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BUILDINGSERVICESSYSTEMS

FOR
OLDFOLKSHOME
BUILDINGSERVICES
BLD60903/ARC2423
Preparedby:
ChanJiaXin

0319565

EngShiYi

0317849

EvelynLaiKahYing

0322732

LeeHuiQin

0322991

SawHweiYing

0318093

SharonLimYuJung

0313377

Tutor:MrAzim

Content
IntroductiontoBuilding
LiteratureReview
Findings&Analysison
FireProtectiveSystem
1.0Passive
2.0Active
3.0AirConditioningSystem
4.0MechanicalVentilationSystem

TableofContent

Page

5.0MechanicalTransportSystem

ProposalofSystems

Summary&Conclusion

References

T
Thebuildin
ngfunctionsasanelderlycenterrlocatedin
ntheneighbourhoodofTaman
K
Kanagapura
am,Petalin
ngJaya,Selangor.Inthedoublestorieselderlycenterr,wepromotes
interactionbetweenttheelderly,wherebyw
withtheideaofholdiinghands,buildingbrridges,we
w
wishtonar
rrowthegaapbetween
noneanother.Thus,thebuildin
ngprovidessvariousacctivities
w
whichenga
agesthem,thusdifferrentsystem
msareemp
ployedinco
ompliancettotheUnifform
B
BuildingBy
yLaws198
84.Withbu
uildabilityandpracticaality,onlytthenconce
eptualideasswhichputt
t
theusers's
safetyandcomfortinmindcanberootedandrealize
ed.

Literature

Review

1.0PassiveFireProtection
Istheintegrationoffireprotectioninthedesignandplanningstageofabuilding,mainlymeetinginthe
requirementsofcompartmentation,structuralstability,fireseparationandsafeescapemeans.Sinceitis
apassivedesign,theprotectioncanbeinitiatedbyitselfbeforeandwhileActiveProtectionisinduced,
thusminimizingtheriskofhazardousjeopardy,rebuiltcostandeaseapromptrecoveryfromthefire.In
acaseoffire,PFPprotectsthebuildingbyconfiningthefiretopreventittospreadtounexposed
rooms,whileallowingsafeevacuationtobedone.

A.Compartmentation

Istheconfinementandseparationofabigvolumeintosmallersealedcompartments,
whichcanpreventtherapidhorizontalorverticalspreadoffiretominimizetheharm.
Thecriticalelementsinensuringatightsealincludesdoors,floorsandwalls.

B.Meansofescape

Providetheshortestroutetodirecttheuserstotheclosestsafetyassemblyareawithin
ashorttimeframe.Itshouldbekeptcleanandclearalwaystopreventobstructionsfora
fastevacuation.Inthehome,itconsistofunprotectedarea,protectedarea,leadingto
exitandleadingdirecttoexit.

C.DeadEndLimit

Isthedistancetoastoreyexitortoapointwherealternativemeansofescapeis
availableprovidedthatthetotaltraveldistanceshallnotexceedthelimits.

D.TotalTravelDistance

Thetotaldistanceinclusiveofthedeadenddistancefromapointtoeitherthefire
resistingdoorinthestaircaseenclosureorthefirstthreadofthestaircase.

E.SmokeControl

Inmostfiresituation,smokeisoneofthecontributingfactorthathinderevacuationas
itdecreasevisibilityandsmothersrespiration.Thus,itiscrucialtochannelsmokeout

fromthebuilding.Incaseofafire,smokewhichisrelativelyhotterthanfreshairwill
riseandaccumulateathigherregionbeforeitstartstogetthickeranddisplacethefresh
airdownward.ThereareafewmethodsofSmokeControl:

1.Confinement

2.Pressurization

3.AutomaticVentilatingHatches

F.StructuralIntegrity

Referstotheperformanceofmaterialtosustainitsstabilityinacaseoffiretoprevent
collapseordisintegration.

2.0ActiveFireProtection
Activefireprotectionisanapproachtoalerttheoccupantsinbuildingforevacuationand
attempttoextinguishthefirebyusingthemanuallyandautomaticallyoperatedfiremechanical
system.
Nulifire(2014)statedthattheoverallaimoftheactivefireprotectionsystemisto:
a.)Detectingthefireearlyandevacuatingthebuilding
b.)Alertingemergencyservicesatanearlystageofthefire
c.)Controlthemovementofsmokeandfire
d.)Suppressand/orstarvethefireofoxygenandfuel

Themethodsthatareincludedinthissystemarethesprinklerssystem,firealarmand
detectionsystem,smokecontrolsystemandfiresuppressionsystem.Forfiredetention
system,itisusuallydetectedthroughtheheatandsmokewhichinreturnitwillalarmsand
enableanemergencyevacuation.

Forthesprinklersystem,itisusuallyinstalledattheceilinglevelofthebuildingwhich
connectedtothewatersupply.Itiseffectiveduringthefiresinitialflamegrowthstageandwill
dischargeswateronceitistriggeredbytheexcessiveheattoreducethespreadofthefire.

Forthefiresuppressionsystem,itisusedinhighfireriskareawhichissensitiveareasuch
aselectricalroomorcomputerroomswithwiring.Thisisbecausewatersprinklerwillconduct
electricityandcauseelectricalshocktotheoccupantsandfiremen.

3.0AirConditioningSystem
Airconditioningistheprocessofremovingheatfromaconfinedandenclosedspace,produce
coolventilationandremovingthehumidityinsidethebuildingwhichheatisdrawnoutofthe
room.Theprocessistoachieveamorecomfortableandpleasinginteriorenvironmentforuser.
Themainprocessofairconditioningsystemisthattheaircirculationisdrawntocondenser
installedinoutdoorwhichcontainingrefrigerantgas.
Inthemostgeneralsense,airconditioningcanrefertoanyformoftechnologythatmodifies
theconditionofair(heating,cooling,(de)humidification,cleaning,ventilation,orairmovement).
Differfrommechanicalventilationsystemwhichwithdrawairfromanenclosedspace,air
conditioningisconsideredasanactivesystemwhichextractheatfrominteriortooutside,with
theaidofelectricalsupplyandsometimeswatersupplyinlargescalebuilding.

Airconditioningsystemisadevicethatfulfillheating,coolingandventilation

requirementofabuildingoverarangeofambientconditionspecifictothebuildinglocation.It
isdesignedtocopewiththemaximumvalueofeachoftheserequirements.(Billy,2000)
Thepurposeofparticularsystem:

Tomaintainthermalcomfortbycontrollingtemperatureandhumiditywithinacceptable
limits.

Tomaintainairqualitywithinacceptablelimitsofcarbondioxide,oxygenandodor
content.

Toremoveairbornecontaminantsproducedbyprocesses,buildingservicesand
occupants.

Toprovidespecialenvironmentcontrolforequipmentandprocesses.

Theairconditioningsystemaremadeupoftwomajorcycle:

RefrigerantCycle

CoolingCycle

Typesofairconditioningsysteminthemarket:
a. Roomairconditioner(Windowunit)

Asimplestformofairconditioningsystemforsmallerscaleroom.Itusuallyinstalledin

singleordoublehungwindow,horizontalslidingwindowandcasementwindow.The

unithasadoubleshaftfanmotormountedattheevaporatorsideandcondenserside.

Theevaporatorsideislocatedfacingtheroomforcoolingwhilethecondenserfaces

outdoorforheatrejection.Itcanbedividedintorefrigerationcomponents(compressor,

condenser,expansionvalve,evaporator)andaircirculation&ventilationcomponents

(blower,propellerfan,fanmotor)
b. Packagedunitairconditioningsystem

Thepackagedairconditionersareusedforthecoolingcapacitiesinbetweenroomac

andcentralizedacsystem.Itisavailableinthefixedratedcapacitiesofabove3until15

tons.Theseunitsareusedcommonlyinplaceslikerestaurants,telephoneexchanges,

smallhalls.Thesystemcanbedividedintotwotypes:oneswithwatercooled

condenserandtheoneswithaircooledcondensers.
c. Centralized/plantairconditioningsystem

Thecentralairconditioningplantsorthesystemsareusedwhenlargebuildings,hotels,

theaters,airports,shoppingmallstobeairconditionedcompletely.Thereisaplantroom

wherelargecompressor,condenser,thermostaticexpansionvalveandtheevaporator

arekeptin.Itperformsallthefunctionsasusualsimilartoatypicalrefrigerationsystem.

However,allthesepartsarelargerinsizeandhavehighercapacities.Therearetwo

typesofcentralacsystem:directexpansioncentralairconditioningplantandchilled

watercentralairconditioningplant.Tooperateandmaintaincentralairconditioning

systems,goodoperators,technicians,engineersandproperpreventative&breakdown

maintenanceoftheseplantsisvital.
d. Splitunitairconditioningsystem

Splitairconditionersareusedforsmallroomsandhalls,usuallyinplaceswherewindow

airconditionerscannotbeinstalled.

4.0MechanicalVentilationSystem
MechanicalventilationiscommonlyusedinMalaysiasbuildings.Mechanicalventilationhelps
toremovestaleairandpromotesfreshairintothespaceswhenthepressuredifferenceisnot
highenoughfornaturalventilationtoworkappropriately.Motoredfanisnormallyinstalled

nearcommonsourcesofmoistureandpollutantsinahouse,forinstance,kitchensand
bathrooms.Besides,airductsandceilingfansarealsoinstalledaroundthewholebuildingto
provideairflowthroughoutthespaces.Itisimportanttoensuretheairflowisnotblockedby
anything,ifnottheventilationsystemwillnotfunctionwell.
Mechanicalventilationsystemcomprisesfourdifferenttypesthataregenerallybeingapplied
inMalaysiasbuildings,whichare:

A.Exhaustsystem

Extractsinsideairtotheoutsideofthebuilding.

B.Supplysystem

Opposetoexhaustsystem,itdrawsinfreshairfromtheoutsideintotheinteriorspaces.

C.Balancedsystem.

Allowsairflowfrominandout.Thedesignofthemechanicalventilationsystemis

dependsonthelocalclimaticandairflow.Unlikeotherthree,circulationsystemdoes

notreallyprovideventilation.Instead,itincreaserateofairflowtocooldownopen

airedspaces.

5.0MechanicalTransportSystem
Mechanicaltransportationsystemisasystemthattransportgoodsandpeopleinabuilding
eitherverticallyorhorizontally.Elevatorandescalatorsarethemostcommonmechanical
transportationsystemthatcanbeseeninhighriseorlowrisebuilding.Anelevatorisliftedup
anddownusingahoistandbreaks,theenergyusedahugeamountofenergytoliftupand
down,butacounterweightcansavemostoftheenergyusedbyelevators.
Elevatorcarisbalancedbyacounterweightwhichhasasimilarweightwithaloadedhalffull
weightelevatorcar,thecounterweighthelpsthemotorusedlesserenergyandforcetoraise
andlowertheelevatorcar.Atthispointmotoronlyneedtoliftthedifferenceweightof
elevatorcarwiththecounterweight,andapplyextraforcetoovercomethepulley.Becauseof
this,itwouldlessstrainonthecables,thismakestheelevatorsafer.Besides,counterweight
reducetheamountofbrakinganelevatorneed,ithelpstopullloadedelevatorsmoveupand
downwards,thereforeaelevatorcarismuchmoreeasiertocontrolwithacounterweightwith
it.

