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# Arjun Sharma

## Multiple Choice Questions

(Single Option Correct)

below.

## 1. If an average person jogs, reproduces 14.5 104

cal/min. This is removed by the evaporation of
sweat. The amount of sweat evaporated per minute
(assuming 1 kg requires 580 103 cal for
evaporation) is
(a) 0.25 kg

(b) 2.25 kg

(c) 0.05 kg

## identical gases at the same pressure, volume and

temperature. The gas in container A is compressed
to half of its original volume isothermally while the
gas in container B is compressed to half of its
original value adiabatically. The ratio of final
pressure of gas in B to that of gas in A is
(a) 2 g - 1
1
(c)

1 - g

(d) 0.20 kg

1
(b)
2

the T-p graph?
T

(b) 3

p
(ii)

4
3

1
p

(iii)

(iv)

(a) (iv)

1
V

(c) 2

(d) 1

## shown in given p-V graph.

The amount of work done by gas is

(b) (ii)

(c)(iii)

(d) (i)

## 6. Three copper blocks of masses M1 , M2 and M3 kg

respectively are brought into thermal contact till
they reach equilibrium. Before contact, they were at
T1 , T2 , T3 (T1 > T2 > T3 ). Assuming there is no heat loss
to the surroundings, the equilibrium temperature T
is (s is specific heat of copper)
T1 + T2 + T3
3
M T + M 2T2 + M 3T3
(b) 1 1
M1 + M 2 + M 3
(a)

p
D

2p0

A
V0

(a) 6 p0V0

(i)

p0

(a) 4

T
2

g -1

1
(d)

g - 1

## different processes from the

same initial state as shown
in figure. Four processes
isobaric and isochoric. Out
of 1, 2, 3 and 4 which one is

p = constant
V

(b) - 2 p0V

B
3V0

(c)

## M1T1 + M 2T2 + M 3T3

3( M1 + M 2 + M 3 )

(d)

M1 + M 2 + M 3

17

## Multiple Choice Questions

(More than One Option Correct)

## undergoing a change of state from A to B. Four

different parts I, II, III and IV as shown in the figure
may lead to the same change of state.

## 7. An ideal gas undergoes isothermal process from

some initial state i to final state f. Choose the correct
alternatives.
(a) dU = 0
(c) dQ = dU

of processes
irreversible?

described

below

## Q2 are heat added both to T1 and heat taken from T2

in one cycle of engine. W is the mechanical work
done on the engine as shown below:
T1

(a) Change in internal energy is same in IV and III cases, but not
in I and II
(b) Change in internal energy is same in all the four cases
(c) Work done is maximum in case I
(d) Work done is minimum in case II

## Very Short Answer Type Questions

12. If a refrigerators door is kept open will the room
become cool or hot? Explain.

## 13. Air pressure in a car tyre increases during driving.

14.

Explain.
Can a system be heated and its temperature remains
constant?

Q1

16.

W
Q2
T2

## If W > 0, then possibilities are

(b) Q 2 > Q1 > 0
(d) Q1 < 0, Q 2 > 0

## 10. Consider a cycle followed by an engine as shown in

figure.
1 to 2 is isothermal
p

B
III
V

(c) Q 2 < Q1 < 0

II

are

## (a) The increase in temperature of an iron rod by hammering it

(b) A gas in a small container at a temperature T1 is brought in
contact with a big reservoir at a higher temperature T2 which
increases the temperature of the gas
(c) A quasi-static isothermal expansion of an ideal gas in
cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston
(d) An ideal gas is enclosed in a piston cylinder arrangement
resulting in compression of gas

## without adding heat to it? Explain.

A system goes from P to Q by two different path in
p- V graph as shown in figure. Heat given to the
system in path 1 is 1000 J. The work done by the
system along path 1 is more than path 2 by 100 J.
What is the heat exchanged by the system in path 2?
p
1
Q
P
2
V

17. Consider a Carnots cycle operating between

## T1 = 500 K and T2 = 300K producing 1kJ of

mechanical work per cycle. Find the heat
transferred to the engine by the reservoirs.

