortality rate of about 15 percent, goats have
shown the potential of population growth of about 57 percent per year. This is the single
most important factor that makes goat as most desired species of animal for meat
production in the country.
3.2

Contribution at National Level

The goats contribute significantly to the Indian economy by providing


sustenance to rural resource poor especially in the arid and semi-arid regions. The
contribution of goats to the national economy has been estimated and presented in
Table 3.2.
Table 3.2: Contribution of goats to the Indian Economy 2005-06
Items
Meat1
Milk2
Pashmina3
Offals4
Manure5
Blood6
Skin7
Increment in stock8
Total

Quantity (000 tones)


521.00
3790.00
0.041
379.23
17211.00
54.18
129.60
0.83

Value (Crore Rs.)


5210.00
3032.00
6.15
738.75
1032.66
24.63
518.40
70.90
10633.49

Note: The estimates are based on National Accounts Statistics (CSO), 2006.
1
Estimated @ Rs. 100 / kg.
2
Estimated @ Rs. 8 / kg.
3
Estimated @ Rs. 2000 / kg.
4
Since figures are not available, it is estimated as 35 % of live weight and valued @ Rs. 150 / animal slaughtered.
5
Since the information on manure produced is not available, the average yield of manure has been estimated @ 500
g/adult and 200 g/young/day and valued @ Rs.600/tonne. Ratio for adult and kids is 60:40.
6
Estimated @ 5 % of live weight and valued @ Rs. 5/goat slaughtered.
7
Estimated @ Rs. 40/kg.
8
The incremental stock has been valued considering the period of last one decade. It is assumed that 50 % kids are
born in February-March-April and 50 % in September October. In the incremental stock the 50% kids has been
valued at 8-9 months age @ Rs.1200/ animal and another 50% kids of 3-4 months age @ Rs. 500/ animal.

The goats and their products contribute Rs 10633.49 Crore annually to the national
economy accounting for around 8 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from
livestock sector, which contribute more than 30 percent of GDP from agricultural sector.
3.3

Preliminary Information on Commercial Goat Farms


The goat rearing using improved management practices undertaken for
maximization of returns from the enterprise was considered as commercial goat
farming in the present context. Based on the data collected through questionnaire from
61 commercial goat farms from 11 states of the country, the information on status and
constraints in commercial goat farming were analyzed. These goat farms were operating
for last 5-10 years and few of them for more than 20 years.
It was found that about 68 percent commercial goat farmers are of age groups
between 25-40 years. The educational status of the commercial goat farmers is analyzed
and found that majority of commercial goat keepers were educated (Figure 3.1). Less
than 10% of total goat keepers were illiterate or educated up to primary. However the
commercial goat keepers passed graduate was 36% and passed High school,
intermediate, and postgraduate were 17, 22 and 17 percent, respectively. This indicates
that commercial goat rearing is now becoming popular among the educated section of
the society. It was also observed that caste is also not a barrier in commercial farming of
the goat. Majority of the goat farmers involved in rearing of goats sold their farm
produce at their farm itself. Twelve percent of the commercial goat farmers were also
involved in the marketing/trading of goats.

Illiterate
40
30
Postgraduate

Primary

20
10
0

Graduate

High school

Intermediate

Figure 3.1: Educational status of commercial goat farmers

The commercial farms were categorizes based on their flock-size into <50, 51100, 101-200, 201-500 and >500 goats. The flock size varied from less than 50 goats
to more than 500 goats. The maximum farms (44%) were having less than 50 goats and
46% commercial farmers had flock size between 51 to 200 goats. Only 10%
commercial farmers were having flock size of above 200 goats. One successful farm of
more than 1000 goats in Kolhapur is also operating. It was observed that newly
established goat farms keep smaller flock size mainly due to higher risk of mortality in
the initial years, low risk bearing ability and resource constraints. The distribution of
goat population across the commercial farms was also analyzed and presented in
Figures 3.2 and 3.3. It can be seen from the figure that 90 % farms were possessing less
than 50 % of total goat population. The skewed distribution of goat resources among the
commercial goat farmers was mainly due to fact that a few successful commercial
farmers had quite large flock size (>500 goats).
50
45
40

% farmers

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
<50

50-100

101-200

201-500

>500

Flock size

Figure 3.2: Distribution of commercial goat farms according to size

3.3.1

Distribution goat breeds and flock size


The Barbari, Jamunapari and Sirohi are the important breeds reared in UP, MP,
Rajasthan Bihar, Jharkhand and Chhattishgarh. Black Bengal is common in West Bengal,
Jharkhand and Chattishgarh and Osmanabadi is exclusively reared in Maharashtra state.
However it was observed that non-descript breeds were also reared by most of the
commercial farmers. Reasons behind it might be the better survivability of local goats
and non-availability of pure breeding stock. Few farms in Maharashtra and Madhya
Pradesh also had Boer cross, but the performance of Boer-cross goats did not appear to
be better than the local breeds.
3.3.2

Marketing of goats
Most of the commercial goat keepers reported that they had been selling their
goats and their produce on farm it self to the local traders (including butchers from local

areas and agent of the slaughterhouses). It was found that the goat keepers received
average price of Rs. 1462/goat when the price was fixed per goat basis whereas they
received lower price of Rs 1143/goat when prices was fixed on flock basis. The sale of
goats was mostly done on per animal basis through out the country and farmers did not
get the right price. Pricing the animal on per kg live weight basis must be the criteria for
selling the animals.
100

100

98
90

% farmer/goat

80

73

72

60
49

45

40

30

20

13

0
1

% Farmer/goat
Lineof equality

Percent farmers

Percent goat population

Figure 3.3: Distribution of goat population across the goat keepers


Goatshed

Constraints

Credit
Purebreeds
Feed and Fodder scarcity
Lack of scientific knowhow
Lower price
Diseases

10

20

30

40

50

60

% Farmer facing constraints

Figure 3.4: Major constraints faced by commercial goat farmers

3.3.3

Constraints and diseases


The farmers did mention major constraints in marketing and commercialization
of goat production. For majority of the goat farmers (56 %) losses due to
diseases/parasites was the most limiting factor. The other major constraints were the
non-availability of critical inputs like, vaccines and cost effective complete feeds, and
un-remunerative prices for goat and its products, seasonal scarcity of feed resources,
lack of practical knowledge of scientific goat rearing, non-availability of breeding
animals and institutional credit (Figure 3.4). The pattern of occurrence of different
diseases/ailments shows that the highest numbers of farms (35%) were affected by
Pneumonia, followed by non-specific diarrhea, FMD, abortion, HS, PPR, afara, liver
fluke, pox anthrax and irritation (Figure 3.5). Mortality rate on commercial farms was
registered about 23 percent per annum. Higher mortality rate in kids might be due to
poor health related infrastructure, lack of awareness of diseases and parasites and poor
management of the goat farm. Some farmers were using prophylaxis against diseases
like FMD, ET, HS and PPR, and parasites. All the farmers did not adopt the preventive
schedule in totality. The farmers in Maharashtra had better awareness and followed the
prophylaxis. However certain vaccines like PPR were not available in the market.

40

% of Farms affected

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
Ir ritation

G oat pox

Liver fluke

Afara

PPR

HS

Abor tion

FMD

D iarrhea

Pne umonia

Causes

Figure 3.5: Health related problems in Commercial goat rearing

Prophylaxis measures

Trio back
Goat pox
PPR
HS
ET
FMD
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

% of farmers

Figure 3.6: Level of prophylaxis on commercial goat farms

3.4

Commercial Goat Farming


Owing to its good economic prospects, goat rearing under intensive and semiintensive system for commercial production is gaining momentum in the last couple of
years. High demand for goat and its products and potential of good economic returns
are deriving many progressive farmers, businessmen, professionals, ex-servicemen and
educated youth to take up the goat enterprise on commercial scale. This trend of
commercialisation has especially been prominent in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya
Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, where availability of grazing resources is relatively
better. Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG), Mathura is providing practical
training on commercial goat farming to the aspirant entrepreneurs, where large number
of aspirant commercial goat farmers has been trained. We have already collected
information on 150 persons who got trained at CIRG, have started goat farming on
commercial scale under semi-intensive/intensive system of management. Even there
were numbers of commercial goat farms doing well, who got knowledge of scientific
goat rearing from other institutions. All these commercial farmers are well educated and
have better access to technical and market information contrary to the traditional goat
farmers who in majority are illiterate (Kumar et al, 2002) and belong to the poor section
of rural population.
To have an in-depth understanding of the process and prospects of commercial
goat farming in the country, 18 commercial goat farms of different sizes spread over
Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh were selected. These farms
were classified into three categories; viz., category I (<100 goats), category II (100 to
500 goats) and category III (>500 goats) and had an average flock size of 63, 273 and
1169 goats, respectively (Table 3.3). The detail list of the goat farms has been indicated
in the previous chapter. Traditionally goat rearing has been a subsistence activity of
resource poor rural people, its commercialization has taken place only recently as
depicted in Table 3.4. Seventy five percent of these farms started operating in the last six
years. Besides the good economic potential of this species, the emerging favourable

market conditions and easy accessibility to improved goat technologies might have
played a major role in catching the attention of entrepreneurs.
Table 3.3: Distribution of goat farms in to flock size categories
Category
I
II
III

Flock size group


< 100 goats
100 500 goats
> 500 goats

No. of breeding goats


33
144
610

Flock size (All goats)


63
273
1169

No. of farms
10
6
2

3.4.1

Socio-economic status
Goat rearing hitherto has been an economic activity of rural landless households
and marginal and small farmers (Kumar and Deoghare, 2002). But the size of
operational land holding of commercial farmers in all the categories was large, which
ranged from 26.0 to 78.5 acres (Table 3.5). The entry of large farmers, who have better
access to knowledge, resources and market, into this activity would help in realizing the
potential of goat enterprise.
The occupational structure of the commercial goat farmers was quite diversified,
which is depicted in the Figure 3.7. Goat rearing was the main occupation for only 42
percent farmers and for the rest 58 percent; agriculture, business, service and others
were the main occupations. Interestingly the people having major income from the
Business and salaried jobs (33 % of the total farmers) had taken up commercial goat
farming as their subsidiary occupation. These people might be able to better arrange
required capital and skills for semi-intensive and intensive system of goat production.
The popular opinion is that the goats can be economically maintained only under semiintensive and extensive system with a provision of grazing in commons. However
contrary to that, the goats were successfully reared and economically viable under
intensive system of management on 46 percent of the commercial goat farms (Figure
3.8). In the large category all the farms were maintaining their goats under intensive
system. This finding would help in establishing the fact that the goat farming for
commercial production could be taken up under intensive system of management and
would encourage the aspirant commercial goat farmers who do not have access to
grazing resources.
Table 3.4: Experience in commercial goat farming
Category
After 2000
33.33
33.33
8.33
75.00

I
II
III
Total

Year of start of the goat farm (in %)


1995-2000
4.17
8.33
12.50

Before 1995
4.17
8.33
12.50

Table 3.5: Size of operational land holding


Category
I
II
III
Pooled

Irrigated
28.78
12.83
5.50
20.88

Owned Land, acre


Un irrigated
Waste land
1.25
2.00
34.00
31.67
12.03
11.67

Leased in
Irrigated
20.5
2.28

Operational holding,
acre
32.04
78.50
26.00
46.85

Traditionally rural people of higher social and economic status have shown
inhibitions in undertaking the goat keeping activity due to social stigma (Kumar, 2007).
However it was observed that caste was not a barrier in commercial farming of goats.

Seventy one percent of the commercial goat farmers belonged to the general caste
(Figure 3.9). Figure 3.10 depicts the educational status of the farmers. All the
commercial farmers were educated, with 50 percent of them as postgraduate. The
involvement of well-educated entrepreneurs is surely a positive sign for the
development of commercial goat farming in the country. Majority of these farmers (83
%) also underwent some training programme for 3-10 days duration. Fifty percent of the
farmers took training on commercial goat farming from Central Institute for Research on
Goats (Table 3.6).
Table 3.6: Farmers access to training on goat farming
Institution
Central Institute for Research
on Goats
KVK
NGOs
Agricultural University
Central Sheep & Wool
Research Institute
Not trained

Duration, days
10

Farmers in %
50

5
3
5
7

Purpose
Commercial goat farming

4
8
13
8

Commercial goat farming


Commercial goat farming/ A.I.
Commercial goat farming
Commercial goat farming

17
8%

12%
42%

21%

17%
Goat rearing

Agriculture

Business

Service

Others

Figure 3.7: Main occupations of commercial goat farmers (% farmers)


Intensive

120

Semi-intensive

100

% Farmers

80
60
40
20
0
I

II

III

overall

Category

Figure 3.8: System of management of commercial goat farms (% farm)


80
70

% Farmers

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
General

Backw ard caste

Social groups

Figure 3.9: Distribution of entrepreneurs in social groups

60

% Farmers

50
40
30
20
10
0
X to XII

Graduate

Post Graduate

Educational qualifica tion

Figure 3.10: Educational status of commercial goat farmers

3.4.2

Flock size, breed and investment pattern


The size of initial flock of goats for the new entrepreneurs was observed to be an
important factor influencing the success of a commercial goat-farming project. The
initial flock size of goat in the category I, II and III was 39, 53 and 300 goats,
respectively. From this initial size, the flocks current strength has increased to 63, 271
and 1169 goats per farm in the three categories respectively (Table 3.7). It was observed
that the new entrepreneurs, who started with large flock of over 100 goats in the very
beginning with out gaining experience from a small flock, were mostly failed and
suffered losses and some of them went out of the business. The exceptions were only
those farmers who started with very big goat unit (>500 goats) and managed to hire an
experienced professional/ or veterinary doctor to look after and supervise the
management of the farm. Quite a few farmers (44%) wanted to further increase the size
their goat flock to 218, 400 and 3500 goats in the category I, II and III respectively. In
order they sought support in terms of easy access to low cost credit, technical
knowledge, market information and remunerative prices for their products (Table 3.9).
The breeding females constituted 55 percent of the total flock. The average
number of breeding females in the category I was only 33, which was a smaller size in
economic sense. The minimum number of breeding goats in a commercial unit should
be at least 50 or more to make it a self sustaining unit that can provide livelihood to at
least one family. Having gained some experience, the farmers in category I were,
however, interested to increase the flock size. The ratio of breeding males to breeding
females was not less than recommended, which is 1:25. Proportionately higher number
of adult males in category III as presented in Table 3.8 is due to the fact that a farmer in
that category was rearing 200 one year plus males for festive sale during Eid.

Table 3.7: Size and composition of the goat flock


Category

I
II
III
Pooled

Initial
flock
size
39.10
53.33
300
72.83

Adult Goats
Male
Female
3.30
33.00
6.42
155.67
109.00
610.00
16.08
138.00

Current flock size


6-12 month goat
<6 month goats
Male
Female
Male
Female
2.80
7.50
6.20
10.60
14.08
14.00
40.67
40.17
75.00
75.00
125.00
175.00
14.58
17.17
30.89
38.72

Total
63.40
271.00
1169.00
255.44

Table 3.8: Composition of goats on commercial farms (in percent)


Category
I
II
III

Male
5.21
2.37
9.32

Adult Goats
Female
52.05
57.44
52.18

Total
57.26
59.81
61.51

6-12 month goat


Male
Female
4.42
11.83
5.20
5.17
6.42
6.42

<6 month goats


Male
Female
9.78
16.72
15.01
14.82
10.69
14.97

Total
kids
42.74
40.19
38.49

Pooled

5.27

54.92

60.19

5.58

6.32

12.85

15.07

39.81

Table 3.9: Farmers perception on size of flock


Category

Farmers perception (% farmer)


Satisfied
Want to increase the
flock size
80
20
17
83
50
50
56
44

I
II
III
Pooled

Targeted
flock size,
No.
218
400
3500
643

Support needed for increasing flock

Easy access to low cost finance, Technical


knowledge and training, Technology for
meat processing, Technology for low cost
complete
feed,
Market
information,
Remunerative pricing

100

Share of differant goat breeds (%)

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Haryana

MP

MS

Raj

T.N.

UP

W. B.

C.G

Bihar

Barbari

Jamunapari

Sirohi

Osmonabadi

Boer Cross

Jakharana

Black Bengal

ND

Kannaiadu

Ganjam

Figure 3.11: Distribution of goat breeds on commercial farms in different states

share of differant goat breeds (%)

100
90

Ganjam

80

Kannaiadu

70

ND

60

Black Bengal

50

40
30

Jakharana

Boer Cross

Figure 3.11 depicts the distribution of goat breeds on commercialOsmonabadi


farms in
20 states. The Sirohi, Barbari, Osmanabadi and Black Bengal were the important
different
Sirohi
breeds
10 of goats reared by the commercial goat farmers. Sirohi and Barbari breeds were
most widely spread. Osmanabadi was exclusively reared in Maharashtra, butJamunapari
now have
0
started spreading to Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Sirohi remained
.
.
r
a
P
P
S
aj
.G
.N
U
M after
M breed
R
haand arid parts of thBarbari
the most
particularly
in
e country.
. B semi
an sought
C arid
T
y
Bi
W
ar
H rable number of goats of commercial farms in Madhya Pradesh (78%),
Conside
Chhattisgarh (40%) and Uttar Pradesh (36%) were non-descript. These farmers need to
switch over to some suitable breeds such as Sirohi, Osmanabadi and Barbari to make
the business more productive and profitable. Some commercial farms in Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu also reared South African Boer-cross goats.
The Boer, which has been promoted by Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute,
Phaltan, was crossed with Osmanabadi, Sirohi breeds and non descript goats. It was

observed that the cross of Boer and Osmanabadi gained a body weight of 24 to 30 kg at
the age of 6 month, which is higher than the average Osmanabadi. However, a wellmaintained pure Osmanabadi kid obtained from good quality parents on the
commercial goat farms also gained a body weight of 21 to 25 kg at the age of six
months. The farmers informed that colour and meat of local breeds was preferred over
the Boer-cross by the domestic consumers. Moreover the Boer-cross is not good grazer.
Therefore the local pure breed animals should not be crossed with the Boer breed for
such a small gain. Such crossing may only be experimented with the non-descript
animals.
The major initial investment was incurred on purchase of breeding stock and
construction of sheds and structures, which accounted for 47 percent and 48 percent of
the total capital investment respectively. However in traditional flocks 75-80 percent of
the total investment is made in acquiring the breeding stock (Kumar and Deoghare,
2000). The total investment per breeding goat in category I, II and III was estimated to
be Rs.5083, Rs.3419, Rs.6015, respectively. The investment in category II was made
appropriately. However the reason for comparatively higher investment per goat in
category I was lower capacity utilization and in category III one farmer made unduly
heavy investment on huge sheds and structures. It may be mentioned that an efficient
unit of commercial goat farming should not make very heavy investment on the sheds
and structures. Total investment per breeding goat at current prices should not possibly
exceed Rs. 3,500.
Table 3.10: Level and pattern of capital Investment
Category

I
II
III
Pooled

Capital investment (Rs. in lakh)


Sheds and
Equipments
Total investment
structure
0.967
0.229
1.845
2.542
0.197
5.539
21.000
1.250
43.250
3.720
0.33
7.68

Value of
animals
0.649
2.800
21.000
3.630

Investment/ adult goat,


Rs in 000
5083
3419
6015
4632

Labour Use
The major activities regularly carried out by labour on the commercial goat
farms were, cleaning, milking, heat detection and breeding, management and feeding of
kids, feeding adults, grazing and watering of goats, treatment of animals and security. All
the commercial goat farms had hired unskilled and semi skilled labourers. Thirty three
percent in category II and all the farms in category III had engaged a hired manager, rest
of the farms were self-managed by the farmers. The type of labour, their magnitude and
wages are indicated in the Table 3.11. The number of goats managed by a labour varied
from 33 in category I to 97 in category III. The commercial farms in category III used the
labour most efficiently. Labour inefficiency in category I was mainly due to the sub
optimal size of the flock. Moreover the daily involvement of the owner in the
management of goats increased the efficiency of hired labour.
Table 3.11: Type of labour engaged on goat farms
Livestock supervisor/
Semi-skilled labour
Category Hired
manager skilled labour

% Farm

% Farm

Self

20

Wage
/month
1716

No.
3

Wage
/month
1333

Un-skilled labour
No.
9

Wage
/month
1233

Goats /
labour

33

II
II
Overall

33
100
28

33
100
44

5000
5000
3176

13
7
7

1523
2286
1730

12
20
11

1550
1300
1359

53
97
47

3.4.3

Feed and fodder


All the commercial goat farms had access to home grown green fodder through
out the year except one farm in Rajasthan, which could grow green fodder in winter and
rainy season only. Seventy to ninety percent requirement of the dry fodder of goat farms
was met through purchased dry fodder from the market. The average price of dry fodder
consisting of straw of gram, groundnut, pigeon pea, other pulses and wheat, and Stover
of bajra and maize, was Rs. 89 to Rs. 137 per quintal in different categories. The actual
market price paid for feed and fodder by the farmer was comparatively lower in large
category. This may be on account of economies of scale due to bulk purchase at the
time of harvesting of grains.
Type of roughages used by goat farmers:
Green fodder: Berseem, cowpea, maize, Bajra, Lucerne, sorghum, Guar, Sesbania
sisben, and leaves of Babul, Neem, Peepal, Khejari, Subabool, sheveri etc.
Dry fodder: Wheat and pulse straw, Bajra and sorghum Stover, lentil, dry pod, Soybean
and groundnut husk, other crop residues.
Concentrate Feeding
Provision of concentrate feed to the animals as per their maintenance and
production requirement is a pre-condition under intensive and semi intensive system of
management. All the farmers except one farmer in category I, were feeding concentrate,
mineral mixture and salt to their goats. The details of concentrate fed to different types
of goat and per farm, its prices, storages practices are presented in Tables 3.12 to 3.16.
Table 3.12: Source of Concentrate Feed
Source of Feed (farmer in %)
Category
Home
Market
Home and market both
I
50
40
10
II
33
33
34
III
100
Pooled
39
44
17

Distance
km
8
10
25
11.64

Table 3.13: Source of Fodder


Category
Distance km
Source of Feed (farmer in %)
Home produced
Home and market both
I
80
20
2-5
II
67
33
10
III
100
Pooled
78
22
2-10
Table 3.14: Feeding of concentrate mixture
Amount of concentrate mixture provided (g/day)
Adoption,
Category
% farmer
Milking goat
Pregnant goat
Dry goat
Kids
I
90
216.7
191
113
113
II
100
300
250
150
133
III
100
325
150
50
75
Total
94
258.8
208.1
125.4
115.6
Table 3.15: Concentrate available in different categories (per farm/ annum)
Concentrate
Mineral Mixture
Category
Quantity, Price
Value
Quantity, Price
Value
kg
Rs./kg Rs.
kg
Rs./kg
Rs.

Salt
Quantity, Value
kg
Rs.

I
II
III
Pooled

1928
13594
88485
15434

5.97
5.58
5.88
5.80

11516
75861
520612
89530

24.2
114.16
717.5
131.2

31.07
37.0
32.43
33.62

752
4225
23275
4412

22.0
96.67
800
133

75
387
2750
476

Composition of concentrate: Different 9 compositions of concentrate feed used by the


farmers were as follows:
i.
Cake + Bajra, cake + Barley,
ii.
Maize40%+Jowar20%+ Oilcake-20%+15 Pulses + Minerals 2%,
iii.
Maize + Barley + Bajra,
iv.
Groundnut Cake +Maize grinded +Gram,
v.
GN Cake + Jwar + Bajra,
vi.
Barley+ Cake,
vii.
Oil Cake+ Maize,
viii.
Cotton Seed + Oil Cake+ Singhadi,
ix.
Cake: DORB: Maize: Molasses: Mineral mixture: Urea -7: 1:40:10:1:1
Interestingly at one farm urea formed 1% part of its concentrate feed. Besides these
feeds, the farmers were also using the wastage/ residues from the Bakery and Beer
producing units subject to its availability. Like any other commercial venture, these goat
farmers also maintained an advance stock of dry fodder and concentrate equivalent to
the requirement of 2-4 months.
Table 3.16: Storage of feed and fodder on goat farms
Category
Make storage of dry fodder and
concentrate (% farmers)
I
70
II
100
III
100

Duration of storage
3.5 month
2 month
4 month

Unlike the tradition flocks the expenditure on feed and fodder was the major
component of the cost on the commercial goat farms and it accounted for 59 percent of
the total variable cost. Further, the concentrate feed and dry fodder accounted for 58
and 25 percent of the total feed cost (Table 3.17). It was therefore prudent on part of the
farmers to economize the feed cost in order to enhance profitability.
Table 3.17: Feed cost on commercial goat farms (Rs./ annum)
Sl. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Green Fodder Dry Fodder


1000
12750
2000
17250
1500
7625
4000
4680
4500
28200
40000
1000
7500
3750
100000
750
750
3750
2000
32000
100000
1750

72000
15000
17400
13000
84000
4000
7000
14800
3000
74400
220000
5700

Concentrate Mineral Mixture


7200
0
15000
1800
8125
0
4725
200
5500
2400
137500
15562.5
26000
23694
404525
13000
7200
12600
32500
154000
497860
7200

12000
480
1000
2800
24500
0
1400
840
1200
8750
22050
600

Salt
0
200
0
36
0

Total Feed cost


20950
36250
17250
13641
40600

1000
100
120
210
2500

262500
32143
52020
43454
615525
17750
16470
32074
38900
270150
842910
15250

120
84
200
1000
3000
0

18
Overall
As % of feed
cost

2000
17125
12.89

4800
33645
25.32

16800
77166
58.08

0
4446
3.35

0
504
0.38

23600
132858
100.00

Feed was observed to be highly scarce in Rajasthan particularly in summer


season and became and very costly (Rs. 4-5 per kg of dry fodder) marking the goat
production under intensive system unsustainable. Therefore, in such situations, it will be
imperative to follow these steps; (i) Efforts to acquire low cost feed through efficient
purchases, (ii) The number of animals in the farm may be reduced during the summer
season through pre summer bulk sale of meat animals on Eid and Holi. The flock size
may further be increased during the rainy season. (iii) As the Sirohi breed of Rajasthan is
in high demand in different states for breeding purpose, the sale of pure breed animals
to the breeders (farmers) at the age of 6-7 months would be a way out to reduce the cost
of feeding feed in scare regions such as Rajasthan.
3.4.4

Miscellaneous expenditure
The commercial goat farmers also made expenditure on electricity, insurance
prophylaxis and treatment of animal (Table 3.18). The expenditure on electricity on
large farms was quite high and needed to be economized. The average expenditure on
the above heads was estimated to be Rs.28237 per farm and Rs. 183 per doe per
annum.

Table 3.18: Miscellaneous expenditure on commercial goat farms (Rs./ annum)


Miscellaneous expenditure
Category
Total
Electricity
Treatment
Insurance
Prophylaxis
I
960
1730
1250
744
4684
II
1983
3417
5500
5636
16536
III
100000
5000
50500
25600
181100
Pooled
12306
2656
8139
5136
28237

3.4.5

Expenditure,
Rs./doe
130
102
252
183

Production of kids
Kids born from the goats were the major output of the commercial goat farms.
There were mainly two kidding seasons, namely, February-April and OctoberNovember. However some goats on few farms also kidded in other months too (Table
3.19 and Table 3.20). The mortality in kids was estimated and found to be ranged from
5.64 percent in category III to 12.28 percent in category I. Thus contrary to the popular
belief, the mortality rate in kids was negatively associated with the flock size. This may
be mainly due to better management, feeding and prophylaxis provided by the large
farmers. The mortality rate in kids was well under the permissible limits except 3
commercial farms, which were not able to spare sufficient time to look after their farms.
Besides, their farm produced kids, few commercial farmers in category I and III were
also rearing male kids purchased from the market for fattening and sale them during the
festival of Eid. Such males prepared for Eid fetched much higher price as compared to
the kids sold for meat purpose. In inter-breed comparisons the mortality rate was lower
in Sirohi and Osmanabadi as compared to Barbari and Black Bengal. Body weights of
goat at different ages as recorded by the farmers are shown in Table 3.21. The body
weights at birth and subsequently at 3,6,9 and 12 months were quite promising. The
body weight of kids up to six month on large farms (category III) were close to the
potential weights of the reared breeds such as Sirohi and Osmanabadi and were higher

than the other two categories. Based on empirical evidences, it has been suggested that
the medium and large size of goats reared under intensive system for commercial
production should attain more than 25 kg body weight at the age of 6-7 months for
achieving their fuel economic potential (Singh, 2006). Therefore the farmers need to
make efforts to further improve the weight gain of their animals through better
management and technological interventions.
Table 3.19: Number of kid born per farm
Number of kid born
Category
Feb - OctoberOther
Total
April
Nov.
month
born
I
34.0
19.0
4.0
57.0
II
115.0
56.7
12.7
184.3
III
230.0
352.5
82.0
664.5
Pooled 82.6
68.8
15.7
167.0

Number of kid died


February October Other
-April
Nov.
month
4.0
2.0
1.0
7.2
9.5
1.8
14.5
19.5
3.5
6.4
6.2
1.4

Total
died

%
Mortality

7.0
18.5
37.5
14.0

12.28
10.03
5.64
8.38

Value of kids in year end (Rs.)