1
1.0Purpo
oseGroup
p
A
Accordingt
toUBBLclause(134)).Designationofpurp
posegroups.ForthepurposeoffthisPart
e
everybuild
ingorcom
mpartmentsshallbereg
gardedaccordingtoittsuseorin
ntendeduseasfalling
g
w
withinone
ofthepurposegroup
pssetoutintheFifth
hScheduletotheseBylawsand
d,wherea
b
buildingisd
dividedinto
ocompartm
ments,usedorintend
dedtobeu
usedfordiffferentpurposes,the
p
purposegro
oupofeacchcompartmentshallbedeterminedseparrately.
T
Thus,thee
elderlyhom
meisconsid
deredinpurposegrou
upII,Institu
utional.

2.0FireApplianceAddress
FireApplianceAddressisthevehicularorfireappliancessuchasturntableladdersand
hydraulicplatformsaccesstothebuildingforthepurposesoffirefighting,rescueand
evacuation.
AccordingtoUBBL(140).Fireapplianceaccess.

Allbuildingsinexcessof7000cubicmetresshallabutuponastreetorroadoropen

spaceofnotlessthan12metreswidthandaccessibletofirebrigadeappliances.The
proportionofthebuildingabuttingthestreet,roadoropenspaceshallbeinaccordancewith
thefollowingscale:

Thusintheelderlyhome,thedesignhadcompliedtothebyLawsbyprovidinga3msetback
fromthebuildingboundary,withanadditionof6msetbackfromtheboundaryattheportal
fronttoeasefireenginesandvehiclesaccessibility.

3.0Walls,Floors,Doors
ConsideredasthemembersinCompartmentation,toconfinethefireintheroomtopreventit
togrowandspreadwithinatimeframetoensuresafeemergencyescapeandevacuationofthe
disabledpeople.Thesecomponentsshallbefireresistantornoncombustibleinnature.Inthe
elderlyhome,thebuildingarecompartmentalizedintoseveralzoneaccordingtotheirfunction
andnoncombustiblematerialsareoptedintheselectionofwalls,floorsanddoorsto
contributeminimalornofuelforafire.
AccordingtoByLaws,
(136)ProvisionofCompartmentWallsandCompartmentFloors.

Anybuilding,otherthanasinglestoreybuilding,ofapurposegroupspecifiedin

the

FifthScheduletotheseByLawsandwhichhas:

(a)anystoreythefloorareaofwhichexceedsthatspecifiedasrelevanttoabuildingof

thatpurposegroupandheight;or

(b)acubiccapacitywhichexceedsthatspecifiedassorelevantshallbeso dividedinto

compartments,bymeansofcompartmentswallsorcompartment

floorsorboth,that

(i)nosuchcompartmenthasanystoreythefloorareaofwhichexceeds

theareaspecifiedasrelevanttothatbuilding;and

specifiedassorelevanttothatbuilding:

Providedthatifanybuildingisprovidedwithanautomaticsprinklerinstalation

whichcomplieswiththerelevantrecommendationsoftheF.O.C.Rulesfor Automatic

(ii)nosuchcompartmenthasacubiccapacitywhichexceedsthat

SprinklerInstallation,29thedition,thisbylawhaseffectinrelation tothatbuildingasifthe
limitsofdimensionsspecifiedaredoubled.
(138)Otherwallsandfloorstobeconstructedascompartmentwallsorcompartmentfloors.

(a)anyfloorinabuildingofPurposeGroupII(Institutional);

(b)anywallorfloorseparatingaflatormaisonnettefromanyotherpartofthe

samebuilding;

(c)anywallorfloorseparatingpartofabuildingfromanyotherpartofthesame

buildingwhichisusedorintendedtobeusedmainlyforapurposefallingwitha

differentpurposegroupassetoutintheFifthScheduletotheseByLaws;and

(d)anyfloorimmediatelyoverabasementstoreyifsuchbasementstoreyhas

an

areaexceeding100squaremetres.
Thus,compartmentalizationisdoneinthedesignstageaccordingtothefunctionofeachroom.
Theareaofeachcompartmentislessthan33metersquareandtheheightis3.5meterwhich
liescomparativelysmallwithinthelimitof2000metersquareandtheheightof28meteras
allocatedbytheNinthScheduleofUBBL.

Compartmentationoftheelderlyhome

Wall
AccordingtoByLaws,NinthSchedule,aminimumperiodoffireresistance(inhours)of1.5
hoursisrequired.

ThewallconstitutesofFireWallwhicharedesignedtopreventhorizontalspreadoffirethat
extendsfromthefoundationtotheroof,sincethedesignofthehomecomprisesofstacked
volumesthatalignswiththefloorbelow.Tocomplytothe1.5hoursfireresistanceasstatedin
ByLaws,Cavitywallwithbothouterandinnerleafofbricks,withinsulationinthecavityis
usedingeneral,with12.5mmgypsumsandplasteronbothsides.Formusichall,100mm
autoclavesaeratedconcreteblocksdensity4751200kg/mm3isusedtoprovidesufficient
fireresistanceandacousticcompliances.

Inacaseoffire,ductsandpipesarepronetobethechannelwhichsmokeandfiretravelsto
othercompartmentandthiswillfailthepurposeofcompartmentation.Inthehome,ductsand
fluesaresealedinintumescentfluewallwhicharebuiltinthecompartmentwall.Intumescent
sealwillswellwhencertaintemperatureisachieved,thusprovidingabarriertoprotectthe
pipingagainstthefire.Thisfluewallisofmorethanhalfofthefireresistanceofthewall.By
separatingtheductsandfluesfromthecompartmentwall,finefireseparationcanbeensured.

Floor
Thefloorconstitutesofcompartmentfloormadeof150mmconcretesolidflatslab,with
25mmscreedand10mmVermiculitegypsumplasterceilingfinishforafireresistanceof1.5
hours.
Door
Compartmentfiredoorareprovidedtoprotectescaperoutesandlimitingthespreadoffire.
UBBL(162)FireDoorsinCompartmentwallsandseparatingwalls

(1)FiredoorsoftheappropriateFRPshallbeprovided.

(2)Openingsincompartmentwallsandseparatingwallsshallbeprotectedbya

doorhavingaFRPinaccordancewiththerequirementsforthatwallspecifiedinthe

NinthScheduletotheseByLaws.

(3)OpeningsinprotectingstructuresshallbeprotectedbyfiredoorshavingFRPofnot

lessthanhalftherequirementforthesurroundingwallspecifiedin theNinth

ScheduletotheseByLawsbutinnocaselessthanhalfhour.

(4)Openingsinpartitionsenclosingaprotectedcorridoeorlobbyshallbe protected

byfiredoorshavingFRPofhalfhour.

(5)Firedoorsincludingframesshallbeconstructedtoaspecification

whichcanbeshowntomeettherequirementsfortherelevantFRP

whentestedinaccordanvewithsection3ofBS476:1951.

fire

ThehomeutilizetypeAonehourfireswingdoorthatisconstructedinaccordanceofasingle
doorleafwithdimensionof900mmwide,2100mmheight,fromsolidhardwoodcoreof37mm
laminatedwithadhesivesconformingtoBS1204,syntheticresinadhesivesforwood,faced
bothsideswithplywoodtoatotalthicknessof43mmwithalledgesfinishedwithasolidedge
stripfullwidthofthedoor.Thevisionpanelofdimensionis840mminheightand180mmin
width,glazedwith6mmGeorgianWiredGlassinhardwoodstopstopreventthebreakingof
glasswhichmightinjuretheusersasthewireswillholdtheglassinplace.Thedoorswingisa
onewayonly,whichfollowstheegressmotiontofacilitatetheescape.Toensureasecure
compartmentation,automaticdoorclosersofhydraulicallyspringoperatedtypearefitted.In
themusichallcompartment,twostoreyexitsspacedat7.68mareprovidedtocomplywith:

UBBL(167)StoreyExits.

(1)Exceptasprovidedforinbylaw194everycompartmentshallbeprovided

with

atleasttwostoreyexitslocatedasfaraspracticalfromeachotherandin nocasecloser
than4.5metersandinsuchpositionthatthetraveldistances specifiedintheSeventh
ScheduletotheseBYLawsarenotexceeded.

(2)Thewidthofstoreyexitsshallbeinaccordancewiththeprovisionsinthe

SeventhScheduletotheseByLaws.

UBBL(174)ArrangementofStoreyExits.

(1)Wheretwoormorestoreyexitsarerequiredtheyshallbespacedatnot

than5metersapartmeasuredbetweenthenearestedgesoftheopenings.

less

4.0Meansofescape
Providetheshortestroutetodirecttheuserstotheclosestsafetyassemblyareawithinashort
timeframe.Itshouldbekeptcleanandclearalwaystopreventobstructionsforafast
evacuation.Inthehome,itconsistofunprotectedarea,protectedarea,leadingtoexitand
leadingdirecttoexit.
Inthehome,thelongestescaperoutecomprisesapermittedtraveldistanceof44m,complying
totheUBBL's45msprinkleredlimit,travelingfromthefirstfloorcaretakersbedroomtothe
groundfloorassemblypoint,inclusiveofa3.6mdeadendlimit,withinthe9mlimitinUBBL
(SeventhSchedule).

Emergencyexitsignageiscrucialinilluminatingthewaytotheescaperoute.Thus,exitsand
accessaremarkedwithvisiblesignswithoutobstructionfromview.UBBL(172)InMalaysian
context,anilluminatedsignreading"KELUAR"withanarrowindicatingthedirectionare
placesineverydirectionwherethedirectionoftraveltonearestexitisnotimmediately
apparent,forinstanceinthecaretakersofficeandmusichall.

EmergencyExitRoutes

EmergencyExitPath

KELUARSign

5.0SmokeControl
Byunderstandingtheconvectioncurrenttheoryofhotterairrisesandescapesandcoolerairis
drawnintodisplacethevacuumspaceleftbythehotair,smokecontrolmechanismcan
functioneffectively.Inthehome,confinementmethodandautomaticventilatinghatchesare
usedinsmokecontrolsystem.
Confinement
Passivedeignbyunderstandingthenatureofsmoke,wherebycurtainboardstruncatedthe
flowofsmokebyprovidingbarrierswithsuspendedboardsininterval.Inearlystage,itaidsin
suppressingthegrowthofthefire.

Inthehome,smokecurtainsarealsousedasitismoreversatilethandrywalltomatchthesoft
interiordesignandcanfitaroundallelectricalconduitsanddoesnotinterferwiththe
mechanismofsprinklersystem,whilepreservingitsprimaryfunctionofconfiningthefire.

Smokecurtaincancomeinvariousdesigntosuittheinteriorarchitecture.

AutomaticVentilatingHatches
Whenfireisdetectedeitherbyheatorsmokedetector,themechanismofautomatic
ventilatinghatcheswillbetriggered,wherebythehatcheslocatedattherooftopwillbe
openedtoallowhotsmokethatrisestobeventedoutofthebuilding.

6.0StructuralProtectioninBuildings
Elementsofstructurecanonlybeeffectiveasfirebreaksiftheyhavethenecessarydegreeof
fireresistance.Therefore,therearethreecriteriashouldbeconsidertoensurethefire
resistantcompartmentismaintainedtoallowsufficienttimeforsafeevacuationandrescue
operation:
1. Insulation:Theabilityofanelementofstructurestoresistpassageofheatthroughitby
convection.
2. Integrity:Theabilityofanelementofstructuretomaintaintheseparatingfunctionin
preventingspreadingofflameandsmoke.
3. Stability:Theabilityofanelementofstructuraltoresistcollapseastheloadbearing
functiontosupportitsload.
Materialused
Thetypeofbuildingmaterialsthatareusedinthiselderlycenterwerereinforcedconcrete,
brickwallsandsteelframing.Someofthematerialsisfireresistantwhilesomematerialsare
susceptibletofirerequiredanouterlayeroffireprotection.