3
V

## Such a process does not exist, because

(a) heat is completely converted to mechanical energy in such
a process, which is not possible
(b) mechanical energy is completely to heat in this process,
which is not possible
(c) curves representing two adiabatic processes dont intersect
(d) curves representing an adiabatic process and an
isothermal process dont intersect

18

IV

(b) dQ = 0
(d) dQ = dW

8. Which

## 18. If the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator is 5

and operates at the room temperature (27 C), find
the temperature inside the refrigerator.

## 19. A person of mass 60 kg wants to lose 5 kg by going

up and down a 10 m high stairs. Assume he burns
twice as much fat while going up than coming
down. If 1 kg of fat is burnt on expending
7000 kilocalories, how many times must he go up
and down to reduce his weight by 5 kg?

## 20. In a refrigerator one remove heat from a lower

temperature and deposits to the surrounding at a
higher temperature. In this process, mechanical
work has to be done, which is provided by an
electric motor. If the motor is of 1 kW power and
heat transferred from -3 C to 27 C, find the heat
taken out of the refrigerator per second assuming its
efficiency is 50% of a perfect engine.

## 21. The initial state of a certain gas in (pi , Vi , Ti ). It

undergoes expansion till its volume becomes Vf .
Consider the following two cases:
(a) The expansion taken place at constant
temperature.
(b) The expansion takes place at constant pressure.
Plot the p-V diagram for each case. In which of the
two cases, is the work done by the gas more?

## 22. Consider a cycle tyre being filled with air by a

pump. Let V be the volume of the tyre (fixed) and at
each stroke of the pump DV (<< V ) of air is
transferred to the tube adiabatically. What is the
work done when the pressure in the tube is
increased p1 to p2 ?

## (c) Using the first law of thermodynamics, write

down a relation between Q, pa, V , V0 and k.

## 25. Consider that an ideal gas (n moles) is expanding in

a process given by p = f(V ), which passes through a
point (V0 , p0 ). Show that the gas is absorbing heat at
(p0 , V0 ) if the slope of the curve p = f(V ) is larger than
the slope of the adiabatic passing through (p0 , V0 ).

PHYSICS
Molecular accordion drives thermoelectric
behavior in promising material
Engines, laptops and power plants generate waste heat.
Thermoelectric materials, which convert temperature
gradients to electricity and vice versa, can recover some of
that heat and improve energy efficiency. Scientists have
explored the fundamental physics of the world's best
thermoelectric material -- tin selenide -- using neutron
scattering and computer simulations. Their work may aid
energy sustainability and design of materials that convert
heat into electricity.

## Very Long Answer Type Questions

23. Consider a p-V graph in

## 1 (p1, V1, T1)

which the path followed
pV 1/2=constant
by one mole of perfect
2 (p2, V2, T2)
gas in a cylindrical
container is shown in
given figure.
V
V1
V2
O
(a) Find the work done
when the gas is taken from state 1 to state 2.
(b) What is the ratio of temperature T1 / T2 , if
V2 = 2V1 ?
(c) Given the internal energy for one mole gas at
3
temperature T is RT, find the heat supplied
2
to the gas when it taken from state 1 to state 2,
with V2 = 2V1 .

## 24. Consider one mole of perfect gas in

Atmospheric
pressure = p

a
a cylinder of unit cross-section with
a piston attached (figure). A spring
(spring constant k)is attached
(unstretched length L) to the piston
and to the bottom of the cylinder.
Initially the spring is unstretched
and the gas is in equilibrium. A
certain amount of heat Q is supplied to the gas
causing an increase of value from V0 to V1 .
(a) What is the initial pressure of the system?
(b) What is the final pressure of the system?

## Redistribution of electronic clouds causes lattice instability

and freezes the flow of heat in highly efficient tin selenide.
The crystal lattice adopts a distorted state (as shown
above) in which the chemical bonds are stretched into an
accordion-like configuration, and makes an excellent
thermoelectric because heat propagation is upset.
Thermoelectric materials can support sustainable energy.
These can be placed under solar panels, where a
temperature difference can generate electricity cheaply.
Photovoltaic panels can be expensive, and many are
needed to generate useful amounts of electricity. With
thermoelectric materials, once you have the temperature
differential, you only need a comparatively small amount of
material to produce the electricity. In thermoelectric
devices, energy conversion is really a direct link because
the material does all the work. There are no moving parts. It
generates the voltage from a temperature gradient only.