February OctoberOther
-April
Nov.
month
59620
13950
6200
269292
59983
21333
646500
832500 170500
194719
120244
29500

Male
for Eid
(Rs.)
29750
0.00
450000
66528

Total
value
(Rs.)
109520
350608
2099500
410992

Table 3.20: Details of kids born and reared


Category Number of kid live
February October-April
Nov.
I
29.2
17.8
II
107.83
47.17
III
215.5
333
Pooled
76.11
62.61

Other
month
3.5
10.83
78.5
14.28

Male for
Fattening
8.5
0.00
100
15.83

Table 3.21: Body weight of goat at different age as recorded by farmers (in kg)
Category
I
II
III
Pooled

On birth
Male Female
2.17
1.83
2.17
2.00
1.88
1.75
2.09
1.83

3 month
Male Female
9.0
7.40
9.5
9.67
10.5
10.0
9.40
8.44

6 month
Male
Female
14.25
14.0
17.50
16.33
20.0
18.00
16.77
15.83

9 month
Male
Female
19.75
19.50
29.5
27.0
24.5
22.0
24.60
23.0

12 month
Male
Female
33.2
30.2
42.5
37.5
30.0
28.0
35.13
31.75

3.4.6 Level of awareness and adoption of improved technologies by commercial goat


farmers
A number of technologies are available for productivity improvement of goats.
Technological and management options are the only alternatives to accelerate the
growth in productivity of goats, which is low in the traditional system of production.
The level of farmers awareness and adoption of improved technologies and
management practices was ascertained and is shown in Table 3.22 to Table 3.35.
The farmers had very high level of awareness of improved technologies. The
direction of goat shed and floor space was as recommended, except two farmers who
had housed the goats in some old structure. Structure and material of sheds was also
proper. But 17% farmer had made heavy investment on shed that threatened the
economic sustainability of the farms. A few small farmers could not arrange separate
space for male, female and kids due to limited availability of land. Majority of the
farmers (83%) were using appropriate feeding and watering devices, however, the
devices are modified by the farmers using locally available resources.
Table 3.22: Adoption of technology of direction of goat shed (farmers in %)
Direction of shed
Category
Farmers aware
East-West
North-South

Constraints

I
II
III
Pooled

100
100
100
100

80
100
100
89

Table 3.23: Availability of floor space per goat


Category
Covered Shed area /goat (M2 )
I
2.63
II
1.41
III
1.43
Pooled
1.59

20
11

Old structure: costly to


be modified

Open space/ goat (M2 )


3.58
2.12
2.31
2.42

Table 3.24: Type of material used in the goat shed (% farmer)


Type of material used in the goat shed
Category
Brick walls +
Thatch
GI sheet
Wooden poles +
asbestos sheet
(whole)
Asbestos sheet
I
80
20
II
50
17
17
III
50
Overall
61
11
6
11

Concrete +
Asbestos sheet
16
50
11

Table 3.25: Adoption of housing management practices (% farmer)


Ventilation
Separate shed for male, female and kids
Category
Aware adopted
Constraint
Aware
Adopted Constraint
I
100
80
Limited land
100
80
High unit for small
near home
number of goats
II
100
100
100
67
Lack of space
III
100
100
100
100
Total
100
89
100
78
Table 3.26: Use of recommended feeding and watering devices (% farmer)
Use of appropriate feeding and watering devices
Category
Awareness Adoption
Material used
Cemented
Iron
Wooden and other
I
90
90
30
30
50
II
100
67
33
67
17
III
100
100
50
100
Total
94
83
33
50
33

Most of the breeding stock was sourced from the local market or goat keepers.
Farmers also sourced the breeding animals from distant market, research institutes and
NGOs. Farmers well understood the importance of mineral mixture and 94 percent of
them fed it to their goats. Level of awareness of farmers about prophylaxis was also high
but the adoption rate was not very high. The use of vaccines such as PPR, HS and FMD
and ecto-parasiticidal need to be increased to prevent the diseases and further reducing
the losses due to diseases and improve productivity. On many occasions farmers could
not use vaccines on account of its non-availability. The average age of doe at first mating
was 10.08 months and that of the breeding male was 19.50 months which is considered
appropriate. All the farmers used natural mating for servicing the goats; however, 11
percent of the farms also used A.I. The twinning percentage (ability to produce two kids
in one kidding) was 60, which was quite high. The commercial goat farmers were

improving the breed of their goats through continuous selection and by bringing in good
germ plasm from outside. The farmers were ready to pay even the double price of the
market rate for good quality breeding animals. Recommended daily management
practices such as cleaning, lime spray, tagging, colostrum feeding, castration of male
kids, etc. were practiced by the farmers (Table 3.34). Moreover, 56 and 78 percent of
the farmers followed labour calendar and work distribution, respectively. For smooth
management of the goat farm, 50 percent of the farmers maintained different types of
farm records.
Table 3.27: Source of breeding stock (% farmer)
Category
Local Market/
Distant
Farmer
Markets
I
80
20
II
100
100

CIRG

CSWRI

Other

10
33

-17

17 (Embryo from South

17

Africa)

III
Pooled

50
83

100
56

Table 3.28: Awareness and use of mineral mixture (% farmer)


Adoption of recommended mineral mixture
Category
Awareness Adoption
Bricks
Agrimin-Godrej Other mineral
Calcium
mix
I
100
100
40
60
10
II
100
83
17
50
33
17
III
100
100
100
Total
100
94
6
50
44
11
Table 3.29: Awareness level of farmers about annual preventive goat health schedule (% farmer)
Vaccines
Other preventive measures
Category
PPR
ET
HS
FMD
Coccidia-state
De-worming
Ecto-parasite
I
80
90
70
90
50
100*
70
II
50
83
100
83
50
100
50
III
100
100
50
50
100
100**
50
Total
72
89
78
83
56
100
61
* Twice March and December **after 3 month and 4 month
Table 3.30: Farmers adoption level of annual preventive goat health schedule
Vaccines
Other preventive measures
Category
PPR
ET
HS
FMD Coccidia-state
De-worming Ecto-parasite
I
30
50
30
30
10
70
10
II
33
83
83
83
0
83
50
III
50
50
0
0
0
100
50
Total
33
61
44
44
6
78
28
Table 3.31: Age of breeding buck on goat farms
Category
Age of the breeding male (months)
I
15.60
II
19.33
III
19.50
Overall
19.50

Table 3.32: Details of breeding of goats


Type of breeding, in %
Category Age of doe at first
mating (months)
Natural
AI
I
10.50
100
II
9.40
100
17
II
10.50
100
50
Pooled
10.08
100
11
Table 3.33: Breeding performance of goats
Category Service period (M)
Age of doe at first
kidding (month)
I
II
II
Pooled

1.97
2.38
1.25
2.03

14.67
12.50
17.5
14.42

Frequency/
Conception
2.6
2.5
2.0
2.5
Twinning %
61.20
56.17
61.92
59.94

Timing of service
M -E
Whole day
2
2
1
2

Age at weaning,
month
2.93
2.13
2.70
2.73

Traditional farmers who rear more than 99 percent of the goat population of the
country hardly use any improved goat production technologies except de-worming and
few vaccines by a small proportion of farmers. In this background the level of adoption
of different technologies by commercial goat farmers, who have got some training on
scientific goat farming may be said to be encouraging. However an increased level of
adoption of technologies would be essential in order to establish commercial goat
farming under intensive system as an economically sustainable enterprise. Greater
adoption of prophylaxis and good quality breeding stock would be of particular
importance. Most of the farmers were eager to adopt the improved technologies,
however absence of any support system to get quick access to latest information and
technologies and weak input delivery system resulted in poor adoption.
Table 3.34: Level of adoption of different management practices (No. / %)
Category
Practices
I
II
II
Cleaning daily
100
100
100
Lime spray
20
33
100
Hoof cutting
10
0
0
Frequency of water daily
2.4
2.83
3
Cleaning before milking
90
83
50
Milking daily
40
33
100
Tagging
50
83
100
Colostrum feeding
90
100
100
Time of colostrum feeding, hrs
3.4
2.9
2.7
Castration of male kid
50
17
100
Age of castration, month
1.29
0.67
2.5
Extent of kids castrated
70
65
60
Prepare labour calendar
40
67
100
Follow work distribution
60
100
100

Overall
100
33
6
2.61
78
44
67
94
3.1
44
1.33
62
56
78

Table 3.35: Status of use of farm records on commercial farms (% farmer)


Category Awareness Adoption Records maintained
I
70
30
Inventory, livestock breeding, birth record, health and medical
records, record of kids, labour calendar, work distribution
schedule etc.

II

67

67

III

100

100

Overall

72

50

Kidding record, Pedigree record, Feed record, Health record,


prophylaxis record, mortality record, sale record, feeding
record, labour calendar, work distribution schedule etc.
Stock register, birth record, mortality record, medicine record,
weighing record, vaccination record, goat productivity register,
health record, breeding records, labour calendar, work
distribution schedule etc.

3.4.7

Mortality and morbidity losses due to diseases


Mortality and morbidity losses due to diseases in goats have been a major
constraint in the tradition flocks (Kumar et al., 2003). The risk of certain diseases is
considered to increase in the large flocks maintained under intensive system. Therefore,
losses due diseases in goats on commercial farm were estimated. The estimated details
are shown in Table 3.36 to 3.38. The major diseases that affected goats on commercial
farms were, PPR, Enterotoxaemia (ET), POX, FMD, Diarrhea and Pneumonia. The other
health ailments were abortion, tympani, gidd, external parasites, etc. The overall
mortality in kids in different categories ranged from 5.64 to 12.28 percent and in that of
adult it was 4.89 percent. However few individual farms suffered high mortality. The
four farms, which suffered with high mortality in does and or kids, were making loss
from the goat farming activity as such (Table 3.42). Non-specific diarrhea caused highest
mortality in kids as well as adult, followed by PPR, Pneumonia and ET. However in
terms of monetary loss, PPR ranked first followed by diarrhea and pneumonia (Table
3.36). Table 3.37 depicts category wise mortality status and losses due to diseases in
goats. The mortality and production losses together were estimated to be Rs.8845,
Rs.20183 and Rs.124708 per farm per annum in the category I, II and III, respectively.
On overall farms, the estimated losses due to diseased in goats were equivalent to 23.22
percent of net returns and 5.21 percent of gross returns of the goat farm. These returns
would have increased to such extent if the diseases were prevented. The farmers
perception on pre-disposing factors of major diseases such as PPR, ET, Diarrhea,
Pneumonia and abortion in goats was ascertained (Annexure). New purchase and
transportation from long distance for PPR, changes in feed for ET, acute winter and
summer for diarrhea, untimely heavy rains and acute winter for pneumonia, and hence
transportation over long distance, summer months and new purchase were the major
pre-disposing factors. The Table 3.38 gives detailed account of losses due to diseases on
each farm. There was a large variation in the magnitude of losses due diseases across the
farms. The losses significantly affected the net returns of the individual farms. It has been
considered even by the goat health scientists that larger goat flocks are vulnerable to
high disease incidence and losses. However, there was no relation found between the
magnitude of losses due to diseases and the flock size of goat. Since the diseases and
parasites in goats and resultant losses, directly threatens the profitability and
sustainability of commercial goat production, therefore a multi pronged strategy to
strengthen the research efforts, educating farmers, transfer of technology and input
delivery system particularly related to goat health would be necessary for making the
commercial goat production under intensive and semi-intensive system economically
viable and sustainable.
Table 3.36: Status and losses due to disease/ ailments in goat Per farm
Disease
No of
No. of goat No. of goat Mortality Production Total Ranking of
farm
affected per
died per
loss, Rs Losses, Rs. losses importance
affected
farm
farm
due to of disease

PPR
ET
Pox
FMD
Diarrhea
Pneumonia
External
Parasite
Abortion
Gidd
Tympani
Blindness
Infertility
Other

(%)
16.7
5.6
11.1
5.6
33.3
38.9
44.4

Adults
1.8
2.2
6.9
0.0
2.7
1.8
8.4

33.3
16.7
16.7
5.6
38.9
33.3

4.1
0.3
0.3
0.2
4.4
0.9

Kids Adults Kids


2.8
1.0
2.4
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
5.0
0.0
0.8
7.9
1.8
4.5
3.3
1.0
1.2
10.9 0.5
0.8

5611
1944
278
389
5567
2678
1211

151
0.0
0.0
444
72
83
0.0

disease
5762
1944
278
833
5639
2761
1211

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3

372
467
594
0.0
0.0
2017

814
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1186
467
594
0
0
2017

0.2
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3

VI
IX
VIII
-

Table 3.37: Category wise status and losses due to disease in goat Per farm
No. Died
Mortality loss Rs. Production
Category No. Affected
Total
Animal
losses
Adult
Kids
Kids
Kids
Kids
Adults
died
I
6.5
5.4
3.70
3.80
7.50
1720
6850
275
II
28.0
33.0
6.5
13.0
19.5
6833
11817
1533
III
190.5
155.0
21
41.0
62.0
44950
52500
27258
Pooled 34.11
31.22
6.56 11.00
17.56
8228
13578
1414
Table 3.38: Mortality and production losses due to diseases (Rs./farm/annum)
Sr. No.
No.
Value of
Value of
Production Total loss due
Breeding
adult died
kid died
loss
to disease
goat
1
21
6100
1800
300
8200
2
40
10400
3000
2200
15600
3
25
43700
9000
250
52950
4
17
0
0
0
0
5
85
8000
7000
0
15000
6
160
6000
0
0
6000
7
50
1700
500
0
2200
8
78
28900
10000
0
38900
9
46
0
0
0
0
10
520
0
16000
1000
17000
11
60
2100
4600
0
6700
12
36
3200
1100
0
4300
13
32
3400
1800
0
5200
14
205
2700
7000
8000
17700
15
275
23200
12400
1200
36800
16
700
105000
73900
12500
191400
17
20
0
0
0
0
18
43
6100
0
0
6100
Overall
134
13917
8228
1414
23558

3.4.8

I
IV
X
VII
II
III
V

Total
loss
8845
20183
124708
23220

Disease loss/
doe
390
390
2118
0
176
38
44
499
0
33
112
119
163
86
134
273
0
142
262

Economics of commercial goat farming


Like any other commercial venture the prime objective of a commercial goat
farmer is to earn best returns on his resources. The cost and returns from goat farming

were worked out in detail for each category as well as for each commercial goat farm.
Unlike the traditional flocks, where fixed cost comes to 10-15 percent of the total cost,
the fixed cost and variable cost constituted 35.36 and 64.64 percent of the total cost of
goat farming, respectively. Since mortality of breeding goats is a permanent loss of
productive asset (100% depreciation), therefore the value of adult goats died was taken
as part of the fixed cost, besides interest on capital and depreciation. The value of adult
goats died accounted for 11.38 percent of the total fixed cost. Such cost may be
minimized through available technological and management interventions. Under the
intensive and semi intensive system of management of goats, the expenditure on feed
and fodder was the major component of the cost of goat rearing and accounted for 59
percent of the total variable cost of goat farming. The total cost per doe per annum in
different categories was worked out to be Rs.2137 to Rs.2527 (Table 3.39). However, an
analysis of cost of rearing of goat on the individual farms as depicted in Figure 3.13 and
Table 3.40 shows large variations in its magnitude across the farms. On one third of the
commercial goat farms, the total annual cost of rearing a goat was between Rs.1124 Rs.
1753 and on the other one-third goat farms, it was much above the average and ranged
from Rs.2628 to Rs.4311. These one-third goat farms running with high cost of
production must reduce their cost of goat rearing to remain in business. The cost could
be reduced by, (i) reducing the fixed cost through expansion and minimizing mortality
of goats; (ii) Reducing feed cost through identifying cheaper sources of feeds and their
efficient purchases.
Table 3.39: Cost and returns from goat farming on different categories of commercial farms (Rs/
annum)
Variable Total cost Cost
Cost
per
goat
35181
50568
85749 2354
91417 211552 302969 2137
650593 1124332 1774925 2527

Returns Value of
from kids manures

Value
milk

Gross
returns

115460
7475
383942
31400
1888400 117000

12969
17167
30000

135904
432508
2035400

400
350

Rs. in thousand

I
II
III

Fixed
cost

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Total cost

Variable cost

Feed cost

Fixed cost

Cost/ goat farm/ annum

Figure 3.12: Composition of different cost on goat farms


Total cost/goat/ annum, Rs.

Category

5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
1

11

13

Commercial goat farms

15

17

Net
returns/
farm
50155
129540
260475

Net
return/
Goat
371
652
494

Figure 3.13: Annual cost of rearing a goat on commercial farms


450
400
350

Rs. in 000

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Sale of animals

Sale of manure

Sale of milk

Figure 3.14: Source of annual returns on commercial goat farms


3000

Net returns in Rs.

2000

1000

0
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

-1000

-2000

-3000

Distribution of goa t farms

Figure 3.15: Annual net returns per goat on commercial farms


Table 3.40: Cost of goat rearing (Rs./ flock/annum)
S. No

Total Fixed
cost

Recurring
Cost

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

27976
44751
77006
6807
64596
79229
61023
91614
25031
470000
39171
13237
25706
66351
207541
831186
4512
65760

38950
50325
29300
14305
79400
332945
76963
120242
74444
853725
79670
45050
45800
156300
440310
1287860
29100
77360

Interest on working Total Variable


capital
Cost

1948
2516
1465
715
3970
16647
3848
6012
3722
42686
3984
2253
2290
7815
22016
64393
1455
3868

40898
52841
30765
15020
83370
349592
80811
126254
78166
896411
83654
47303
48090
164115
462326
1352253
30555
81228

Total cost

68874
97593
107771
21827
147966
428821
141833
217868
103198
1366411
122824
60540
73796
230466
669866
2183439
35067
146988

Cost per
goat

3280
2440
4311
1284
1741
2680
2837
2793
2243
2628
2047
1682
2306
1124
2436
2426
1753
1400

Overal
l

122305

212892

10645

223536

345842

2301

3.4.8.1 Returns
The major source of returns of commercial goat farms was the sale of kids and
adults for breeding, meat and sacrifice purposes. The sale of animals constituted more
90 percent of the gross returns from goat farming (Figure 3.14) the next important source
of returns was sale of manure followed by milk. The value of milk, which constituted
about 25 percent of the gross returns on traditional goat flocks, was only a minuscule
part of the returns of commercial farms. The value of milk produced per goat per annum
was Rs.331, Rs.119 and Rs.49 in category I, II and III, respectively. The commercial
farmers, particularly the large flock owners were not interested in milking the goats
because, (i) the hand milking of large number of goats required lots of labourers that
increased the labour cost and affected the timeliness of other farm operations; (ii) they
wanted to make available more milk for the kids up to 3 months for attaining proper
growth. The annual net returns per farm and per doe were worked out category wise as
well as for individual farm which are presented in Table 3.39 and 3.41 and Figure 3.15
the annual net returns per goat in three categories ranged from Rs.371 to Rs.652,
however the category wise analysis did not reveal the real picture. The analysis of
individual farm revealed that on the 39 percent of goat farms, the annual net returns per
goat were quite satisfactory which ranged from Rs.968 to Rs.2069. on the other hand,
the net returns on 28 percent of the goat farms were negative. The main reasons for
negative net returns on these farms were, the higher cost of rearing per doe and
realization of low prices for their market surplus. Rest of the 33 percent of the goat farms
also had positive net returns but need to increase them in order to make their business
economically viable and sustainable. Since majority of the commercial farms have come
up only in the last few years, they were learning from their experiences and some of
them need to increase the flock size for proper capacity utilization of fixed capital and
labour. Most of the farms with below average performance are likely to improve in the
next 1-2 years. The Figure 3.16 shows the annual net returns per doe and some possibly
related indicators. The net returns per goat did not appear to have any relationship with
the flock size. However, fixed cost and disease losses per doe appeared to have affected
the net returns negatively.
It is evident from the above analysis that majority of commercial goat farms were
operating with positive net returns with 39 percent of them earning good profit. Goat
rearing as an enterprise was found equally rewarding under both intensive and semi
intensive system of management. Among the farms under intensive system, 22 percent
were in loss, whereas among the farms under semi-intensive system 33 percent were in
loss. The commercial goat farming under intensive and semi intensive system of
management may therefore be declared as profitable and promising enterprise.
However, the technological intervention particularly prophylaxis, superior germ plasm,
low cost feeds and fodders and innovative marketing of the produce would be the preconditions for successful commercial goat production.
Table 3.41: Returns from goat farming (Rs./ annum)
Sl. No.
Returns
Value of
Value
from kids
manures
milk
1
28500
5200
22950
2
65000
7800
24300

Gross
returns
56650
97100

Net returns/
farm
-12224
-493

Net return
/Goat
-582
-12

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Overall

23000
45500
189700
534700
95000
134850
273900
174280
0
296400
49000
78000
175200
972800
203400
0
35200
461500
401947

4550
6500
28600
39000
9750
20800
11050

15000
5000
16000
20000
7500
9000
7000

42550
57000
234300
593700
112250
164650
291950

-65221
35173
86334
164879
-29583
-53218
188752

-2609
2069
1016
1030
-592
-682
2052

117000
13000
6500
9100
35000
52000

10000
8000
15300
7000
22000
28000

1869800
317400
70800
94100
232200
1052800

503389
194576
10260
20304
1734
382934

968
1145
285
634
8
1392

117000
6500
7800
27619

50000
8640
17000
16261

2201000
50340
486300
445827

17561
15273
339312
99986

20
764
1697
478

Table 3.42: Annual net returns per goat and related indicators
Sr.
No. Breeding
Fixed
Variable
Value of adult
No.
goat
cost/doe
cost/doe
died/ doe
1
21
1332
1948
290
2
40
1119
1321
260
3
25
3080
1231
1748
4
17
400
884
0
5
85
760
981
94
6
160
495
2185
38
7
50
1220
1616
34
8
78
1175
1619
371
9
46
544
1699
0
10
520
904
1724
0
11
60
653
1394
35
12
36
368
1314
89
13
32
803
1503
106
14
205
324
801
13
15
275
755
1681
84
16
700
1187
1932
150
17
20
226
1528
0
18
43
1332
1948
142

Value kid
died/ doe
86
75
360
0
82
0
10
128
0
31
77
31
56
34
45
106
0
0

Net return
/Goat
-582
-12
-2609
2069
1016
1030
-592
-682
2052
968
1145
285
634
8
1392
20
764
1697

4000

3000

Value in rupees

2000

1000

0
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

-1000

-2000

Distribution of goat farms


-3000

No. does

Fixed cost/ doe

Disease loss/ doe

Annual net return/ doe

Figure 3.16: Annual net returns per doe and related indicators

3.4.8.2 Income from other sources


Goat rearing was not the major source of income for majority of the commercial
farmers. It was a new subsidiary activity of people already earning from other sources.
The average net income from commercial goat farming in category I, II and III was
Rs.51000, Rs.130000 and Rs.260000 respectively, which accounted for 11.53, 7.51 and
0.74 percent of the total income of the commercial farmer (Table 3.43). In the first 2-3
years the goat-farming project do not give much amount of net returns. The other source
of income of the farmer is an advantage for successfully passing through the initial
phase.
Table 3.43: Income from other sources (Rs. in lakh)
Source of income
I
Agriculture
1.90
Service
0.49
Business/ Industry
1.50
Other
0.10
Goat rearing
0.51
Total
4.5
% share of goat rearing
11.33

II
2.50
0.33
4.00
9.17
1.30
17.3
7.51

III
350.00
2.60
352.6
0.74

3.4.9

Pooled
1.89
0.38
41.06
3.11
0.99
47.43
2.09

Constraints in commercial goat farming


Commercial goat farming under intensive and semi-intensive system of
management has been picking up in the last couple of years. Only less then one percent
of the goat population of the country yet has come under such production system. There
has been no organized effort to develop this sector and hence hardly any support system
and required infrastructure is available for encouraging the commercial goat farming in
the country. There have only been some efforts by individual entrepreneurs to develop
this enterprise besides R&D efforts of Central Institute for Research on Goats and few
NGOs. Of late some state governments have started making efforts to promote goats
rearing. In this backdrop, the commercial goat farmers do face a number of constraints
particularly in the initial phase of the goat-farming project. The major constraints faced
by the commercial goat farmers of different categories have been depicted in Table
3.44.
Table 3.44: Major constraints faced by commercial goat farmers (Farmer in %)

Constraints
Transportation Harassment by police in the name of animal
welfare
Illegal payments during transit
Disease
High mortality in the beginning due to PPR,
diarrhea, tetanus, FMD, cold and pneumonia
High mortality in kids and poor growth
Breeding
Difficulty in identifying pure breed animals
stock and its
Difficulty in getting good quality animals
breeding
Lack of cost effective method of synchronization
Availability of Vaccines are not available- especially PPR & ET
inputs and
Low cost complete feed not available
services
Non availability of cost effective appropriate
tagging material
Non availability of veterinary doctor
Veterinary doctor has limited knowledge about
goats
Marketing
Before building up reputation as producer of
quality animals, the Butchers purchase animals on
very low price

Category
I

II

III

10

33

50

10

33

50

50

33

50

30
70
60
20
40
30

50
33
67
-50
50

--100
-100
50

50

67

50

30

33

--

60

50

--

60

83

50

In the absence of proper standards for transporting the live goats, the officials in
collision with police harass the farmers in the name of welfare of the animals during
transportation of the breeding stock from long distances. Considerable amount of illegal
payments e.g. Rs.2000-Rs.3000 per truck from Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Rs.500- Rs.700
from Uttar Pradesh to Delhi, need to be made to the concerned officials and police
during the transit of the animals.
High mortality in the goats due to PPR, Diarrhea, Pneumonia, tetanus etc. in the
beginning of the project was the major concern of the farmers. This resulted in closure
of number of farms in the beginning itself. Such a high mortality in goats was mainly
due lack of knowledge of package of practices of improved goat farming, poor
prophylaxis, non-availability of vaccines etc., poor preparedness of the farmers, lack of
personal attention of the entrepreneurs and poor access to veterinary doctor with
experience of small ruminants. High mortality and poor growth in kids was a major
constraints for 30 percent farmers in category I and 50 percent in category II.
Due to lack of knowledge, 70 percent farmers in category I had difficulty in
identifying pure breed animals. Difficulty in getting good quality breeding animals was a
major constraint. The best animals (Particularly males) from the traditional flocks were
sold for slaughter to the trader/butchers. That results into scarcity of good quality
breeding animals. The absence of any organized efforts for breed improvement of goats
has been compounding this problem. Since large goat flocks of different breed under
commercial production are only few, the entrepreneurs had to select the breeding
animals from the available traditional flocks mostly through middlemen. The lack of cost
effective method of synchronization of goat was also a constraint for 20 percent farmers
in category I. The farmers wanted to synchronize their goats in order to supply certain
number of kids of a certain age at a specified time and to increase the labour efficiency.
The non-availability of vaccines especially PPR was a major constraint in all the
categories. Even the ET vaccine, which has been produced for decades, was not

available in time in many states including U.P., Orissa, Chahattisgarh and Bihar. Nonavailability of veterinary doctor and limited knowledge of available veterinarians about
goats was a constraints in category I and II. The large flock owner in category III had
hired a specialized veterinarian. The low cost complete feed was not available. All the
commercial farmers required identification tags for their goats, however they did not
have access to a cost effective appropriate tagging materials.
Another major constraint was realization of low prices for the surplus live goats.
The trade of live goats, which is unorganized and in the hands of large number of
middlemen, traders and butchers, does not favour the goat farmers. The live goats were
sold not on the basis of their body weight in the livestock markets. That resulted into
under estimation of the value of the live animals. Before building up reputation as
producer of quality breeding goats, the goat farmers got very low price for their animals.
However, with the increased awareness and linkages the commercial farmers now insist
to decide the price of their live goats on body weight basis. Different constraints in
commercial goat farming were further analyzed according to their severity, which is
presented in Tables 3.45 to 3.50. In this analysis, poor access to good quality breeding
animals and veterinary services, were the more severe constraints. The availability of
institutional credit was relatively easy for the large goat farming projects. Twenty eight
percent of the commercial farmers availed credit from the banks (Table 3.51). However
it was a major constraint for the small entrepreneurs submitting small projects of 50-100
goats and had limited capital for collateral security.
Table 3.45: Constraints related to feed
Constraints
Lack of knowledge of appropriate
composition
High cost
Non availability of complete feed
Lack of knowledge and availability of suitable
mineral mixture
Table 3.46: Constraints related to fodder
Constraints
Seasonal Scarcity
High cost
Scarcity of grazing land

(% farmer)
More
Severe
6
6
6
-

Severe

Not Severe Pooled

22

39

67

22
44
33

22
6
11

50
56
44

(% farmer)
More Severe Severe Not Severe
17
33
11
11
6
11
11
6
17

Table 3.47: Constraints related to veterinary service (% farmer)


Constraints
More Severe
Severe
11
11
Non availability of veterinary doctor
6
11
Undue charge for their services
22
6
Non availability of vaccine
11
6
Lack of awareness about preventive care
28
0.0
High cost of treatment
Table 3.48: Constraints related to breeding stock (% farmer)
Constraints
More Severe Severe
17
Lack of awareness about appropriate breeds
Non available of pure breed animals
50
6
28
11
Unawareness of sources of good animals

Pooled
61
28
33

Not Severe
22
17
50
28
33
Not Severe
17
61
39

Table 3.49: Constraints related to marketing


Constraints
Non remunerative price
Undue market charge
Difficulty in transport of goat to distant market
Poor access to market information
Monopoly of traders in the market
No transparency in the trade
Table 3.50: Constraints related to credit
Constraints
Poor access to banks loan
Private loan at very high cost

More Severe
11
11
11
11
11
28

More Severe
17
-

Severe
11
6
11

Severe
6
17

Table 3.51: Credit facilities availed from institutional sources


Category
No of farmers
Purpose
Total amount
I
3
Goat rearing
226000
II
1
Goat rearing
800000
III
1
Goat rearing
9800000

Not Severe
33
33
17
22
39
56

Not Severe
33
2

Interest rate
10.67
12
12

Farmers suggestions for encouraging commercialization of goat farming


Develop linkages between goat farmers,
Vet services should be provided
Easy availability of bank loan for goat,
Development of market for goat and goat product,
Training of goat rearing to females also,
Demonstration and exhibition of goats,
Ensure availability good quality breeding stock
Financial scheme for supporting goat enterprise
Vaccines should be made available, Technology for efficient stall-fed goat rearing,
Development of marketing system, Marketing of goat at live weight basis
Fodder land development, up gradation in breeds for body wt gain
Disease free animal for farmer

4.

MARKETING OF GOATS AND THEIR PRODUCTS

4.1

Scenario
The marketing of small ruminants hardly attracted the interest of State except
collecting revenue on their inter-state or intra-state movements despite them being the
major source of meat. Within small ruminants sheep was better attended in terms of
their breed improvement and health and goats got neglected at all fronts. Yet the growth
of goat population has been comparatively to be higher. Marketing of livestock is a
neglected area both by the state and researchers. It is mainly because market
information is grossly inadequate and arrangements for marketing are unsatisfactory.
Also the nature of market varies by type of livestock. The purchase and sale of bovine,
horse, camel, i.e. all large animals, have been through traditional animal fairs organized
at conventional places at fixed time and also linked to social aspects. On the contrary,
for small ruminants there are very few markets. Marketing of these animals is both at
doorstep and to some extent in weekly markets or in case of migratory flocks, on the
route of migration.
Marketing deals with two aspects, first, the supply of the livestock products and
second, demand for the products. The nature of livestock marketing is quite different
than industrial product marketing. On supply side there are large numbers of
unorganized producer. On demand side there are large numbers of buyers and their
consumption behaviour is governed by income besides social and religious factors,
particularly in case of meat. Live goats have good demand in the domestic as well as
international market and so also their products such as meat, skins and manure.
Marketing of livestock products is much different than the sale of live animals.
As the products are of different nature varying from liquid milk to hide and skins, the
marketing practices and the nature of market also vary accordingly. Despite livestock
and their products contributing significantly to household and national economy, the
issues are under-researched. Also no systematic effort to generate information or data
set, on time series basis, to facilitate researchers has been attempted at State or National
level. The neglect of marketing has resulted into strong and pervasive prejudice of
involvement of middlemen and intermediaries in the market. The marketing of goats
particularly suffers from many drawbacks such as involvement of middlemen garnering
high margins, avoidable marketing costs, unnecessary transportation, mortality of
animals during transit leading to exploitation of both producers and the consumers. The
poor farmers are not in a position to objectively monitor the sale of produce to take
advantage of better prices. Majority of the goat keepers have not developed any
commercial orientation in marketing their produce. However in last couple of years a
number of entrepreneurs have taken up commercial goat farming under intensive and
semi-intensive system of management as an enterprise. Besides use of improved
technologies, the adoption of innovative marketing strategy has been the key driver for
the success of commercial goat farming projects.
In this backdrop the efforts were made to comprehend the goat marketing
system in the country through study of goat marketing by traditional goat keepers,
traders and butchers in southwestern semiarid zone of Uttar Pradesh and eastern
semiarid zone of Rajasthan and its further extension to terminal markets such as Delhi
and Mumbai, and port exporting the live goats. To cover the whole goat sector, the
marketing of goats by commercial farmers was also studied.
4.1.1

Psychology of the farmer

Generally farmers sell male kids in early age to meet urgent cash needs and
sometime even female kids are also sold. The reason for selling early age kids was to
reduce the number in flock for better management and to avoid risk. In the absence of
prophylaxis there is always risk of heavy kid mortality and hence the poor farmers do
not want to take risk. The farmers do sell adult female goats mainly to reduce the flocksize and cull the unproductive and weak animal. Few farmers having commercial
orientation and high risk bearing ability sale their male goats on achieving a desired
weight and age as per the market demand and get better returns. It is realized that goats
thrive on agriculture and household wastes and barren lands in India. The traditional
farmers do not want to increase the flock size due to decreasing grazing area in the
villages and other management problems in goat rearing. Major sales of the adult male
goats were effected before festivals like Id, Dashara, Sankranti, Durga Puja, Holi etc.
Because of higher market demand farmers get better prices for their animals (sometimes
many fold the normal market price) during the festivals.
4.1.2

Marketing channels
The animals pass through different channels before they reach the butcher/
retailer/ consumers. Figure 4.1 indicates the major marketing channels of goats. This
figure has been drawn based on the data collected from traditional farmers and weekly
markets from Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan and also from commercial farmers and
terminals markets. The direction of arrow in the figure shows the movement of goats
from selling agency to the buying agency.
The most prominent channel of goat marketing was; the movement of live goats
from farmers to the trader/ butchers in the village itself. The goat generally moves from
the farmers to traders/butchers the village or to the butcher/ trader in weekly market,
then to retailers directly or through distributors (big traders) and finally to the consumers
in the urban and semi urban centers.
There were two types of markets viz. (i) distribution markets and (ii) weekly
markets. Distribution Markets were located in big cities and in some towns in the
country. They were located adjacent to or within the slaughterhouse campuses, which
are popularly known as livestock/ Bakra mandies. They were held daily in the early
hours to coincide with the slaughter timings. The buyers were urban butchers and big
traders while the sellers are outside traders and commission agents. Weekly markets/
hats were held in urban and semi-urban centers and few large villages on a specific day
in a week. Weekly markets were under the control of Panchayats/ municipalities and in
many cases they were owned and controlled by the private parties. These private
operators managed the market and collected the market fee from the sellers/ buyers. The
fee varied from market to market ranging from Rs. 10 to Rs. 75 per goat and Rs. 50-150
per cow or buffalo. Most of these markets were held in open areas without proper
shelter and drinking water facilities. Animals were kept waiting in the scorching sun
until the transactions were over. The unsold animals many times were taken back to the
villages and again brought back to the market on next market day.