1.Reinforcedconcrete:
Itisusedinfireresistantescapestairsandalsoasaloadbearingwallduetoitsstrength,fire
resistantandhighthermalmass.Itisabletoprovidestrengthandstabilitytothebuildingand
stairsincaseoffireoccursasitcanwithstandthemassiveweightfocusedonasmallareain
thebuildingexertedbytheoccupantswhileevacuation.Thetypeofloadbearingwallsthatare
usedintheelderlycenterisreinforcedconcretewith12.5mmgypsumsandplaster.The
thicknessoftheofreinforcedconcretewallexcludingplasteris180mmforperiodoffire
resistanceof4hours.Itisusedinmostofthespacesduetoitscharacteristics.

2.SteelFraming:
Itisusedduetoitslightweight,highstrengthtoweightratio.Eventhoughitisnon
combustible,itwillloseitsstrengthfromtheheatforaperiodandcausecollapseofbuilding.
Hence,thesteelframingissprayedwithasbestosthicknessof12.5mmforperiodoffire
resistancein4hours.Bysprayingasbestos,itprovideheatresistancetosteelframingto
preventlosingstrength.

3.Brickwall:
Anonloadbearingwallwhichhasthesamepropertiesastheconcretewhichisfireresistant
andhighthermalmassthusitissuitabletouseinelderlycenter.Itsnaturalresistanttofireand
heatformsaneffectivebarrierbetweendifferentroomstolengthentheperiodoffire
spreadingwhilewithstandingthehighheatfromfire.Thetypeofbrickwallsusedinthis
elderlycenterisbricksofclaywith12.5mmcementsandplasterwhichthethicknessofthe
wallexcludingplasteris200mmforperiodoffireresistanceof4hours.

UBBL
UBBL1984,section217:Fireresistanceofstructuralmemberoroverloadingwallshallhave
fireresistanceofnotlessthantheminimumperiodrequiredbytheseByLawsforanyelement
whichitcarries.
Firewall
It is a lightweight and nonload bearing concrete wall which capable for period of fire
resistance in 2 hours. It acts as a wall to separate between spaces especially those high fire
risksspacessuchasmechanicalandelectricalroomtopreventspreadoffirewhichcouldlead
toexplosion.Withthehelpoffirewall,itprovidessufficienttimefortheoccupantstoescape

fromthebuilding.Inthiselderlycenter,itisusedattheM&Eroomandchoirroomduetohigh
fireriskasthesespacesconsistsofelectricityandelectricalappliances.

Musicandchoir
room

M&Eroom

GroundFloorPlan

Figure:Firewallstructure

UBBL
Section148(6)AnycompartmentwallsorcompartmentfloorwhichisrequiredbytheseBy
LawstohaveFRPofonehourormoreshallbeconstructedwhollyofnoncombustible
materialsand,apartfromanyceiling,therequiredFRPofwallorfloorshallbeobtained
withoutassistanceformanynoncombustiblematerials.

ActiveFire
eProtectio
on
Activefire
eprotection
nsystemissanintegraalpartoffirreprotectio
on.Itcanb
beclassified
dinto
manuallyaandautomaticallyope
eratedfiremechanicalsystem.A
Activefirep
protectionssystem
canthenffurtherdiviidedintodifferentcattegoriessuchassprin
nklerssyste
em,firealarrmsystem,
firedetecttionsystem
mandfiressuppression
nsystem.

1.WaterB
BasedSyste
em
1.1Wetpipesprinkle
ersystem
ystemadop
ptsautomaticsprinkle
erheadswh
hichattach
hedtoapip
pping
Wetpipessprinklersy
systemco
ontainingw
waterandco
onnectedtoawaterssupplysothatwaterd
discharges
immediate
elyfromsprinterswhe
eneveritisstriggered. Itisthemostcommo
onandsimplest
sprinklerssystem.The
eyarevery
yreliablean
ndrequirelessinstallaationandm
maintenanccedueto
theirsimplicity.Itise
easytohav
vemodificaationsuchaasshutting downthewatersupp
ply,
makingalterrations.Italsorequire
edtheleasttamountoffefforttorestore.
drainingpipesandm
deanetworrkofpiping
gfillerwithpressurise
edwaterwhichareinstalled
Firesprinkklersinclud
behindthe
eceiling.Thefiresprinklersareoncalledasthepipingisalwayysfilledwitthwater.
Thesprinkklerswillbe
eactivatedwhenthe airtemperraturebeco
omeshighw
whenfireb
breaksout.
TheAlarm
mGongthattconnectedtothesy
ystemwillthendetectteditandssendalertssignalto
thenearesstfirestatio
ontoinformthem.

Componentsofwetpipefiresprinklersystem
Wetpipesprinklersystemismadeupfromaseriesofcomponentsincludingstopvalve,alarm
valve,sprinklerheadandalarmtestvalveandmotorisedalarmbell.Inadditiontothissystem,
additionalcomponentsarealsousedtosupportthisarrangementincludingavalvemonitor,
pressureswitchandflowswitch.Thepipesofasprinklersystemisprogressivelydecreasingin
sizefromthewatersupplytoeachofthemostremotefiresprinklerwhichtheelementscan
becategorisedintoriser,range,branchanddropper.

Component

Function

Stopvalve

Isolatethewatersupply.Itisoftenlockedin
theopenpositiontoensurefreeflowof

Valvemonitor

Fittedwithstopvalvetomonitorthestate
(openorclosed)ofthestopvalve.

Alarmvalve

Controlthewaterflowintothefire
sprinklersystem.Whenthepressure
equalisesorfallsbelowthewatersupply
pressure,thevalveopenstoenablewater

Automaticfiresprinkler

Alarmtestvalve
Motorisedalarmbell

Avalvethatexposedforasuffirenttimetoa
temperatureatorabovethetemperature
ratingoftheheatsensitiveelementreleases,
allowingwatertoflowfromonlytheaffected
Openedtostimulatetheflowofwaterfrom
asingleautomaticfiresprinkler.
Operatedbythewaterflowoscillatinga
hammerthatstrikersagongtocausean
audiblealarmsignal.

Pressureswitch

Monitorsafallinwaterpressuretoactivate
aswitchwhichismonitoredbyfirealarm
panelforsignallinganalarmtothefire

Flowswitch

Monitorsthewaterflowthroughasection
ofpipewithinfiresprinklersystemto
preventminorwaterflowfluctuationsfrom
signallinganalarm.

Jackingpump

Providepumpingwaterfromwatersupply
tofiresprinklersystemandmaintaining
waterpressuretoreducefalsealarm
causedbylowpressure.

Locationofwetpipefiresprinkler
systemcomponentsinthesystem
arrangement

Pipeelementsofwetpipefiresprinkler
system

Sprinklerhead
component

Howthefiresprinklerworks

2.Theliquidwillexpandand

3.Theplugisforcedoutbythe

consistsaplugheldin

breakthetimeatcertain

pressurisedwateranddefeated

placebyatrigger

temperature(normally155

awaybyabevelededge.The

1.Thesprinklerhead

mechanism.Theglass
ampuletriggerswhich
filledwithglycerinbased
liquidwillexpandwhen
heated

degrees).Ampuleasthinas
1mmaredesignedfora
fasterresponsetime.

waterspraysoverthede8lected
platewhichisdesignedinan
evenpattern.Waterwill
continueto8lowuntilthemain
valveisshutdown.

Advantageofwetpipe
sprinkler
Effectiveastheyreactveryquickly.
Reducetheheat,flamesandsmokeproducedtoreducetheriskofdeath.
Abletocontrolthegrowthoffireasitreleasesapproximately10to25gallonsof

waterperminute.

ClassesofSprinklerSystem

Occupancyhazard

Squarefootperhead

Maximumspacing
betweensprinklers

ExtraLightHazard

130200squarefootperhead
(39.660.96squaremeter)

15foot(4.5m)

UBBL
UBBL1984section226:
Wherehazardousprocesses,storageoroccupancyareofsuchcharacterastorequire
automaticsprinklersorotherautomaticextinguishingsystem,itshallbeofatypeand
standardappropriatetoextinguishfiresinthehazardousmaterialsstoredorhandledorfor
thesafetyoftheoccupants.

UBBL1984section228:
(1)Sprinklervalvesshallbelocatedinasafeandenclosedpositionontheexteriorwalland
shallbereadilyaccessibletotheFireAuthority.

(2)Allsprinklersystemsshallbeelectricityconnectedtothenearestfirestationtoprovide
immediateandautomaticrelayofthealarmwhenactivated.
Reasoning
Watertankisplacedoutsidethebuildinginsteadoftheceilingtoavoidfireobstructsthe
wetpipesprinklersystemwhenafirebreaksout.Wetpipesprinklersystemisusedin
spaceswhichonlycauseClassAfirewhichcanbeextinguishedbywater.

1.2HoseReelSystem
HoseReelSystemisusedprimarilytorespondtotheearlystageoffire.Itconsistsofpump,
pipes,watersupplyandthereelswhichlocatedstrategicallyinabuildingtoensureproper
coverageofwatertocombatafire.Thissystemismanuallyoperatedbyopeningvalveto
enablethewatertoflowintothehose.Firehosereel providesavirtuallyunlimitedsupplyof
water,astheyareconnectedtothemainswatersupplywhichextendsforapproximately35
metres.Thenonkinkingtubingispermanentlyconnectedtoawatersupplywhichhasamain
turnonoroffvalve,ahoseguideandahosewithanozzle.Thecontrolnozzleattachedto
theendofthehoseenablestheoperatorstocontrolthedirectionandwaterflowtothefire.
WaterbasedhosereelsystemissuitabletousecombatClassAfirewhichincludequantities
ofordinarycombustablematerialssuchastimber,paper,fabricandetcetera.Itshouldbe
locatedatnoticeableplacessuchasbesidetheexitdoorsoralongescaperoutes.

UBBL

ComponentofafirehosereelFirehosereelinstallation

248.(1)Wetriser,dryriser,sprinklerandotherfireinstallationpipesandfittingsshallbe
paintedred.
248.(2)Allcabinetsandareaofrecessedinwallsforlocationoffireinstallationand
extinguishersshallbeclearlyidentifiedtothesatisfactionoftheFireAuthorityorotherwise
clearlyidentified.

2.NonWaterBasedSystem
2.1CarbonDioxideFireSuppressionSystem
Firesuppressionsystemcanbecategorisedintofixedandportablewhichthefixed
suppressionsystemistoextinguishadevelopingfireandalerttheoccupantswhileportable
fireextinguisherisusedforfightingincipientstagefire.Carbondioxidefiresuppression
systemisusedfortheextinguishmentofcookingoils,fatsandelectricalequipments.Infire
protectionsystem,carbondioxidewillbestoredunderhighpressuretanks(highpressure
system)bycompressionandcoolingtoinlowpressurerefrigeratedcontainers(lowpressure
system). Totalfloodsystemsdischargingintoconfinedspaceswilldisplaceoxygenwithhigh
concentrationsofcarbondioxidenecessaryforfireextinguishment(typically3570%by
volumebasedonthematerial)andwillextinguishthefire.Therearetwomethodsof
applicationsofcarbondioxideagent.Onemethodistodischargesufficientamountintoan
enclosedspacetocreateanextinguishmentatmosphere(titalflood
system)orlocalapplication(nozzlesandcetera).Totalfloodsystemsemployapiping
distributionsystemfromacentralsourcewhilelocalapplicationsinvolveusingacarbon
dioxidemobiletanktobeappliedtothefire.