19

## 1. (a) As, amount of sweat evaporated/minute

Sweat produced / minute
=
Number of cals required for evaporation / kg
=

14.5 10 4
580 10 3

145
= 0.25 kg
580

p2V2 = p1V1 p2 =

p1V1
V1
= p1
= 2 p1
V2
V1 / 2

## For gas is B, when compression is adiabatic.

p2 V2 g = p1V1g
g

V
V
p
2 g p1
p2 = p1 1 = p1 1 = 2 g p1 2 =
= 2g - 1
p2
2 p1
V1 /2
V2

3. (c) Thinking Process The slope of the curve for the adiabatic
process will be more that is the curve will be steeper. Slope
of p-V curve in adiabatic process = g( p / V ) whereas slope of
isothermal process = - p / V
As shown in figure, in curve 1, V is constant. It represents
isochoric process. In curve 4, p is
4
constant. It repesents isobaric
process. Out of curves 2 and 3,
3
one is thermal and other is p
adiabatic. As slope of curve 2 is
2
more than the slope of curve 3,
1
therefore
curve
represents
V
4. (b) Thinking Process Work done in a process by which a gas
is going through can be calculated by area of the p-V graph.
p
D

2p0
p0

A
V0

wherein

Q1 = Q 2 + W

If
W > 0, Q1 > Q 2 > 0
Both Q1 and Q 2 are positive.
If Q 2 is negative, Q1 is also negative
(but less negative as W > 0)
\
Q 2 < Q1 < 0
Choices (a) and (c) are correct.

T1
Q1
W
Q2
T2

## Work done by the gas is equal to area of rectangle ABCDA as

shown in figure, W = AB BC = (2 V0 ) p0 = 2 p0V0
As the trace is anticlockwise, this work is done on the gas.
\ Work done by the gas = - 2 p0V0
5. (c) In graph, T is constant and
1
p1 > p2. This situation is represented
by curve (iii) in which p1 > p2 and
p = constant
V
straight line graph is parallel to p
pressure axis indicating constant
temperature.
2
So, choice (c) is correct.
then as there is no heat loss to the surroundings,
\ Heat lost by M1 and M 2 = Heat gained by M 3
M1s(T1 - T ) + M 2s(T2 - T ) = M 3s(T - T3 )
M1T1 + M 2T2 + M 3T3 = ( M1 + M 2 + M 3 )T
M T + M 2T2 + M 3T3
Equilibrium temperature, T = 1 1
M1 + M 2 + M 3

## and work done by the gas is a path dependent function. The

work done in a thermodynamical process is equal to the
area bounded between p-V curve.
From the given initial state A to final state B, change in internal
energy is same in all the four cases, as it is independent of the
path from A to B.
As, work done = Area under p-V curve, therefore work done is
maximum in case I. Choices (b) and (c) are correct.

12. When the refrigerator door is kept open, the room may become

6. (b) If the equilibrium temperature T > T1 and T2 but less than T3,

20

## system returns to its initial state.

\ dU = 0 and dU = dQ, i.e. heat is completely converted into
mechanical energy, which is not possible in such a process.
Further, the two adiabatic process (2 3) and (3 1) cannot
intersect each other. Choice (a) and (c) are correct.

3V0

## Therefore, internal energy, U = constant, dU = 0

From dQ = dU + dW , when dU = 0, dQ = dW .
So, options (a,d) are correct.
8. (a,b,d) Thinking Process If any process can be returned
back such that both, the system and the surroundings return
to their original states, with no other change any where else
in the universe, then this process is called reversible process.
(a) The increase in temperature of an iron rod by hammering,
it is an irreversible process.
(b) A gas in a small container at a temperature T1 is brought in
contact with a big reservoir at a higher temperature T2
which increases the temperature of the gas is also an
irreversible process.
(d) An ideal gas is enclosed in a piston cylinder arrangement
in compression of the gas is also an irreversible process.
In all the three cases above, the original state of the system
cannot be regained.

## hotter. This is because in that event, amount of heat removed

would be less than the amount of heat released in the room.
13. During driving, temperature of air inside increases while its
volume remains constant. According to Charles law, at
constant volume V, p T . Therefore, pressure of air inside the
tyre increases.
14. Yes, a system can be heated and its temperature remains
constant. This would happen when the entire heat supplied to
the system is spent up in expansion (i.e. working against the
surroundings).