Figure 4.1: Marketing channels of goats


4.1.3 Middlemen
Middlemen play very important role at different stages of marketing of meat
animals. They perform various marketing functions such as purchase, transportation and
sale of animals. Two types of middlemen viz. merchant middlemen and agent
middlemen were involved in the marketing of meat animals. The merchant middlemen
are those who buy and sell the animals for their gains; petty traders, big traders and
wholesale meat dealers-cum-butchers come under this category. They get their income
from a margin between selling and buying price. However, there is an element of risk of
incurring loss at times. On the other hand the agent middlemen do not buy or sell

animals, but they arrange or put the buyer and the seller together, for which they get
commission. They are popularly known as commission agents. They operate both in
weekly markets and also in the distribution markets. The agents operating in weekly
markets bring buyer and seller together and negotiate the price for which they charge
Rs. 50-100 per animal from the buyer depending on the number and age of animals.
However, the commission agents operating in the distribution markets, put the buyer
(butcher) and the seller together, and bargain and settle the price. For these services, the
commission agents charge as a fixed percent of the total value of the animal from sellers.
That ranges between 3 - 4 percent of total value of the animal. The number of market
intermediaries involved in assembling and distribution of goats mainly depends on the
distance between the production centers and the place of slaughter. In general, longer
the distance, the more number of intermediaries involved
Goats produce a variety of products such as meat, skins, milk, manure and fiber
and some by-products. For farmers, however mainly surplus kids and adults and to some
extent milk and manure were sold in the market. The sales of live goats constituted about
60 to 80 percent of the gross returns from goats. Market for goat milk is yet to be
developed. Therefore, the farmers major marketed surplus from goat was live goat (kids
and adult).
The detailed analysis was carried out of goat marketing system followed by
traditional farmers in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan (from villages to terminal markets) and
so also by the commercial goat farmers in the country. The information on goat marketing
system in U.P., Rajasthan and of commercial farmers is presented separately in the next
section.
4.2
4.2.1

MARKETING OF GOATS IN UTTAR PRADESH


Socio-economic profile of traditional goat farmers
The goat rearing under extensive system on common feed resources was a
traditional actively of the farmers. The goat farmers were classified into four categories,
namely, category I having 1-5 breeding goats, II (6-15 goats), III (16-30 goats) and category
IV having >30 goats. Majority of the farmers (71.66%) belonged to the category I and II
and had owned small flocks. The average flock size of breeding goats in different category
ranged from 2.75 to 49.09 goats (Table 4.1). However, goat rearing was the main
occupation of 67 percent of the goat keepers. Among the goat farmers, 35 percent do
reared sheep and 50 percent also had buffaloes for milk production. However, the
average size of sheep flock was higher then the size of goat flock. The goat farmers had
very low level of education with 71 percent of them as illiterate (Table 4.2). The goat
keepers were mostly the rural landless, and marginal and small farmers. The average size
of land holding was less than one hectare except category IV, where a few medium
farmers also had goats (Table 4.3). The socio economic profile of the traditional goat
farmers in U.P. clearly reflected their poor ability to bargain in the market while selling
goats (Table 4.1 to 4.3).
Table 4.1: Composition and flock size of goats
Category
No. of
Adult
Adult
6-12
farmers female
male
month
male
I (1-5 goats)
44
2.75
0.39
0.45
II (6-15 goats)
42
10.31
0.64
0.60
III (16- 30
23
23.70
0.61
0.70

6-12
month
female
0.27
0.90
2.26

6
month
male
0.48
0.86
2.91

6
month
female
1.09
1.83
5.13

Total
5.43
15.14
35.30

goats)
IV (>30 goats)
Pooled

11
120

49.09
13.66

2.45
0.71

2.27
0.72

1.36
0.98

1.09
1.13

4.55
2.44

60.82
19.63

Table 4.2: Farmers educational status


Category
I
II
III
IV
Overall

Illiterate
59.09
76.19
86.96
63.64
70.83

Primary
11.36
9.52
13.04
9.09
10.83

Education of farmers (%)


6-10th Std.
>10th Std.
27.27
11.90
2.38
27.27
63.64
16.67
0.83

Table 4.3: Size of operational land holding (acre)


Owned land
Category
Irrigated
Un Irrigated
I
1.27
0.00
II
1.18
0.08
III
1.23
0.07
IV
5.87
0.31
Overall
1.65
0.07

Leased in
Irrigated
0.35
0.38
0.05
0.00
0.27

Graduate and above


2.27
9.09
0.83
Total operational
holding
1.62
1.64
1.35
6.18
1.99

4.2.2 Composition of sale of live goats


The farmers periodically sold culled adult goats, young males and kids for
slaughter and few for rearing. To harness the potential of meat production and achieve
economic efficiency, the slaughter of goat is recommended at the age of 7 to 10 months
in different breeds. However majority of farmers preferred to sale their goat kids below 6
months age. The kids below 6 months age formed the major share of the total sale of live
goats by the farmers (Table 4.4 and Figure 4.2). The kids of <3-month age constituted
highest share (24 percent) in the total annual sale of live goats in a year. It was observed
that the share of <3 months kids in total sale of live animals was higher in large flock
size categories reaching up to 48 percent of the total sale. Another major sale category
was 3-6 months kids. These kids were mostly sold to traders/ butcher or and then to
butcher. As a result of slaughter of underage small kids the economy of goat rearing and
potential of meat production from goat is undermined, which is a direct loss to the goat
sector and economy of the country.
Table 4.4: Composition of sale of goats (in percent)
Category
Category I
Category II
< 3 month
5.50
18.50
3 - 6 months
46.93
14.19
6 - 12 months male
24.30
9.59
6-12 month female
2.94
8.44
>12 month male
4.09
32.41
>12 month female
16.24
16.87

Category III
47.62
7.04
5.24
9.85
19.39
10.87

Category IV
30.91
11.97
6.07
11.85
14.97
24.22

Overall
23.61
20.87
12.18
7.84
19.07
16.43

>12 month
female
16%

< 3 month
24%

>12 month
male
19 %

6-12 month
female
8%

3 - 6 months
21%
6 -12 month
male
12%

Figure 4.2: Share of different age groups in total sale of goats in Uttar Pradesh

The traditional farmers preferred to maintain a constant flock size of goats to make
it manageable flock in view of scarcity of grazing land and feed resources. The farmers
resorted to the sale of kids at early age mainly because of their urgent cash needs (53
percent farmers) and fear of mortality in kids due to diseases coupled with low risk bear
ability (Table 4.5). Some farmers mentioned that it was more beneficial to sell kids at early
age. The large flock owners were producing goat milk for sale. In the absence of separate
housing for kids and does and their grazing together made it impossible for the farmers to
wean the kids particularly in large flocks. Hence continued suckling of milk by kids for 45 months results into direct loss of milk output and the longer period of suckling also
delayed next servicing/conception of the doe. That again reduces the production of
number of kids per goat per unit time. Therefore, the large flock owners mostly sold their
kids at an early age. The lack of sufficient housing space in most cases was also a
constraint in retaining the grown up kids.
Table 4.5: Reasons for sale of early-age kids
Reasons
Urgent cash needs
Risk of mortality/disease
Pressure of money lender
Unaware of optimum age of sale
Comparatively higher income in selling at early age
Difficulty in managing grown up male kids
Others

4.2.3

Percent farmers
53.33
47.50
14.17
9.17
8.33
4.17
1.67

Marketing channels
The marketing of live goats was totally unorganized and controlled by petty
traders and butchers. Having low level of awareness, the farmers mostly preferred to sale
their goats in the village itself. Mainly five channels were used by the farmers to market
their goats. These channels were, Channel I: Farmer to Farmer in the village; Channel II:
Farmer to Butcher/ trader in the village; Channel III: Farmers to Other agencies in the

village; Channel IV: Farmer to Butcher/Trader in weekly market; Channel V: Farmer to


Trader in distant markets. The maximum trading of live goats was carried out through
channel II. Fifty three percent farmers used this channel and sold their 44 percent of
surplus live goats. Farmers - Butcher /trader in the village as well weekly market together
accounted for 70 percent of the total trade of live goats done by farmers (Table 4.6 and
Figure 4.3 and 4.4).
Table 4.6: Market Channels adopted by the farmers for sale of goats in different categories (in
percent)
Market
channels
Farmers Farmer
Farmer
Butcher/
trader
Farmer
Other
agencies
Farmer
Butcher/
trader
Farmer Trader

Place of
transaction
At farmers
village
At farmers
village

Category I
Farmer
Goats

Category II
Farmer
Goats

Category III
Farmer
Goats

Category IV
Farmer
Goats

27.27

26.98

33.33

15.07

52.17

13.96

18.18

8.61

54.55

45.71

45.24

42.69

69.57

50.32

36.36

34.93

4.55

1.27

0.00

0.00

13.04

4.55

9.09

7.18

31.82

19.05

26.19

35.84

43.48

16.88

36.36

29.19

4.55

6.98

7.14

6.39

13.04

14.29

18.18

20.10

At farmers
village
At local
weekly
market
At distant
market in

Many times the butcher was also involved in trading of goats. The petty/ rural
traders and butchers regularly visit the villages under their area of operation. At any
moment of time these traders have very correct information on of different types of goats
available for sale with the farmers in their area of operation. To some extent the channel
IV (Farmer - trader/butcher in weekly market) was also important. However the large
flock owners followed this channel more. The large farmers also sold there 20% of the
marketed goats to the traders in the distant markets in and around the distinct. It is
evident that majority of farmers sold their goats in the village itself. The small number of
traders/butchers visiting the village tried not to compete among them. Moreover there
was lack of access to the correct market information. In this situation the prices of
farmers goats was not fixed as per the play of demand and supply forces and remained
towards lower side.
The reasons for selling goats in the village itself are indicated in Table 4.7. In
farmers perception it was uneconomic to take small number of goats to the market. The
farmers marketed surplus at a time was 1-2 to 3-4 goats. Almost whole day was required
to sale the goats in the weekly market. Many times the farmers was forced to sale his
goats at low price to avoid return of the animals. There was fear of lack of transparency in
the weekly markets. As the traders most of the time had some understanding among
themselves and the farmer was an individual small player and had low bargaining power
in the market. Seventy one percent of the farmers felt that they get lower price for their
goats then the actual market value by about 13 percent. The most prominent reason for
low price was the lack of bargaining power and distress sale followed by poor health of
animals and lack of market information (Table4.8). In fact the lack of market information
was a much bigger constraint. Most of the farmers did not know that what to do, if
trader/butcher in the village were not ready to pay the reasonable price. Moreover these
goat farmers did not prepare their animals as per the requirement of the market. In the

rainy season, farmers wanted to reduce the number of goats due to fear of diseases. That
increases the supply but at the same time of demand was low as compared to winter
season, which eventually resulted into lower price of farmers live goats.
8.33
33.33
32.5

Farmer Farmer in village


Farmer Butcher/ trader in village

Farmer Other agencies in village


Farmer Butcher/ trader in weekly market
Farmer -Trader in distant market

52.5

Figure 4.3: Channels of goat marketing adopted by traditional farmers in U.P. (% farmers)

Farmer Farmer in village


10.71

16.69

Farmer Butcher/ trader in village


Farmer Other agencies in village
Farmer Butcher/ trader in weekly market
Farmer -Trader in distant market

25.98

2.6

44.02

Figure 4.4: Percentage of goats sold through different marketing channels in U.P.

Table 4.7: Reasons for selling of goat in the village itself


Reasons
Un-economic to take small numbers to the market
Non-availability of time
More time required for marketing in weekly markets
No facility for animals in the market (shed, water, etc.)
Forced sale at very low price to avoid return of animals
Fearing lack of transparency in trading in livestock markets
Table 4.8: Farmers perception on low price of their goats
Reasons

Percent farmer
46.67
42.50
34.17
11.67
25.83
13.33
Percent farmer

Distress sale
Poor health
Lack of market information

58.33
29.17
22.50

4.24

Reasons and purpose of sale of live goats


The reasons and purpose of sale of goats by the farmers are depicted in Table 4.9
and 4.10. The major component of sale was the surplus males followed by culled goats
(old, unproductive and diseased). The majority of the farmers sold their males and kids
during the winter season because of scarcity of common feed resources and favourable
prices in this season. The goats were also sold to restrict the flock size the flock size as
traditional goat keepers hardly have sufficient space particularly in Uttar Pradesh. The
returns from sale of goats were mainly utilized to fulfill family needs including food,
followed by meeting social obligations, repayment of loans, emergencies like illness,
input for crop and animals etc. Hence goat was not only important for the food and
nutrition security of the family but also an easy liquidity option for meeting emergency
expanses on medical treatment, education, repayment and inputs.
Table 4.9: Reasons for sale of goats
Reasons
Decline in grazing resources (in winter)
To restrict the flock size
Surplus males
Culling of old and unproductive animals
Non-availability of family labour
Cull diseased goats
Decrease in earning from goat rearing (binding up)

Percent farmer
51.67
33.33
57.50
19.17
16.67
16.67
7.50

Table 4.10: Purpose of sale of adult animals


Purpose
To fulfill family needs including food
To meet social obligations
Repayment of loan
To meet unforeseen expenses like illness
Purchase of seed, fertilizer, diesel etc. for crops
Childrens education
Replacement of goats by purchasing substitute goats
Purchase of feed fodder for dairy animals
Lending money to fellow farmers
Repair of house
Others

Percent farmers
55.83
42.50
22.50
16.67
12.50
10.83
9.17
6.67
6.67
1.67
3.33

4.2.5 System of price fixation in village


For fixing price of live goats, three unit of sale were followed by the buyers. They
were per head, per pair and per group. While purchasing goats most of the farmers
(80%) adopted per head method, however the traders/butchers also purchased
considerably in group and in pairs (Table 4.11). The common method for price
fixation of live goats in the villages at the doorstep of the goat farmer was through mutual
bargain and open sale system. Different criteria were used by different agencies for price
fixation of live goats. The priority of farmers buyer was health; breed and age of the
animals, while trader/butchers prime criteria were body weight, health and breed. The

priority of NGOs and government agencies was breed of goat together with its health and
age. The farmers and traders also considered the look of the animal (Table 4.12). The
buyers had all these criteria in their mind but the farmers goats price was decided on
per head, per pair and per group basis, not on the basis of weight of the animal etc.
Forty eight percent of the farmers had kept certain reserve price for their animals and the
rest did not have any idea about the realistic price of their goats. The basis of keeping a
reserve price was the existing market price and last years price. The farmers did not have
any idea about the total value that accrues from a goat through its products and by
products after it gets slaughtered. Prevailing price of different types of goats of different
age groups are given in Table4.13. The large value of standard error indicates the large
variations in price goats in the same category and same age group. Besides difference in
the quality of animals, the large variation in price might be due to variation in the margin
of the middlemen.
Table 4.11: Method of price fixation
Methods
Per animal
Per pair
Per groups
Table 4.12: Criteria of price fixation
Criteria
Farmer
Body weight
27.50
Health
50.00
Breed
27.50
Age
20.00
Look
12.50

Purchasing agencies (in percent)


Farmer
Butcher/ trader
80
55.21
12
11.46
8
33.33
Purchasing agencies (in %)
Trader
Butcher/ trader
85.10
100.00
51.06
50.77
42.55
9.23
21.28
13.85
12.50
-

Govt./ NGOs
66.60
83.30
100.00
50.00
33.33

Table 4.13: Age-group wise price of goats in Uttar Pradesh


Category

Particulars
Up to 3 m

I
II
III
IV
Overall

4.2.6

Price
(SE)
Price
(SE)
Price
(SE)
Price
(SE)
Price
(SE)

303
(21.55)
377
(17.53)
393
(17.39)
419
(27.52)
395
(9.51)

Average sale price of goats of different age groups, in Rs.


3 to 6
6 to 12 m
6 to 12 m
>12 m
m
male
female
male
787
1747
1500
2528
(28.11)
(47.57)
(12.31)
(104.99)
720
1349
1116
1760
(16.59)
(85.06)
(82.98)
(107.78)
839
1256
1213
2265
(12.15)
(89.72)
(122.88)
(130.67)
856
1342
1115
1779
(12.61)
(249.18)
(125.53)
(172.72)
800
1398
1178
2025
(10.38)
(46.19)
(44.31)
(59.78)

>12 m
female
1251
(80.51)
1107
(58.51)
1280
(59.40)
1352
(64.26)
1232
(37.21)

Village to nearby weekly market


In general, most of the animals feet drive from villages to the nearest markets.
Different modes of transport were in vogue depending on the distance and number of
animals to be transported at a time. If the distance from village to weekly market is more
than 6-8 km, cycles, Tonga, tempo, make shift engine driven 4 wheelers and truck were
used for transport of goats (Table4.14). The transport charges per animal per trip were

Rs.11 and the average market fee was Rs.17 per goat. The farmer had to cover a distance
of 8 km to participate in the weekly goat market (Table4.15). The petty traders/middlemen
often made use of the vacant Lorries, mini trucks proceeding towards the weekly market
by paying a nominal amount. With a very small magnitude of marketed surplus, low
education and awareness level, lack of market information and having almost no voice in
the society, the traditional goat farmers had to continue with the present system of
marketing but majority of than (three fourth) were not satisfied with the goat marketing
system (Table4.16).
Table 4.14: Transportation of goats by farmer for marketing
Particulars
Farmers using transport for marketing the goat
Means of transport: Truck
Tempo
Tonga
Other
Table 4.15: Detail of transporting goats to market
Category
Transport charge Rs./ Animal
I
II
III
IV
Pooled

22.0
7.0
8.8
14.67
10.91

Market fee,
Rs./ animal
17.02
14.83
24.58
12.0
16.73

Table 4.16: Farmers perception on existing goat marketing system (% farmer)


Category
Satisfied
I
25.00
II
34.09
III
29.55
IV
11.36

4.2.7

Percent farmers
51
28
28
3
41

Distance (km)

Range (km)

8.67
10.0
7.0
7.67
7.90

5-18
3-25
6-8
5-12
3 - 25

Not satisfied
75.00
65.91
70.45
88.64

Goat Milk
Though the sale of kids and surplus adults was the major source of income for the
goat farmers, but producing milk for home consumption as well as for sale was the prime
objective of most of the traditional goat keepers. Among them 63 percent mentioned that
there exists a demand for goat milk, however most of it (86 percent) was purchased by
milk vendors as adulterant in buffalo/ cow milk. Few farmers also sold milk to local
consumers, patients and dairy plants (Table 4.17). The goat milk was sold @ Rs.8.21 per
liter, which was 20-25 percent less than the prevailing price of buffalo milk (Table 4.18).
The medicinal properties and advantages of goat milk over buffalo milk have been well
documented; but the market for goat milk as such has not yet emerged mainly due to its
association with poor people and unhygienic methods of production. Even the particular
smell of goat milk could be minimized if proper hygiene and management practices are
followed. Creation of market for goat milk would surely boost the goat economy.
The farmers access to veterinarians services and other critical inputs was not
satisfactory. The farmers had to travel 2-35 km and average of 6 km to get his goats
treated. As the women of household were mostly responsible for taking care of goats, they
could hardly avail the services of the veterinarians (Table 4.19). The expenditure on
visiting veterinarian on each occasion was Rs.40. A very few number of farmers (12.05
percent) availed credit for goat rearing. The rate of interest of institutional sources was 10-

12 percent per annum and 30-36 percent per annum was charged by non-institutional
agencies (Table 4.20).

Table 4.17: Demand and destination for farmers goat milk


Response of farmers
Particulars
Number
Percent
Demand for goat milk exist
76
63
Milk vendors
65
86
Local consumer
8
11
Dairy plant
7
9
Patient
3
4
Other
1
1
Table 4.18: Goat milk production in farmers flock
Category
Milk production
kg/ year
I
187.92
II
1066.61
III
2894.38
IV
3500.00
Overall
1745.22

Prices,
Rs. / liter
8.10
8.19
8.16
8.27
8.21

Table 4.19: Access to Veterinarians Services


Category
Distance (km)
I
5.76 (3-12)
II
6.55 (2-35)
III
4.16 (1.5-15)
IV
5.57 (3-10)
Overall
5.74 (2-35)
Table 4.20: Credit availed by farmers for goat rearing
Category
Percent farmers
Amount, Duration
availed credit
Rs.
years
I
6.82
12167
3.33
II
4.76
25000
1.50
III
30.43
33428
2.40
IV
27.27
41667
1.75
Total
12.05
29700
2.59

4.2.8

Value of milk
1660
8737
23629
28970
15540

Charge/ occasion, Rs.


31
46
30
60
40
Rate of Interest
Institutional
Non-institutional
10-12
10
36
10-12
36
30-36
10-12
30-36

Live goat markets and market functionaries in Uttar Pradesh


The livestock markets play an important role in assembling and distribution of
goats/sheep in most parts of the country. Five livestock markets of U.P. including Kalpi,
which is the biggest live goats market in north India, were part of the study (Table 4.21).
To start a new market it was required to get registration and permission from the office of
the district magistrate, if market was located in rural areas. The municipality gave the
permission if the market was located in urban area. These markets pay a nominal fee
every year and their registration gets renewed routinely. However, there was no
monitoring at all of functioning of the livestock markets by the above agencies. The
market owners /societies set their own rules for functioning of the markets. Half of the
markets were owned and controlled by private individuals and other half by societies.
Even the society belonged to 1-2 families. There was no involvement of the government.
The daily arrivals of goats ranged from 100 in Mathura 12000 in Kalpi, which reached to
1000 to 30000 per day in peak period in winter season during festivals. Among the

arrivals 60 percent were males and 40 percent females. The market fee per goat was
Rs.10 to Rs.25, with exception of one market having fee as 4% of the value of goat sold,
which was too high (Table 4.22). The buyers normally paid the fee, but it all depended on
the agreement between buyer and seller.
Table 4.21: Profile of livestock markets of Uttar Pradesh
Name of
market
Idgah
Etah

Ownership/
control
Society
Society

Day of
operation
Friday
Monday

Area
(m2)
4000
8000

Jaswant
Nagar
Kalpi
Mathura

Society

Wednesday

25000

Private
Private

Tuesday
Saturday

10000
11400

Bainayee

Private

Tuesday

5400

Type of animal
traded
Goat and sheep
Large and small
ruminants
Goat and sheep
Goat and sheep
Large and small
ruminants
Large and small
ruminants

Table 4.22: Number of arrival of goats per market day


Name of
Arrivals/
Arrivals/ market day
market
market day
in peak period
Idgah
300
4500
Etah
200
4000
Jaswant Nagar
8000
20000
Kalpi
12000
30000
Mathura
150
1000
Bainayee
500
2000

Registering agency
Municipality
District Magistrate

No
District Magistrate
Municipality

No
No

Municipality
District Magistrate

Market fee per animal,


Rs.
4% of value of animal
15
12
10
15
25

Table 4.23: Volume of trade of goats


No. of goats brought for sale
Name of market
Per day
Per annum
Idgah
300
76800
Etah
200
66400
Jaswant Nagar
7000
619000
Kalpi
8000
658000
Mathura
100
47700
Overall
3120
293580

Registration
of animals
No
No

No

Who pay the


market fee
Seller
Buyer
Seller/ Buyer
Seller/ Buyer
Buyer
Buyer/ seller

Trade in peak
period/ market day
Id, holi,
4500
Id, holi,
4000
Id, holi,
30000
Id, holi,
30000
Id, holi,
1000
Id, holi,
13900

% Animal
sold
90
60
70
88
30
68

The livestock markets had poor infrastructure (Table 4.24). The office and drinking
water was mostly available but the sheds and fodder for animals and transit
accommodation for traders were available only in 1/3rd of the markets. The veterinary aid
was not available except one market. The transport facilities and their charges varied
according to the distance of travel (Table 4.25). Buffalo and cows were also traded in
these markets. Though the government has no interest in the livestock markets but the
private individuals and societies controlling them have huge financial stakes. The
livestock goat markets had huge income, which ranged from Rs.10.22 lakh to Rs.59.02
Lakhs per annum (Table 4.26). In spite of the huge income, the markets had very poor
infrastructure. Therefore, there is need to rationalize the market fee structure and make it
mandatory for the market owners/societies to create minimum facilities to get their
registration renewed.

Table 4.24: Infrastructure in livestock markets


Infrastructure
Office
Shed for animal
Building for protection of buyer/seller from rain
Ramp to load and unload the animal
Availability of drinking water for animal
Availability of drinking water for human beings
Availability of fodder
Availability of veterinary aid

Percent market having facility


83
33
33
67
83
100
33
17

Note: The sources of water were hand pump, ponds, tube-well, etc. and fodder was dry straw.

Table 4.25: Transportation facilities


Distance /place
Short Distance
Place, Local
(10 50 km)
Type of animal
Charge
Long Distance
All UP, MP and Rajasthan
(100 150 km)
Type of animal
Number of animal/trip
Charge/trip

Mode
Auto, tempo, makeshift vehicle
Goat, sheep, cow, buff low, others
Rs. 5 to 10 / goat and sheep
Truck
Goat, sheep and other animal
237
Rs 4750 and Rs. 20 per goat

Table 4.26: Annual income of the markets


Income from commission/ market fee per annum, Rs. lakh
Name of market
Trade of goats
Other animals
Total livestock trade
Idgah
30.72
3.14
33.86
Etah
5.98
4.68
10.66
Jaswant Nagar
48.28
0.05
48.33
Kalpi
57.90
1.12
59.02
Mathura
3.58
6.64
10.22
Overall
29.29
3.13
32.42

None of the markets had any agency to check the mal practices in trading. In case
of controversy the secretary or owner mediated occasionally. All the transactions were
made in cash except a few selective buyers for whom credit guaranty was given by the
market owner or commission agents (Table 4.27). Neither any livestock extension agency
was active in the market nor the veterinarian for any infections disease inspected the
animals brought to market.
Table 4.27: Support system available at the market
Name of
Agency for
Mediation in case of
market
checking the
controversy in the
malpractices
trade
Idgah
No
Secretary
Etah
Jaswant
Nagar
Kalpi
Mathura

Transactions
are made in
cash or credit
Cash and credit

Credit support/
guaranty

No
No

Secretary
Secretary

Cash
Cash and credit

Commission
Agent
Market owner

No
No

Market owner
Market owner

Cash
Cash

No of
goat die /
month
1
1
3
15
1

4.29

Market functionaries
A range of market functionaries were involved in the marketing of goats. For
majority of them (70 percent) trading of goats was a part time activity. Petty/small traders,
butchers, farmer seller, farmer and other buyers and big traders were operating in all the
livestock markets and two major markets also had the presence of commission agents
(Table 4.28). None of the functionaries was required to be formally registered, nor to pay
any fee for operating in the livestock market. Since goat trading was a traditional family
activity continuing over the generations, the functionaries (traders/butchers) having
different levels of experience were evenly spread (Table 4.29). Most of them belonged to
the Muslim community and backward casts (Table 4.30). The educational status of the
traders was very poor with 61 percent of them as illiterate. However, gathering the
knowledge over the generations, they well knew all the tricks of the trade and often
indulged in collusive activity during the trading of the animals. In Uttar Pradesh, a
number of weekly animal markets are organized in a district. However farmers in
particular location preferred a particular market. The major reasons for selecting a
particular market by the farmers were its nearness to the village of the farmer (Table 4.32).
The other basis of preference for a market was comparatively more remunerative prices,
large size of market, large number of buyers and higher level of transparency.
Table 4.28: Market functionaries and their participation
Market functionaries
Name of
market
Commission
Big
Petty/small
Butchers
agents
traders
traders
Idgah
10
15
25
22
Etah
4
20
15
Jaswant
50
40
32
Nagar
Kalpi
37
50
70
20
Mathura
10
18
12
Average
9
26
35
20
Table 4.29: Experience of marketing functionary
Experience in years
0 -5
5-10
10-15
15-20
>20

Seller
(farmers)
10
30
400

Buyers
(farmers)
50
400

600
20
212

300
10
152

No. of market functionaries (%)


26.09
13.04
17.39
8.70
34.78

Table 4.30: Distribution of marketing functionaries in social groups


Caste/ social group
No. functionary (%)
Other Backward Class
42.31
Muslim
42.31
Schedule Caste
11.53
General
3.85
Table 4.31: Educational status of marketing functionary
Education
Illiterate
I to VIII
High School
Graduate

No. functionary (%)


60.87
21.74
13.04
4.35

Table 4.32: Reasons for selecting a market by farmer seller


Destination
Percent Marketing functionary
Near to home
39.13
Remunerative price
21.74
Large size of market
13.04
Large number of buyers
8.70
Level of transparency
8.70

4.2.10 Purchase and sale of goats by traders


The goat traders regularly visited a number of flocks of the farmers in the villages
in their operating area and purchase goats in small numbers everyday. They sell these
goats either in the weekly markets or directly to big traders, butchers and farmers. The
purchase, sale and net margins of these traders are shown in Table 4.33and 4.34. The
purchase prices of goat were higher at the weekly market as compared to the village.
Similarly the sale price of goats also varied in the village and market. There was variation
in the net margins of goat trader (net returns to his labour) depending on the place and
season of sale. The goats for meat purpose gave more net margins if sold in the weekly
market. On the other hand the net margins of traders from the sale of breeding goats were
higher if sold to the goat keepers in the village itself. The net margins of trader per goat
were estimated to be Rs.89 in case of kids to Rs.235 for a grown-up kid or adult goat
while performing the trading in the village itself. The margins were higher when goats
purchased from villages, were sold in the weekly market, which ranged from Rs.170 to
Rs.230 per goat.
The magnitude of margin of the middlemen trader fluctuated in normal and festive
seasons (Table 4.35). The traders margin from the sale of one adult goat during the
normal season varied from Rs.118 to Rs.258. This range during the festive season was
Rs.227 to Rs.850 per goat. This clearly demonstrates the undue margins realized by the
trader by adding only the space utility.
Table 4.33: Purchase of goats
Particulars

Numbers goat

Adult Male
Adult Female
Kids (6-12) month male
Kids (6-12) month female
Kids (3-6) months
Table 4.34: Sale of goats by traders
Particulars

Adult Female
Kids (6-12) month male
Kids (6-12) month female
Kids (3-6) month

31
10
33
2
45

Purchase price, Rs./ goat


At Village
At Market
1500
1816
1300
1340
1150
1325
650
800
480
595

Sale price /goat, Rs.