Typesofspace

Typesoffire

Kitchen

E(Electrical
Carbondioxide
Equipement)F(Cooking
Oils and Fats)
E(ElectricalEquipement) Carbondioxide

Choirroom

Typesoffireprotectionsystem

Carbondioxidefiresuppressionsystemisadoptedinkitchenandchoirroombecausethese
areaconsistsofcookingoils,fatsandelectricalapplianceswhichwillleadtofiretypeEandF
whenfirebreaksout.Bothtotalfloodsystemsandlocalapplicationsshouldbeincludedinthe
space.Thissystemworksfastascarbondioxidecanpenetratethehazardareatosmotherthe
combustionveryquickly.Besides,itdoesnotcausespoilageasitrequiresnocleanupwhile
remainsitseffectivenessonwiderageofcombustiblematerials.

Carbondioxidefiresuppressionsystemcomponents

Howkitchencarbondioxidesuppressionsystemworks
1. Whenafireoccursinaprotectedarea,itisquicklysensedbythedetectorlocated
attheductworkorcookingapplianceshood.

Kitchencarbondioxidesuppressionsystemcomponents

Howkitchencarbondioxidesuppressionsystemworks
1. Whenafireoccursinaprotectedarea,itisquicklysensedbythedetectorlocated
attheductworkorcookingapplianceshood.
2. Thedetectorsactuatethesystemandpressurisingtheagentstoragetankand
automaticallyshuttingoffappliancesenergysourceintheeventofafire.
3. Carbondioxidefiresuppressantflowsthroughthepipingandisdischargedintothe
plenumandductareasandontothecookingappliances.
4. Theagentisapplieddirectlyonthefireinspecificspraypatterns,suppressingthe
fireinseconds.Asitsmothersthehotcookinggreases,afoamblanketisformed,
sealingoff

combustiblevapourtohelppreventfirereflashes.

Reasoning
CarbondioxidefiresuppressionsystemisusedinareaswhichwillleadtoClassEandF
firethatcausebyelectricalequipments,cookingoilsandfats.Carbondioxidefire
suppressioncylindersareplacedatthebackwallstomaintaintheaestheticappearanceof
thefrontwalls.

Carbondioxidefire suppressionsystem
sprinklerandcarbondioxidefire suppression
cylinderplacement

2.2FireExtinguisher
Aportable
efireexting
guisheriso
oneofactiv
vefireprotectiondevicewhichu
usestocon
ntrolor
extinguish
hersmallfirrewhenfirebreaksou
ut.Itconsisstsofanhaandheldcyylindricalpressure
vesselwhichcontain
nsagentthaatcanbed
discharged toextinguiishafire.T
Therearevaarious
typesofp
portablefire
eextinguisherswhich
hcontaindiifferenttyp
pesofagen
nt.Itisimpo
ortantto
usetheco
orrectextin
nguisherforthetypeo
offuelasssuingincorrrectagentmaycausethefire
toreignite
eafterappaarentlyextiinguishedssuccessfully
y.

Drypowderfireextinguisheran
ndcarbon dioxidefire
eextinguish
herareuse
edinthebu
uilding.
drypowderrextinguish
hersareplaacedinmosstofthesp
pacesasitcanextingu
uishclass
Portabled
A,B,CandEfire.Caarbondioxiidefireextinguishers areplaced inspacesw
whichconssistsof
mainlyele
ectricalappliancesand
dcookingo
oilsandfatss.Drypow
wderfireexttinguisher
extinguish
hesthefirebyseparattingthefue
elformtheoxygenele
ementorb
byremovingheat
elementofthefiretrriangle.Carrbondiscoiidfireextin
nguisherexxtinguishesfirebytakkingaway
theoxygenelementofthefiretrianglean
ndalsoremovingtheh
heatwithaaverycolddischarge.

PortableccarbondioxxidefireexttinguisherPortablecarbondioxidefireextinguisher
co
omponent

Drypowderfireextinguisher

Drypowderfireextinguisher
component

UBBL
UBBL1984section227:
Portableextinguishershallbeprovidedinaccordancewiththerelevantcodesofpractice
andshallbesitedinprominentpositionsonexitroutestobevisiblefromalldirectionsand

similarextinguishersinabuildingshallbeofthesamemethodofoperation.

Reasoning
PortabledrypowderextinguishersaremostlyusedinthebuildingwhichcauseClassAfire
whilecarbondioxidefireextinguishersareplacedatspecificroomswhichwillleadtoClass
EandFfire.Thefireextinguishersareplacedalongtheexitroutesandbesidethedoorsso
thattheyarevisibletotheusers.

3.FireDetectionSystem
Automaticfiredetectionsystemscombinewithotherelementsofanemergencyresponse
andevacuationplantoreducepropertydamage,personalinjuries,andlossoflifefromfirein
theworkplace.Themainfunctionistoidentifyadevelopingfireandalertbuildingoccupants
andemergencyresponsepersonnel.Automaticfiredetectionsystemisasystemtodetect
smoke,heatorflameandprovideanearlywarningthroughvisualandaudioapplianceswhen
emergenciesarepresent.

Firedetector
Smokedetector

Typesofspace
Of8ice,Emergencyroom,Counsellingroom,Gameroom,
Danceroom.Choirroom,Storage,M&E,Caretakerroom,
Meditationroom(enclosedspace)

Thermalheatdetector

Lobby,Cafe,Socialhub,Discussionarea,Resource
area,Readingarea,Exhibitionarea (Opened/Semiopened

Differenttypesof8iredetectorischosentousetodifferentspace.Thesmokedetectorcan
workwellinanenclosedspace.Thermalheatdetectorreplacessmokedetectorinanopened
orsemiopenedspaceassmokeisnotabletotrapanddetectinbythesmokedetectorin
thesespaces.Thedetectorsmustbeinstalledtotheceilingtodetecttherisingsmokewhen
thereis

a8ire.Besides,the8iredetectorsareusedtotriggerthe8iresprinklersandothertypesof8ire
suppressionsystems.

Ionisationsmokedetectorcomponent

Thermalheatdetectorcomponent

TypesofFire
detector

Ionisationsmokedetector

Thermalheatdetector

Howitworks Smokeparticlesenterthedetectorand Whentemperatureincreases,the


cloguptheionisationchamber.
bimetalcurvesundergoesagreater
increaseinlength.

Thesmokeparticlesattachedtothe
ionsandshutdowntheelectric
current.Thecircuitinthedetector
spotsandactivatesthealarm.

Withoneend8ixed,themovement
ofthestripfreeendcambe
arrangedtocloseanelectriccircuit
thatoperatesthealarm

Ionisationsmokedetector
schematicdiagram

Thermalheatdetectorschematicdiagram

FireDetectionSystem

Squarefootperhead

Maximumspacingbetween
firedetector

IonisationSmokeDetector

367.5squarefoot
(112squaremeter)

34.8foot(10.6m)

ThermalHeatDetector

184.7squarefoot
(56.3squaremeter)

24.6foot(7.5m)

UBBL
UBBL1984section225:
(1)Everybuildingshallbeprovidedwithmeansofdetectingandextinguishingfireandwith
firealarmstogetherwithilluminatedexitsignsinaccordancewiththerequirementsas
specifiedintheTenthScheduletotheseBylaws.

Reasoning
Ionisationsmokedetectorsareusedinenclosedspaceswhichthesmokecanbetrapped
anddetectoreasily.Thermalheatdetectorsareusedinopenedareaswheresmokeishard
todetectastheywillbediffusedtolowconcentratedareas.Thermalheatdetectorisalso
usedinkitchenassmokewillbeproducedduringcookingprocesswhichwillbedetected
andcausefalsealarm.

LocationofSmokeandHeatDetector

FireAlarmSystem
Firealarmsystemcanbeactivatedmanuallybymanualcallpointsorpull
stationsorautomaticallyfromheatdetectors.Thealarmcanprovidewarningof
theoutbreakoffirethroughvisualandaudioappliances.Visualalarmsystemis
importantinthiselderlycenterassomeelderlyhaveauditoryproblemandthe
visualalarmsignalshouldbeinwhiteoramberflashwithhighintensitytodraw
theattentionoftheoccupants.Therearetwotypesoffirealarmsystemsusedin
buildingssuchassingleandtwostagesystem.Singlealarmsystemisdesignedto
activatethealarmsignalimmediatelythroughoutthebuilding.Inatwostagealarm
system,adistinctalertsignalfirstadvisesthestaffofthefireemergency.

Twostagealarmsystem
Twostagealarmsystemisadoptedinthebuilding.Inatwostagealarm
system,adistinctalertsignalfirstadvisesthestaffofthefireemergency.Itisto
preventshockingtheelderlywhenthereisanyfalsealarm.Thissystemconsistsof
alarminitiatingdevice(firedetectorsystem),alarmnotificationappliances(sirens)
andfirecontrolunits(sprinklersystemandfiresuppressionsystem).

How the fire alarm system work


Thefirealarmsystemcanbeset off automatically by smoke detector,thermalheat
detectorormanually.
Whenthesensor detectscertain level of heat or smoke that couldbeanindication
offire.Thealertsignalwillbesendtothestaffoffireemergencyinorderto
preventshockingtheelderlyifthereisanyfalsealarm.
Ifthereisnofalse alarm,thedigital alarm communicator that is directlylinkedto
JabatanBombalocatedabovethecontrolpanelwillsendmessagetothenearest
firestationasassociatedintheemergencyevent.
Asirenandblinkingofflashing lights will be activated to warn theoccupantsto
evacuatefromthebuilding.

Schematic Diagram of Fire Alarm System


UBBL
Section155(1):Thefiremodeofoperationshallbeinitiatedbyasignalfromthe
firealarmpanelwhichmaybeactivatedautomaticallybyoneofthealarmdevices
inthebuildingormanually.

ManualCallPoint
Insomeofthecaseswherethefirecouldnotbedetectedthroughthefire
detectorsystemduetomalfunctionorotherreasons,manualcallpointsystemcan
beusedtotriggerthefirealarmsystem.Itisusuallylocatednearbytheexitsor
doorwayfortheoccupantstobreaktheglassimmediatelywhenexitingduringfire
event.Thesignalwillthensendoftothefirecontrolpanelandtriggerthefire
alarm,cutoffotherservicessuchofelectricalandventilationsystem.

Itisplacedataheightof1.2mabovefloorlevelat
easilyaccessiblepositionfordisabledoccupantson
exitroutes.Occupantsneedtobreaktheglassand
pressthebuttoninordertotriggertheemergency
alarm.
EmergencyBreakGlass

FireAlarmBell
Itisinstalledthroughoutthebuilding,whichusuallylocatednearthedoorways
withanevendistributiontoensurealloftheoccupantsisalertedduringfire
event.Specialcircuitisneededforthefirealarmsystemasanindependentpower
supplywillberequired.Thestrobelightwillbeflashingtogetherwhenthefire
alarmbellisactivatedtoprovidevisualalarmsignaltothoseelderlythathave
auditoryproblem.

Itisadevicethatcreateloudsoundwitha
minimumsoundlevelof65dB(A)or+5dB(A)
aboveanybackgroundnoisewhichislikely
topersistmorethan30seconds.Italso
usuallybeplacedabout1200mmabovethe
manualcallpointand2700mmfromthe
Firealarmbellwithstrobelight

groundlevel.

