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# Thermodynamics for Technologists

## Course Work-1 (Part-A)

1.

1 kg of a fluid expand reversibly according to a linear law from 4.2 bar to 1.4 bar; the initial and

and

## . The fluid is then cooled reversibly at constant pressure, and

finally compressed reversibly according to a law constant back to the initial conditions of 4.2 bar
and

. Calculate the work done in each process and the net-work of the cycle. Sketch the cycle on

diagram.

2.

to a law

## is compressed reversibly to a pressure of 3.5 bars according

constant. The fluid is then heated reversibly at constant volume until the pressure is 4

constant

## diagram and calculate: (a) The mass of

fluid present; (b) The value of n in the first process; (c) The net-work of the cycle.

3.

A fluid is heated reversibly at a constant pressure of 1.05 bar until it has a specific volume of
. It is then compressed reversibly according to a law

## constant to a pressure of 4.2 bars,

and then allowed to expand reversibly according to a law pv1.7=constant, and is finally heated at constant
volume back to the initial conditions. The work done in the constant pressure process is -515 Nm, and the
mass of fluid present is 0.2kg. Calculate the net-work of the cycle and sketch the cycle on a
diagram.

4.

In the compression stroke of a gas engine the work done on the gas by the piston is 70 kJ/kg and

the heat rejected to the cooling water is 42 kJ/kg. Calculate the change of specific internal energy stating
whether it is a gain or a loss.

5.

A mass of gas at an initial pressure of 28 bar, and with an internal energy of 1500 kJ, is contained

## . The gas is allowed to expand behind a piston until its

internal energy is 1400 kJ; the law of expansion is constant. Calculate: (a) The work done; (b) The final
volume; (c) The final pressure.

6.

The gases in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine have a specific internal energy of

## constant, from 55 bar to 1.4 abr. The

specific internal energy after expansion is 230kJ/kg. Calculate the heat rejected to the cylinder cooling
water per kilogram of gases during the expansion stroke.

7.

A steam turbine receives a steam flow of 1.35 kg/s and the power output is 500kW. The heat loss

from the casing is negligible. Calculate: (a) the change of specific enthalpy across the turbine when the
velocities at entrance and exit and the difference in elevation are negligible; (b)the change of specific
enthalpy across the turbine when the velocity at entrance is 60 m/s, the velocity at exit is 360 m/s, and the
inlet pipe is 3 m above the exhaust pipe.

8.

A steady flow of steam enters a condenser with a specific enthalpy of 2300 kJ/kg and a velocity

of 350 m/s. The condensate leaves the condenser with a specific enthalpy of 160 kJ/kg and a velocity of
70 m/s. Calculate the heat transfer to the cooling fluid per kilogram of steam condensed.

9.

A turbine operating under steady-flow conditions receives steam at the following state: pressure,

## , specific internal energy 2590 kJ/kg, velocity 30 m/s. The state of

the steam leaving the turbine is as follows: pressure 0.35 bars, specific volume 4.37

, specific

internal energy 2360 kJ/kg, velocity 90 m/s. Heat is rejected to the surroundings at the rate of 0.25 kW
and the rate of steam flow through the turbine is 0.38 kg/s. Calculate the power developed by the turbine.

10.

A nozzle is a device for increasing the velocity of a steadily flowing fluid. At the inlet to a certain

nozzle the specific enthalpy of the fluid is 3025 kJ/kg and the velocity is 60 m/s. At the exit from the
nozzle the specific enthalpy is 2790 kJ/kg. The nozzle is horizontal and there is a negligible heat loss
from it. Calculate: (a) the velocity of the fluid at exit; (b) the rate of flow of fluid when the inlet area is
and the specific volume at inlet is 0.19

## volume at the nozzle exit is 0.5

Course Work-1 (Part-B)

1.

Steam at 7 bar and 250C enters a pipeline and flows along it at constant pressure. If the steam

rejects heat steadily to the surroundings, at what temperature will droplets of water begin to form in the
vapour? Using ihe steady-flow energy equation, and neglecting change in velocity of the steam. calculate
the heat rejected per kilogram of steam flowing.

2.

0.05 kg of steam at 15 bar is contained in a rigid vessel of volume 0.0076 m3. What is the

temperature of the steam? If the vessel is cooled, at what temperature will the steam be just dry saturated?
Cooling is continued until the pressure in the vessel is 11 bar; calculate the final dryness fraction of the
steam, and the heat rejected between the initial and the final states.

3.

The relative molecular mass of carbon dioxide, CO2 is 44. ln an experiment the value of for CO2

was found to be 1.3. Assuming that CO2 is a perfect gas, calculate the specific gas constant, R, and the
specific heat capacities at constant pressure and constant volume, Cp and Cv.

4.

Calculate the internal energy and enthalpy of 1 kg of air occupying 0.05 m3 at 20 bar. lf the

internal energy is increased by 120 kJ as the air is compressed to 50 bar, calculate the new volume
occupied by 1 kg of the air.

5.