No.
of
goat

At Village

At Market

18
21
12
18

1472
1360
900
579

1590
1550
990
819

Table 4.35: Marketing margin of middlemen (Rs/ goat)


Season
Minimum
Normal season
118

Net margin of the


trader, Rs./animal
Sale at
Sale at
Village
Market
157
230
195
205
235
170
89
209
Maximum
227

Festive season

258

850

The destinations of sale of live goats bought by small rural traders are shown in
Table 4.36. It was revealed that although the local weekly markets were the major
destination, but a significant share of goats was also sold to the outside traders in direct
contact, farmers in the village itself and the metropolitan markets.
Table 4.36: Destination of sale of live goats by traders
Destination
Local market
Outside traders in direct contact
Farmers
Metropolitan markets

Percent Marketing functionary


52.17
30.43
26.10
8.70

4.2.11 Marketing cost incurred by petty traders


The petty traders were the strongest link in the goat-marketing network. The major
input of petty traders in the marketing activity was their labour spent on regularly
collecting information on availability of marketed surplus with the goat keepers and
collection and sale of goats. Besides labour, the cost incurred on collection and transport
of animals from villages to weekly market including the losses due to mortality during
transit was estimated to be Rs.20 per grown up goat and Rs.15 per kid. Such cost was
Rs.15 and Rs.10, if the buying and selling took place in the village itself without bringing
the goats to the weekly market.
4.2.12 Trade of males for Eid festival
Preparing males by keeping them on special feeding regime and sale them during
the festival of Eid, was a major attraction for some farmers as well as f traders. Healthy
males of over one year age with good look were in high demand for offering during the
festival of Eid and attracted almost double the price as compared to the normal season. A
large number of traders purchased such males (mostly castrated) 20-30 days before the
festival of Eid and kept them on high energy-fat ration and sold them during Eid. It was
revealed that the net margins of traders per animal ranged from Rs.326 to Rs.570 (Table
4.37). The sale price of the males during Eid was as high as Rs.125 to Rs.150 per kg of
live body weight. However the goat farmers did not have awareness and attitude to take
benefit of the lucrative Eid markets, hardly 10-12 percent farmers were preparing males
for sale during Eid. Though majority of the traditional goat farmers were aware of the
potential benefits of sale during Eid, but the lack of commercial orientation, low risk
bearing ability and lack of market information were constraining factors.
Table 4.37: Purchase and sale of males for festivals (Rs.)
Market
No. of male Purchase price/
Collection &
traded
animal
fattening cost
Market I
16
2375
305
Market II
21
3200
350
Market III
11
3300
305
Market IV
23
2615
200

Sale price/
animal
3190
3876
4100
3250

Net margin/
animal
570
326
495
435

4.2.13 Pricing of live-goats in the livestock market


Similar to the deals finalized in the villages, the three common units of sale of live
goats, viz. per head, per pair and per group were followed in the livestock markets
also. However, the first two units were more common (Table 4.38). The price of goats
were mainly (61% of deals) decided with the help of agent/middleman through under

cover system where in the agent would talk with the buyers in a coded language and on
behalf of the owner he eventually finalize and declare the deal at highest quoted price.
Many times, however farmers were skeptical about this method. Open auction system,
which is more transparent, was followed in 39 percent of the deals for fixing the price of
live goats. However, even under the open auction system the traders frequently tried to
fix a artificially low price through collusive activity. The open auction system was more
practiced in Uttar Pradesh as compared to Rajasthan (Table 4.39 and Figure 4.5). The
extent of participation in weekly livestock markets by the goat farmers was also higher in
Uttar Pradesh as compared to Rajasthan. The basis of price fixation of live goats by traders
was mainly body weight of the animals (Table 4.40). Though there was no facility for
weighing the animals in the market, the traders judged the weight of goats through
Hattha system wherein the trader would judge the weight and potential meat yield by
holding the animal by his hand on its back. The traders have so perfected the skill of
guessing weight of goats through Hattha system that their guess was correct with 85-90
percent accuracy. At the same time the farmer-seller did not know the weight of his
(same) animal.
Table 4.38: Unit of sale of goats
Methods of sale
Per goats
Per pair
Group

Percent transactions
46.97
51.51
1.52

Table 4.39: Method of price fixation of live goats


Method of price fixation
Open action
Under cover
Table 4.40: Basis of price fixation
Particular
Adult female
Body weight
20 (86.95)
Breed
12 (52.17)
Milk yield
13 (56.52)
Age
7 (30.43)
Total
23

Response
Adult male
19 (86.95)
10 (43.48)
8 (34.78)
23

No. of deals (%)


39.13
60.87
Pooled
Kids
10 (34.78)
17 (73.91)
23

50 (72.46)
39 (56.52)
15 (21.74)
69
Under cover
Open action

No. of deals of selling goats by


farmers in market(%)

100
90
80
70

60.9
90

60
50
40
30
20

39.1
10

10
0

U.P.

Rajasthan

Figure 4.5: Methods of price fixation of live goats in the market

4.2.14 Seasonal variation in price of goats


Since meat is still a luxury for majority of the meat eating population of the
country, its consumption increases during the festivals. The festivals such as Eid, Dushara,
Durga Puja, Holi etc falls during the winter season hence the demand and so also the
market price of goats increased during the winter season. A number of farmers in Uttar
Pradesh sold their all kids and young ones in winters retaining only does because of lack
of grazing resource and lack of sufficient housing space during the winter. Better price
was an advantage. The price of goats (particularly meat goat) moved lower ward in
summer season because of lower demand. The arrival of large migratory flocks of goat
and sheep from Rajasthan also had dampening effect on price (by Rs.100-200 per head) of
goats in Uttar Pradesh in summer. The price of goats further falls in the rainy season. This
happens because of increased supply of goats. The supply increased because the farmers
wanted to reduce the size of their goat flock in rainy season due to the following reasons,
one; the fear of mortality due to diseases, two; lack of proper housing facility to protect
goats from rain and three; farmers feared that the goat may become weak during rainy
days as it does not graze/browse under wet conditions and farmers were not prepared to
stall fed them during such rainy days. Hence, a large number of farmers wanted to sell
their goat that increased the supply of goats. However the demand remained normal or
little suppressed because of the absence of any festival and tendency of farmers not to
start new goat units in this season. The average price of goats of different age groups and
in different seasons is given in Table 4.41.
Table 4.41: Season wise average price of farmers goats (in Rs.)
Season
Particulars
Winter
Summer
Adult male castrated
1967
1533
Adult female
1450
1267
Male Kids (6-12m)
1533
1100
Female Kids (6-12m)
967
830
Male Kids (3-6m)
300
500
Breeding Buck (>2 years)
2000
1800
Table 4.42: Price of male /female goat during last year
Season
Rate
Winter
High
Summer
Medium
Rainy
Low

Rainy
1400
1117
920
780
450
1750

60 percent male goat and 40


percent female goat arrival in the
market

4.2.15 Traders perception on market conditions


In response to various factors, the market conditions in goats trade have also been
changing. As a result of growth in population and per capita income, urbanization and
globalization the consumers preference is shifting towards high value food including
meat. Hence the demand for goat has also increased as reflected through its increased
market prices. It may be mentioned that the price of goat meat over the last couple of
years has increased much faster as compared to buffalo and poultry meat. The price of
goat meat (chevon), which was about Rs. 55 to 65 per kg a decade back, has increased to
Rs. 120 to Rs.150 per kg. The market functionaries /traders in Uttar Pradesh as well as in
Rajasthan also felt that the demand for meat goat particularly in peak periods has
increased considerably over the last 5 years (Table 4.43) The level of competition in the

trade has also increased due entry of more number of people in the goats trading and
comparatively higher level of awareness of the farmers. The consumers preference for
lean meat has been increasing. The other perceptible changes in the market conditions
over the last 5 years are increased supply as well as demand for Younger animals for
meat. The demand for by products has also increased to some extent. This may be due to
increased awareness for their use for industrial and other purposes.
Table 4.43: Change in goat trade during last five years
Particular
Increase in demand in peak period
Increased competition
Changed consumer preference to lean meat
Type of animal supplied (younger)
Type of animal demanded (young)
Demand of goats by-products

Marketing functionary (%)


Uttar Pradesh
Rajasthan
52.17
70
34.78
80
21.74
20
21.74
60
17.39
50
8.70
30

4.2.16 Farmers behavior in weekly markets


It was revealed that a number of farmers (36 percent) were ready to sell their
goats in the weekly market at whatever price they get, while other tried to bargain until
the last. Some farmers (9.17 percent) even took the animals back to home if the price
was lower then their expectations. The farmers (38 percent) also made efforts to keep
them informed about the market price. But the major source of information was the
fellow farmers followed by visiting the animal market himself and the village traders
(Table 4.44). However no source of information may be relied as authentic other than
the self-visit of the market, which cannot be suggested on account of its high cost.
Table 4.44: Farmers behaviour while selling goats in weekly market
Particulars
Number
Selling goats at existing market price
Taking goats back if price lower than expectation
Farmers keeping them informed of prevailing market price
Source of price information: Fellow farmer
Visit to market
Village trader
Farmers gathering price information from market
One market
More than one market

43
11
46
52
24
20
51
32
19

Percent farmer
35.83
9.17
38.33
43.33
20.00
16.67
42.5
26.67
15.83

4.2.17 Constraints faced by farmers in goat market


Though the illiteracy and low awareness was the biggest constraint of the goat
farmers, but there were other major constraints faced by farmers while selling their goats
particularly in the livestock markets. These constraints are depicted in the Table 4.45.
Majority of farmers felt constrained because of lack of transparency in trading of goats,
poor access to market and price information and poor infrastructure in the livestock
markets, such as lack of dirking water facility, shed and veterinarian. The farmers were
highly skeptical about the under cover method of price fixation of the goats. The poor
infrastructure facilities in the weekly livestock markets and poor access to affordable
transport resulted in poor participation of the farmers in the market. Timely access to
market information is most important for the farmers to take right decision to sale the

animals. Organized efforts are required to provide the timely market information to the
farmers. There was no monitoring agency to check and control the collusive activities of
the traders in the market. It has been well accepted that price of meat-goats should be
decided on the basis of their body weight reflecting their potential meat yield. However
no market had weighing facility. Also no livestock market committee had representation
of the goat farmers participating in those markets. Representation of farmers in the
market management committee may help in addressing their concerns. However, the
farmers representative must be a goat farmer himself.
Table 4.45: Constraints faced by farmers in goat markets (n=55)
Particulars
Poor marketing infrastructure- drinking water, shed, veterinary doctor
High marketing fee/ commission of the agent
Lack of transparency in trading (under cover)
Poor access to market/ price information
Tendency of collusive activity among traders
No facility for weighing the animals in the market so as to arrive at proper
price
Poor access to affordable transport
High margins of middleman
No representation of farmers in management of goat markets

Percent farmer
53
33
58
53
11
7
5
33
4

4.3
4.3.1

MARKETING OF GOATS IN RAJASTHAN


Socio-economic profile of traditional goat keepers
Goat rearing in Rajasthan was the most important economic activity of the goat
farmers. The farmers were classified into four categories, namely category I (1-5 does), II
(6-15 does), III (16-30 does) and IV (>30 does). Category I and II constituted two third
of the total farmers. The average flock size in different categories varied from 3.06 does
(breeding female goats) to 46.23 does (Table 4.46). The share of kids of above six
months age in the total flock was less as compare to Uttar Pradesh. In contrast to U.P.,
majority of the goat farmers were landholders with only 10 percent of them as landless
(Table 4.48 and 4.49). The average holding size in all the categories was almost same
indicating that there was no relation between flock size and land holding size. The goat
rearing (46 percent) and agriculture (42 percent) were the main occupations of the
farmers. There was no social inhibition even in the large farmers against the goat rearing
activity like Uttar Pradesh, the farmers level of education was very low with 63 percent
of them as illiterate (Table 4.47). The comparative socio economic status of goat farmers
among the all rural groups in Rajasthan was better as compared to Uttar Pradesh.
Among the goat farmers, 20 percent owned sheep and 37 percent reared buffaloes also.
Table 4.46: Composition and flock size of goats
Category
No. of
Adult
Adult
farmers
female
male
I (1-5 goats)
35
3.06
0.20
II (6-15 goats)
45
9.82
0.31
III (16- 30 goats)
27
21.59
1.30
IV (>30 goats)
13
46.23
1.92
Pooled
120
14.46
0.68

6-12 m
male
0.40
1.11
0.85
1.77
0.92

6-12 m
female
0.77
1.80
2.22
6.00
2.05

6m
male
0.69
0.71
1.00
1.62
0.87

6m
female
0.77
0.78
1.59
1.54
1.04

Total
5.89
14.53
28.56
59.23
20.01

Table 4.47: Farmers educational status


Category
Illiterate
Primary
I
48.57
14.29
II
62.22
13.33
III
70.37
22.22
IV
84.62
7.69
Pooled
62.50
15.00

Education
6 to 10 std.
25.71
20.00
7.41
7.69
17.50

>10th Std.
8.57
2.22
3.33

Table 4.48: Size of operational land holdings (acre)


Owned land
Leased out
Category
Irrigated
Un Irrigated
Irrigated
Un Irrigated
I
2.91
3.93
0.33
0.24
II
1.85
4.72
1.17
III
0.89
6.20
0.17
IV
6.00
Overall
1.74
4.96
0.53
0.11
Table 4.49: Distribution of goat keepers as per land ownership (in %)
Category
Landless goat keepers
I
14.29
II
6.67
III
11.11
IV
7.69
Overall
10.00

4.3.2

>Graduate
2.86
2.22
1.67
Operational holding
6.27
5.42
6.92
6.00
6.06
Land holders
85.71
93.33
88.89
92.31
90.00

Composition of sale of live goats


In response to the agro-ecological and resource situations of Rajasthan, the
major objective of goat farmers was to produce more milk per goat. Most of the male
kids were sold very early much before their economic age of slaughter. Majority of the
farmers preferred to sale their goat kids at early age just after weaning (Table 4.50 and
Figure 4.6). The share of kids of <3 months age (mostly male) was highest (39 percent)
in the total sale of live goats by the farmers in a year. The share of <3 months kids in
total sale was much higher up to 44 percent in the large flock size categories. In
Rajasthan the common feed resources on which the goats depend, were highly scarce
and the feed resources available in the market were also costlier as compared to Uttar
Pradesh. Therefore, the farmers were not interested in raising the male kids up to the
economic age of slaughter. Hence they wanted to get rid of the kids just after weaning.
Moreover in the absence of separate housing, the kids continued to suck milk up to the
age of 5-6 months. This resulted not only into direct loss of milk output but created
more stress for milking goats and consequently delayed the next conception of the doe.
Therefore, farmers wanted to sale the kids particularly male at the age of 2.5 to 3
months. Under the feed scarce situation, taking more output of milk from a doe and
selling the kids at early age was more profitable. For the benefit of farmers, a new
market has been emerging for the male kids of 2-3months of Sirohi breed of Rajasthan.
These small male kids have been in demand in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal
for rearing. The traders who cater this market were buying a male kid of 2-3 months at a
price of Rs.500-700. Another major sale category was 3-6 months kids, which were
mostly sold in the local market for slaughter. The efforts should be made to encourage
farmers to rear kids up to their optimum age of slaughter (6-8 months). The emerging

trend of rearing the kids of goats from Rajasthan in the areas having better access to feed
resources looks very promising and beneficial for the farmers and the goat economy as
well. The adult males, which formed the 11 percent of the total sale of live goats, were
sold mostly either for breeding purpose or for Eid. The adult females were mostly the
culled animals.
Table 4.50: Composition of sale of goats (in percent)
Category
Category I
Category II
< 3 month
26.20
30.87
3-6 month
21.03
20.58
6-12 month male
15.87
15.07
6-12 month female
9.59
2.61
>12 month male
18.82
17.68
>12 month female
8.49
13.19

Category III
43.13
22.00
8.03
5.35
8.61
12.88

Category IV
44.37
26.85
9.58
7.41
5.77
6.02

Overall
38.79
23.08
11.09
5.62
11.01
10.41

10.41

11.01
38.79
5.62

11.09

23.08
< 3 months

3-6 months

6-12 months male

6-12 months female

>12 months male

>12 months female

Figure 4.6: Share of different age groups in total sale of goats in Rajasthan

The reasons for sale of early age kids are shown in Table4.51. Besides feed
scarcity and comparatively higher income in early sale under feed scarce situations, the
urgent cash need was the most important reason for selling the early age kids. The
farmers were also constrained in managing the grown up male kids due to lack of
sufficient and separate housing space for males and females. Though the farmers might
have adjusted their sale of goats in response to the situation, but slaughter of the early
age kid was a direct loss to the economy of goats and the farmers as well.
Table 4.51: Reasons for sale of early-age kids
Reasons
Urgent cash needs
Scarcity of feed resources
Risk of mortality/disease
Comparatively higher income in selling at early age
Unaware of optimum age of sale
Pressure of money lender
Difficulty in managing grown up male kids
Others

4.3.3

Percent
72.5
55.83
52.5
41.66
15.83
5.83
3.34
1.67

Marketing Channels
Similar to Uttar Pradesh the marketing of live goats was totally in the hands of
middlemen /traders and butchers. The farmers with very low exposure and low risk
bearing ability preferred to sale their goats in the village itself. There were mainly five
channels of marketing goats (Table 4.52). The maximum trading of live goats was

carried out through channel II (Farmers-butcher/traders in the villages). Through this


channel 61 percent goats were traded by 86 percent of the farmers. It shows that the
farmers participation in the livestock market was very low in Rajasthan as compared to
Uttar Pradesh. The market channels; Farmers - Butcher/traders in the village as well as in
weekly and district level market together accounted for more than 86 percent of the
total trade done by the farmers (Figure 4.7 and 4.8).
Table 4.52: Market Channels adopted by the farmers for sale of goats in different categories (in
percent)
Market
channels
I-Farmers Farmer
II-Farmer
Butcher/
trader
III-Farmer
Other
agencies
IV-Farmer
Butcher/
trader
V- Farmer Trader

Place of
transaction
At farmers
village
At farmers
village
At farmers
village
At local
weekly
market
At distant
market

Category I
Farmer
Goats

Category II
Farmer
Goats

Category III
Farmer
Goats

Category IV
Farmer
Goats

37.14

21.50

37.78

14.59

18.52

3.04

15.38

4.47

80.00

57.94

82.22

62.01

92.59

61.26

100.00

61.84

8.57

13.08

4.44

4.86

14.81

5.57

7.69

3.95

5.71

7.45

22.22

14.59

29.63

18.23

30.77

14.74

0.00

0.00

2.22

3.95

7.41

11.90

15.38

15.00

In Rajasthan also, the traders and butchers regularly visited the villages for
buying the goats from the farmers. They some time also sold the goats of one farmer to
the other farmers in the village itself. Since the number of livestock/goat weekly markets
in Rajasthan was less per unit of geographical area as compared to U.P., the traders used
to cover long distances of 30-40 km for collecting goats from the villages. Farmers never
formed the price of their goats on the basis of the value of the products and by-products
of a goat. There was lack of access to correct market information for the farmers. The
butcher /traders visiting the villages rarely compete among them and always tried to fix
price of goats towards lower side.
The reasons for selling goats in the village itself are indicated in the Table 4.53.
The fear of lack of transparency in trading in the weekly markets was the biggest reason
for selling goats in the village itself. It is true that the price of goats in weekly markets
was decided through under cover method in 90 percent deals. Moreover, in farmers
perception it was uneconomic to take small number of goats to the market for sale and
whole day was required to sell goats in weekly markets. Forced sale of goats at low
price to avoid their return from the market and lack of infrastructure facilities in the
markets were other reasons to sell the goats in the villages. The farmers had a fear of
being cheated in the weekly markets because most of the players in the livestock
markets were the traders and butchers, who mostly talk in their own unique language.
The traders many times in collusion fixed very low price for the goats of the farmers.

8.33
30.83

20

8.33

85.83

Farmer Farmer in village


Farmer Butcher/ trader in village
Farmer Other agencies in village
Farmer Butcher/ trader in weekly market
Farmer -Trader in distant market

Figure 4.7: Channels of goat marketing adopted by traditional farmers in Rajasthan (% farmers)
9.66

8.26

15.19

5.53

61.35
Farmer Farmer in village
Farmer Butcher/ trader in village
Farmer Other agencies in village
Farmer Butcher/ trader in weekly market
Farmer -Trader in distant market

Figure 4.8: Percentage of goats sold through different marketing channels in Rajasthan

Fifty nine percent of the farmers felt that they get lower price for their goats then
the existing market by about 22 percent. In farmers perception, the distress sale and lack
of market information were the two most prominent reasons for low price of their goats
(Table 4.54). Poor health of their animals due to feed scarcity was another major reason
for low prices. In fact most of the farmers did not know that what type of goat has high
demand in the market, and what time (month) and age the animal would fetch better
price. Therefore, educating them and ensuring timely access to market information
would be the first step in enabling the farmers to get remunerative price of their goats. A
number of goat farmers in Rajasthan were migrating to the neighbouring districts (up to
150n km) and few of them to neighbouring states in search of feed. During the
migration, the farmers were forced to sale the young kids even at low price, because it
becomes difficult for kids to move long distances.
Table 4.53: Reasons for selling of goat in the village itself
Reasons
Fearing lack of transparency in trading in weekly/district markets.
Un-economic to take small numbers to the livestock market
Non-availability of time
More time required for marketing in weekly markets
Forced sale at very low price to avoid return of animals
No facility for animals in the market (shed, water, etc.)

Percent farmer
58
43
40
37
26
18

Table 4.54: Farmers perception on low price of their goats


Reasons
Distress sale
Lack of market information
Poor health
Other

Percent farmer
59.17
52.5
19.17
2.5

4.3.4

Reasons and purpose of sale of live goats


The reasons of selling of goats at a particular time and age and the purpose for
which the proceeds of sales were utilized are presented in Table 4.55 and 4.56. The
major reasons of sale of goats in order of their importance were the availability surplus
males (kids/young ones), to reduce flock size in winters due to feed scarcity, culling unproductive animals and lack of interest of the young members of the family. Some
farmers (10 percent) were also selling animals to bind-up this activity. The proceeds
from the sale of goats were mainly utilized to purchase feed and fodder for small and
large ruminants and food for the family, to meet out expanses on childrens education,
purchase of inputs for crops, repayment of loan and to meet social obligations. Hence
the goat not only played an important role in ensuring availability of food for the family
and feed and fodder for the animals but it also contributed in meeting out all other
contingency expenditure for production and other purposes.
Table 4.55: Reasons for sale of goats
Reasons
Surplus males
Cull un-productive and old animals
Decline in grazing resources (in winter)
To restrict the flock size
Non-availability of family labour
Cull diseased goats
Decrease in earning from goat rearing (binding up)

Percent farmer
63.33
48.33
53.33
26.67
23.33
15.00
10.00

Table 4.56: Purpose of sale of adult animals


Purpose
Purchase of feed and fodder for animals
To fulfill family needs including food
Childrens education
To meet unforeseen expenses like illness
Purchase of seed, fertilizer, diesel etc. for crops
Repayment of loan
To meet social obligations
Replacement of goats by purchasing substitute goats
Repair of house
Lending money to fellow farmers
Others

Percent farmer
69.17
59.17
57.50
26.67
25.83
22.50
15.00
15.00
12.50
9.17
3.33

4.3.5

System of Price fixation in village


The commonly followed units of sale of live goats were per head, ;per pair and
per group. In spite of goats being the source of high value food, their price was not
decided on body weight basis. The majority of the farmer buyers purchased goats on
per head basis, while the traders/butchers opted more for per group as the unit of
purchase of goats (Table 4.57). The common method for price fixation of live goats in
the villages was the mutual bargain and open sale system. Different buyers used
different basis for deciding the price of live goats. The farmer buyers priority was health
and age of the animal. One-third of them also gave importance to the breed. The
butchers and traders main concern was the body weight and age of the animals,
whereas the NGOs and government agencies purchasing breeding goats looked for
breed, health and age of the animals (Table 4.58). The farmers also had formed a reserve
price for their goats. The basis of such reserve price was the existing market price of live
goats. This price was nothing but the recent sale price of goats of other farmers. But the
farmers rarely had the correct market/ price information. They also did not know the
market value of the total output of a goat after it gets slaughtered. Prevailing price of
different types of goats of different age groups are given in Table 4.59. Very large values
of standard error indicate the large variations in the price of goats of the same category
and same age group. The variation in margins of the middlemen might also be one of
the main reasons of price variations.
Table 4.57: Unit of sale and purchase of goats
Methods
Per animal
Per pair
Per groups
Table 4.58: Criteria of price fixation
Criteria
Farmer
Body weight
16.21
Health
72.97
Breed
32.43
Age
70.27
Look
16.21

Purchasing agencies (in percent)


Farmer
Butcher/ trader
68
24
18
18
12
51

Purchasing agencies (in %)


Trader
Butcher/ trader
77.05
95.83
44.26
19.80
19.67
62.29
80.21
18.03
-

Govt./ NGOs
60
100
100
100
60

Table 4.59: Age-group wise price of goats in Rajasthan


Category

I
II
III
IV
Overall

Particulars

Price
(SE)
Price
(SE)
Price
(SE)
Price
(SE)
Price
(SE)

Up to 3
m
522
(55.54)
542
(95.13)
468
(96.96)
475
(102.48)
490
(10.71)

Average sale price of goats of different age groups


3 to 6 m
6 to 12 m
6 to 12 m
>12 m
male
female
male
1025
1253
944
2236
(233.26)
(290.53)
(141.42)
(667.08)
816
1426
1238
1918
(242.10)
(471.44)
(573.73)
(554.64)
984
1657
1150
2278
(516.76)
(386.39)
(424.26)
(744.72)
898
1371
1185
1942
(470.43)
(391.60)
(354.73)
(141.42)
914
1445
1147
2069
(34.03)
(37.84)
(36.08)
(56.29)

>12 m
female
1762
(476.45)
1483
(923.42)
1844
(1702.29)
1750
(387.20)
1697 (98.13)

It was ascertained that the farmers most preferred time of sale of their goats was
winter season (Table 4.60). Though the preference of sale in winter was economically
right decision as the demand as well the price of meat-goats remained high during the
winter season. But the farmers decision of sale in winter was mostly not based on
economic principles; rather it was due to fodder scarcity and to remove young kids to
save some output of milk of goats, which otherwise would have been sucked by the
kids. The second preference of time of sale was summer and last was rains. The
availability of fodder was the major factor in the deciding the time of sale. The farmers
tended to sell goats during feed scarcity and increased their number during better
availability of feed.
Table 4.60: Farmers preferred season of sale of goats
Timing of sale
Winter
Summer
Rainy

Percent farmer
72
20
8

4.3.6

Village to nearby weekly market


In Rajasthan, contrary to Uttar Pradesh, the number of farmers participating in
the weekly livestock markets was low. Only one-fifth of the goat farmers took their
animals to the weekly markets and that accounted for 15 percent of their total sale of
goats in a year. All the farmers, except 3.33 percent of them, feet drive the animals from
villages to the nearby livestock markets. A few farmers (3.33 percent) used tempo and
trucks for transporting their goats to the market. The petty traders/ middlemen often
made use of the vacant lorries and mini trucks proceeding towards the livestock market.
If needed two or three traders together shared a truck for transporting the goats. In the
absence of any support from the government and their own inability to organize and
innovate, the goat farmers were continuing with the present system of goat marketing,
but even one percent of them were not satisfied with the existing system of marketing.
However, twenty nine percent of the farmers considered the price realized for their
animals as remunerative (Table 4.61).
Table 4.61: Farmers perception on existing price level of goats (in %)
Category
Farmers considering price remunerative
I
31.83
II
24.44
III
40.74

IV
Overall

84.62
29.17

The farmers access to veterinarians services and other critical inputs was not
satisfactory. The farmers had to travel from 6 to 20 km to get his goats treated. The
expenditure on visiting veterinarian on each occasion was Rs75 to Rs.150 (Table 4.62).
Only one among the 120 goat farmers had availed institutional credit for purchasing
goats. The other major input purchased from the market was dry fodder to be used in
lean season (winter). Lopping of leaves of trees like khejari, Neem, babool etc. were the
major source of fodder for goats during the lean season. One tree of khejari, which
produces about 50-80 kg fodder (loom) costs about Rs.100-200 per cutting if purchased
from the private owner. The forest department charged Rs.11 per goat per month for
issuing grazing passes.
Table 4.62: Access to Veterinarians Service
Category
Distance, km
I
7.40 (0-10)
II
8.20 (6-12)
III
12.70 (6-20)
IV
9.40 (0-20)

Charge Rs. / trip


75
76
150
133

4.3.7

Goat Milk
In Rajasthan, the farmers major objective of goat rearing was to maximize the
milk production per goat per lactation. The Sirohi goats available in Rajasthan were
comparatively high yielders. The farmers (72 percent) indicated that there was demand
for goat milk. The major buyers of goat milk were cooperative dairy plants and milk
vendors. The local consumers and tea-shops were other buyers (Table 4.63). The goat
milk was sold @Rs.10 per liter. This price though was 20 percent less than the price of
buffalo milk but it was higher as compared to price of goat milk in U.P. The
acceptability of goat milk among the rural population was higher in Rajasthan as the
proportion of rural households owning goats was also higher in Rajasthan (71 percent)
as compared to Uttar Pradesh (33 percent). The production of milk per households
ranged from 297 to 2927 liter per annum (Table 4.64).

Table 4.63: Demand and destination for farmers goat milk


Response of farmers
Particulars
Number
Percent
Demand for goat milk exist
86
71.67
Milk vendors
33
50.00
Local consumer and tea-shop
10
15.15
Cooperative dairy
39
59.09
Patient
3
4.55
Table 4.64: Goat milk production in farmers flock
Category
Milk production
Price, Rs./liter
(kg/ year)
I
297.00
10.00
II
683.16
10.00
III
1848.00
9.80
IV
2927.69
10.23

Value of milk Rs.