UBBL
UBBL1984Section237:
(1) FirealarmsshallbeprovidedinaccordancewiththeTenthScheduletothese
ByLaws.

UBBL1984Section241:
Inplaceswheretherearedeafpersonsandinplaceswherebynatureofthe
occupancyaudiblealarmsystemisundesirable,visibleindicatoralarmsignalsshall
beincorporatedinadditiontothenormalalarmsystem.

GroundFloorPlanFirstFloorPlan

Diagramshowingthelocationoffirealarmbellsandmanualcallpoints

Thelocationofthefirealarmbellsandmanualcallpointsaresetatthe
correctlocationinaccordancetoUBBLsection155asmanualcallpointsareeasy
accessbytheoccupants.Besides,thefirealarmbellsareevenlydistributed
aroundthebuildingtoensurealloccupantsineachspacearealerted.Thevisible
indicatorfiresignals(strobelightthatattachedtothefirealarmbell)islocatedat
thecornerthatarevisiblebytheoccupantsinaccordancetoUBBLsection241,
asaudiblealarmsystemisundesirablefordeafpersonorelderlywhichauditory
problem.

6.1Introducttion
MosttbuildingsandhomessinMalayssiahaveinsstalledaircconditionin
ngsystem.
Alwaaysreferred
dtoasairconorAC,,airconditioningsysttemisdevicceusedto
provideanacce
eptablelev
velofoccup
pancycomfortbycon
ntrollingthe
etemperatture,
humidity,airdisstributionaandindoorairquality(IAQ)inord
dertomain
ntainacoo
oland
comffortableatm
mosphere.Airconditioningsysttemisgrou
upofcomponentswo
orking
togethertorem
moveheatffromaparticularspacce,suchasscompressors,condensers,
worketc.
ductw
Intheelderlycenterinvesstigateinth
hisreport,splitairconditioningsystemwillbe
onomicallyfriendlyan
ndmoresu
uitabletoin
nstalledintthe
purposedasitiismoreeco
houssewhichhaasseverale
enclosedsp
pace.Theaadvantagessofsplitairrconditioning
syste
emwhichisscontrollin
ngtheroom
mtemperattureindivid
dually,easilyinstalledand
islesssdisruptiv
vetotheun
nrelatedareaoffersconveniencetotheusserwhichissthe
elderrlyandcare
etaker.
Thesystemintrroducedwillbezonecontrolun
nitunderVaariablerefrrigerantflow
em(VRF)w
whichoneh
heatpumpunit(outdoorunit)co
onnectstoseveralind
door
Syste
unitsswhileeachunithasitsownind
dividualtem
mperatureccontrollertthusmaintaain
theindividualroomtempe
erature.Th
hisreducestheamoun
ntoftheoutdoorunits
thatcorrespond
denttothe
eindoorun
nitsandsav
vesmoresp
pacetoplaacedsuch
amou
untofoutd
doorunitsiinlimitedaarea.
Indoorunitsucchaswallm
mountedairrconditioningsystem
mandceilingmounted
d
casse
etteaircon
nditioningssystemareintroduced
dinzoneccontrolunittsystemass
theynotonlyaesthetically
ypleasingaandalsofu
ulfillthehig
ghestefficie
encyincoo
oling
therroom

6.2MajorCycleofAirConditioningSystem
6.2.1RefrigerantCycle
Aprocesstoremoveheatfromoneplacetoanother.Therefrigerantisused
repeatedlyforeconomicallywise.Allairconditionersusethesamecycleof
compression,condensation,expansion,andevaporationinaclosedcircuit.Thereare
fourmaincomponentsofairconditioningsystemusedintherefrigerantcycle,the
evaporator,compressor,condenserandexpansionvalve.
ProcessofRefrigerantcycle:
a) EvaporatorCompressor
Therefrigerantcomesintothecompressorasalowpressuregas,compressed
andthenmovesoutofthecompressorasahighpressuregas.
b) CompressorCondenser
Thehighpressuregasflowstothecondenserandcondensestoliquid,giving
offitsheattotheoutsideair.
c) CondenserExpansionValve
Thehighpressureliquidmovestotheexpansionvalve.Thevalverestrictsthe
flowofthefluidandlowersitspressurebeforeleavingtheexpansionvalve.
d) ExpansionValveEvaporator
Thelowpressureliquidmovestotheevaporator,whereheatfromtheinsideair
isabsorbedandchangesitfromaliquidtoagas.
Thelowpressuregas,therefrigerantmovestothecompressorwheretheentirecycle
isrepeated.

6.2.2AirCycle
Aprocesstodistributetreatedairintotheroomthatneedstobeconditioned
bycompressionandexpansionofhotbleedair.Theadvantagesofaircycleare
environmentallybenign,nopollutionandhighefficiencybyworkingtogetherwith
refrigerantcycle.
AHUretrievesasetmixtureofoutsideairandreturnairandsuppliestheareas
inneedoftheconditionedair.Latentheatinsidetheroomisremovedwhenthereturn
airisabsorbedbytheevaporator.Themediumtoabsorbtheheatiseitherairorwater.
Aircanbedistributedthroughductsorchilledwaterpipes.Internalairbecomecooler
whenheatisremovedfromtheinterior.

MostoftentheAHUisequippedwithaheating,coolingcoilorbothtosupply

theareawithappropriatelyconditionedair.Areheatsystemisaddedintothe
ductworkifnecessary.

Figure:AirCycle(Drexel,n.d.)

6.2.3ComponentsofAirCycle
1. AirHandlingUnit(AHU)

Forheating,cooling,humidifying,dehumidifying,

filteringanddistributingair.Recyclingsomeof

thereturnairfromtheroom.
Figure:AirHandlingUnit

2. AirFilter

Reducethequantityofdustreleasedintotheroom

3. Humidifierordehumidifier

Requiredonlyifhumidityisanissue

Figure:Humidifier

4. BlowerFan

Topropeltheairfordistribution.CentrifugalfaniscommonlyusedinAHUasit

canmoveasmallorlargequantityofairefficiently.Propellerfanisused

especiallytoremoveheatfromthecondenser

Figure:ACCentrifugalFan

5. Ductwork&Diffusers

TodistributetheairfromAHUtotheroomsthatneedtobeairconditioned.

Usuallytheductworkishiddeninsidethesuspendedceiling.Adiffuserisplaced

atthepartwheretheaircomesout.

Figure:Ductwork

Figure:Diffuser

6. CleanAirIntake

Torenewthecontentsofairtobedistributedwhichcontainsheatanddirtwill

bereturned.

MS1525:2007code8.4.1.2.1
ControlsetbackandshutoffEachsystemshouldbeequippedwithareadilyaccessiblemeansofshutting
offorreducingtheenergyusedduringperiodsofnonuseoralternateusesofthebuildingspacesor
zonesservedbythesystem.Thefollowingareexamplesthatmeettheserequirements:
a)Manuallyadjustableautomatictimingdevices;
b)Manualdevicesforusebyoperatingpersonnel;and

6.3TypesofAirConditioningSystem
Therearefewtypesofairconditioningsysteminthemarket:
e. Roomairconditioner(Windowunit)
f. Splitunitairconditioningsystem
g. Packagedunitairconditioningsystem
h. Centralized/plantairconditioningsystem

6.3.1PurposedAirConditioningSysteminElderlyCenter
a. SplitAirConditioningSystem
Thesplitairconditionerisoneofthemostwidelyusedtypeoftheairconditionersthat
catchingupwiththeearlierwindowairconditionerwhichwasusedextensively.The
mainreasonsbehindthepopularityofsplitairconditioneraretheiradvantagesinsilent
operation,elegantlooksanditdoesntneedtodrillaholeinthewalltoinstallandthus
preservetheappearanceofthewall.Nowadays,therearewiderangeofbrands,color
anddesignofindoorunitsavailableinthemarket.
Advantages
Quickandeasytoinstall&operate

Disadvantages
Rarelydesignedintothefabricofthe
building&canlookunsightly

Individualtemperaturecontroland

Haveamaximumverticalandtotal

suitableforsmallareas/rooms.

refrigerationpipeworklengthallowable.

Coolspacesveryquicklyandareeasyto
controlviaaremotecontrol.
Installationislessdisruptivetoother
unrelatedarea.
Noductworkmeanslesslaborcosts,
quickerandmoreaffordableinstallation.
Lowmaintenancecosts.Theindoor

components,airffilterscane
easilybe
remove
edandcleaaned.

6.3.2C
Compone
entsinSp
plitUnitS
System
Thereaaretwomaainpartsoffthesplitaairconditionerwhicharetheind
doorunitan
ndthe
outdoo
orunit(Figu
ure1,2).Th
hereareco
oppertubin
ngandothe
ercompone
entsapartfrom
thesettwomajorp
partsthatcconnecting
gbetweenttheindoorandoutdo
oorunits.
Theind
doorunitofthesplitA
ACisinstalledinsidetheroomfforcooling,,severalty
ypesof
splitairrcondition
nerscanbe
efound:
a. WallMoun
ntedType
b. CeilingMo
ountedCasssetteType
e
c. FloorStandingType
d. Floor/CeiliingSuspen
ndedDualT
Type

Figure:Wallmountedtype
indoorrunit

Figure:Ceilingmou
untedtype
indoorrunit(SuburrbanSplits,
2016)

Figure:Wallmounttedtype
outdoo
orunit

6.3.3P
Purposedty
ypesofIndo
oorUnits
a. WallMoun
ntedType
Wallmountedtyp
peaircond
ditionercan
nbeplaced
dstrategicallyinthero
oomwhich
hitcan
canbeinstalledonyourmostconvenie
entpartoffthewallw
withoutblocckingthew
way.It
alsosuitabletoco
onditionarroomwithsmallareaasitofferssdifferenthorsepow
werto
fulfilldifferentsizzesofroom
m.

b. CeilingMountedCassetteType
Theductfreesplitheatpumpsystemsprovidecomfortinlarge,openspaces.Duct
freeinstallationwithanaestheticallypleasingindoorunitdesign.Thefourway
controlledlouversandfanspeedfeaturesontheseceilingcassetteindoorunitsallow
forevenairdistribution.Easycontrolthroughawirelessremoteorwiredwallmounted
controller.

6.3.4ComponentsofIndoorUnit
Thecomponentsincludingevaporatorcoil,airfilter,blower,drainpipeandfins.
1. Evaporatorcoil/Coolingcoil
Thecoolingcoilisacoppercoilmadeofnumberturnsofthe
coppertubingwithoneormorerowsdependingonthecapacity
oftheairconditioningsystem.Theevaporatordrawnthehotair
overthecoilthatfilledwithrefrigerant,producecoolair.
2. Airfilter
Itremovesallthedirtparticlesfromtheroomairandhelps
supplyingcleanairtotheroom.
3. Blower
Theblowersucksthehotanduncleanairfromtheroomand
suppliescoolandcleanairback.
4. Fins
Thelouvershelpchangingtheangleordirectioninwhichtheair
needstobesuppliedintotheroomaspertherequirements.
5. DrainPipe
Thedrainpipehelpsremovingdewwatercollectedinsidethe
indoorunit.