Oxygen, O2, at 200 bar is to be stored in a steel vessel at 20 C. The capacity of the vessel is 0.04

m3. Assuming that O2 is a perfect gas, calculate the mass of oxygen that can be stored in the vessel. The
vessel is protected against excessive pressure by a fusible plug whitch will melt if the temperatura rises
too high. At what temperature must the plug melt to limit the pressure in the vessel to 240 bar? Thc molar
mass of oxygen is 32 kg/kmol.

6.

When a certain perfect gas is heated at constant pressure from 15C to 95 C, the heat required is

1136 kJ/kg. When ihe same gas is heated at constant volume bctween the same temperaturas the heat
required is 808 kJ/kg. Calculate cp, cv, , R and the molar mass of the gas.

7.

ln an air compressor the pressures at inlet and outlet are 1 bar and 5 bar respectively. The

temperature of the air at inlet is 15C and the volume at the beginning of compression is three times that
at the end of compression. Calculate the temperature of the air at outlet and the increase of internal
energy per kg of air.

8.

A quantity of a certain perfect gas is compressed from an initial state of 0.085 m3, 1 bar to a final

state of 0.034 m3, 3.9 bar. The specific heat at constant volume is 0.724 kJ/kg K, and the specific heat at
constant pressure is 1.020 kJ/kg K. The observed temperature rise is 146 K. Calculate the specific gas
constant, R, the mass of gas present, and the increase of internal energy of the gas.`
Course Work-1 (Part-C)

1.

A rigid vessel of volume 1 m3 contains steam at 20bar and 400 C. The vessel is cooled until the

steam is just dry saturated. Calculate the mass of steam in the vessel, the final pressure of the steam, and
the heat rejected during the process.

2.

Oxygen (molar mass 32kg/kmol) expands reversibly in a cylinder behind a piston at a constant

pressure of 3 bar. The volume inilially is 0.01 m3 and finally is 0.03 m3; the initial temperalure is 17C.
Calculale the work input and the heat supplied during the expansion. Assume oxygen to be a perfect gas
and take c = 0.917 kJ/kg K.

3.

Dry saturated steam at 7 bar expands reversibly in a cylinder behind a piston until the pressure is

0.1 bar. If heat is supplied continuously during the process in order to keep the temperature constant.
calculate the change of nternal energy per unit mass of steam.

4.

Nitrogen (molar mass 28kg/kmol) expands reversibly in a perfectly thermally insulated cylinder

from 3.5 bar. 200C to a volume of 0.09 m3. If the initial volume occupied was 0.03 m3, calclate the
work input. Assume nilrogen to be a perfect gas and take, cv= 0.741 kJ/kgK.

5.

## A certain perfect gas is compressed reversibly from 1 bar, 17 C to a pressure of 5 bar in a

perfectly thermally insulaled cylinder, the final temperature being 77 C The work done on the gas during
Ihe compression is 45 kJ/kg. Calculate , cv R, and the molar mass of the gas.

6.

Oxygen (molar mass 32 kg/kmol) is compressed reversibly and polytropically in a cylinder from

1.05 bar, 15C to 4.2 bar in such a way that one-third of the work input is rejected as heat to the cylinder
walls. Calculate the final temperature of the oxygen. Assume oxygen to be a perfect gas and take cv =
0.649 kJ/kg K.

7.

The pressure in a sieam man is 12 bar. A sample of steam is drawn off and passed Ihrough a

ihroitling calorimeicr. ihc pressure and temperature at exil from the calormeler being 1 bar and 140 'C
rcspcctively. Calclate the dryness fraction of the steam in ihe main, stating any assumptions made in the
throttng process.

8.

Air at 6.9 bar, 260 C is Throttled to 5.5 bar before expanding through a nozzle to a pressure of

1.1 bar. Assuming that the air flows reversibly in a steady flow through the nozzle, and that no heat is
rejected. calculate the velocity of the air at exit from the nozzle when the inlet velocity is 100 m/s.

9.

Steam from a superheater at 7 bar, 300 C is mixed in steady adiabatic flow with wet steam at 7

bar, dryness fraction 0.9. Calculate the mass of wet steam required per kilogram of superheated steam to
produce steam at 7 bar, dry saturated.

10.

A rigid cylinder coniains helium (molar mass 4kg/kmol) at a pressure of 5 bar and a temperature

of 15 C. The cylinder is now connected to a large source of helium at 10 bar and 15 C, and the valve
connecting the cylinder is closed when the cylinder pressure has risen to 8 bar. Calclate the final
temperature of the helium in the cylinder assuming that the heat transfer during the process is negligibly
small. Take cv for helium as 3.12 kJ/kgK.

11.

A well lagged vesselof volume I m3 containing 1.25 kg of steam at a pressure of 2.2 bar is

connected via a valvce to a large source of steam at 20 bar. The valve is opened and the pressure in the
vessel is allowed to rise until thc steam in the vessel

IS

## closed. Calclale the dryness fraction of the steam.

12.

An air receiver contains 10 kg of air at 7 bar. A blow off valve is opened in error and closed

again within seconds, but the pressure is observed to drop to 6 bar Calclate the mass of air which has