2970
6832
18110
29950

Pooled

1467.26

9.98

14695

4.3.8

Live goat markets and market functionaries in Rajasthan


In Rajasthan, three major goat markets were covered in the study (Table 4.65).
Like Uttar Pradesh, there was almost no interaction between the livestock markets and
relevant government departments. The registration and permission from the district
collector /municipality was required to start a new livestock market. District collector
gives permission for the livestock markets which functions in the rural areas and the
livestock markets which function in urban areas need permission from the municipality.
These markets pay a nominal fee every year and their registration gets renewed in
routine. However there was no monitoring at all of the functioning of the livestock
markets by the above agencies. The market owners/societies set their own rules for
functioning of the market. All the three markets were owned and controlled by societies/
association. There was no involvement of the government at any stage. The daily arrivals
of goats ranged from 3200 in Jaipur to 5000 in Balaheri, which reached to 7000 to
10000 per day in peak period in winter during festivals. The market fee per goat was
Rs.40 in one market and 4-5 per cent of the value of goat in other two market, which
came out to be Rs.75 to 90 per adult goat (Table 4.66). The market fee per goat was
higher in Rajasthan as compared to Uttar Pradesh. Normally buyer paid the market fee,
but some times the seller, if agreed upon before finalizing the deal, paid it. In the
livestock market Balaheri, the buyer and the seller both paid Rs.20 per goat each as
market fee.
Table 4.65: Profile of livestock markets Rajasthan
Name of Ownership/
Day of
Area
market
control
operation
(m2)
Balaherhi

Association

Ajmer

Society

Jaipur

Society

Tuesday
Tuesday
and
Saturday
Thursday,
Saturday

5000

Type of
animal
traded
Goat/sheep

Registering
authority of
market
District Collector

72000

Goat/sheep

Municipality

3500

Goat/sheep

Municipality

Table 4.66: Number of arrival of goats per market day


Name of
Arrivals/
Arrivals/ market
Market fee per
market
market
day in peak period animal, Rs.
day
Balaherhi
5000
7000
20 + 20
Ajmer
4000
10000
4% of value of
goat
Jaipur
3200
8000
5% of value of
goat
Table 4.67: Marketing infrastructure
S.
Infrastructure
No.
1. Office
2. Shed for animal
3. Building for protection of buyer/seller for rain etc.
4. Ramp to load and unload the animal
5. Availability of drinking water for animal
6. Availability of drinking water for human beings

Registration
of animals
No
No
No

Who pay the market


fee
Both seller and buyer
Buyer
Buyer

Percent market having facility


100
100
33
33
33
100

7. Availability of fodder
8. Availability of veterinary aid

0
0

The livestock markets had poor infrastructure (Table 4.67). The office, shed for
animals and drinking water for human beings was available in all the markets. None of
the market had facility of veterinary aid and fodder for the animals. Even the essential
facilities such as ramp to load and unload animals, drinking water for animals and transit
accommodation were available only in one-third of the markets. The transport facilities
and their charges varied according to the distance traveled by goats (Table 4.69). The
goats from all over the Rajasthan were brought to these markets. A big truck with a load
of 150-200 goats charged Rs.16000 and Rs.5000-6000 per trip each to Mumbai and
Delhi, respectively. The charges from Ajmer to Kanpur/ Bareilly were Rs.7000-8000 per
truck.
The
livestock/goat
markets,
totally
controlled
by
private
individuals/societies/associations had invested very little in infrastructure development.
But these markets were doing a handsome business. Each year about 2 lakh goats were
brought for sale in each market and 83 percent of them were finally sold (Table 4.68).
Sale of such large number of animals created huge earnings for the livestock market
owners through collection of fee. The annual income of a livestock markets ranged from
Rs.56 Lakhs to Rs.162 Lakhs (Table 4.70). Surprisingly the government had almost no
interest in the activities and functioning of the livestock markets. It should be mandatory
for the livestock market owners to create and maintain essential facilities in the market
and also to create a transparent system of marketing by checking all the mal practices.
There is also need to rationalize the market fee structure. The markets must maintain the
minimum infrastructure and mechanism for ensuring transparency in trade to get their
registration renewed.
Table 4.68: Volume of trade of goats
No. of goat brought for sale
Name of
market
Per day
Per annum
Balaherhi
5000
224400
Ajmer
4000
224400
Jaipur
4000
194000
Overall
4333
189933
Table 4.69: Transportation facilities
Distance/place
Short Distance Place, Local
Type of animal
No of goat/sheep
Charge
Long Distance
Delhi, All Rajasthan
Type of animal
Number of animal/trip
Charge/trip

Trade in peak period/ market


day
Id, holi,
7000
Id, holi,
10000
Id, holi,
8000
Id, holi,
8333

% Animal
sold
80
80
90
83

Mode
Tempo, jugad (makeshift vehicle)
Goat and sheep
20-25
Rs. 10 to 20 / goat and sheep
Truck
Only goat and sheep
187
Rs 5000

There was no mechanism/agency to check the mal-practices in trading of goats.


Secretary /president of the market occasionally mediated in cases of controversy in the
dealings. All the transactions were made in cash except a few selective buyers for whom
credit guaranty was given by the secretary/president/commission agents (Table 4.71).
There was no veterinarian in the market to check the animals for any infectious disease.

There was also no presence of any livestock extension agency in the market, which
could otherwise prove a good platform for extension agencies.
Table 4.70: Annual income of the markets
Income from commission/ market fee per annum, Rs. lakh
Name of
market
Trade of goats
Trade of other animals
Total livestock trade
Balaherhi
53.13
2.80
55.93
Ajmer
125.66
6.40
132.06
Jaipur
148.41
13.65
162.06
Overall
109.07
7.62
116.68
Table 4.71: Support system available at the market
Name of
Agency for
Mediation in case
Transactions
Credit
No of
market
checking the
of controversy in
are made in
support/
goat die /
malpractices
the trade
cash or credit
guaranty
month
Balaherhi
No
No
Cash
Ajmer
No
No
Both
C. Agent
7
Jaipur
No
No
Both
C. Agent
8

3.4.9

Market functionaries
Besides farmers range of market functionaries were involved in the marketing of
goats and for majority of them (80 percent) trading of goats was a main occupation.
Petty /small rural traders, butchers, big traders, farmers, other buyers and commission
agents were operating in all the livestock markets (Table 4.72). The commission agent
played an important role in trading in all the markets, whereas in U.P., the commission
agents were allowed only in two big markets. The level of participation of farmers in the
livestock weekly markets was very low except the market at Balaheri. Majority of the
buyers and seller farmers in Balaheri belonged to U.P. The goat farmers of Rajasthan
were highly skeptical to take their goats to market because of the fear of being cheated
in the weekly markets. Neither of the functionaries was required to be formally
registered, nor to pay any fee for operating in the livestock market. For most of the
functionaries the goat trading was their familys traditional activity. Most of the traders
(80 percent) had more than 10 years of experience in the trade (Table 4.73). The
functionaries were evenly distributed among different social groups. The maximum
traders belonged to the schedule caste (40 percent) particularly Khatik followed by other
backward castes and Muslims (Table 4.74). The educational status of market
functionaries was poor with 40 percent of them as illiterate and 40 percent between IVIII standard. However they were well versed with the trade and had good knowledge
of goat marketing system. The traders were not interested in increasing the transparency
in the trade because of the fear of reduction in their margins. But the traders biggest
constraint was harassment by police and animal welfare department during transporting
the goats and had to make considerable illegal payments.
Table 4.72: Market functionaries and their participation
Market functionaries
Name of
market
Commission
Big
Petty/small
Butchers
agents
traders
traders
Balaherhi
0
30
100
20
Ajmer
37
150
350
200
Jaipur
12
27
50
50
Overall
16
69
167
90

Seller
farmers
500
20
10
177

Buyers
farmers
500
10
15
175

Table 4.73: Experience of marketing functionary


Experience (in Years)
0 -5
5-10
10-15
15-20
>20

No. of market functionaries (%)


10
10
20
40
20

Table 4.74: Distribution of marketing functionaries in social groups


Caste
No. of market functionaries (%)
Other Backward Caste
30
Muslim
20
Schedule Caste (Khatik)
40
General
10
Table 4.75: Educational status of marketing functionary
Education
No. of market functionaries (%)
Illiterate
40
I VIII
40
High School
10
Graduate
10

3.4.10 Purchase and sale of goats by traders


The goat traders were regularly visiting a number of farmers goat flocks in the
villages. They made purchase deals every day but did not collect the purchased goats.
As soon as the traders completed purchase deals of goats equal to one truck load or just
one day before the weekly market, he collected the purchased goats from the farmers
and transport them in individual or shared truck depending on the numbers of goats, to
the weekly market in early hours. The traders also sold goats to the other farmers in
village itself. The purchase and sale of goats and net margins of the traders are shown in
Table 4.76 and 4.77. The prices of goats were higher in the weekly market as compared
to the village, because of the larger numbers of buyer were available in the weekly
markets. There was variation in the net margins of the goat traders depending on the
place and season of sale. The returns from meat goats were higher if sold in weekly
markets, whereas the net margins of traders from the sale of breeding goats were higher
if sold to the goat keepers in the village itself or to the commercial goat farmers from far
away places. The net margins of traders per kid were estimated to be Rs. 139 to Rs.204
and net margins on a grown up kid or adult goat ranged from Rs.232 to Rs.302 while
trading in the village. The net margins per adult goat were higher to Rs.252 to Rs.707
while trading in the weekly market. The net margins per rupee of investment were
higher in the trade of male goat and kids. The margins of the middlemen were
significantly higher in Rajasthan as compared to Uttar Pradesh. Further, the magnitude
of margin of the middlemen traders fluctuated in normal and festive (Dushhara, Eid,
Holi, Durga Puja) seasons (Table 4.78). The middlemens margin during the normal
season ranged from Rs.130-380 per goat. This range of margin during festive season was
Rs.400 to 1000. It clearly shows that the margins of the middlemen were unduly high.
In the prevailing goat marketing system, though the middlemen provide critical services
by creating space utility, but their unduly high margins should be brought dawn by
organizing and creating greater awareness among farmers.
Table 4.76: Purchase of goats
Particulars
Adult Male
Adult Female
Kids (6-12) month male
Kids (6-12) month female

Numbers goat
30
40
67
31

Price / Goat
At Village
At Market
1880
2025
1500
2000
1400
1500
1100
1200

Kids 2-4 months


Table 4.77: Sale of goats
Particulars
Adult Male
Adult Female
Kids (6-12) month male
Kids (6-12) months
female
Kids 2-4 months

52
Numbers
goat
30
34
24
21
38

350

Price / Goat, Rs.


At
Sale at
Village
Village
2750
1800
2500
1650
1770
1420
1545
500

710

Table 4.78: Marketing margin of the middlemen (Rs./ goat)


Season
Minimum
Normal season
130
Festive season
400

495

Net margin of the trader


Sale at Village
Sale at
Market
707
282
482
232
252
302
327
139

204
Maximum
380
1000

The destinations of live goats bought by rural/small traders in the weekly markets
are shown in Table 4.79. It was revealed that the outside big traders in direct contact
were the major destination of live goats. The other important destinations of goats were
the local market, terminal/metropolitan markets and the goat breeders.
Table 4.79: Destination of sale of live goats by traders
Particular
Local market
Outside traders in direct contact
Farmers
Metropolitan market

No. Marketing functionary %


30
60
20
30

3.4.11 Marketing cost incurred by petty traders

The petty /rural traders, who connect the goat farmers to the market, were
the most important link in the goat marketing network. As the goat traders were
regularly visiting goat farmers/flocks in the villages on daily basis, each of them
was a repository of information on the availability of goats of different type and
age with the farmers in the traders operating area. The major cost incurred by the
petty trader was his labour spent in collection and trading of the goats. Besides
labour, the cost incurred on collection and transport of animals from villages to
the weekly market including the losses due to mortality during transit was
estimated to be Rs.22 per grow up goat and Rs.16 per kid. These costs were
estimated to be Rs.12 and Rs.8, if the buying and selling took place in the
villages itself without bringing the goats to the weekly market.
3.4.12 Trading of males for Eid festival

Preparing males by keeping them on special feeding for their sale during
the festival of Eid was a usual practice adopted by few farmers and most of the
traders. Healthy males of over one year age (two teeth) with good health and
look were in high demand for offering during the festival of Eid. Such males
during Eid were sold at almost double the price as compared to the normal

season. Number of traders purchased such males (mostly castrated) 20 to 30 days


before the festival of Eid (in few cases 2 months before) and kept them on high
energy and fat ration and sold them during Eid. It was revealed that the net
margin of traders per animal was estimated to be Rs.375 to Rs.780 (Table 4.80).
The sale price of these males during Eid was as high as Rs. 125 - 150 per kg of
live body weight. However, most of the goat farmers did not have awareness and
attitude to take benefit of the lucrative Eid market, less 10 percent farmers were
hardly preparing males for sale during the Eid. Although, majority of the
traditional goat farmers were aware of the potential benefits of sale during Eid,
but the lack of commercial orientation, low risk bearing ability and lack of
market information were constraining factors.
Table 4.80: Purchase and sale of males for festivals
Market
No. of male
Purchase
Collection &
traded
price/ animal, fattening cost,
Rs.
Rs.
Market I
16
3450
275
Market II
21
3980
390
Market III
12
3735
310

Sale price/
animal, Rs.

Net margin/
animal, Rs.

4260
5150
4420

535
780
375

3.4.13 Pricing of live goats in the livestock market


Among the three units of sale of goats per head and per pair were commonly
used by the traders in the weekly markets (Table 4.81). The price of goats in 90 percent
deals was decided through under cover method with the help of commission
agents/middlemen. The under cover method has been described in the previous section
of this report. Only 10 percent deals were decided through open auction method (Table
4.82). Therefore, the goat farmers did not have good opinion about the fairness in trade
in the weekly markets that resulted into low participation of farmers in livestock
markets. The traders basis of price fixation of live goats was mainly the body weight of
the animals (Table 4.83). But there was no facility for weighing the animals in any of the
market. The traders had the ability to judge weight of the animal through Hattha
system but farmers remained unaware of the weights of the goats. The other bases of
valuing the animal were breed, colour and body size and milk yield in case of does.
Table 4.81: Unit of sale and purchase of goats
Methods of sale
Per goat
Per pair
Per group
Table 4.82: Method of price fixation
Methods of price fixation
Open action
Under cover
Table 4.83: Basis of price fixation (percent traders)
Particular
Adult female
Body weight
70

Percent transactions
12
58
17
No. of deals (%)
10
90
Response
Adult male
90

Kids
60

Breed*
80
Age
60
Milk yield
90
* Look for particular colour and body size

70
70
-

60
20
-

3.4.14 Constraints faced by farmers in the goat market


The goat farmers weakest point was that he did not have access to market/price
information, had no idea about the demand and supply situation. Having low education
level and exposure, he was not able to use the available information in taking right
marketing decisions. On the other hand the traders had very good knowledge of the
market, demand and supply situation. Therefore, the farmers were not in a position to
negotiate/ bargain for price with the traders/butchers. The constraints as perceived by
the farmers are depicted in Table 4.84. Majority of the farmers considered the lack of
transparency in trading of goats under cover as the biggest constraint faced in the
livestock markets. Unduly high market fee and very poor access to market information
were other major constraints. The mal practices in the form of collusive activity of
traders also constrained the farmers from fairly participating in the markets.
Table 4.84: Constraints faced by farmers in goat markets
Particulars
High marketing fee/ commission: it should not be more than 1 % of value of goat
Lack of transparency in trading: under cover method
Very poor access to market/ price information
Prevalence of collusive activity of traders

4.4

Percent farmer
40.0
73.3
30.0
20.0

MARKETING OF GOATS BY COMMERCIAL FARMERS


The commercial goat farmers, who were well educated and had better access to
market information, not only tried to effectively bargain to get the best price for their
animals, but also tried certain innovative methods to sell their animals. In fact all the
commercial goat farmers in the beginning (5-6 years back) were operating in isolation
having almost no information on commercial goat production taking place in other parts
of the country. They also faced problems in marketing their goats at remunerative prices
like traditional goat farmers have been facing. The middlemen visiting the commercial
farms or in the livestock markets were quoting very low prices of live goats. As a result
of our efforts in this project on Commercialization of farming and marketing of goats in
India, the linkages among the commercial goat farmers operating in different parts of
the country got strengthened. That created a new market for good quality breeding goats
produced by the commercial goat farmers. Strengthened linkages among the
commercial goat farmers resulted into creation of a large demand of goats for breading
purpose of Sirohi, Barbari, Osmanabadi, Jamunapari, Black Bengal and Jakhrana breeds
from the aspirants/ up-coming commercial goat farmers. Moreover the farmers got
premium price for the good quality goats sold for breeding purpose. This newly
emerged market for breeding goats not only helped the commercial farms to become
economically viable early but also encouraged the commercial goat farmers to maintain
and produce good quality breeding stock. Before the creation of this demand for
breeding goats from the new/old commercial farms, the commercial farmers were forced
to sell their goats @Rs.55 to Rs.65 per kg of live body weight. The traders/butchers did
not pay more for the quality of the animal in terms of purity of breed. But now with the
new market opportunity available, the commercial farmers have been selling their goats
@Rs.120 to Rs.150 per kg of live body weight. The premium price available for good

quality breeding goats has really made the goat enterprise highly attractive. Many
private investors (progressive farmers, businessmen, industrialists and entrepreneurs) are
coming up with investment proposals into goat enterprise.
4.4.1

Type of sales
The sale of live goats by commercial farmers may be grouped into two types: the
male goats and female goats (does). Especially prepared males (by providing them extra
feeding) were sold during the Eid festival by 67 percent of the farmers. Majority of the
farmers (78 percent) also sold males for meat purpose to the butchers, processors and
traders (Table 4.85). However their share in total sale of live goats was quite small. The
males for meat were sold during all the months but mostly in the winter season. Further
the farmers now have changed their marketing strategy and were preparing the males
either for Eid market or for breeding purpose, only the culled males were sold for
purpose. The female goats of 9 to 15 months age were sold for breeding purpose by the
83 percent of the commercial farmers. The breeding goats were mainly sold to the
newly coming up commercial goat farmers from different states of the country. These
breeding does were sold @Rs.110 to Rs.150 per kg live body weight. The new
entrepreneurs had more faith on the commercial goat farmers as compared to the traders
for sourcing the breeding stock. Besides live animals, the commercial farmers were also
selling manure to the plant nurseries as well as milk and Paneer.
Table 4.85: Type of goat and its product sold by commercial farmers
Particular
Male for festive sale
Male for meat at any time
Female for breeding
Milk
Paneer
Manure for nursery

Percent farmers
66.7
77.8
83.3
38.9
11.1
44.4

The traits of animals that attracted premium price were ascertained. The major
traits of males sought after by different buyers were the age, colour, weight and
castration of the animals. The young males of 1-2 years got better price during festive
sales. The buyers (for breeding and offering purpose) mostly liked single colour of the
animals such as black, white or brown, the spotted Barbari was also liked, but not the
animals having mixed colours of many breeds. For higher weight the price was also
higher particularly of animals sold for meat purpose. The more number of farmers (56
percent) indicated that the males sold for breeding purpose got higher price whereas 39
percent farmers indicated that the price was higher for castrated males (Table 4.86). In
case of female, the age (1-2 years), colour (pure breed colour) and weight were the
major considerations of the buyers for deciding their price.
Table 4.86: Traits of goat having bearing on its price
Type and characteristics
Sale of male goat
Age
Colour
Weight
Breeder
Castrated
Sale of female goat

Farmers in %
66.7
44.4
61.1
55.6
38.9

Age
Colour
Weight
Demand of goat milk
No. of months with surplus milk

38.9
33.3
38.9
11.1
5.6

4.4.2

Marketing Channels
The major marketing channels and destinations of the goats of the commercial
farmers were different then the traditional farmers. The farmers were in touch with all
the possible buyers, but the main place of sale of live goats was their farm itself (Table
4.87). Some farmers also sold their goats in the weekly, local market and district and
regional markets. Fifty percent farmers were selling goats to the farmers of other states.
The major channels of marketing of live goats adopted by the commercial farmers are
indicated in Table 4.88. The most important channel was Farmer Farmer at the farm
itself followed by Farmers-Traders/butchers at the farm itself. The bulk of sale of live
goats took place at the goat farm itself (Table 89). Even the farmers from other states also
picked up the purchased goats from the farm. The farmers wanted to sell their goats at
the farm itself because they had better bargaining power at the farm and got better
prices. The demand for the animals was higher at the farm because the breeder-buyers
themselves wanted to see the source of animals (Table 4.90). Therefore, it was wastage
of time and uneconomic to take the animals to the livestock markets.
Table 4.87: Place of sale of live goats
Agency
At farm
Weekly Market
District market
Regional Market
Other State (To new commercial farmers)

Farmers in %
100
33.33
27.78
16.37
50.00

Table 4.88: Marketing channels adopted in sale of live goat


Agency
Farmer - Farmer
Farmer - Butcher/ trader
Farmer Trader
Farmer commission agent
Farmer govt. Agency
Farmer Exporter
Table 4.89: Agencies of sale of live goats
Agency
At farm
Farmer
Butcher-trader/consumer
Trader
Commission agent
Govt. agency
Exporter

100
50
50
5.56
5.56
5.56

Table 4.90: Reasons for sale of goats at farm


Reason

Farmers in %
100
50
50
5.56
11.11
5.56

Place of sale of live goat (% farmers)


Weekly
District
Regional
Other state
market
Market
Market
5.56
50
16.67
5.56
16.67
27.75
16.67
5.56
Farmers in %

No time
Better bargaining power
Higher demand at farm itself
Uneconomic to take to market
Wastage of time

11.11
61.11
55.56
11.11
11.11

4.4.3

Advertisement, publicity and marketing strategy


A number of commercial farmers had made efforts to advertise and popularize
the goat farm and the quality of their goats through all possible means (Table 4.91). A
one fifth of the farmers had created their own websites giving details of the farm and the
type of goats available for sale. These farmers were getting most of their orders for
supplying goats though e-mails. Some farmers (33 percent) had also put hoardings at
main locations near to the farm. A few them were also giving advertisement in the local
newspaper especially for sale of males during the Eid festival. The other important
medium of publicity and extension were the publication of small pamphlets and
organization trainings for local farmers. The farmers felt that the advertisement and
publicity had increased their visibility and that resulted into increased demand and
better prices for their goats. The future strategy of the commercial goat farmers was to
produce good quality breeding animals for sale to the traditional as well as up coming
commercial goat farmers. Those who were raising meat goats, wanted to make available
the weekly fortnightly supply of goats to the processors.
Table 4.91: Advertisement and publicity methods adopted by the commercial farmers
Methods
Farmers in %
News paper
22
Internet website/ email
22
Hoardings
33
Publication of pamphlets/ book
39
Publication of magazine on goat rearing
6
Organising training for local farmers
28

4.4.4

Reasons and purpose of sale


The reason and purpose of sale of goats on the commercial farms are indicated
in Table 4.92 and 4.93. The major sales were the surplus males and females. The sale of
culled goats on disease or productivity ground was another category of sale. A very few
farmers also sold their goats to reduce the flock size in summer season because of the
high cost of feed. The main purpose for which the proceeds from the sale of goats
utilized, were the purchase of inputs for goat farming and re-investment in the
enterprise. The farmers were not dependent on goat farming to fulfill their family needs.
Hence the negative net returns in the initial years did not affect the goat farming activity
adversely.
Table 4.92: Reason for sale of goats
Reason
Cull disease goat
Cull un-productive animals
Surplus male/female
Reduction in flock size during summer season
Heavy loss due to disease
Table 4.93: Purpose of sale of goats

Farmers in %
50.00
38.89
100.00
5.56
5.56

Purpose
Family need
Repayment loan
Purchase of feed
Purchase of input
Re-investment
Investment in other enterprise

Farmers in %
27.78
16.67
38.89
72.22
50.00
22.22

4.4.5

System of sale
Contrary to the traditional farmers, the commercial farmers sold their goats on
live body weights basis. The majority of the farmers (89 percent) sold their goats on
body weight basis that enabled them to realize remunerative price as per the actual
worth of the animal (Table 4.94). Few farmers also sold the goats on the basis of per
head, per pair and per group. Among these three units of sale, the per head method
was more common. Most of the farmers (61 percent) had knowledge of the market value
of the products of a goat on its slaughter. All the farmers also kept them informed about
the market/price information. After we provide a directory of addresses of all the
commercial goat farms to them, the commercial farmers spread over different states
came in touch with each other. The linkage among them also influenced the price of
goats. If a farmer in the state was charging higher prices for his goat, the farmers in other
states also started increasing their prices. Those farmers who had good business sense
and were using modern methods of popularizing their farm could get very good price
for their animals. But the farmers, those who had to sell to the traders/butcher, did not
get a fair deal. Hence, only 44% of the farmers were satisfied with the present system of
marketing. But in due course of time all the commercial goat farmers, who produce
good quality breeding goats would surely get ready market and remunerative prices.
They wanted that the monopoly of the traders in the livestock markets should be
curtailed and goats must be sold on their body weight basis in livestock market itself.
This was a genuine concern of the goat farmers.
Table 4.94: Method of sale/purchase
Methods
Farmer
Trader Butcher
Per animal
33.33
38.89
11.11
Per pair
5.56
0.00
0.00
Per group
11.11
5.56
11.11
Body wt
88.89
16.67
22.22

Agencies
Govt. agency
22.22
5.56

Processor
100

Meat consumer
16.67
100

The marketing services such as the availability of timely, sufficient and relevant
market information (market intelligence), suitable transport facilities (specially designed
to carry goats), utilities in the market complex, provision of grading and standardization
of goats, animal examination facility for disease free status, facility of net working with
the processors, marketers and exporters, information on export requirements are
immensely important to promote commercialization of goat farming and development
of the goat sector as such. However there was no provision of any of these services for
the farmers or exporters. Moreover it has been difficult for the farmers to get financial
support for the goat projects from the institutional sources. The bankers at present in
general are reluctant to finance goat projects. They should be made aware of the
investment requirements and economic potential of goats through appropriate trainings/
interaction programmes.
4.4.6

Weekly markets to city slaughterhouses

Meat animals were transported from weekly markets to different destinations


mostly by ordinary trucks. Depending on the number of animals to be transported, few
traders/ butchers jointly engage a truck and share the expenses. Generally, for
transporting goats to city slaughterhouse specially built two tier trucks were used. Over
loading of the trucks to minimize the transport cost is very common in all parts of the
country. As a result, few animals die (2 percent) during the transit. The time taken from
the moment animal leaves the farmers shed until they get slaughtered in a city
slaughterhouse depends on the distance and also the demand for meat. The loss of body
weight during transport and resting period is know as shrinkage which is of two types
viz. excretory shrinkage and tissue shrinkage. Both are associated with the
physiological functioning of the body. The extent of shrinkage depends on different
factors such as travel distance, mode of transport, season in which transported, age of
the animals, density of animals loaded in a truck etc. This kind of loss can be avoided, if
the animals are slaughtered close to their production centers and meat is transported to
urban centers.
4.6
4.6.1

MARKETING OF GOATS IN TERMINAL MARKET


A case of trading of live goats in Deonar livestock market, Mumbai
The Deonar livestock market is the biggest trading center of live goats in the
country. This market gets feed of live goats from all corners of the country however its
major supply of live goats arrived from northern states particularly Rajasthan, Uttar
Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and also from Gujrat, Maharashtra and parts of Karnataka.
The market operates daily through out the year and minimum daily arrival was about 810 thousand live goats. On major market days, Saturday, the arrival number of goats
reached to about 30000 and about 20000 on Tuesday. During the festival of Eid (Bakra
Eid) this year on 1.1.2007, the market for 10 days had enhanced supply of goats and
total number of arrival of live goats reached to 145000 in 10 days. Thus the total arrival
of live goats to this market in a year reached to more the 4 million.
Besides buyers and sellers there are three major players who control the market.
These are, i) Commission agents, ii) Mutton dealer association and iii) Sheep and goat
breeders association. The mutton dealers, commission agents and traders are indirectly
member of the sheep and goat breeder association. Any actual sheep and goat breeder is
hardly member of the association. The members of the muslin community were the
dominant player in these associations. The labourers performing the work of loading,
unloading and handling of the animals are called Gwal. They are represented by a
committee know as Bherpal kamgar sudhar samiti.
The Gwal charge Rs. 60 per goat for unloading and handling until supplier
(trader/farmer) find place for his animals. There is an open ground of 3 hectares size in
the market compound, which is available to the sellers (traders/farmers) free of cost.
However during the Eid market, when animals are stationed for 8-10 days in the market,
the front area is captured by the local functionaries and offered at price. The temporary
sheds made of bamboo of 50X20 feet are also available on rent during Eid. The rent of
shed varies from Rs. 5000 to Rs. 25000 depending on the facilities and location of the
shed.
4.6.1.1 Market charges
Unloading and handling charges by Gwal: Rs. 60 per goat during Eid and Rs. 17/
goat during other market days. Even if the farmer/ seller has his own labour, he is forced
to take the services of Gwal.