6.3.5ComponentsofOutdoorUnit
Theoutdoorunitisinstalledoutsidetheroominopenspacefortheeaseofinstallation
andmaintenance,consistcomponentslikecompressor,condenser,expansionvalve,
condensercoolingfanandetc.Itcanbehideeitheratthebackyardofthehouseorat
therooftop.
1. Compressor
Itcompressestherefrigerantandincreasesitspressurebefore
sendingittothecondenser.Inmostofthedomesticsplitair
conditionershermeticallysealedtypeofcompressorisused.External
powerforcompressingrefrigeranthastobesuppliedtothecompressor.
2. Condenser
Thehightemperatureandpressurerefrigerantfromthecompressor
comesinthecondensertogiveuptheheat.Thetubingismadeup
ofcopperforhigherheat.Thecondenserisalsocoveredwiththe
aluminumfinssothattheheatfromtherefrigerantcanberemovedatfasterrate.
3. CondenserCoolingFan
Itabsorbsthesurroundingairandblowsitoverthecompressorand
thecondensertocoolthem.Thehotairisreleasedbacktotheopen
spaceandthecirculationofaircontinuesunhindered.
4. ExpansionValve
Thehighpressureandmediumtemperaturerefrigerantleavesthe
condenserandenterstheexpansionvalve,whereitstemperature
andpressuredropssuddenly.

6.3.6C
Compone
entsthatConnectssIndoor&
&Outdoo
orUnit
CopperrTubing
Thereffrigerantpiipingismad
deupofco
oppertubin
ngcovered
dwithinsulationandit
connecctstheindo
oorandthe
eoutdooru
unit.Itconssistsoftwo
opipes:on
netosupply
ythe
refrigerranttothecoolingco
oilandtheothertore
eturnthere
efrigerantttothecom
mpressor.
Thedisstancebetw
weenthein
ndoorandtheoutdoo
orunitshouldbekepttasminimu
umas
possible.

Figure:WallMountedAC

Figure:CeilingcasssetteAC

Figure:C
ComponentssofsplitAC

MS1525:2007code
e8.4.1
olEachsysteemshouldbeeprovidedw
withatleasto
onethermosstatforthere
egulation
TemperratureContro
oftemp
perature.Eacchthermostaatshouldbecapableofb
beingsetbyaadjustmento
orselectiono
ofsensors
overam
minimumran
ngeofbetweeen22Cto2
27C.
MS1525Code8.4.4.2
ouldbeproviidedwithmo
otorizedorggravitydamp
persor
Outdoorairsupplyaandexhaustsystemssho
other m
means of auto
omatic volum
me shutoff or
o reduction during perio
od of nonusee or alternatte use of

6.4Considerationforplacement
6.4.1Considerationforplacementoftheindoorunit
a. Theindoorunitislocatedinsidetheroomatthelocationfromwheretheaircan
bedistributedevenlythroughouttheroom.
b. Thewallmountedindoorunitshouldbelocatedattheheightofabout8to10
feet(2.4m)fromthefloorsothatthatmostofthechilledairisusedforcooling
theroom.
c. Theindoorunitshouldbeaccessibleeasilysothatonecanconvenientlyclean
thefiltereveryfortnightandalsoeasiertochangethepositionofthelouvers
manually.
d. Iftheindoorunitisinstalledabovecertainwindow,makesurethatitisin
symmetrywiththewindowtoaddaestheticsoftheroombutnotdestroyit.

6.4.2Considerationforplacementoftheoutdoorunit
a. Theoutdoorunitshouldbelocatedintheopenspace(preferablyontheterrace)
sothattheaircanflowfreelyoverthecompressorandthecondenser.Ifthe
terraceisnotavailable,itcanbekeptontheawningorhangedontheexternal
wallsupportedbytheangles.
b. Thelocationofoutdoorunitshouldbeeasilyaccessibleforcarryingoutthe
maintenanceworksofthecompressor,condenser,andotherdevices.
c. Thereshouldnotbeanyhindrancesinfrontoftheoutdoorthatwouldblock
thepassageoffanairfrompassingtotheopenspace.Anyblockageswillaffect
theperformanceoftheairconditionersandcanalsoleadtotheburningof
hermeticallysealedcompressorcoil.
d. Thesurfaceonwhichtheoutdoorunitistobeinstalledshouldberigidenough
toavoiditsvibration.Thevibrationoftheoutdoorunitwillraiseexcessivenoise
andalsoleadtothebreakingofthecoppertubingandleakageoftherefrigerant.

Figure:placementofindoor&
outdoorunit

Figure:placementof
outdoorunitonrooftop

Figure:placementofoutdoor
unitonangle

6.4.3PositionofIndoor&OutdoorUnitsZoneControlUnit

6.5Typesofsplitunitairconditioningsystem:
a. Splitunitwithoutoutsideair(ductless)
Ductlesssplitsystemrecyclesandrecirculatestheindoorairasitprovidesnosupplyof
renewfreshairtotheinterior.Themainadvantagesofductlesssplitareitiseasyto
install,lowerupfrontcostandcanbeplacedstrategicallytocoolparticularareainthe
house.However,comparedtoductedsystem,theairisnotcirculated,dehumidifiedor
filtered.
b. Splitunitwithoutsideair(ducted)
Ductedsystemallowstocoolmultipleroomsusingonlyonesystem.Itprovides
efficientcoolingthroughouttheroomandhavelargercapacity.Theindoorunitis
usuallyconcealedintheceilingorunderthefloor.Conditionedairiscirculatedvia
flexibleductingandcontrolledbyacontrolpanel.
c. Variablerefrigerantflow(VRF)/Variablerefrigerantvolume(VRV)
MS1525:2007code8.4.1
TemperatureControlEachsystemshouldbeprovidedwithatleastonethermostatforthe
regulationoftemperature.Eachthermostatshouldbecapableofbeingsetbyadjustmentor
selectionofsensorsoveraminimumrangeofbetween22Cto27C.

6.5.1PurposedSplitAirConditioningSystem
Variablerefrigerantflow(VRF)/Variablerefrigerantvolume(VRV)
VRVsystemisamultisplittypeairconditionerthatusesvariablerefrigerantflowto
maintainindividualzonecontrolineachroom.Thecoolantmaterialinthissystemis
refrigerantinsteadofchilledwatersystem.
Thereare3typesofofmultiSplitSystemunderVRF:
1. Masterandslavesystem
Oneoutdoorunitisconnectingtoseveralindoorunitsfunctionasthemastersetting.
SlaveunitscontrolitselfwhileMasterunitcontrolindividualunitorallunitsatthe

sametime.Itissuitableforsingleroomsorevenmultipleroomswithsimilarheatgain
orloss.
2. Variablerefrigerantvolume(VRV)systems
Variablecapacitywithheatingandcooling3pipesystem
Oneoutdoorunitconnectstoseveralindoorunits.Byinstallinga3rdrefrigerantpipe,it
providestotalversatilitythateachindoorunitmaycool/heatindependently.The
indoorunitscanbewallmounted,ceilingmounted,ceilingsuspended,floorstanding
andetc.
3. ZonedControlUnits
Variablecapacityallcoolingorallheating2pipesystem
Fortheelderlycenterintropicalclimaticcondition,zonecontrolunitswerepurposed.
Zonedcontrolunits
Variablecapacityallcoolingorallheating2pipesystem
Oneheatpumpunitconnectstoseveralindoorunitswhileeachunithasitsown
individualtemperaturecontrollerthusmaintaintheindividualroomtemperature.The
limitationisonlyonefunction(cooling/heating)canbeprovidedbythesamesystemat
asthecompressorswillonlyfunctionineithercoolingorheatingmode.
However,intropicalclimateenvironment,onlycoolingfunctionwillbeundergo,
thereforezonecontrolunitswillbesufficienttoprovideairconditioning.

Figure:2pipesystemcoolingoperation(Hardy,n.d.)

Figure:2pipesystemheatpumpoperation(Hardy,n.d.)

6.6UBBLRequirementorRelatedRegulations
UBBLsection41LawSection10WaterClosetsandtoilet
Waterclosets,toilets,lavatories,bathrooms,latrines,urinalsorsimilarroomsor
enclosuresusedforablutionswhicharesituatedintheinternalportionsofthebuilding
andinrespectofwhichnosuchexternalwalls(orthoseoverlookingverandahs,
pavementsorwalkways)arepresent,shallbeprovidedwithairconditioninghavinga
minimumoffreshairchangeattherateof0.61cmpersquaremeteroffloorareaof
thenairchangesperhour,whicheveristhelower.
UBBLsection41(1)MechanicalVentilation&airconditioning
Wherepermanentmechanicalventilationorairconditioningisintended,therelevant
buildingbylawsrelatingtonaturalventilation,naturallightingandheightsofrooms
maybewaivedatthediscretionofthelocalauthority.
UBBLsection41(2)MechanicalVentilation&airconditioning
Anyapplicationforthewaiveroftherelevantbylawsshallonlybeconsideredifin
additiontothepermanentairconditioningsystemthereisprovidedalternative
approvedmeansofventilatingtheairconditionedenclosure,suchthatwithinhalfan
houroftheairconditionedsystemfailing,notlessthanthestipulatedvolumeoffresh
airspecifiedhereinaftershallbeintroducedintotheenclosureduringtheperiodwhen
theairconditioningsystemisnotfunctioning.

MS1525:2007code8.2SystemandEquipmentSizing
8.2.2Wherechillersareusedandwhenthedesignloadisgreaterthan1000kWr,a
minimumoftwochillersorasinglemulticompressorchillershouldbeprovidedto
meettherequiredload.
8.2.3Multipleunitsofthesameequipmenttype,suchasmultiplechillers,with
combinedcapacitiesexceedingthedesignloadmaybespecifiedtooperate
concurrentlyonlyifcontrolsareprovidedwhichsequenceorotherwiseoptimally
controltheoperationofeachunitbasedontherequiredcoolingload.

1.0Inttroduction
Ventilationisaprrocesswhe
ereairexch
hangeistakkeplaceandincludesheating,co
ooling
andhumiditycontrolandno
ormallyiscombinedw
withtheintteractionw
withnatural
ventilattion,therm
malmassan
ndsolargain.Ithelpsttoreplenishoxygenu
usedbythe
e
occupaantsandtoremovepo
ollutantsth
hatgenerattedbybreaathing,hou
useholdactivities
andem
missionsfro
omthebuild
dingmaterrialsandfurnishingwh
henairexcchangeisto
ook
placeandcirculattingairwith
hinaspace
e.Therefore
e,ventilatio
oniscruciaaltoourhe
ealth
andintteriorcomfortlevel.

Ventilationismainlyserving
gascooling
gpurpose.Duringthe
eprocesschangingairr,itwill
drawoutthewarmairfromthebuildin
ngandflushinfreshccoolairfro
omtheoutsside.
Besidess,aproperventilation
ncanhelpssinhumidittycontrol,asanunintterruptedaairflow
willgettridofmoiisture.Itwiillpreventmouldhappensandccausedamaagetowoo
od
structu
uralsupportt.Badairq
qualitycond
ditioncanccontributetohealthd
damage.
Headacches,Drow
wsinessand
drespiratorryproblemsarethecommonsymptomsw
when
poorve
entilationaandmoisturecontroliishappene
ed.Assoggycondition
nistheperrfect
environ
nmentform
mouldanddustmitesstoform.H
Hence,abu
uildingshouldensureto
continu
uouslysupp
plyingfresh
hairtoocccupants,itccanresultiinmitigatin
ngthesehe
ealth
risks.

Ventilationcanbe
edividedin
ntotwodiffferenttype
es,whichaarenaturalventilation
nand
mechan
nicalventilation.Natu
uralventilationneedsahighairpressuredifferencetowork
properlyandtherreisdifficultyincontrrollingtheaairairflow.Thus,theprocessoffnatural
ventilattiondependsonnum
merousvariaableaspecttstodictatteefficiencyinremov
vingthe
staleairanddraw
wingintheffreshair.R
Ratherthan
nnaturalve
entilation,m
mechanical

ventilationismoreoftentouseinMalaysiasbuilding.Astheprocessofmechanical
ventilationcanensurethatthebuildingortheinteriorspaceisconsistentlyventilated.