Fee for safety of animals: Rs. 4 per goat


Charge of commission agent from the seller: Rs. 60 per animal
Charge of commission agent from the buyer: Rs. 30 per animal
Receipts of any of the above payments are not given to the seller/ buyer.
Moreover during the transportation from Rajasthan or U.P. to Mumbai, illegal payments
of about Rs. 3000 per truck have to be made to the police men and staff of animal
welfare department.
4.6.1.2 Pricing of animals
The price of live goats was decided on weight basis by approximation. The
weighing machine is not used for the purpose. However the prices of goats depend on
demand and supply. Since the supplies of goats come from a very large area, it remains
highly fluctuating and resultant fluctuating prices. The prices of live goats during the
time of Eid ranged from Rs. 70 to Rs. 250 per kg of live body weight. Some goodlooking male goats for offerings were sold at price of Rs. 50000 to Rs. 70000 giving a
rate of Rs. 600-900 per kg live body weight. One or two male goats every year are
announced to be sold at a price of about Rs. 150000. This is mostly a market tactics of
local market functionaries to popularize the Deonar livestock/goat market. In these
celebrated deals, the seller is always a market functionary from Deonar and enters into a
secret agreement and announces a price of the sold male goat, the announced price is
much higher than the actually realized price.
4.6.1.2 Constraints and malpractices
Local labourers/ Gwals force the outside traders/sellers to use their services for
loading/unloading and handling of the animal at very high wages.
In the open area, where live goats are kept for sale, the local traders/ functionaries
capture the front side. Due to concentration of animals the market becomes so
congested particularly during Eid that large numbers of consumers visiting the market
are not able to enter inside the market. Hence the outside sellers, who get space only
in the rear-side of the market compound, do not get opportunity to sell their animals
directly to the consumers. The local market functionaries act as middlemen, they
buy from the outside traders and sale the goats to the consumers.
The veterinary doctor is not accessible to the goat keepers/sellers in the market.
There is no such suitable provision where animals can drink water. It has to be
managed through taps.
In a periphery of one km, there was no shop of veterinary medicines/drug. Hence the
animal showing any symptom of illness has to be sold immediately at low price.
There is 500-600 outside sellers/labourer etc during Eid trading. But there was no
facility for stay of these people; even minimum conveniences are not available.
During the transportation from north to Mumbai, illegal payments of about Rs. 3000
per truckload of goats have to be made to the policemen and staff of animal welfare
department.
There is problem of heavy traffic jam particularly in the market area. These results
into high mortality of the goats loaded in the truck.
4.7

INTER STATE MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS


A large number of goats travel long distances over different states before they are
finally slaughtered. The traders/ middlemen collect large number of goats from Jaipur,
Ajmer and other parts of Rajasthan and transport them to the livestock markets in Delhi,

Mumbai and Kalpi (Kanpur). Kolkata and Mumbai are also the major markets for goats
from Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa. Goats from Uttar Pradesh are
regularly supplied to Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhana and Nepal. Supply of goats from
U.P. to other states was higher in rainy season because of lower prices in the local
market. The demand from eastern states also gets boosted during festival such as Durga
Puja and Eid. The terminal goat markets in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata besides meeting
the demand of local market and nearby areas, supply goats to nearby states and for
exports. A sizeable number of goats from Delhi are supplied to Jammu and Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal.
4.7.1

Trade in Small Kids


An interesting marketing system for small kids has been emerging since last
couple of years. The farmers in Rajasthan want to sell their male goat kids at the earliest
possible age mainly because of scarcity of feed resources (high cost of feeding in
summer and winter season) and to save more milk of goats for selling it to the market.
On the other hand, the small and marginal farmers and landless households especially
the women in western Uttar Pradesh, west Bengal and parts of Bihar are interested in
rearing 2-3 of these male kids of larger breed particularly Sirohi from Rajasthan under
intensive and semi intensive system. These males of Sirohi were especially raised for
their sale during the festival of Eid. Since a well fed male of Sirohi breed is large in size
and bear good look and colour, it fetched good price of Rs.3500 to Rs.5500 during the
Eid festival. In response to the market demand, the traders from Uttar Pradesh were
buying small Sirohi male kids of 2-3 months age at about Rs. 500-700 per kid and sold it
to the rearers in U.P., Bihar and West Bengal at a price of Rs.700 to Rs.1000 per kid.
These traders were also supplying kids of Jamunapari and other large non-descript
breeds of goats from Uttar Pradesh to West Bengal and Bihar. Although the transfer of
young kid from Rajasthan to U.P. and W. Bengal for raising them has been an
unorganized effort, but it is surely in desirable direction. In this system, the small kids
are being shifted from feed scarce region to the area with relatively better availability of
feed resources and were raised properly on relatively low cost feeds. This not only
maximized the efficiency of resource use (feed and fodders), but also prevented the
slaughter of under-age animals, as the farmers in feed scarce regions sale surplus under
age kids of 3-5 months for slaughter. Further, this process would gear up the existing
goat production system to shift from the extensive to intensive and semi intensive
system of management. This shift is again desirable in view of scarcity and continuous
degradation/decline in common feed resources on which the goats mainly depend for
their feeding. Therefore, it would be appropriate to make same organized efforts to
encourage the farmers and entrepreneurs to adopt kid rearing for commercial chevon
production by purchasing the weaner kids (when kid stops taking mother's milk at 2.5 to
3 months age) from the traditional breeders of feed scarce regions and rear them under
intensive or semi intensive system for achieving a target finishing weight of 25-30 kg at
6-7 months of age.
4.7.2

Trading of breeding goats


There has been a high consistent demand from the goat breeders for good
quality breeding stock all over the country. High potential breeds such as Barbari and
Jamunapari of U.P., Sirohi and Jakhrana of Rajasthan, Osmanabadi of Maharashtra,
Black Bengal of West Bengal and Beetal of Punjab have not only have demand in the
home state but also in the other states. Till recently the movement of goats for breeding

purpose was mostly restricted up to the bordering areas of neighbouring states. Another
medium of spread of breeding goats of different breeds was the migratory goat flocks.
On their rout, the migratory flocks of goats from Rajasthan have been spreading
breeding animals of Sirohi, Jakhrana, Marwari and Katchhi breeds in the states of U.P.,
Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.
But over the last one decade as a result of emerging commercial goat farms an
increased demand of good quality breeding goats of different breeds has been coming
from different states of the country. The commercial farmers have been experimenting
with all potential breeds of goats, even if it was available very far from their goat farm.
The Sirohi breed of goat of Rajasthan has become very popular with the commercial
goat farmers. The farmers in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu,
Orissa and Karnataka are maintaining Sirohi goats, which they purchased from
Rajasthan. These animals are supplied by middlemen/merchant middle on orders. One,
Mr. Hanuman Khatik of Banwal village (Distt. Nagaur) every year supplies around 2000
goats to different parts of the country. With the experience gained over the years, this
merchant middleman supplies goats after getting them vaccinated for PPR. The basis of
price fixation was body weight and true to the breed. Barbari from Uttar Pradesh and
Osmanabadi from Maharashtra were other popular breeds in different parts of the
country. There has been demand for Barbari of Uttar Pradesh from commercial farmers
from Bihar, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab
etc. All such inter state supplies of breeding goats carried out by
middlemen/commission agents. Similarly Osmanabadi goat of Maharashtra has good
demand from goat breeders of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The
commercial goat farmers met a small portion of this demand for breeding stock from
different states. However, the limitation of the middleman is that he does not have any
record of performance of animals supplied for breeding purpose to the farmers. Forming
goat breeders association would be very useful in organizing the supply of pure breed
goats of different breeds with more authenticity to the breeders from any part of the
country or from other countries.
4.8

TRADING OF GOAT AND ITS MEAT BY THE BUTCHERS


Depending on the size of market, the butchers/meat traders were slaughtering 1
to 5 goats daily. Big towns/cities like Agra and Mathura in Uttar Pradesh and Ajmer and
Jaipur in Rajasthan had slaughterhouses for goat and sheep. The municipality maintains
the slaughterhouses. On account of insufficient space and pathetic conditions of the
slaughterhouses, only 30 percent of the butchers/meat traders were slaughtering the
goats in these slaughterhouses. Rest 70 percent butchers/meat traders were slaughtering
the meat goats either inside their shop, or behind the shop or in their home. The small
towns at block level and village did not have any slaughterhouse. The hygiene and
cleanliness at the place of slaughter was not maintained at all.
A butcher/meat shopkeeper is required to take permission from the municipality
or district magistrate for opening a meat shop or keeping required slaughtering
equipments. Meat shopkeeper had to pay Rs. 600/- per annum as shop registration fee
and one rupee per goat as slaughter fee for using the slaughterhouse, to the
municipality. But the meat shopkeepers in the small villages and towns paid no such fee
and acquired no permission for slaughter. A veterinary doctor is responsible for
monitoring the slaughter and slaughterhouses. But as such the hygiene and food safety
issues were most neglected in the slaughterhouses of the municipality. The in-charge
veterinary doctor rarely visited the slaughterhouses. The officer responsible for checking

the quality of meat on these open shops, as informed by the meat traders, do not visit
the meat shops. Hence, the quality of meat sold to the consumers was not inspected at
any stage for food quality and safety. As a result the butcher/meat-sellers slaughtered
even the diseased goats and sold their meat causing risk to the consumers health. The
butcher/meat traders purchased live goats from the nearby livestock markets and
villages. Requirement of live goats for 5-7 days sale of meat (7-8 to 20-25 goats) was
purchased in one lot. These animals were mainly maintained on grazing along with
some supplementation till their slaughter in next 1 to 5 days. The butcher and the meat
seller was the same person. No meat shop had refrigeration facility. The left over meat
in the shop in the evening during the summer was stored with ice in the big cities. The
meat sellers in the small towns and villages did not have proper storage of left over meat
even in summers. All the meat sellers were keeping the carcass in open in their shop
with no protection from the flies, dust and smells.

Table 4.95: Price and composition of purchase of goats by butchers


Types of goats
Share in total
Purchase
Marketing cost of the
purchase (%)
price (Rs./kg
butcher/meat seller (Rs.
live wt.)
/kg live wt.)
Weak and old
22
35
5
Grown up males
41
55
5
Kids (6-12 months)
17
60
5
Kids (<6 Months)
20
57
5
Overall
100
54
5

Total cost
Rs./kg live
wt.
40
60
65
62
59

The butcher/meat shopkeeper paid different prices for the goats of different age
groups and health status. However they were selling the meat of all kinds of goats at one
price of Rs. 120 kg (Table 4.95). The body weight and expected meat yield of a goat was
the major basis for deciding the price of animals by the butcher. During the normal
sales, the butcher/meat shopkeepers paid @ Rs 54 per kg of live body weight for the
farmers goats. They also incurred an average marketing and processing cost of Rs 5 per
kg of live body weight on collection and purchase of goats, market fee, feed cost, cost of
selling, fixed cost and rent of shop etc. Thus the total cost incurred by the butcher/meat
seller was Rs.59 per kg of live body weight.
With average dressing percentages of 50, a goat of 30 kg body weight produces
15 kg meat (carcass) besides the by-products. The cost of acquiring a goat, gross returns
from sale of products and by-products on its slaughter, marketing costs and margins of
petty traders and butchers and share of the farmer were estimated. The details are given
in the Table 4.96.
Table 4.96: Butchers/ meat-sellers cost and returns from a goat of 30 kg body weight
Particular
Quantity/value
Body weight (kg)
30
Carcass weight (kg)
15
Purchase price @ Rs 54/ kg live body weight
1620
The amount producers get @ Rs. 49/ kg live body wt.
1470
Margin of petty trader @ Rs 5. /kg live body wt.
150
Marketing cost @ Rs 5. /kg live body wt.
150
Total cost
1770
Returns (Rs.):
Value of meat @ Rs 120/kg
1800
Value of lung and heart
50
Value of legs and head
90
Value of stomach
50
Value of liver
40
Value of intestine
10
Value of skin
120
Gross returns
2160
Average transit loss (2 % of value of goats), Rs.
35
Net margin of butcher/meat seller per goat slaughtered, Rs.
355
Producers share in consumer rupee (%)
68.05
Marketing cost as% of total value of goat slaughtered
6.95
Share of petty trader in consumer rupee (%)
6.96
Share of Butcher/ Meat-trader in consumer rupee (%)
16.44

The details of cost, returns and margins of different functionaries in the


marketing of meat goats in the normal market conditions have been shown in the Table

4.95. The goat farmers got 68 per cent share in the consumers rupee. The share of
rural/petty traders, butcher/meat sellers and the marketing cost in the consumers rupee
was 6.95, 16.44 and 6.95 percent, respectively. Share of the traders/butchers in the
consumers rupee during the festive sale on Eid, Holi, Dushhara etc was much higher up
to 20-25 percent of the value of goat paid by the consumer. The butchers also earned
much higher net margins in the trade of diseased goats, these animals were purchased at
through away prices and their meat was sold on the same price as that of healthy animal
@ Rs. 120 140 per kg.
4.8.1

Trading of goat skins


In view of decentralized availability of skins in the country, the network for
collection is large and widespread. The tanners have established their own collection
agents in the major centers. There were 3 such agents in Agra. These collection agents
were also working as skin merchants. Agents purchased skins from the skin markets,
where the butchers sold raw skins. The agent received a commission of Rs. 3 to 5 per
skin from the tanner. The merchant did the salting of raw skins and it was repeated on
the 6th day in summer and 10th the day in winters. The skin merchant/agent continued to
collect skins till he completed 800-1000 pieces.
The prices of skins were determined according to size, age, breed, origin, quality
and most importantly the defects. As per the information of the skin merchants, 20-30
percent skins are rejected on account of defects due to external parasites, diseases, cuts
while grazing and improper de-skinning. The demand for skins of small kids was very
low. The price of skin of an adult goat ranged from Rs. 85 to Rs. 140 depending on the
size and quality. Besides the commission agents, the skin merchants were also engaged
in skin trading and collected goatskins from daily/weekly skin market. The merchants
either sold the raw skins directly to the tanner or they got it processed through the
tanner to the wet-blue skin on payment basis. These wet-blue skins then were sold to
the industry or exporters.
The small players (skin merchants) were vulnerable to high rejection of the skins
by the tanner and delayed payments by the tanners and exporters. The reason for high
rejection of skins is that the goat keepers give no emphasis/care for producing quality
skins. In fact the farmers neither take any care for protection of skin of their goats nor
they have any awareness of its importance.
Salt is used as the primary curing material for skins. It is washed out in the
tanning process and resulting in water and soil pollution. Green processing of skins
closed to the production centers would reduce the pollution load considerably. The goat
based leather and leather products are subject to trends in the world fashion. There is
need to present and promote goat based leather products in high profile market
segment. India should take an initiative of building an unique image for goat based
leather fashion.
4.8.2 Market for intestine
The intestine of slaughtered goats was hardly in demand in the small towns and
villages. However in the large cities such as Agra and Jaipur, an intestine of goat was
sold for Rs. 10 for edible purpose. On small scale, a few persons were also engaged in
value addition of intestine through its primary processing and supplied it to the surgical
manufacturers for making threads for surgical stitching. An intestine was purchased @
Rs. 3- 5 per piece from the slaughterhouse. After primary processing, one piece was sold
@ Rs. 25 30 to the wholesaler, who in turn supplies the material to the industry. One

person was able to do primary processing of 30 such intestines per day. It seemed to be
a good opportunity of value addition. However, this activity needs to be organized.
Moreover the intestine could be processed to ready to eat products such as sauces.

5.

EXPORT OF GOATS AND ITS PRODUCTS

Meat is the most important marketable goat product and another important
marketable product is skin. The total meat production in the country has been estimated
to be 6.03 million tones in the year 2005-06. The contribution of goats to the total meat
production is 0.509 million tone and that of sheep is 0.239 million tone accounting for
8.44 and 3.96 percent of the total meat production, respectively. Hence, goat and sheep
together produce 12.4 percent of the total meat production. Goat and sheep meat is
acceptable to the people of all castes, creed and religions. It is one of the choicest meat
and has a huge domestic demand. Rising per capita income, growing urbanization and
unfolding globalization are further boosting the demand for high value commodities
including meat (Birthal and Joshi, 2006). As a result the market price of goat and sheep
meat over the period of last one decade has increased almost three fold from Rs. 50
60 per kg to Rs. 120 150 per kg.
5.1

Export of goat and sheep meat


The export destinations for goat/sheep meat are UAE, Oman, Bahrain, USA,
South Africa and Malaysia. The other export destinations are Germany, Bangladesh, The
Netherlands and Sri Lanka. In the Middle East, the Arab population mostly prefers sheep
meat. The major demand for Indian goats and its meat come from the ethnic South
Asian population. Though the domestic price of goat and sheep meat is quite attractive
on account of its huge demand, but it has a very good potential for exports. We have
number of strengths to our advantage as goat and sheep meat exporter.
Goat and sheep meat produced and exported from India is lean in character and
good for fat and energy conscious people. Contrary to this, the lambs produced in
Australia and New Zealand, which are the major competitor, contains high carcass
fat. This is the reason that in future, demand for goat/sheep meat from India shall
continue to increase. The basic reason for the lean character of meat produced from
goat/sheep is mainly the extensive system of rearing the animals unlike Newzeland
and Australia where the animals are primarily reared adopting the intensive system of
management.
Moreover, the basic regulatory requirements for meat imports by countries of the
Middle East are the Halal slaughter and the fitness for human consumption
certificate. These importing countries have established a system to get guarantee that
the meat produced by any Indian exporter is Halal slaughtered meat.
Since our animals graze/browse in the pastures/range-lands hence the meat
produced is relatively safer from any feed additive residue point of view and is nearer
to organic system of meat production. Because of the closer proximity to the Gulf
countries, the meat from India reaches to the destinations in a relatively fresh
condition at a cheaper cost.
Presence of large number of ethnic Indians through out the world particularly in the
Middle East countries provides a niche for the export of meat and meat products
especially from goat and sheep. India can enjoy the benefit its richness in spices and
condiments, which adds to flavour and taste to ethnic consumers.

Expected huge global increase in demand for meat especially from East and
Southeast Asia (IFPRI, 1999) would be an excellent opportunity for enhancing export
of meat from India. Whereas the domestic demand for meat is expected to increase at
a slower pace.

The necessary conditions for exporting meat as set by different government orders
and rules are as follows:
1. Standards have been laid down for export of meat and meat products under Export
(Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963. The export of Raw Meat (chilled and
frozen) shall be allowed subject to the provision specified to the gazette
notification on Raw Meat (chilled and frozen) under Export (Quality Control and
Inspection) Act, 1963 in January, 1993. The notification lays down the Standards
for abattoirs, meat processing plants and the products. Offal too is subject to the
same conditions of quality control and inspection.
2. All consignments of raw meat (Chilled and Frozen) and export of canned meat
products need to accompany with a pre-shipment inspection Certificate for which
the government has designated three agencies (i) All State Directorate of Animal
Husbandry (ii) Export Inspection Agency (iii) Directorate of Marketing and
Inspection, Government of India to carry out the inspection in accordance with
either the standards prevalent in the exporting country or standards prescribed
under the Meat Food Products Order, 1973 (MFPO) under Export (Quality Control
and Inspection) Act, 1963 or orders made there under.
3. Export of meat and meat products will be allowed subject to the exporter
furnishing a certificate to the customs at the time of export that the above items
have been obtained/sourced from an abattoir/ meat processing plant registered
with APEDA.
The share of goat and sheep in the total meat production at present is 12.4 percent
however its share in total meat exports excluding poultry is only 1.54 percent in
physical terms and 3.06 percent in value terms. There are number of factors related to
quality of production, domestic price environment, investment and infrastructure and
required policy support responsible for poor export of goat and sheep meat. The details
of export of goat and sheep meat in the last couple of years have been given below in
Table 5.1.
Table 5.1: Export of goat and sheep meat from India
Year
Quantity,
in mts
2002-03
16820
2003-04
9024.49
2004-05
7177.51

Value,
Rs. Crore
110.39
81.27
80.37

% Share to total meat


export
4.65
2.59
1.54

The exporters of goat and sheep meat in India, who are small players, yet in the
meat export market, are also hit hard by non-tariff and other barriers put not only by
importers but also by the other major meat exporters of the country. Suddenly since
August 2006 the government of India has banned the export of bone-in meat of goat and
sheep citing the reason that this meat poses a potential risk of Foot and Mouth Diseases
(FMD) spread in the importing countries. It seems to be a play of trade politics that has
resulted in to ban on export of bone-in meat of goat and sheep on the pretext that bonein meat may be a source of spread of FMD. However the scientific studies have not

confirmed this hypothesis. At the same time the export of live goats and sheep is
allowed from the ports in Gujrat, Whose trade comes under OGL (open general license)
scheme of the government. But the live animals may be more potent source of FMD
spread if they are infected.
5.2

Demand scenario
IFPRIs International Model of Policy Analysis of Commodities and Trade
(IMPACT), 1999 projected that meat demand in developing countries will double
between 1995 and 2020 to 190 million tones and would increase by 25 per cent in
developed countries to 122 million tones. The highest increase in demand for meat is
projected to be in East and Southeast Asia. China alone is forecasted to account for two
fifths of the global increase in demand for meat. On the other hand Indias share in the
global increase in demand for meat is expected to be only one tenth that of China.
Therefore, the future for Indian meat export looks very bright. The rate of increase in
domestic demand for meat in India is relatively low because of social-religious
inhibitions and higher preference for vegetarian diet. Expected global increase in
demand for meat would, therefore, be an excellent opportunity for enhancing export of
meat from India.
5.3

Export of live goats and sheep


The major importers of live goats from India are Arab countries like, UAE,
Oman, Bahrain etc., where the demand of live goats reach to its peak during the Eid
festival (Eid ul juha). Not only the ethnic Indians but also the local Arab Muslims prefer
Indian goats for offerings on Eid festival. On Eid, people use Indian goat/sheep for
home/self consumption after offering ceremony. Sheep from Australia and New Zealand
are purchased at low price and used for community feast. The Indian goats are preferred
because they are considered to have been reared on natural grazing without any feeding
of steroids, hormones, feed additives and animal by-products and have lean meat.

5.3.1

Type of animals demanded by importers


The major demand of live goat and sheep is for the animals of 12 to 18 months
age. The animals should weigh between 25 to 45 kg. One such animal at present
fetches a price of Rs 5000 to Rs. 7000 in the export market in Middle East. There is
another segment of the market, however small, the ethnic population from SAARC
countries living in the Middle East, prefer spring lambs/kids of 5-6 months age.
The exporters of live goats were mainly sourcing the animals from big livestock
markets such as, Kalpi (kanpur) and Jaswantnagar in U.P. and Ajmer and Jaipur in
Rajasthan, Delhi and Mumbai, besides direct purchase from villages through commission
agents. Among the selected traders in both the states, 20 percent of them were also
supplying goats to the exporters. The animals from Rajasthan, Delhi and other
northwestern states were exported through Kandla port in Gujrat to Arab countries. The
animals exported from Uttar Pradesh were going through both the Kandla port as well as
Kolkata. To satisfy the preferences of importers, the first criterion of selection of goats by
the exporters was body weight of the animals followed by breed (Uniform look and body
size), age, colour and height (Table-).
Table 5.2: Preferences of exporters of live goats
Criteria
Body weight
Breed- Uniform look and body size

Preference (rank)
I
II

Age
Colour
Height

III
IV
V

5.3.2

System of export of live goat and sheep


The export shipments of live goat and sheep to Middle East countries were
mainly sent from Tuna, Kandla Sea Port in Gujrat. The live goat and sheep were mainly
collected from Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujrat and Maharashtra. It
takes animals 1 to 2 days to reach to the Kandla port. From Kandla port the ship takes 57 days to reach to Dubai. The number of live goats and sheep exported from the country
during 1995 to 2005 has been given in Table 5.3. There was a ban on export of live
goats and sheep due to objections from the importing countries due to reports of
prevalence of certain diseases and other trade issues. The export of live goats has
reached to 2.36 Lakhs per annum in 2005.
Table 5.3: Export of live goat and sheep from India (in 000)
Year
Goat
1995
5.74
1996
3.26
1997
0.00
1998
0.00
1999
0.00
2000
0.00
2001
0.00
2002
1.31
2003
302.59
2004
243.34
2005
236.56
Source: FAO (2006)

5.4

Sheep
0.00
0.63
0.00
20.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
5.91
4.12
1.75

Competitors in the international market


Our major competitors in the international trade of live goat and sheep and their
meat are Australia and New Zealand. They are able to supply meat and live animals at
cheaper price as compared to us mainly due to their low cost of shipping, healthy
condition of animals during transportation and high productivity. Even in the face of low
prices by our competitors, we are able capture a part of the Middle East market. It is
because the Indian goats are preferred because they are considered to have been reared
on natural grazing without any feeding of steroids, hormones, feed additives and animal
by-products and have lean meat. Moreover ethnic south Asian population has particular
preference for meat of our goats. But to remain competitive in meat export market, we
need to improve our shipping of live animals and meat, and create modern
infrastructure for meat processing.
Further the emerging exporters of live goat and sheep namely Ethiopia and
Somalia are ready to supply live animals at half the price of Indian goat and sheep. Since
the raising and feeding conditions of their animals are almost similar to ours, they may
be a major threat to our exports of live animals. In future the cheaper import of live goat
and sheep from Ethiopia and Somalia might also have the consequences for domestic
price and production. However it will depend on the amount of surplus available with
them for export.
There is possibility of cheaper imports of sheep and goat meat also from
Australia and New Zealand. However the meat from these countries may not find much

favour with the Indian consumers. As it has different type of smell because of feed
additives, hormones, animal by-products etc. fed to the animals and it has high fat
content. Moreover the typical choice of hot meat purchased by the Indian meat eaters
shall play a decisive role in protecting Indian meat industry from frozen meat imports.
5.5

Constraints and issues in export of live goats and sheep and their meat
1. We are shipping our live goat and sheep in Country Crafts to Dubai. The
capacity of country craft is only 400-500 goats/sheep. The country craft does not
have sufficient and proper space for movement and sitting of animals. Proper
feed is not given to the animals during the journey, only dry straw is provided.
The exporter is not allowed to send his person for taking care of animals during
the journey.
2. Such stressing conditions results in to heavy mortality of animals during
transportation from India to export destinations.
3. Standards for shipping live animals are neither defined nor implemented.
4. On reaching Dubai after 5-7 days in such shipping conditions, the goats become
weak and look dull and sluggish. Consequently the market price of such animals
also gets decreased. Hence the exporter loose on account of mortality of animals
and realization of price less than it potential.
5. The cost of insurance is very high.
6. The importers place order mostly for supply of large number of animals (e.g.
4000 to 10000) of uniform weight and look (breed). But goats in India are reared
in small numbers by millions of small goat keepers. Moreover in absence of any
breeding policy and non-availability of pure breed males in the villages, all most
all the breeds of goats are getting diluted. Hence it becomes very difficult for the
exporters to arrange large number of goats of uniform weight and look as per the
demand of importers.
7. The Tuna Port (Kandla) meant for loading animals for export does not have
proper facilities such as water, feed, sheds and health care for animals and
electricity.
8. There is no mechanism in place for market intelligence. No accessibility to
market information on demands, prices, quality specifications and consumer
preferences in the international market.
9. During the chilling process, the goat meat gets blackish (dark red) and gives poor
appearance. This results in low acceptance by the consumers. However such
problem does not occur in case of sheep.
10. Availability of modern slaughterhouses for goat and sheep is a pre-condition for
boosting export of their meat. In the recent past few modern slaughterhouses
both in private and public sector have come up where the animals are
slaughtered to produce clean and wholesome meat. However the number of
modern slaughter-house are not sufficient to produce quality meat for domestic
and export market. All the big players have created modern slaughtering
capacities for large animals but very little capacity is available for small
ruminants. Lack of availability of assured supply of large number of healthy goat
and sheep for slaughter and export is also constraining the entry of big players in
small ruminant meat production and export.
11. It is very difficult to get permission for establishment of modern slaughterhouse.
Many agencies are involved in giving the clearance. Vested interests and

pressure groups exploit the sentiments of people and demand illegal payments
from the investor.
12. We are not making cuts of goat and sheep meat, Australians and Chinese are
making 6-way cut for export to European markets and to meet the demands of
five-star hotels even in India.
13. An important consideration would be to meet the sanitary and phyto-sanitary
standards strictly. It is mandatory under the provisions of WTO for meat
exporters to adopt Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and
certified as ISO 9002. Until recently only few Indian Companies had adopted
HACCP. More number of modern slaughterhouses including municipal
slaughterhouses adopting Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) need to be
established.
14. Monitoring of toxic residue especially pesticides, heavy metals, antibiotics in
meat is another important consideration from the viewpoint of export. Though
the meat of animals especially goat/sheep, who are mostly dependent on natural
pastures, has very low probability of having toxic-residues, monitoring of these
elements would be desirable for the satisfaction of importing countries.
5.6
Suggestions for improvement in export performance of live goat and sheep and
their meat
1. Laid down standards for shipping and transportation of goat and sheep. These
standards should be effectively implemented.
2. There should be specialized ships for carrying animals with proper facilities for
feeding, sitting and moving like Australia and New Zealand have.
3. Due to temperature variation in the sea, the animals are prone to get cold. There
should be proper rest and feeding to the animals during inland transportation. Feed
some antibiotic and analgesic within prescribed limit before loading the animals into
the ship.
4. The facilities such as water, feed, sheds and health care for animals and electricity
should be available on the loading ports.
5. The government should take the responsibility of market intelligence on priority
basis. Collecting and analysing data on demands of importers, price, and consumer
preferences etc. These services should highly time bound. There should be a help
desk at APEDA. So that exporters can have timely access to information related to
international market.
6. There is need to create linkages among the goat farmers and processors and
exporters. The farmers should be sensitized to produce/ prepare animals as per the
market demand. Production of healthy pure breed goats will not only required for
boosting the exports but also for realizing better prices in the domestic market.
7. Economics demands that instead of exporting live goats and sheep, in future we
need to focus on promoting the export of their meat and meat products. For
enhancing export of meat, the first condition would be to establish number of
modern slaughterhouses (low cost).
8. Hindrances in getting permission for establishment of modern slaughterhouse
should be minimized. There should be a single window clearance mechanism for
such proposals.
9. The problem of goat carcass getting blackish on its chilling may be overcome by
vaccume packaging.
10. There is need to conduct consumer preference studies in the importing countries.
11. Different meat cuts, ready to cook meat products with seasoning and products with
mixing of different dry fruits could create a niche in export market.

12. Through increasing meat production by increasing slaughter rate, improving


slaughter weight, and carcass weight, reduction in mortality, effective check on the
slaughter of immature animals, minimizing tissue shrinkages which occurs due to
poor transit and marketing facilities. It was estimated that by these means from goat
alone the current meat production might be increased to more than double (Rekib
and Agnihotri, 1997).
13. Reducing species bias for meat consumption in the country through making
consumer oriented/value added products from less preferred meat (buffalo meat)
thereby making available larger surplus of goat/sheep meat for exports.
14. Effective and profitable utilization of spent Goat and Sheep meat for conversion into
economic and value added products which can satisfy the need of large number of
consumers thereby reducing the pressure on demands for fresh meat from young
animals can also enhance the exports.
15. The prospects of goat and sheep meat would be available only for value added meat
products and organic meat, particularly ready to cook meat with seasoning and
vaccume packaged frozen meat in different cuts.

6.

EXPLORING
POSSIBILITIES
FOR
STRENGTHENING
LINKAGES AMONG THE STAKEHOLDERS IN GOAT
FARMING

There was no information available on the presence and status of commercial


goat farms in the country. Employing different methods of collecting information such as
personal contact, published and Internet sources, Animal Husbandry Departments,
Farmers, NGOs, key informants and other agencies, a total of 157 Commercial goat
farms spread over 16 states were identified (Figure 6.1). The details of these commercial
goat farms are given in Table 6.1.
Tripura
Gujrat
Delhi
Uttaranchal
Orissa
Tamil Nadu

States

Andhra Pradesh
West Bengal
Jharkhand
Punjab
Chhattisgargh
Bihar
Rajasthan
M.P.
Maharashtra
Uttar Pradesh

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

No. of commercial goat farms

Figure 6.1: State-wise distribution of identified commercial goat farms


Table 6.1: Commercial goat farms in India
Sl.
No.
1.
2.

Name of farmer

Address

Sh. Mohd. Safi Siddiqui

169 Taju Khel, Near Phatak Wali


Masjid, Shahajahanpur, 242001
(UP)
Village-Arail, Post-Rampur Revati
Distt.-Basti (UP)
Village & post-Mandawali
Tehshil-Nazeebabad, Bijnor, (UP)
Unique Natural Foods, MohallaPalwalia, Town-Gulawati,
Bullandshahar, (UP), 245 408
Village-Bishaina

3.

Sh. Narendra K. Dube


S/O Sh. R.P. Dube
Sh. Omwat Tyagi

4.

Mohd. Hilal

5.

Sh. Sukhvir Singh

Phone

01341-253023
09412386631
09837737875
09213436927

No. of
Goats
86

Breeds of goat
Barbari & NonDescript

45

Non Descript

50

Barbari & Non


Descript
Barbari & Non
Descript

90
50

Non Descript

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

S/O Sh. Khushi Ram


Sh. Rakesh Kumar
Sh. Vijay Pratap Singh
S/o Randhir Singh
Sh. Gulla Singh
Sh. Banvari Lal
S/O Sh. Ghure Singh
Sh. Rashid Ahmed
Sh. Nagesh Kumar
Singh
Sh. Dharamvir Singh

13.

Sh. Tahir Husain


S/o Md. Usuf

14.
15.

Sh. Bhuri Singh


S/O Sh. Mangan Singh
Sh. Mukesh

16.

Sh. Sanjay Sharma

17.

Sh. Ratan Singh

18.

Sh. Mukesh Kumar

19.

Sh. Mohd. Javed

20.

Sh. Baqar Hadi

21.

Sh. M.H. Khan

22.

Sh. Amir Ahmed,

23.

Sh. Riaz Ahmed Ali,

24.

Mr. Vinay Chauhan

25.

Mr. Suheb Asruf

26.
27.

Sh. Girandra Singh


Chauhan
Sh. Yogesh Kumar

28.

Mr. I.A. Khan

29.

Tehshil & District-Mathura, (UP)


Village-Gadiya Sultanpur
PO-Kesar Kala, Bulandshar, (UP)
Vill-Galibpur, Po-Maunath,
Bhanjan, Mau, (UP)
Village-Nagla Bhan, Mathura,
(UP)
VPO-Mour, Tahshil-Khair, Aligarh202137 (UP)
128/6 outside Sinyer Gate
Jhansi, (UP)
S/o Sh. Vishwanath Singh,
Leeyurer Nagar, Balia, (UP)
Village-Jalalpur (Karira)
PO-Shikarpur, Bulandshahar (UP)
Bahadurganj, PO-Sultanpur
Tehshil-Thakurdwara
Muradabad, (UP)
Vill.-Inayatpur,Via-Shamsabad
Agra
Goat Farm
VPO-Kirawali, Agra
153 Jhacon Bagh, Jhansi, (UP)

Barbari & ND

40

Non Descript

190

Sirohi & Non


Descript
Non Descript

52
09935324274,
09935445400
0517-247312
09415377575

120

Barbari & Non


Descript

45

Non Descript

55

Non Descript

90

Barbari & Non


Descript

78

Barbari

150
60

Barbari & Non


Descript
Non Descript

45

Non Descript

28

Non Descript

9837469348

45

Non Descript

0522-2234286,
09415010058

42

Non Descript

50

38

Barbari & Non


Descript
Barbari & Non
Descript
Non Descript

0517-247312,
09935445400
09935324274

Village-Garhiya Sultanpur
Post-Kaser Kalan
Bulandshahar, (UP)
Vill-Badanpur
Post-Lotai, Mathura, (UP)
National Goat Farm
Village-Akbara, Atrauni,
Sikandara, Agra
605 F.I. Rower
Behind Burlington Hotel
37 Cant Road, Lucknow
Chiks-144 Poultri Farms
Village-Rasvatpur, Post-Gunnaur
Badaun, (UP)
Fateh Nager Road, P.O. Sherkot,
Bijnor (UP)
I Bouli Kakari, Lucknow (UP)

100

120

Vill Champatpur, PO Reoti Bahora


Khera, Bareilly (UP)
Gheta Jiyaun, Nabi Bazar,
Nasulla Khan Rampur (UP)
71, Chaman Vihar Khurja, (UP)

64

Non Descript

150

Barbari, Sirohi

VPO. Shahgarh, Aligarh (UP)

100
70

Dr. H.R. Khanna

Vill. Nagla Bhikam P.O. Malagani


Etawah (UP)
Civil lines, Barabanki (UP)

160

30.

Sh. Raja Mahmud

Samda Farm, Barabanki (UP)

100

31.

Sh. Aaga Babbar &


Sh. Sagir Hassan

Kesher Bagh, Kanpur (UP)

50

Barbari & Non


Descript
Barbari & Non
Descript
Barbari & Non
Descript
Barbari & Non
Descript
Barbari & ND

32.
33.

Sh. Fakruddin
Sh. Chand Khan

Tilak Nagar, Kanpur (UP)


Kasimpur, Kanpur (UP)

250
200

Barbari & ND
Non Descript

34.
35.

Sh. Asaf Khan


Sh. Zaheer Haider

200
-

Non Descript
-

36.

Sh. Kamlesh Kumar


Tripathee

25 SHGs

Non Descript

37.

Sh. R.P. Mishra

1450
SHGs

Non Descript

38.

Mr. Charan Singh S/O


Sh. Member Singh
Mr. Sanjeev Tyagi
S/O Mr. V. Prakash
Tyagi
Mr. Musheer Ahmed

Muradnagar, Ghaziabad (UP)


Professor, Dptt. of Mechanical
Engineering, Aligarh Muslim
University, Aligarh-202002
Nagesh Sarv Seva Sansthan
Village-Atthaisa P.O. Mustafabad,
Bahraich (UP), 271904
Baif Project Office,
Raniganj, Pratapgarh- 230304
(UP)
Narhauli Ghat, P.O. Dualatpur
Mathura (UP)
H.No. 500, Shrinagar Bank
colony, Hapur, Gaziabad (UP)

39

Barbari

74

Barbari

Nagesh sarv sewa sansthan


Village- Atthaisa, PO-Mustafabad
Bahraich (UP)
SH 1/49, A 24 Jay Nagar
Gilat Bazar, Varanasi 2 (UP)
Muhalla-Purhawa Husainganj,
Bhoudaha , PO. Ragoul 210507,
Hamirpur (UP)
Village Sonai (Thok- Bridavani)
Mathura (UP)
Opp: Central Jail, Basant Vihar
Colony, Road No. 1 Bareilly, (UP)
Vill- Behait Farm, PO-Bengali
colony, Teh.- Bilaspur, Rampur,
(UP)
Phari Gate, Rampur (UP)

25-30
SHGs

Non Descript

45

Barbari

62

Non Descript

150

Barbari & Non


Descript
Barbari

39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.

Mr. Krishna Govind


Singh
Mr. Naushad Ahmed
S/O Sh. Abad Ahmed
Mr. Munna shekh S/O
Sh. Abdul Rehman
M.R. Goat Production
Institute
Mr. Karminder Pal
Singh Sindhu S/O
Sh. K.S. Sindhu
Mr. Shahabullahkhan
S/o Sh. Shajatullah
Khan
Mr. Jagdish Singh

48.

Mr. Atul Loyalka


Madhu Farms,
madhufarms@rediffmail
.com
www.madhufarms.org

49.

Sh. Deepak Sareen,

50.

Sh. Bhupender Singh


S/o Sh. Mohan Singh

51.

Sh. Ram Avatar

52.

Sh. Akhilesh Kumar


Gupta

53.

Executive, Bodh Siksha


Samiti
Sh. Ram Swaroop, S/o
Sh. Rawat Ram
Sh. Omprakash Godara

54.
55.

Uma Adarsh Goat Farm,


Salempur, Farah- 281122,
Mathura, U.P.
Village- Balehkan, Tehsil- Choumu,
NH- 11 (Near Patrol Pump), JaipurRaj.
Head Office: AC- 2, Sawai Jai
Singh Highway, Banipark, Jaipur302016,
171, Frontier Colony,
Adarsh Nagar, Jaipur (Raj.)
Vill.-21H, Post-Gurusa(2W)
Via-Kesharinghpur, Sri
Ganganagar, (Raj), 335027
Vill. Liyali Khera, PO- Liyali
Khera, Ajmer (Raj.)
Lupin Human Welfare
& Research Foundation Society,
Bharatpur (Raj.)
Bodh, Village-Gad Basai
Thanagazi, Alwar, (Raj)
Vill. Parlika, Hanumangarh (Raj.)
Vill.-Baruwali, Teh Nohar,
Hanumangarh (Raj.)

50

Phone:
09414066933
Fax: 01412208776

70

Barbari & Non


Descript

50

Non Descript

95 + 40

Barbari

800

Sirohi, Boer cross,


Jhakhrana

75

Sirohi

80

Sirohi

130

Sirohi

150
(SHGs)

Sirohi & Non


Descript

25 SHGs

Non Descript

100

Sirohi

127

Sirohi

56.
57.
58.
59.

Sh. Uttam Singh


S/O Sh. Giriraj Singh
Sh. Mula Ram S/o Sh.
Rajaram Saharan
Sh. Shiv Prakash

60.

Mr. Radhe shyam S/O


Sh. Prabhu lal Behrod
Sh. Chakravir Singh

61.

Sh. N. V. Chowdary,

62.

Sh. Somanaboina
Sudhakar Yadav

63.

N.V.C. Group Farms

64.
65.

Sh. Harinder Singh S/o


Sh. Laxman Singh
Sh. A.S. Chopra,

66.

Sh. Gurbux Singh

67.

SR. Simiran Jeet Singh


Maan
SR. Iqbal Singh

68.
69.
70.

Sh. Surendra Skingh


Lathar
Sh. Saleem Parvez,

71.

Sh. Utkarsh Bajaj Yadav

72.

Mohd. Faisal khan


Quareshi

73.

Mohd. Nisar Qureshi

74.

Sh. Ashok Dutt Sharma

75.

Sh. Hemant Patidar

76.
77.

Sh. Lusgheshwar
Shingh
Sh. Deepak Patidar

78.

Sh. Braj Singh

79.

Sh. Peer Sahab,

80.

Sh. Surendra Singh


Yadav
Sh. Hajik Beg

81.

Village-Tyonga
Bharatpur-321001, (Raj.)
Vill. Parlika, Hanumangarh (Raj.)
Village Kagriya , P.O. Simaliya
Tehsil-Digod, Kota (Raj.)
Vill.- Kagariya, P.O.- Simaliya,
Teh. Degod, Kota (Raj.)
83 A, Laxman Nagar Colony
Shyam Nagar, Jaipur (Raj)
Kakatiyanagar, Hydrabad (AP)

05640-238457

55

Non Descript

60

Sirohi & Non


Descript
Non Descript

25
40

President, Nalgonda Dist. Sheep


Breeder Cooperative Union Ltd.
Nalagonda (AP)
Maharnagar (V.) Pochampally,
P.O. Nalgonda, Hyderabad (AP)
Fatehgarh saheb (Punjab)

100

Sirohi & Non


Descript
Sirohi & Non
Descript
Jamunapari & Non
Descript
Non Descript

90

Non Descript

200

Vill.- Basali, Norpur bed, Distt


Ropar, (Punjab)
V. & P.O. Burj Moha. Firozpur
(Punjab)
Village- Talania Tehsil- Bassi
Pathana, Fatehgarh Sahib (Pb)
Vill.- Lalheri P.O.- Harion Kalan
Tehsil- Khanna, Ludhiana (Pb)
Near Dayal Singh College, Karnal
(Haryana)
M.P. Goat & Sheep Breeding
Farm, 73, TAJUL Masjid Road, In
front of Motiya Talab LBS hospital,
Shahjahan Marg, Bhopal (MP) 462
001
Book Stall, Katra BaZar, Sagar
(MP)
Makan No. 30, Band mastder
Chouraha, Buchwara, Bhopal
(MP)
Model Goat Breeding Farm
Jagjeevan Gram, Post-Simrol,
Tehsil Mhow, Indore (MP)
7 Nakoda Nagar
Khandwa (MP) - 450001
National Agro Farms &Animal
Production Grams & P.O. Kuwan
Tehsil - Thikri District-Barwani
(MP)
Dale Chhatra Road
Katani Distt. Balaghat (MP)
Ekta Agronomic & Livestock
Vill. Sundrel , Tahshil
Dharampuri, Dhar (MP) - 454554
51 Zone, I.M.P. Nagar, Bhopal
(MP)
Ram Sen Road, Hazur
Bhopal (MP)
Vill & P.O. Kishanpur
Distt. Murena (MP)
35 smvad Nagar Ajad Nagar ke
Pas Nawalkha Indore -452001.

32

Beetal/ Non
Descript
Non Descript

09314642743

250
150

200
104
120
52
09827243406
09826288650

0731-2712978

07284-233360
09425460330

07291-262236
09425046943

Beetal, Non
Descript
Beetal
Barbari & Non
Descript
Barbari

150

Barbari, Non
Descript

150

Non Descript

60

Non Descript

200

Non Descript

180

Barbari, Non
Descript
Jamunapari, Non
Descript, Boer

75

135

Non Descript

85

Barbari, Boer cross,


Osmanabadi

100

Non Descript

150

Non Descript

250

Jamunapari type,
Jamunapari
Non Descript

172

82.

Sh. Hajee Abdul Jabbar

83.

Sh. Parvez Ansari

84.
85.

Mr. Mohan singh


Thakur
Mohd. Anwar Siddiki

86.

Mirja Hazik Beg

87.
88.

Sh. Usman Ali


S/O Sh. Mamu Shah
Mr. Nahim Khan

89.

Mr. Bhanu Pratap Singh

90.

Mr. Hari Ram Prajapati

91.

Kailash Chandra
Panchal

92.

Sh. Sarfraj Saikh

93.

Sh. Ramji Lal Jatav

94.

Sh. Munna Singh

95.

Sh. Chandra Pal Singh


Sengar
Hazi Abdul Jabbar
Sh. Abdul Afeez

96.
97.
98.

Shiwaji Livestock Estate


Farm

99.

Dr. Arjun Aswar,

100.

Farm manager

101.

Sh. Shibi Vasishtha


Kulkarni

102.

Sh. Vijayrana

103.

Sh. Tuka Ram Gulab


Rao Rupanvar

104.

Sh. B.V. Nimbkar

Royal Steel industries 37, Bistan


Road, Khargone (MP)
85-86 Scheme No. 102
Behind Malik Nursing Home,
Manik Bagh Road Indore-452 014
(MP)
159 A, Kalani Nagar
Aerodrum Road, Indore (MP)
House No. 105
Andher dev. Jabalpur
35 Samvad Nagar Near Azad
nagar
Navlakkha Indore 452001, MP
Nagda Junction,
Distt-Ujjain , Madhya Pradesh
Village- Ningari
Near Bargee Distt.- Jabalpur (MP)
Care Goat Breeding Farm
Bhojpur Road Mendua, Distt:
Raisen, (M P)
Postal Add: E/6, J-107, Arera
Colony Bhopal-16.
Vaharkot Muhalla, Thoga Road
Teekamgarh, M.P.
House No. 49, Kota Phatak
Prakash Nagar, Near Over bridge
Nagda Junction, Distt. Ujjain (MP)
5 Shimla Colony
Station Road, Dewas, Madhya
Pradesh
Village-Sukhpura
Tehsil-Jaura, Distt-Murena (MP)
Village-Pariksha
Distt-Murena ,Madhya Pradesh
Vill-Shatpura, Post-Sabalgarh
Distt-Murena, Madhya Pradesh
37 Bistan Road, Khargone, (MP)
Capital Fishery Estate, Max Minar
Company, Near Laxmi Cinema,
Bhopal-462001 (MP)
Amarawati Road
Nagpur (MS)
Marathwada Goat farm,
Gut No. 78, Nakshtrawadi,
MIDC Road Aurangabad (MS)
Mendhi vaishali Vikash
Madhammandal Ltd. (MS)
Ajaputra Live Stocks and Farms
172/8, Siddhivinayak Colony
Amalner, MS India 425401
Vijayrana Goat Farm C/o
Shivratna Construction Co.
A/P. Shankarnagar (AKLUJ)
Tehsil. Malshiras
Solapur, 413 018, (MS)
Adarsh Sheli Prakalp
Village-Redni,(Kale Vasti)
Taluk-Indapur, Pune (MS)
Nimbkar Agricultural Research

Ph. 241510

60

Non Descript

098930-30993

48

ND/Barbari

32

Non Descript

98

Non Descript

112

Barbari, Non
Descript

50

Non Descript

300

Non Descript,
Bengal
Non Descript,
Barbari

09827043941,
0755 -24276588

75

50

Non Descript

09827014113

90

Barbari, Jamunap.,
Non Descript

09425396752,
07272-309565

45

Barbari & Non


Descript

35

Non Descript

50

Jamunapari type
Non Descript
Barbari, Non
Descript
Non Descript
Non Descript

07536-265305

50

09827275460

55
60
500
160

drshibi@rediffma
il.com
091-2587223266
02185 - 222600

Barbari,
Jamunapari
Osmanabadi
Osmanabadi

300

Supports goat &


sheep development
Osmanabadi, Boer,
Jamunapari, sanen,
sirohi triple cross

70

Osmanabadi

50

Osmanabadi

250

Boer cross & pure

105.

Sh. Sudhir Jagtap

106.

Sh. Ashok Jagdhani

107.

109.

Sh. Dhan Raj Shivaji


Rao Jakhtan
Sh. Narayan Rao
Deshpandey
The Secretary

110.

Sh. Amir Muquadam

111.

Mr. Nitin Menon


Director

112.

Sh. Vasant Rao Munde

113.

Sh. Manoj P. Bhende

114.

Br. Alex Gonsalves,


Director

115.

Dr. V.R. Munde

116.

Sh. Shivaji Pawar

117.

Sh. Shahaji Shendge

118.

Sh. Shivaji Shendge

119.

Sh. Dharam Kosti

120.

Sh. Munwar Attar Beg

121.
122.

Sh. Rajan Baliram


Pednekar
Sh. Balasaheb Patil

123.

Sh. Gajendra Hake

124.

126.

Sh. Maruthi Nivruli


Kakde
Mr. Rakesh Kumar
Sharma
Sh. Ashutosh Bhardwaj

127.

Mr. B.P. Sinha,

128.

Sh. Zakir Hussain

129.

Sh. Jaiprakash Arya

108.

125.

Institute (NARI), P.O. Box-23,


Phaltan-415523 (MS)
Director, Pragati Complex, Gadge
Nagara, Amaravati-444603, (MS)
Goat Farm, MIDC, Shrirampur
District- Ahmed Nagar, (MS)
Goat Farm,Village Dhakade
Baramati, (MS)
Van Seti & Stallfed Goat Farming
Attpadi, Sangli, (MS)
Rural Agricultural Institute
Narayangaon, Narayangaon-410
501, Pune (MS)
272, Blasses Road, Jama Masjid
Building, II Maal, Room No-23,
Mumbai-8
Mani Agriculture & Research Co.
Pvt. Ltd.,A/P. TOAP, Near
Balbharati, Taluk-Hatkanangle,
District-Kolhapur, (MS)
Oshmanabadi Goat Farm
Village-Kanherwadi,Taluk-Parali
Dist-Beed, (MS)
Goat Farm, Village- Saoner
Taluq- Nand Gaon Khandeshwar
Distt.- Amravati (MS)
Or Near Hindustan Press,
Khaparde Garden, Amarawati
Basco Gramin Vikas Kendra
C/o St. Johns Church, Bhingar
Camp, Ahmednagar-414002
Osmanabadi Goat Farm, Bhavani
Chawk, Osmanabad (MS)
Malegaon, Tq. Barshi, Dist.
Solapur (MS)
R/o Nanjini, P.O.- Halduge, Tq.
Barshi, Solapur
R/o Kave Ta. Tq. Barshi, Dsit.
Solapur
R/o Mandrup, Tq. Barshi, Dsit.
Solapur
R/o Poat, Tq. Kullamb, Dist.
Osmanabad
Uttar, Tq. Ajra, Dist. Kolhapur
(MS)
R/o Hadongri, Tq. Bhoom Dist.
Osmanabad, (MS)
R/o Yeshwandi, Tq. Bhoom, Dist.
Osmanabad, (MS)
R/o Asthi, Dist. Beed (MS)
Vill & P.O. Salimpur
Bauhitiyarpur Distt. Patna (Bihar)
Vill & P.O. Railly Pandarak
Patna (Bihar)
Sinha Goat Farm, B-91 North
Finance Colony, Patna 14 (Bihar)
Vill. Khaza Pura
P.O. V. V.College, Patna-14
(Bihar)
Deri Agril Farm, Muzaffarpur

Boer
09422156121,
0721-2676745

75

Osmanabadi

80

Osmanabadi

45

Osmanabadi

60

Osmanabadi

250

Osmanabadi

50

Osmanabadi

1200

Osmanabadi,
Sirohi, Boer cross

09422565365
02472-228770

300

Osmanabadi,
Sirohi

09422157461

275

Osmanabadi

0241-2551924,
0241-5602966

350

Boer cross,
Jamunap.

02472-228770,
09422565365

100

Osmanabadi

100

Osmanabadi

100

Osmanabadi

100

Osmanabadi

100

Osmanabadi

50

Osmanabadi

100

Osmanabadi

100

Osmanabadi

100

Osmanabadi

100

Osmanabadi

150

80

Barbari, Bengal,
Non Descript
Bengal, Non
Descript
Barbari & Bengal

200

Barbari & Bengal

200

Barbari & Bengal

09423037094

09423455596

65

130.

Green Foundation
(NGO)

131.

Mr. Birendra Pratap


Singh

132.

Dr. Sidharth Chaterjee

133.

Mr. A.K.Das
Paillan group of
industries

134.

Sh. S.W.Mittra S/0 Sh.


Shyam lal Sinha
Sh. S.C. Mukerjee

135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.

Mr. Santanu Kumar


Basu
Sh. Rakesh Kumar
Sh. Mohd. Usman
Shekhani
Mr. Sant Pradhan
Mr. Yogesh kumar
Ravna
Mr. Ashok Kumar
Chaudhary

142.

M/s. Garib Nawaz Goat


Farm

143.

Mr. M. Idris Kuraisi S/O


Dr. M.H. Kuraisi
Mr. M.V.G. Appa Rao

144.
145.

K.Kandasamy
Managing Partner

146.

Dr. Rana Vikram Singh

147.

Sh. Mrigesh Kumar


Shashtri

148.

Mr. Kailash Yadav

149.

Jharkhand Bakari Palan

150.

Sh. Mukesh Pandey

(Bihar)
2/29, Madhuvan Housing
Doctors colony Road, Malahipakri
chowk, Kankar Bagh, Patna (Bihar)
Village- Rajapur Indol
PO. Nemdar ganj
Distt. Nawada (Bihar)
Animal Resource Development,
Agarsefa (Tripura))
Ascon agro products exporters
42 A, Shakespeare sarani
Express tower, 7th floor
Kolkota 17, W.B.
Sabrakone Farm House LTD. 1/B,
Old P.O. Street, Kolkata
Pramuk traders, G.T. Road opp
Rajgunj forest Office, P.O.
Rajgunj, 828113 (WB)
Sadhan Bhawan, Raikatpara, PO&
Jalpaiguri- 735101 (WB)
Vill. Sostitala, Post-Rampur Hat
Distt.-Birbhum, (WB)
C/o Radio Corner, P.O. Bhanu
Pratap pur, Dist. Kanker (C.G.)
Sant Goat Farm
Vill. Darri, P.O. Sarhar Baradwar
Janjgir (Chhattisgarh ) 495 687
New Civil Lines 5, Quarter No.
H 2/5, Distt. Durg (C.G.)
Chaudhary Bakari Palan Kendra,
Mahavir Mandir chouk, Beech
Basti, Baramkela Raigarh (C.G.)496551
Village- Bagbudawa
Via- Sakti Distt. Janjgir Chanpa
(C.G.)-495689
P.O. Sakti, Distt. Janjgir Chanpa
(C.G.)
Caprine Genetics
Riverpoint 9/2 Ransit Road
Kutturpuram, Chennai 600085
Selvi Feeds,
3/88.B.Muthukalipatty. (P.O)
Rasipuram- 637 408, Namakkal
(Dt),Tamil Nadu.
Selvifee@Sancharnet.In
Natural Medico Plant (Ltd.), IIIrd
Floor G.U.House 181 A, Sand
Nagar, East of Kailash, New Delhi65
C/o Taurusa Cyber Motif Pvt.Ltd.
A-15, West-End, New Delhi110021
Motileda, Kheron, Thana Baigabad
Distt. Giridih (Jharkhand)
Village- Ghaghara ThanaBaigabad
Distt. Giridih (Jharkhand)
MASSP, Murar Bhawan, Sheetal
Mallick Road, Bilasi Town,

033- 22836918,
19, 20

300

80

Bengal & Non


Descript

150

Bengal

80

Barbari, Black
Bengal

130

Bengal & Non


Descript
Bengal & Non
Descript

85
55
70
09425593375,
07850-252265

50
28

Ganjam & Non


Descript

50
32

B. Bengal,
Jamunapari
Non Descript

50

Non Descript

60

Bengal & Non


Descript
Jamunap., Sirohi,
Kannai Adu

300
094437 22407,
04287-231 590.
04287-231 707.
FAX:91-4287231 980.

011-24102031

Bengal & Non


Descript
Bengal & Non
Descript
Non Descript

Tallicheri, Boer
cross, Sirohi,
Cross- Rasi goat
60

Barbari

65

Barbari

23

Bengal & Non


Descript

32

Bengal & Non


Descript

45

Bengal & Non


Descript

151.

Sh. Vipin Mishra

152.

Mr. Shiv Kumar

153.

Mr. Virendra Naik

154.

Mr. Basant Ballabh


Pandey

155.

Sh. Naveen Kumar


Singh

156.

Mr. Mukesh Verma

157.

Mr. Ankush Khosla

B.Deoghar, Jharkhand
Chitabhumi, Bilasi Town,
B. Deoghar-814117, Jharkhand
Heifer Project India, Orissa state
office, A/17, BDA housing
complex, Palaspalli, Bhubaneswar
751 020 (Orissa)
Vill. & P.O. Chhatrapur, Dist.
Ganjam (Orissa)
Village- Kaser manya, P.O.
Gunaditya
Distt. Almora (Uttaranchal)
Post-Transit Camp
Vill-Phulsanga, Distt- Udhamsingh
Nagar (Uttaranchal)
Ritu Farm, Nilokheri, Karnal,
Haryana
Ankush Farms, Jhajjar, Haryana
26, bangalow Road, Kamla Nagar,
Delhi- 07, akhosla@ndf.vsnl.net.in

50

011-23844498
23848922

SHGs

Bengal & Non


Descript
Ganjam

70

Ganjam

52

Non Descript

65

Barbari & Non


Descript

250+10
0
250

Sirohi
Barbari
Jamunapari

The commercial goat farmers perception and views on strengthening linkages


among the them were ascertained. It was revealed that the sixty seven percent of the
farmers understand the benefit and wanted to strengthen the linkages among the farmers
Table 6.2). The farmers were particularly in exchanging technical and market
information and breeding bucks among the different farms. One farmer in Maharashtra
and one in Rajasthan were registering local traditional farmers and were ready to
provide them technical knowledge on commercial goat farming.
Table 6.2: Linkages of farmers with other goat farmers
Category
I
II
III
Pooled

% Farmer
70
63
50
67

Type of linkages
Exchange of technical information, market information,
supplying breeding stock

To create and strengthen linkages among the major stakeholders a National


Workshop-cum-Seminar on Commercial Goat & Sheep Farming and Marketing:
FarmerIndustryResearcher Interface under the aegis of Indian Society for Sheep and
Goat Production and Utilization (ISSGPU) was organized on March 4-5, 2006 at Central
Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom. This workshop provided a rare opportunity
of meeting, communication and information sharing among the major stakeholders
including traditional and commercial goat farmers, researchers, NGOs working with
goats, state animal husbandry officers, entrepreneurs and industry.
About Two hundred and ten delegates comprising Commercial goat farmers from
the States of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Punjab, Gujarat and Orissa, representatives from
Meat and Wool Industry, State Animal Husbandry departments, Non Government
Organizations, researchers, teachers, students, and development workers from different
States of the country attended the Workshop-cum-Seminar. The Two-day Workshopcum
Seminar was organized in four Technical Sessions viz. (i) Technological advances for
commercial goat and sheep production, (ii) Commercialization of goat and sheep
production: Future Perspectives, (iii) Institutional support for commercialization of goat and
sheep farming and (iv) Commercialization of goat and sheep farming: Experiences from the

field, covering all aspects of commercial goat and sheep production, processing and
marketing. An open Question-Answer Session and a Round Table for identifying leverage
points for strengthening linkages among the stakeholders were also organized. The issues
and recommendations emerged from the above four Technical Sessions and the Round
Table were later presented and discussed in the Plenary Session. The same are summarized
as under:
1. An appropriate Animal Husbandry Extension Service should be evolved addressing
the needs of the small ruminant keepers for successful transfer of improved
technologies. There is need to develop region specific Expert Systems on scientific
goat/ sheep farming. The farmers can have access to the Expert System through
Agricultural Information Kiosks/ Agri-clinics available in the area.
2. Study of successful cases of contract farming in goat/ sheep production would help
strengthening much needed integration between farmers and industry. Study on
experiences of innovative marketing will be useful.
3. Perfection and transfer of technology of complete feed-block making utilizing locally
available feed resources would go a long way in improving goat/ sheep productivity
and commercialization of their production.
4. Develop ready reckoner tables with growth rates, optimum slaughter weights and
meat yields for different breeds of goat and sheep under different production
systems.
5. To create market for goat milk, its qualities like, iso-caloric, bone-building and
therapeutic properties should be highlighted. More research efforts should be made
to study nutritional, therapeutic and microbiological aspects of goat milk. Since goat
milk has a peculiar smell, which make goat milk less acceptable for human
consumption in spite of its nutritive and therapeutic values.
6. More prolific breeds with uniform body size amongst small/ medium sized breeds
having tender and lean meat should be identified and multiplied for distribution to
entrepreneurs.
7. There should be a system of authentic collection and reporting of market
intelligence on small ruminant production and marketing of their important
products. The farmers should have access to the information on prevailing market
prices of goat and sheep, their products and by-products. The regulatory body
should also ensure that live small ruminants are marketed on body weight basis and
not on per head basis.
8. There should be a mechanism to conduct regular survey of market demand, prices
and consumer preferences for goat/sheep meat, milk and other products in the
international market so that producers get more remunerative returns.
9. Referral laboratory facilities at Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom
and Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar should be strengthened
for proper diagnosis and control of goat/ sheep diseases, and for testing the quality
of meat and milk, their products and processed feeds for residue limits and be got
accredited with international laboratories.
10. There is need to develop suitable disease monitoring and surveillance system and
undertake strategic control and eradication measures for diseases of small ruminants
rather taking up routine prophylactic measures where the size of population and its
spread is too large to be covered under improvement programmes. More disease
free zones should be created to boost export and minimize economic losses to the
farmers.

11. Instead of exporting meat as such, attention should be given on in-house production
of value added ready to eat meat products and their export. Research and
development efforts are required for consumer preferred process development for
product manufacture adopting HACCP and GMP.
12. A Technology Mission on Small Ruminant Development as a part of larger mission
on livestock improvement or independently where, there are large possibilities for
small ruminant production primarily for meat production should be launched to
improve the productivity of goat and sheep.
13. Organising goat and sheep farmers into cooperatives is very crucial for the
development of small ruminant sector. The farmers on regional basis should be
encouraged to form Cooperatives/ Associations/ Federated Companies of producers
to get advantage of the remunerative prices for the produce and better accessibility
to technical knowledge, critical inputs and market information.
14. The extensive system of goat and sheep rearing should be replaced with semiintensive and intensive system for commercial goat and sheep production especially
where feed resources are available at reasonable cost and there is great demand for
goat and sheep for local consumption and export.
15. The Commercial Goat/ Sheep Farms running on scientific lines should be
encouraged to become the Centers of production of superior quality breeding
animals. The research and development agencies, farmers, and NGOs should work
closely to ensure availability of superior quality breeding animals.
16. Financial institutions should extend liberal support to goat & sheep farmers and
entrepreneurs for establishing Commercial Farms. The Bankers, who at present in
general are reluctant to finance small ruminant Projects, should be made aware of
the investment requirements and economic potential of small ruminants through
appropriate trainings/ interaction programmes.
17. Single window system for granting permission and license to set-up meat
production/ processing units should be created by the Government.
18. The information on trade linked animal diseases, veterinary drugs and other harmful
residues in feeds and products of animal origin and their permissible limits set by
Codex should be disseminated to the farmers, feed manufacturers, field
veterinarians, animal product processors, marketers and the consumers.
19. Market yards for skins should be set-up to help in improving the infrastructure for
proper curing, preservation and handling and consequently the returns from
marketing of raw skins.
20. Absence of the State support in livestock marketing has greatly harmed the interest
of the producers. The government should have regulatory role for ensuring efficient
marketing including pricing and proper space and facilities for different marketing
functions.
6.1

Impact of strengthened linkages among the commercial goat farmers


The most important outcome of this workshop was that all the participants
including commercial goat farmers from different states could know the magnitude and
number of operating and up-coming commercial goat farming projects through out the
country. With the help of the directory of addresses of commercial goat farms and meat
processors and exporters provided by us, they got instant basis to start developing
linkages among them. These farmers started making communication among them. As a
result the established commercial goat farmers rearing good quality Sirohi, Barbari,

Jamunapari, Black Bengal and Boer cross goats suddenly had large demand for their
breeding goats from the aspirant and up-coming commercial goat farmers. Consequently
the farmers who were getting a market rate of Rs.55 to Rs. 65 per kg of live body weight
for their animals started getting a price of Rs. 120 to Rs. 150 per kg of live body weight.
As a result of strengthened linkages among the commercial goat farmers because of our
efforts in this project, all the commercial goat farmers in different states even at present
are able to sale their good quality animals at a price of Rs. 120-150 per kg live body
weight. At the same time the butchers and traders are still buying the goats mostly from
traditional farmers at a price of Rs. 60 to 70 per kg live body-weight.
The increased prices of breeding goats due to strengthened linkages have not
only created large opportunities and interest for private investment in commercial goat
farming projects but have also encouraged the existing commercial goat farmers to
produce good quality pure breed animals (germ plasm) of different goat breeds, which
will be critically important for the development of this enterprise in the country.