Typesofmechanicalventilationsystem
Circulationsystem
Acirculationsystemsuchasceilingfansarecommonlyvisiblecirculationsystemina
building.Ceilingfancreatesinternalairmovementbutdonotproviderealventilation,
asthereisnointroductionoffreshair.Itonlycirculatesairwithinaroomforthe
purposeofreducingtheperceivedtemperaturebymethodofevaporationof
perspirationontheskinoftheoccupants.

Figure1.1Exampleofceilingfan

Diagram 1.1shows the position of the ceiling fans in the elderly care center

WholeHouseventilationsystems
Wholehouseventilationsystemshavethreedifferenttypesofairmovementinvolve
whicharethesupplysystem,exhaustsystemandbalancedsystem.Themainpurpose
ofhavingawholehouseventilationsystemistoprovideacontinuousairchangefor
freshandfilteredairtomaintainhealthylivingconditionsfortheoccupants.Whole
houseventilationsystemdonotcoolthetemperatureofthespaceslikecirculation
systemdoes.Aswholehouseventilationsystemsaredesignedtodeliverbuildingwith
freshandfilteredair,thusthesesystemscanpreventdamp,condensationandmould
problems.

ComparisonofWholeHouseVentilationSystems

Mechanical
VentilationSystem

Pros

Supplysystem

Exhaustsystem

Easytoinstall
Inexpensive
Preventbackdraftingof
combustiongases
Minimizepollutantsfrom
outside
Allowfilteringofpollenand
dust
Bettercontrolofaitenters
intothebuilding
Dehumidificationofoutside
air

easytoinstall
inexpensive

Balancedsystem

Cons

Suitableforallkindof
climates
Allowfilteringofpollenand
dust

Willnotremove
moisturefromincoming
air
Increaseheatingand
coolingcosts

Drawinpollutants
Increaseheatingand
coolingcosts
Causebackdraftingin
combustionappliances.
Costsmoretoinstall
andoperate
Increaseheatingand
coolingcosts

Supplysystem

Diagram1.2showshowasupplysystemworks

Asupplysystemusesafanorotherblowerwhichplacedattheinlettoblow
outsideairthroughthebuilding.Itwillcreateagreaterinternalpressurethan
theouteratmosphere.
Supplyventilationsystemissimpleandinexpensivetoinstall.Itisnormally
installedinroomsthatvisitorsoccupymost,forexample,bedrooms,meditation
room,cafanddanceroom.Atypicalsupplyventilationsystemconsistsofafan
andductsystemthatintroducesfreshairintothespace.Otherthanthat,itmay
includeadjustablewindoworwallventsinotherroomsthatnotmanyvisitors
occupy.
Supplyventilationsystemallowsbettercontroloftheairthatenterstothe
building.Itcanminimizeoutdoorpollutantinsidethebuildingandalso
preventingbackdraftingofcombustiongasesfromthefireplacesand
appliancesbypressurizingtheinternalpressureofthebuilding.Besides,a

supplyventilationsystemcanprovidehumiditycontrolandfiltration.Itcan
dehumidifyandremovepollenanddustparticlesfoundintheoutdoorair
beforetheairentertothebuilding.
Comparingbetweenhotclimatesandcoldclimates,supplyventilationsystem
workbestinahotclimatecountry.Assupplyventilationdrawsoutsideairinto
thebuilding,itwillcausethewarminteriorairleakthroughopeningsandlower
theindoortemperature.

Figure 1.2 Exampleofsupplyfan

Diagram 1.3 shows the position of supply fans in the elderly care center.

Justification
Groundfloor
M&Eroom:helpstoreducetheheatthatproducedfromthedevicesinM&Eroom.
Firstfloor
Pantry:helpstobringinfreshairfromtheoutsideasthespaceissmall.
MeditationRoom:bringinGreenfreshairtotheinteriorspaceofthemeditation
roomtoenhancetheairquality.
ResourceArea:helpstoreducetheheatthatproducedformthecomputers.

Exhaustsystem

Diagram1.4showshowanexhaustsystemworks
Anexhaustsystemworksoppositeofthepressuresystem.Vacuumsystem
extractsinternalairfromthebuildingcausinganinrushoffreshairbyan
exhaustfanwhichplacedattheoutlet.Itwillcausetheinternalpressureis
lowerthantheouteratmosphere.
SameasSupplyventilationsystem,exhaustventilationissimpleandinexpensive
toinstall.Atypicalexhaustventilationsysteminvolvesasinglefanwhichwillbe
connectedtoasingleexhaustpointinthehouse.Itisnormallyinstalledin
roomswherepollutantsaregenerated,suchasbathrooms,cafandpantry.

Exhaustfanispreferablycomparedtopassiveventsthroughwindows.Forthe
reasonthatpassiveventrequiresahighpressuredifferencestoworkproperly.
Excludingfreshair,anexhaustventilatormaydrawinpollutantstoo.These
pollutantsincludingdust,fumesandfluegaseswhichareshouldbeconcerned
whenbathfansandexhaustventilatorarebothoperating.

Diagram 1.5 Example of toilet exhaust ventilation system

Diagram 1.6 Example of kitchen exhaust ventilation system

Diagram1.7showsthepositionofexhaustfansintheelderlycarecenter.

Justification
GroundFloor
Washroom:toremovestaleairandmoisturefromthewashrooms.
Kitchen:toremoveairbornegrease,combustionproducts,fumes,smoke,odours,heat,and
steamfromtheairbyevacuationoftheairandfiltration.

FirstFloor
Washroom:toremovestaleairandmoisturefromthewashrooms.

Balancedsystem

Diagram1.8showshowabalaancedsystemworks

Abalanced
dsystemissacombinaationofpre
essuresysttemandvacuumsyste
em.It
usesbothinletando
outletfanto
omaintaintheinternaalairpressureissimilarto
theexternalatmosph
here.
Inabalanccedsystem,freshairssupplyandexhaustve
entscanbe
einstalledin
everyroom
mbutmosttlywillbeinstalledinroomswhe
erevisitorssspendthe
emost
timeandro
oomswherremoisture
eandpollu
utantsareo
oftengenerrated.For
exampleto
oilet,artcraaftrooman
ndkitchen..Inabalancedventilaationsystem,it
consistsofftwoductandfansystems.The
erefore,ballancedsysttemsareussually
moreexpe
ensivetoin
nstallandoperate.
Neverthele
ess,abalan
ncedsystem
missuitableforalltypesofclim
mate.Balancced
systemcan
nfunctionasairfiltrationbecauseitcanre
emovedustandpollenfrom
outsideairrbeforeitintroducing
gitintothe
ehouse.Baalancedven
ntilationsy
ystems

supplyfreshairtotheinteriorspacesandexhaustingstaleairatthesametime
atanequalrate.Thisresulttheindoorairqualityimproved.

Figure1.3Exampleofbalanced
ventilator

Diagram1.9showsthepositionofbalancedsystemintheelderlycarecenter.
Justification
GroudFloor
DanceStudio:Asthedancestudioisthemostoccupantandwheremoistureand
pollutantsareoftengeneratedduetotheactivitythatconducted,balancedsystemcan
helptoremovepollutantsandintroducefreshairintotheenclosedspace.

MaincomponentsofMechanicalVentilationSystem
1. Ducts
Ductsareusedtochannelstheairfromthoseinteriorspacestooutsideofthe
buildings.Airductscanensuretheindoorairqualitybydeliveringstale
airthroughoutthetunnelsandremovethestaleair.

Figure1.4Exampleofduct

2. Ventadapter

Aventadapterhelpstomaximizetheventilationsystem.Itconnectsductstoeachother
witharoundductconnectorandhelptoreduceenergyconsumptionbyinstalling
ventilatorsinareasremotefromairintakewithaninlineadapterkit.

Figure1.5exampleofaventadapter.
3. FireDamper
Wherevertheductpassesthroughafirewall,afiredamperwillbefound.There
isfusiblelinkinafiredamper,itwillmeltorbreakwhenthetemperaturehas
reachedatacertaintemperature.Thiswillallowthedampertocloseand
preventingthenecessaryairtoburn.


Figure1.6Exampleofafiredamper

4. Airfilter

Figure1.7Exampleofdifferent
dimensionoffusiblelink.

Anairfiltercanbefoundinmostofthemechanicalventilationsystem.Typically,there
areatleasttwofiltersthatstandguardoverthebuildingsair.Airfilterhelpstoremove
bacteriaandharmfulparticlesthatfoundintheairthatcomingintothebuildings.

Figure1.8Exampleofanairfilter
5. RangeHood
Arangehoodisinstalledabovethestoveorcooktops.Itremovesairbornegrease,
combustionproducts,fumes,smoke,odors,heat,andsteamfromtheairbyevacuation
oftheairandfiltration.

Figure1.9Exampleofarangehood
6. Faceplate
Aperforatedplate,mountedonthelivespindle,towhichtheworkisattached.

Figure1.10exampleofa
supplysystemfaceplate

7. Roofcap
Aroofcapisdesignedtoexhaustkitchenandbathfansthroughtheroof.

Figure1.11exampleofaKitchenexhaustroofcap.

UBBL
ByLaws(41),Mechanicalsventilationandairconditioning
(1) Wherepermanentmechanicalventilationorairconditioningisintended,the
relevantbuildingbylawsrelatingtonaturalventilation,naturallightingand
heightsofroomsmaybewaivedatthediscretionofthelocalauthority.
(2) Anyapplicationforthewaiveroftherelevantbylawsshallonlybeconsidered
ifinadditiontothepermanentairconditioningsystemthereisprovided
alternativeapprovedmeansofventilatingtheairconditionedenclosure,such
thatwithinhalfanhouroftheairconditioningsystemfailing,notlessthanthe
stipulatedvolumefreshairspecifiedhereinaftershallbeintroducedintothe
enclosureduringtheperiodwhentheairconditioningsystemisnotfunctioning.
(3) TheprovisionsoftheThirdScheduletotheseBylawsshallapplytobuildings
whicharemechanicallyventilatedorairconditioned.

ThirdScheduleByLaws(41),(3)Filtersforexhaustfan
(1) Filtersfortheremovalofairbornebacteriashallbeprovidedforallexhaustair
dischargepointstotherequirementsofthegoverninghealthauthority.
(2) Exhaustairdischargepointsshallbeathighorrooflevelandshallnotinany
casebelowerthan5metresformtheexternalgroundorpavementlevel.

ThirdScheduleByLaws(41),(5)Openingsformechanicalventilationsystem
Wheremechanicalventilationorairconditioningisprovided:
(b)Theundersideofopeningsfortheentryofairintoanymechanical
ventilationorairconditioningplantshallbenotlessthan1metrefromany
externalpavement,roadway,groundlevelorsimilarexternalsurface;
(c)Theundersideofopeningsfortheexhaustofairfromanymechanical
ventilationorairconditioningplantshallbenotlessthan2.5metresfromany
exteralpavement,roadway,groundlevelorsimilarexternalsurface;
(d)Toanyoftheenclosuresfromwhichfoulairwillbeexhausted,theducts,
trunking,serviceshaftsorothersuchitemscontainingorconveyingthefoulair
fromsuchenclosureshallinnowaybeconnectedtoanyairinletsystem.