7.

CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

The study has generated comprehensive information on understanding the


emerging commercial goat production system in the country and its economic viability,
prospects and constraints. The information has also been generated on marketing system
of goat and its products, right from the villages to terminal markets and exports and from
butchers and slaughterhouses to meat consumers. The project has also made an
important direct contribution in strengthening the linkages among the commercial goat
farmers in the country.
Commercial goat farming
Goat rearing hitherto has been an economic activity of rural landless households
and marginal and small farmers. Contrary to that the commercial goat farming has
been adopted by the large and progressive farmers, businessman and industrialists.
The size of operational land holding of commercial farmers in all the categories was
large, which ranged from 26.0 to 78.5 acres. The entry of large farmers, who had
better access to technical knowledge, resources and market, into this activity would
help in realizing the potential of goat enterprise.
All the commercial farmers were educated, with 50 percent of them as postgraduate.
The involvement of well-educated entrepreneurs is surely a positive sign for the
development of commercial goat farming in the country. Majority of these farmers
(83 %) also underwent some training programme on improved goat farming for 3-10
days duration. Fifty percent of the farmers took training on commercial goat farming
from Central Institute for Research on Goats. The knowledge on improved goat
farming acquired through training would help in raising the productivity of goats
under intensive and semi-intensive system for commercial production.
The size of initial flock of goats for the new entrepreneurs was observed to be an
important factor influencing the success of a commercial goat-farming project. The
initial flock size of goat in the category I, II and III was 39, 53 and 300 goats,
respectively. From this initial size, the flocks current strength has increased to 63,
271 and 1169 goats per farm in the three categories respectively. It was observed
that the new entrepreneurs, who started with large flock of over 100 goats in the
very beginning with out gaining experience from a small flock, were mostly failed
and suffered losses and some of them went out of the business.
There have been questions from the entrepreneurs, progressive farmers and even
researchers on economic viability and sustainability of commercial goat farming
under intensive system. It was found that the goats were successfully reared and
economically viable under intensive system of management on 46 percent of the
commercial goat farms. In the large category all the farms were maintaining their
goats under intensive system. This finding would help in establishing the fact that
the goat farming for commercial production could be taken up under intensive
system of management and would encourage the aspirant commercial goat farmers
who do not have access to grazing resources.
Feed was observed to be highly scarce in Rajasthan particularly in summer season
and became very costly (Rs. 4-5 per kg of dry fodder) turning the goat production
under intensive system unsustainable. Therefore, in such situations, it will be
imperative to follow these steps; (i) Efforts to acquire low cost feed through efficient
purchases, (ii) The number of animals in the farm may be reduced during the

summer season through pre summer bulk sale of meat animals on Eid and Holi. The
flock size may again be increased during the rainy season every year. (iii) As the
Sirohi breed of Rajasthan is in high demand in different states for breeding purpose,
the sale of pure breed animals to the breeders (farmers) at the age of 6-7 months
would be a way out to reduce the cost of feeding in feed scare regions such as
Rajasthan.
The mortality in kids was estimated and found to be ranged from 5.64 percent in
category III to 12.28 percent in category I. Thus contrary to the popular belief, the
mortality rate in kids was negatively associated with the flock size. This may be
mainly due to better management, feeding and prophylaxis provided by the large
farmers. The mortality rate in kids was well under the permissible limits except 3
commercial farms, which were not able to spare sufficient time to look after their
farms.
There was large variation in the magnitude of cost of goat rearing across the farms.
On one third of the commercial goat farms, the total annual cost of rearing a goat
was between Rs.1124 Rs. 1753 and on the other one-third goat farms; it was much
above the average and ranged from Rs.2628 to Rs.4311. These one-third goat farms
running with high cost of production must reduce their cost of goat rearing to
remain in business. The cost could be reduced by, (i) reducing the fixed cost through
size expansion and minimizing mortality of goats; (ii) Reducing feed cost through
identifying cheaper sources of feeds and their efficient purchases.
Since the lack of good quality breeding is a major constraint in commercialisation
goat production in the country, the commercial goat farms running on scientific
lines should be encouraged to become the centres of production of superior quality
breeding animals.
Majority of the commercial goat farms were operating with positive net returns with
39 percent of them earning good profit and their annual net returns per goat ranged
from Rs. 968 to Rs. 2069. Goat rearing as an enterprise was found equally rewarding
under both intensive and semi intensive system of management. Among the farms
under intensive system, 22 percent were in loss, whereas among the farms under
semi-intensive system 33 percent were in loss. The commercial goat farming under
intensive and semi intensive system of management may therefore be declared as
profitable and promising enterprise. However, the use of improved technologies
particularly prophylaxis, superior germ plasm, low cost feeds and fodders and
innovative marketing of the produce would be the pre-conditions for successful
commercial goat production.
The commercialisation of goat production driven by entrepreneurs looking for
higher productivity and profitability was found to be desirable. More
commercialisation would encourage intensification of goat production hitherto
highly extensive system depending only on grazing in degraded common lands. It
would not only help in increasing the productivity of goats through better access to
critical inputs and technical knowledge, but would also relieve some pressure from
the grazing lands. Animals in commercial production system would have to depend
on alternative sources of fodder like agro-forestry; tree leaves and partial/ complete
stall-feeding reducing the dependency on common grazing lands. Moreover, the
commercial goat entrepreneurs would also be better placed in meeting the quality
standards necessary for exports of goats and their products to large expanding
international market particularly West Asia and Southeast Asia.

Therefore along with the extensive production system, the trend of


commercialisation of goat farming needs to be encouraged. Intensification and
commercialisation of goat enterprise is also important because of shrinking of
resources for extensive grazing. Commercialisation would help in increasing the
goat productivity and bridging the demand-supply gap. It would be a better option
for increasing productivity and production from goats, but it will have its own
associated problems and challenges like requirement of low cost complete feed,
enhanced market integration and high incidence of diseases in large flocks, if not
managed properly. The best way to promote the organised goat production among
the small farmers would be the co-operative system if the initiative comes from the
goat keepers themselves. Even forming associations of goat farmers could provide
them power of scale and may help in mitigating the constraints like lower market
prices for their produce, inbreeding, lack of veterinary aid and poor access to market
and technical information. The associations could be the best source of information
to the goat keepers and members can exchange their breeding bucks regularly to
avoid inbreeding. We have already seen during this Project the positive impact of
strengthened linkages among the commercial goat farmers in terms of sudden
increase in the demand and market price for their good quality goats sold for
breeding purpose.
An appropriate Animal Husbandry Extension Service should be evolved addressing
the needs of the small ruminant keepers for successful transfer of improved
technologies. There is need to develop region specific Expert Systems on scientific
goat farming. The farmers can have access to the Expert System through
Agricultural Information Kiosks/ Agri-clinics available in the area.
Marketing extension is also equally important. The farmers should be provided
opportunity to have access to the information related to the price and availability of
critical inputs such as vaccines, complete feed blocks, etc and outputs such as live
goat and its meat
Financial institutions should extend liberal support to goat farmers and
entrepreneurs for establishing Commercial Farms. The Bankers, who at present in
general are reluctant to finance small ruminant Projects, should be made aware of
the investment requirements and economic potential of small ruminants through
appropriate trainings/ interaction programmes.

Marketing of goat and its products


The marketing of goats particularly suffers from many drawbacks such as
involvement of middlemen garnering high margins, avoidable marketing costs,
unnecessary transportation, mortality of animals during transit leading to
exploitation of both producers and the consumers. The poor farmers are not in a
position to objectively monitor the sale of produce to take advantage of better
prices. Majority of the goat keepers have not developed any commercial orientation
in marketing their produce. However in last couple of years a number of
entrepreneurs have taken up commercial goat farming under intensive and semiintensive system of management as an enterprise. Besides use of improved
technologies, the adoption of innovative marketing strategy has been the key driver
for the success of commercial goat farming projects.
Uttar Pradesh

The kids of <3-months age constituted highest share (24 percent) in the total annual
sale of live goats. It was observed that the share of <3 months kids in total sale of live
animals was higher in large flock size categories reaching up to 48 percent of the total
sale. Another major sale category was 3-6 months kids. These kids were mostly sold
to traders/ butcher. As a result of slaughter of underage small kids the economy of
goat rearing and potential of meat production from goat is undermined, which is a
direct loss to the goat sector and economy of the country. The farmers resorted to the
sale of kids at early age mainly because of their urgent cash needs (53 percent
farmers) and fear of mortality in kids due to diseases coupled with low risk bear ability
and feed scarcity.
To market their goats the farmers mainly used five channels. These channels were,
Channel I: Farmer to Farmer in the village; Channel II: Farmer to Butcher/ trader in the
village; Channel III: Farmers to Other agencies in the village; Channel IV: Farmer to
Butcher/Trader in weekly market; Channel V: Farmer to Trader in distant markets. The
maximum trading of live goats was carried out through channel II. Fifty three percent
farmers used this channel and sold their 44 percent of surplus live goats. Farmers Butcher /trader in the village as well weekly market together accounted for 70 percent
of the total trade of live goats done by farmers
For fixing price of live goats, three unit of sale were followed by the buyers. They
were per head, per pair and per group. While purchasing goats most of the
farmers (80%) adopted per head method; however the traders/butchers also
purchased considerably in group and in pairs. The common method for price
fixation of live goats in the villages at the doorstep of the goat farmer was through
mutual bargain and open sale system, but the price was not decided on the basis of
body weight of goats.
The price of goats in the weekly markets were mainly (61% of deals) decided with the
help of agent/middleman through under cover system where in the agent would talk
with the buyers in a coded language and on behalf of the owner he eventually finalize
and declare the deal at highest quoted price. The traders judged the weight of goats
through Hattha system wherein the trader would judge the weight and potential
meat yield by holding the animal by his hand on its back. The traders have so
perfected the skill of guessing weight of goats through Hattha system that their guess
was correct with 85-90 percent accuracy. At the same time the farmer-seller did not
know the weight of his (same) animal.
The net margins of trader per goat were estimated to be Rs.89 in case of kids to
Rs.235 for a grown-up kid or adult goat while performing the trading in the village
itself. The margins were higher when goats purchased from villages and sold in the
weekly markets, which ranged from Rs.170 to Rs.230 per goat. The traders margin
from the sale of one adult goat during the normal season varied from Rs.118 to
Rs.258. This range during the festive season was Rs.227 to Rs.850 per goat. This
clearly demonstrates the undue margins realized by the trader by adding only the
space utility.
The sale price of the males during Eid was as high as Rs.125 to Rs.150 per kg of live
body weight. However the goat farmers did not have awareness and attitude to take
benefit of the lucrative Eid markets, hardly 10-12 percent farmers were preparing
males for sale during Eid. Though majority of the traditional goat farmers were aware
of the potential benefits of sale during Eid, but the lack of commercial orientation, low
risk bearing ability and lack of market information were constraining factors.

There was large variation in the price of goats in different seasons; the price goes
down during the rainy season. This happened because of increased supply of goats.
The supply increased because the farmers wanted to reduce the size of their goat
flock in rainy season due to the following reasons, one; the fear of mortality due to
diseases, two; lack of proper housing facility to protect goats from rain and three;
farmers feared that the goat may become weak during rainy days as it does not
graze/browse under wet conditions and farmers were not prepared to stall fed them
during such rainy days. Hence, a large number of farmers wanted to sell their goat
that increased the supply of goats. However the demand remained normal or little
suppressed because of the absence of any festival and tendency of farmers not to
start new goat units in this season.
As a result of growth in population and per capita income, urbanization and
globalization the consumers preference is shifting towards high value food
including meat. Hence the demand for goat has also increased as reflected through
its increased market prices. It may be mentioned that the price of goat meat over the
last couple of years has increased much faster as compared to buffalo and poultry
meat. The price of goat meat (chevon), which was about Rs. 55 to 65 per kg a
decade back, has increased to Rs. 120 to Rs.150 per kg. The market functionaries
/traders in Uttar Pradesh as well as in Rajasthan also felt that the demand for meat
goat particularly in peak periods has increased considerably over the last 5 years
There exists a demand for goat milk, however most of it (86 percent) was purchased
by milk vendors as adulterant in buffalo/ cow milk
Though the government has no interest in the livestock markets but the private
individuals and societies controlling them have huge financial stakes. The livestock
goat markets had huge income, which ranged from Rs.10.22 lakh to Rs.59.02 Lakhs
per annum. In spite of the huge income, the markets had very poor infrastructure.
Therefore, there is need to rationalize the market fee structure and make it mandatory
for the market owners/societies to create minimum facilities to get their registration
renewed.
Though the illiteracy and low awareness was the biggest constraint of the goat
farmers, but there were other major constraints faced by farmers while selling their
goats particularly in the livestock markets. Majority of farmers felt constrained
because of lack of transparency in trading of goats, poor access to market and price
information and poor infrastructure in the livestock markets, such as lack of dirking
water facility, shed and veterinarian. The farmers were highly skeptical about the
under cover method of price fixation of the goats. The poor infrastructure facilities
in the weekly livestock markets and poor access to affordable transport resulted in
poor participation of the farmers in the market. Timely access to market information
is most important for the farmers to take right decision to sale the animals.
Organized efforts are required to provide the timely market information to the
farmers. There was no monitoring agency to check and control the collusive
activities of the traders in the market. It has been well accepted that price of meatgoats should be decided on the basis of their body weight reflecting their potential
meat yield. However no market had weighing facility. Also no livestock market
committee had representation of the goat farmers participating in those markets.
Representation of farmers in the market management committee may help in
addressing their concerns. However, the farmers representative must be a goat
farmer himself.

With a very small magnitude of marketed surplus, low education and awareness level,
lack of market information and having almost no voice in the society, the traditional
goat farmers had to continue with the present system of marketing but majority of
than (three fourth) were not satisfied with the goat marketing system.

Rajasthan
The share of kids of <3 months age (mostly male) was highest (39 percent) in the
total sale of live goats by the farmers in a year. The share of <3 months kids in total
sale was much higher up to 44 percent in the large flock size categories. In
Rajasthan the common feed resources on which the goats depend, were highly
scarce and the feed resources available in the market were also costlier as compared
to Uttar Pradesh. Therefore, the farmers were not interested in raising the male kids
up to the economic age of slaughter. The efforts should be made to encourage
farmers to rear kids up to their optimum age of slaughter (6-8 months).
For the benefit of farmers, a new market has been emerging for the male kids of 23months of Sirohi breed of Rajasthan. These small male kids have been in demand
in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal for rearing. The traders who cater this
market were buying a male kid of 2-3 months at a price of Rs.500-700.
The emerging trend of rearing the kids of goats from Rajasthan in the areas having
better access to feed resources looks very promising and beneficial for the farmers
and the goat economy as well. The adult males, which formed the 11 percent of the
total sale of live goats, were sold mostly either for breeding purpose or for Eid. The
adult females were mostly the culled animals
The maximum trading of live goats was carried out through channel II (Farmersbutcher/traders in the villages). Through this channel 61 percent goats were traded
by 86 percent of the farmers. It shows that the farmers participation in the livestock
market was very low in Rajasthan as compared to Uttar Pradesh.
There was lack of access to correct market information for the farmers. The butcher
/traders visiting the villages rarely compete among them and always tried to fix price
of goats towards lower side.
The fear of lack of transparency in trading in the weekly markets was the biggest
reason for selling goats in the village itself. It is true that the price of goats in weekly
markets was decided through under cover method in 90 percent deals.
The price of goats in 90 percent deals was decided through under cover method
with the help of commission agents/middlemen. The under cover method has been
described in the previous section of this report. Only 10 percent deals were decided
through open auction method
Majority of the farmers considered the lack of transparency in trading of goats under
cover as the biggest constraint faced in the livestock markets. Unduly high market
fee and very poor access to market information were other major constraints. The
mal practices in the form of collusive activity of traders also constrained the farmers
from fairly participating in the markets. There was no mechanism/agency to check
the mal-practices in trading of goats.
Majority of the market functionaries were illiterate and uneducated, however they
were well versed with the trade and had good knowledge of goat marketing system.
The traders were not interested in increasing the transparency in the trade because
of the fear of reduction in their margins. But the traders biggest constraint was

harassment by police and animal welfare department during transporting the goats
and had to make considerable illegal payments.
The middlemens margin during the normal season ranged from Rs.130-380 per
goat. This range of margin during festive season was Rs.400 to 1000. It clearly
shows that the margins of the middlemen were unduly high.
There was no involvement of the government at any stage. The daily arrivals of goats
ranged from 3200 in Jaipur to 5000 in Balaheri, which reached to 7000 to 10000
per day in peak period in winter during festivals. The market fee per goat was Rs.40
in one market and 4-5 per cent of the value of goat in other two markets, which
came out to be Rs.75 to 90 per adult goat. The market fee per goat was higher in
Rajasthan as compared to Uttar Pradesh.
The livestock markets had poor infrastructure. The office, shed for animals and
drinking water for human beings was available in all the markets. None of the
market had facility of veterinary aid and fodder for the animals. Even the essential
facilities such as ramp to load and unload animals, drinking water for animals and
transit accommodation were available only in one-third of the markets.
In the absence of any support from the government and their own inability to
organize and innovate, the goat farmers were continuing with the present system of
goat marketing, but even one percent of them were not satisfied with the existing
system of marketing. However, twenty nine percent of the farmers considered the
price realized for their animals as remunerative

Marketing by commercial farmers


Contrary to the traditional farmers, the commercial farmers sold their goats on live
body weights basis. The majority of the farmers (89 percent) sold their goats on body
weight basis that enabled them to realize remunerative price as per the actual worth
of the animal.
A number of commercial farmers had made efforts to advertise and popularize the
goat farm and the quality of their goats through all possible means. A one fifth of the
farmers had created their own websites giving details of the farm and the type of
goats available for sale. These farmers were getting most of their orders for supplying
goats though e-mails.
After we provide a directory of addresses of all the commercial goat farms to them,
the commercial farmers spread over different states came in touch with each other.
The linkage among them also influenced the price of goats. If a farmer in the state
was charging higher prices for his goat, the farmers in other states also started
increasing their prices. Those farmers who had good business sense and were using
modern methods of popularizing their farm could get very good price for their
animals. But the farmers, those who had to sell to the traders/butcher, did not get a
fair deal. Hence, only 44% of the farmers were satisfied with the present system of
marketing.
The commercial goat farmers, who were well educated and had better access to
market information, not only tried to effectively bargain to get the best price for their
animals, but also tried certain innovative methods to sell their animals. In fact all the
commercial goat farmers in the beginning (5-6 years back) were operating in
isolation having almost no information on commercial goat production taking place
in other parts of the country. They also faced problems in marketing their goats at
remunerative prices like traditional goat farmers have been facing. The middlemen

visiting the commercial farms or in the livestock markets were quoting very low
prices of live goats. As a result of our efforts in this project on Commercialization of
farming and marketing of goats in India, the linkages among the commercial goat
farmers operating in different parts of the country got strengthened. That created a
new market for good quality breeding goats produced by the commercial goat
farmers. Strengthened linkages among the commercial goat farmers resulted into
creation of a large demand of goats for breading purpose of Sirohi, Barbari,
Osmanabadi, Jamunapari, Black Bengal and Jakhrana breeds from the aspirants/ upcoming commercial goat farmers. Moreover the farmers got premium price for the
good quality goats sold for breeding purpose. This newly emerged market for
breeding goats not only helped the commercial farms to become economically
viable early but also encouraged the commercial goat farmers to maintain and
produce good quality breeding stock. Before the creation of this demand for
breeding goats from the new/old commercial farms, the commercial farmers were
forced to sell their goats @Rs.55 to Rs.65 per kg of live body weight. The
traders/butchers did not pay more for the quality of the animal in terms of purity of
breed. But now with the new market opportunity available, the commercial farmers
have been selling their goats @Rs.120 to Rs.150 per kg of live body weight. The
premium price available for good quality breeding goats has really made the goat
enterprise highly attractive. Many private investors (progressive farmers,
businessmen, industrialists and entrepreneurs) are coming up with investment
proposals into goat enterprise.
The goat farmers got 68 per cent share in the consumers rupee. The share of
rural/petty traders, butcher/meat sellers and the marketing cost in the consumers
rupee was 6.95, 16.44 and 6.95 percent, respectively. Share of the traders/butchers
in the consumers rupee during the festive sale on Eid, Holi, Dushhara etc was much
higher up to 20-25 percent of the value of goat paid by the consumer. The butchers
also earned much higher net margins in the trade of diseased goats, these animals
were purchased at through away prices and their meat was sold on the same price as
that of healthy animal @ Rs. 120 140 per kg.
There have been large shrinkage losses in body weight of live goats during the
marketing. The extent of shrinkage depends on different factors such as travel
distance, mode of transport, season in which transported, age of the animals, density
of animals loaded in a truck etc. This kind of loss can be avoided, if the animals are
slaughtered close to their production centers and meat is transported to urban
centers
In the trading of goatskins, the small players (skin merchants) were vulnerable to
high rejection of the skins by the tanner and delayed payments by the tanners and
exporters. The reason for high rejection of skins is that the goat keepers give no
emphasis/care for producing quality skins. In fact the farmers neither take any care
for protection of skin of their goats nor they have any awareness of its importance.
In the large cities such as Agra and Jaipur there was good market for goat intestines.
An intestine of goat was sold for Rs. 10 for edible purpose. On small scale, a few
persons were also engaged in value addition of intestine through its primary
processing and supplied it to the surgical manufacturers for making threads for
surgical stitching. It seemed to be a good opportunity of value addition. However,
this activity needs to be organized. Moreover the intestine could be processed to
ready to eat products such as sauces.

There has been a good demand for our live goats and their meat in the Middle East
countries. However there was a ban on export of live goats and sheep for couple of
years prior to 2002 due to objections from the importing countries due to reports of
prevalence of certain diseases and other trade issues. The export of live goats has
reached to 2.36 Lakhs per annum in 2005.
The exporters of goat and sheep meat in India, who are small players yet in the meat
export market, are also hit hard by non-tariff and other barriers put not only by
importers but also by the other major meat exporters of the country. Suddenly since
August 2006 the government of India has banned the export of bone-in meat of goat
and sheep citing the reason that this meat poses a potential risk of Foot and Mouth
Diseases (FMD) spread in the importing countries. It seems to be a play of trade
politics that has resulted in to ban on export of bone-in meat of goat and sheep on
the pretext that bone-in meat may be a source of spread of FMD, however the
scientific studies have not confirmed this hypothesis. At the same time the export of
live goats and sheep is allowed from the ports in Gujrat, Whose trade comes under
OGL (open general license) scheme of the government. But the live animals may be
more potent source of FMD spread if they are infected.
Further the emerging exporters of live goat and sheep namely Ethiopia and Somalia
are ready to supply live animals at half the price of Indian goat and sheep. Since the
raising and feeding conditions of their animals are almost similar to ours, they may
be a major threat to our exports of live animals. In future the cheaper import of live
goat and sheep from Ethiopia and Somalia might also have the consequences for
domestic price and production. However it will depend on the amount of surplus
available with them for export. There is possibility of cheaper imports of sheep and
goat meat also from Australia and New Zealand. However the meat from these
countries may not find much favour with the Indian consumers.
As a result of strengthened linkages among the commercial goat farmers because of
our efforts in this project, all the commercial goat farmers in different states who
were getting a market rate of Rs.55 to Rs. 65 per kg of live body weight for their
goats started getting a price of Rs. 120 to Rs. 150 per kg of live body weight for their
animals. At the same time the butchers and traders are still buying the goats mostly
from traditional farmers at a price of Rs. 60 to 70 per kg live body-weight.
The increased prices of breeding goats due to strengthened linkages have not only
created large opportunities and interest for private investment in commercial goat
farming projects but have also encouraged the existing commercial goat farmers to
produce good quality pure breed animals (germ plasm) of different goat breeds,
which will be critically important for the development of this enterprise in the
country.

9 To create market for goat milk, its qualities like, iso-caloric, bone-building and
therapeutic properties should be highlighted. More research efforts should be made
to study nutritional, therapeutic and microbiological aspects of goat milk. Since goat
milk has a peculiar smell, which makes goat milk less acceptable for human
consumption in spite of its nutritive and therapeutic values.
9 In view of pathetic condition of slaughterhouses there is need to encourage small size
modern slaughterhouses near to the production centers. Therefore single window
system for granting permission and license to set-up meat production/ processing

units should be created by the Government.


9 Standards should be laid down for transportation and shipping of goat and sheep.
These standards should be effectively implemented.
9 There should be a system of authentic collection and reporting of market intelligence
on small ruminant production and marketing of their important products. The farmers
should have access to the information on prevailing market prices of goat and sheep,
their products and by-products. The regulatory body should also ensure that live
small ruminants are marketed on body weight basis and not on per head basis.
9 There should be a mechanism to conduct regular survey of market demand, prices
and consumer preferences for goat/sheep meat, milk and other products in the
international market so that producers get more remunerative returns.
9 The government should take the responsibility of market intelligence on priority
basis. Collecting and analysing data on demands of importers, price, and consumer
preferences etc. These services should highly time bound. There should be a help
desk at APEDA, So that exporters can have timely access to information related to
international market.
9 Instead of exporting meat as such, attention should be given on in-house production
of value added ready to eat meat products and their export. Research and
development efforts are required for consumer preferred process development for
product manufacture adopting HACCP and GMP.
9 The prospects of goat and sheep meat would be available only for value added meat
products and organic meat, particularly ready to cook meat with seasoning and
vaccume packaged frozen meat in different cuts.
REFERENCES
Barbier, Edward, B. 1989. Sustaining agriculture on marginal land: A policy framework.
Environment, 31(9).
Birthal, P.S. and P.K. Joshi. High value agriculture for accelerated and equitable growth: Policy
brief: 24, NCAP, New Delhi, December 2006.
CIRG (1999),Annual Report 1998-99, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom,
Farah, Mathura, U.P., pp. 71-72.
FAO. 2004. FAOstat, In: http://www.fao.org
Kumar, S., V.S. Vihan and P.R. Deoghare. 2003. Economic implication of diseases in goats in
India with special reference to implementation of a health plan calendar. Small Ruminant
Research, Vol. 47, pp. 159-164.
Kumar, Shalander and P.R. Deoghare. 2002. Goat rearing and rural poor: a case study in
southwestern semiarid zone of Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Arid Zone, 41(1): 79-84.
Kumar, Shalander. 2007, Multi-disciplinary project on transfer of technology for sustainable goat
production, Annual Report 2006-07, CIRG, Makhdoom, Mathura.
Rekib, A. and Agnihotri, M.K. 1997. Sheep and goat- Role in food security. The Hindu Survey of
Indian Agriculture, pp.127 131.
Singh, N.P. 2006. Technological advances for commercial goat production. National workshopcum-seminar on Commercial goat & sheep farming and Marketing: Farmer-IndustryResearcher interface, CIRG, Makhdoom, March 4-5, 2006.
HTU

UTH

ANNEXURE
Commercial farmers perception on pre-disposing factor of major goat disease
Table 1: Pre-disposing factors of PPR (Farmers responded: 33%)
Pre-disposing factor
Summer Month
New Purchase
Breeding season
Change in feed
Transportation from long distance
Winter
Other

Response (%)
6
28
11
17
11
11
6

Table 2: Pre-disposing factors of ET (Farmers responded: 17%)


Pre-disposing factor
Summer months
Heavy rain
Changes in feed

Response (%)
5.6
5.6
16.7

Table 3: Pre-disposing factors of Diarrhea (Farmers responded: 28%)


Pre-disposing factor
Summer months
New purchase
Changes in feed
Acute winter

Response (%)
27.8
5.6
5.6
11.1

Table 4: Pre-disposing factors of Pneumonia (Farmers responded: 28%)


Pre-disposing factor
Heavy rain
Acute winter

Response (%)
22.2
11.1

Table 5: Pre-disposing factors of Abortion (Farmers responded: 33%)


Pre-disposing factor
Summer months
New purchase
Breeding season
Changes in feed
Transportation from long distance
Acute winter

Response (%)
16.7
11.1
16.7
5.6
11.1
5.6

Table 6: Composition and size of family of traditional farmers in Uttar Pradesh


Category
Adult Male
Adult Female
Child
I
1.84
1.68
II
1.90
1.36
III
1.91
1.83
IV
2.82
2.82
Overall
1.97
1.70

3.73
3.36
4.00
4.09
3.68

Table 7: Occupation structure of traditional farmers in Uttar Pradesh (in percentage)


Main
Secondary
Category
Goat rearing
Agriculture
Other
Goat rearing
Agriculture
I
38.64
27.27
34.09
50.00
13.64
II
78.57
16.67
4.76
19.05
33.33
III
86.96
13.04
0.00
17.39
39.13
IV
90.91
9.09
0.00
9.09
63.64
Overall
66.67
19.17
14.17
28.33
30.00

Total
7.25
6.62
7.74
9.73
7.35

Other
13.64
26.19
8.70
0.00
15.83

Table 8: Flock size of sheep and buffalo of traditional farmers in Uttar Pradesh
Sheep
Category
Owners
Flock
Farmers
I
12 (27)
19.83
21 (48)
II
20 (48)
33.65
23 (55)
III
7 (30)
44.43
11 (48)
IV
3 (27)
23.00
5 (45)
Overall
42 (35)
30.74
60 (50)
Figures in parenthesis are % to total

Buffalo
Adult female
1.62
2.43
1.91
3.80
2.17

Table 9: Volume of trade of sheep in selected livestock markets of U.P.


No. of sheep brought for sale
Name of
Trade in peak period/
market
market day
Per day
Per annum
Idgah
Etah
Jaswant
Nagar
Kalpi
Mathura
Average

Volume of trade
of goats

50
0

7850
0

200
0

80
-

10
500
200
152

500
16000
12000
7270

Id, Holi
Id, Holi
Id, Holi
-

20
1000
500
344

90
70
80
80

Table 10: Occupational structure of traditional goat farmers in Rajasthan


(in %)
Main
Secondary
Category
Goat rearing
Agriculture
Other
Goat rearing Agriculture
I
11.43
62.86
25.71
54.29
5.71
II
33.33
53.33
13.33
62.22
15.56
III
85.19
14.81
0.00
14.81
33.33
IV
100
30.77
Pooled
45.83
41.67
12.50
42.50
18.33
Table 11: Composition and size of family of goat keepers in Rajasthan
Category
Adult Male
Adult Female
I
2.77
2.40
II
2.62
2.09
III
2.70
2.56
IV
2.23
2.54
Pooled
2.64
2.33

Child
3.34
3.58
4.33
4.31
3.76

Other
2.86
4.44
3.70
3.33
Total
8.51
8.29
9.59
9.08
8.73

Table 12: Flock size of sheep and buffalo of traditional farmers in Rajasthan
Sheep
Buffalo
Category
No. farmers
Flock
No. farmers
Adult female
I
5 (14)
39.00
15 (43)
1.87
II
8 (18)
23.63
17 (38)
1.59
III
6 (22)
19.50
9 (33)
1.22
IV
5 (38)
58.00
3 (23)
1.67
Overall
24 (20)
32.96
44 (37)
1.61
Figures in parenthesis are % to total
Table 13: Volume of trade of sheep in selected markets in Rajasthan
No. of sheep brought for sale
Name of
Trade in peak period/ market
market
day
Per day
Per annum
Balaherhi
500
32500
Id, holi,
1000
Ajmer
500
32500
Id, holi,
1000
Jaipur
250
26250
Id, holi,
1000
Overall
417
30417
1000

% Animal
sold
80
80
90
83