ThirdScheduleByLaws(41),(10)Waterclosetsandtoilets.
Waterclosets,toilet,lavatories,bathrooms,latrines,urinalsorsimilarroomsor
enclosuresusedforablutionswhicharesituatedintheinternalportionsofthe
buildingandinrespectofwhichnosuchexternalwalls(orthoseoverlooking
verandahs,pavementsorwalkways)arepresent,shallbeprovidedwith
mechanicalventilationorairconditioninghavingaminimumoffreshairchange
attherateof0.61cmmpersquaremetreoffloorareaoftenairchangesper
hour,whicheveristhelower.

ThirdScheduleByLaws(41),(12)Freshairchanges.
(2)Theminimumscaleoffreshairventilationinconjunctionwiththe
mechanicalventilationsystemsshallbeasfollow:
Kitchen20airchangesperhour

1.0Inttroduction
Mechanicaltransp
portationssystemisasystemthaattransporrtgoodsan
ndpeoplein
na
geitherverticallyorh
horizontally
y.Elevatorandescalaatorsareth
hemostcom
mmon
building
mechan
nicaltransp
portationsy
ystemthattcanbesee
eninhighriseorlowrisebuildin
ng.An
elevato
orisliftedu
upanddow
wnusingahoistandb
breaks,theenergyusedahugeamount
ofenerrgytoliftu
upanddow
wn,butaco
ounterweig
ghtcansave
emostofttheenergyused
byelev
vators.
Elevato
orcarisbalancedbyaacounterw
weightwhicchhasasim
milarweigh
htwithaloaaded
halffulllweightelevatorcar,,thecountterweighth
helpsthem
motorusedlesserenergyand
forceto
oraiseand
dlowertheelevatorccar.Atthispointmoto
oronlynee
edtoliftthe
e
differen
nceweighttofelevato
orcarwiththecounte
erweight,aandapplye
extraforceto
overcomethepullley.Becauseofthis,itwouldlessstrainon
nthecable
es,thismakkesthe
elevato
orsafer.Be
esides,coun
nterweighttreducetheamounto
ofbrakingaanelevatorneed,
ithelpsstopullloaadedelevattorsmoveupanddow
wnwards,tthereforeaaelevatorccaris
muchm
moreeasierrtocontrolwithacounterweigh
htwithit.

Figureshowingthesystem
compo
onents of elevators.
e

Thereisaratchetsystemactasabackupjustincasethecablewhichholdingthe
elevatorcarbrokeitwouldavoidelevatorcarcrashtothefloorlevel.Therearesturdy
metalteethontheverticalguiderailsofelevators,andaspringloadedmechanismwith
hooksattachedontoponelevatorcars,soifthecablebroke,theelevatorcarwillbe
locksafelyatthepositionbecausethehookswillsprungoutwardandjammedintothe
metalteeth.

Figureshowingratchet
systembelowtheelevator

Thereisfewtypesofelevatorswhichisarecommonlyusearetractionwithamachine
room,machineroomlesstraction,andhydraulicelevator.Asourcasestudy,themost
suitableelevatorishydraulicelevator,becauseitisalowriseresidentialbuildingand
hydraulicelevatorissuitableforelderlycenterandhospitals.

Elevators
Elevatorsisatransportdeviceusuallyfoundinmultiplestoreysbuildingthatusedto
movegoodsorpeopleverticallyinhighrisebuildingsandalsoallowelderlyordisable
personaccesstohigherlevelsforresidentialorpublicbuildings.Aminimumstandard
forelevatoris4storeysforexceptionwhenwheelchairmovementisrequiredanda
maximumwalkingdistanceof45meter.Thesizeandnumberofelevatorsis
determinedbythepopulation,heightandscaleofthebuilding.Thereisfewtypesof

elevatorswhichisarecommonlyusearetractionwithamachineroom,machineroom
lesstraction,andhydraulicelevator.

Hydraulicelevators
Hydraulicelevatorsareatypeofelevatorswhichsupportedbyapistollocatedatthe
bottomofelevatorthatpushtoelevatorsuptomoveverticallyasanelectricmotor
forcesoiloranotherhydraulicfluidintothepiston.Itisnormallyusedforlowrise
buildingwhichonlyhavetwotoeightstoreyswithamaximumspeedof61meterper
minute.Themachineroomforhydraulicelevatorlocatedlowestlevelbesidethe
elevatorshaft.
Theadvantagesofchoosinghydraulicelevatorsarethenoisesourcescanbeplaced
undertheshaft,anditissafewhiledoingserviceorrepairwork.Otherthanthatlow
maintenancerequire,simpleandeconomicalassembly.
Hydraulicelevatorusedahydraulicramtoliftandloweraelevatorcar,itdonotuse
counterweighttoliftandloweraelevatorsoitconsumemorepowerorenergythan
thetractionelevator.Normallythehydraulicramwillbeinstalledunderneaththe
elevatorcar,butifthereisnotmuchspaceunderit,itcanbeinstalledbesidethelift
shaft.
Thereisalsotwodifferenttypeofhydraulicelevator:

1.Holedhydraulicelevator
Mostconvenienthydraulicelevator,haveasheaveextendstothebottomofelevator
pit,whichtheretractingpistonwouldgoeswhiletheelevatordescends.Someholed
hydraulicelevatordesignedtohavetelescopingpistonrequireshallowerholebelow
thepit.Travelamaximumof18meters.

FigureTelescopic
hydraulicelevator

FigureNon
telescopichydraulic
elevator

Figureroped
hydraulicelevator

2.Holelesshydraulicelevator
Havepistoneithersideoftheelevatorcar,itdividedinto3differenttypes:
a. Telescopichydraulicelevator
Telescopingpistonarefixedatthebaseofelevatorpitanddonotneedto
haveasheaveorholebelowit,itcontain2or3piecesoftelescoping
pistons.Travelsamaximumof15meters.
b. Nontelescoping(singlestage)Hydraulicelevator
Hasonly1pistonandonlytravelsamaximumof6meters.
c. Ropedhydraulicelevator
Acombinationofropeandapistontomovetheelevator.Travelsamaximum
of18meters.

Componentofhydraulicelevator
Componentinmachine/drivesystem

Figurecomponentsinmachine/drivesystemofhydraulicelevator
1. Cylinder
Madebysteelpipewithacceptablethicknessandsuitableforsafetymargin.
Cylinderheadwithaninternalguideringandselfadjustingpackingwas
equippedonthecylinder.
2. Thetank
Holdsthehydraulicfluid,havesufficientspacestoprovideanadequatereserve
topreventtheentranceofairintothesystem,asightglassshallbeprovidedto
checkthelevelofoilandamarkthatindicatetheminimumlevelofoil.
3. Motor/Pump

Pumpisussetopushliquidintothecylinde
ertolifttheelevator.Itcontrolthe
fluidtogoleftorrigh
htwhichallowstheellevatorgoingupwardsordownw
wards
byusingth
heforce.
4. Valve
Valveisussetocontro
olthepressureofthe
etank,itwillopenwh
henthereisslow
pressureandthepressurizedflu
uidwilluse
ethesmallpathbacktothefluid
d
reservoir,aandwheniitishighprressurewh
hichthevalveisclosed
dthefluidonly
cangototthecylinde
erwhichpu
ushthepisttonupandlifttheele
evatorcar
upwards.

ExternaalelevatorComponen
nt
1. Elevatorcaardoor
Adoublelaayereddoo
orwhich1isattached
dtotheele
evatorcaraand1attacchedto
thelanding
gforsafety
ypurpose.Itwouldbe
eopenonthefloorw
whichwas
requestedtostop.

Figureelevaatordoor

2. FiremansSwitch

Usedforfiredepartmenttooverrideallfloor
callingsystemtoallowalltheliftsreturnedto

wheretheswitchislocated.Normallylocatedat

thegroundfloor,sothatiseasiertoescapefrom

thebuilding.

Figure firemans switch

3. HallLantern

Usedtoindicatethearrivingelevatorandthe
directionitwilltravel.Dimensionofhalllanternis
aminimumof2mabovethefinishedfloorand
mustbevisiblefromthevicinityofthecallbuttons

Figure hall lantern

4. CallButtons

Usedtorequestanelevator,itallowtheliftstop
atthefloorwhichhadbeenrequest.Once

requestthebuttonwilllightupuntiltheelevator

arrive

Figure call button

InternalelevatorComponent
1.MonitorBeam
Asmallscreenusuallylocatedabovethefloorselectionbuttonorabovethelift
doorthatindicatethefloorsthatwhichtheuseris,italsoindicatetheliftis
goingupwardsordownwards.

Figure internal monitor beam

2.FloorSelectionButton
Usedtocontrolwhichflooroftheelevatorshouldstop.

Figure floor selection button

3.OperationandEmergencyButtons
Locatedbelowthefloorselectionbuttons,includedopendoor,closedoor
button,emergencystop,emergencyalarm,intercomandtelephone.

Figure operation and emergency buttons

4.KeySwitchControls
Alockedspaceswherelocatedeitherabovethefloorselectionbuttonsor
belowtheoperationandemergencybuttonstoallowdifferentfunctiontobe
turnedonandoffbybuildingoperationstaff.

Figure key switch controls

5.EmergencyRailings
Railingslocatedinsidetheliftsothatitcouldallowusertogetstableifany
emergencyoccur

Figure emergency railings

6.Elevatorventilation
Aventlocatedinsidetheelevatorcartoprovideatleast10hoursairchange
whiletheelevatordoorisclosed.Itlocatedontopoftheelevatorcar.

Figure elevator ventilation

Locationofelevator

Stairlift
Stairliftcanbemostlyfoundinresidentialareaortransportstationsuchastrain
stationthatmorethan1storeyheightbuildingorhouses.Itisnotmainlyfordisable
personbutforelderlieswhohaddifficultiesonwalkingupthestairs.
Stairliftcouldgetpowerfrom2sources,1isfromthebatteryandtheotherisdirectly
fromelectricpower.Theybothhaveprosandcons.Theprosofusingbatteryisit
couldbefunctioneventhereisanelectricoutageswhileelectricpowercouldnotuse.
Butbatterycouldbesuddenlydiewhenthestairliftisbeingusedandthiscouldnot
happenwhenusingdirectelectricpower.
Theadvantagesofusingstairliftareitcouldbeeasilyinstalledathomeorother
buildingandcanallowelderlyaccessthewholebuildingwhichmorethan1storey
withoutanydifficulties.Itisalsocomfortableandslowwhilemovingtheelderlyupor
downthestaircase.

Figurestairlift

Components of stair lift

1) Carriage
Aseatattachedatthesideofstaircasewhichcarrytheusermoveupanddown
fromthestairs

Figurestairliftcarriage/seats

2) Track
Arailmadeofmetalthatallowthecarriagemove.

Figurestairliftmetaltrack

3) Safetyswitch
Itlocktheseatinasafepositionsothatthecarriagedoesnotmove.Itlocated
onthecarriage.

Figurestairliftsafetyswitch


4) Limitswitch(SafetyCutOutSensors)
Aswitchthatcontrolthecarriagetostopwhenthereisaobstructioninthe
path.itisasensorlocatedtoporbottomofthetrackorontheseatsorplatform.

Figurelimitswitch

5) Handheldcontroller
Remotecontrolthatcontrolthestairlift.

Locationofstairlift

nterutilized
dmostoftthemedium
mscalesystemsand
Toconclude,theelderlycen
componentstosu
uittheneedsforelde
erlypeople..Heavymaachineryisavoidedto
oretain
theserrenityofthespace,w
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