## 20. Thinking Process The Carnot engine is the most efficient

compression.
As,
dQ = dU + dW
\
dQ = 0 in an adiabatic process.
So, dU + dW = 0 or dU = - dW
In compression, work is done on the gas, therefore, dW is
negative. Hence, dU is positive, i.e. internal energy of the gas
increases. Hence, temperature of gas increases.

## heat engine operating between two given temperatures.

This is why it is known as perfect engine. The efficiency of
T
Carnot engine is h = 1 - 2
T1
where, T1 and T2 are temperature of source and sink.
Given, power of motor, W = 1 kW
T1 = 27 C = (27 + 273) K = 300 K
T2 = -3 C = ( -3 + 273) K = 270 K
T
270
1
Efficiency of refrigerator, h = 1 - 2 = 1 =
T1
300 10
1
So, efficiency of refrigerator = 0.5h =
20
1 - h 1 - 1 / 20
Q
Coefficient of performance, b = 2 =
=
= 19
W
h
1 / 20

16. Thinking Process We have to apply first law of thermodynamics for each path.
According to zeroth law of thermop
dynamics, we have
For path 1 dQ1 = dU + dW1
For path 2 dQ 2 = dU + dW 2
dQ1 - dQ 2 = dW1 - dW 2
1000 - dQ 2 = 100

## dQ 2 = 1000 - 100 = 900 J

1
Q
P
2

Q 2 = 19 W = 19 1 kW = 19 kW
V

## 17. Thinking Process The efficiency of a Carnots engine is

T2
T1
where, T1 and T2 are temperature of source and sink
T1 = 500 K, T2 = 300 K; W = 1 kJ = 1000 J, Q1 = ?
According to Carnots cycle, we have
T
300 2
=
h = 1- 2 = 1T1
500 5
h = 1-

As,

h=

W
W
10 3
=
= 2500J
Q1 =
Q1
h 2/5

## 21. In figure, A represents initial state of the gas.

(a) When expansion takes place at a constant temperature T1,
the p-V curve is an isothermal curve AB,
Work done by the gas,
W1 = Area under the curve AB.
(b) When expansion takes place at constant pressure, the
p-V curve is straight line AC parallel to OX.
Work done by the gas,
W 2 = area under the curve AC. Clearly, W 2 > W1
i.e. work done is more, when the gas expands at constant
pressure.
Pressure (p)

## 18. Thinking Process The coefficient of performance (b ) of a

refrigerator is ratio of quantity of heat removed per cycle (Q2 )
to the amount of work done on the refrigerator (Q1).
As, coefficient of performance, b = 5,
T1 = 27C = (27 + 273)K = 300K, T2 = ?
T2
T2
Then, b =
5=
T1 - T2
300 - T2

## 19. Thinking Process Potential Energy (PE ) of an object at height

( h ) is mgh. The energy in the form of fat will be utilised to
increase PE of the person. Thus, the calorie consumed by the
person in going up is mgh, then according to problem calorie
consumed by the person in coming down is 1 / 2 mgh.
Here, m = 60 kg, g = 10 m/s 2, h = 10 m
In going up and down once, number of kilo calories burnt
= ( mgh + mgh / 2 ) = 3 / 2 mgh
3 60 10 10
6
kcal
=
=
2
2.8
4.2 1000
Total number of kilocalories to be burnt for losing 5 kg of weight
= 5 7000 = 35000 cal.
\ Number of times the person has to go up and down the stairs
35000 35 2.8
=
=
10 3 = 16.3 10 3 times.
6 / 2.8
6

(pi, Vi)

(pi, Vf)

B
O

(pf, Vf)

Vi Volume (V) Vf

V
.

## 22. Thinking Process There is no exchange of heat in the process,

hence this can be considered as an adiabatic process.
Let volume is increased by DV and pressure is increased by
Dp by an stroke.
For just before and after a stroke, we can write
p1V1g = p2V2g
p( V + DV )g = ( p + Dp)V g

(Q volume is fixed)

DV
Dp g

pV g 1 +
= p1 +
V

V
p

DV
g
pV g 1 + g
pV

D p

1 +

(Q D V << V )

DV
Dp
1 V
1 V
=
dp
Dp dV =
DV =
V
p
g p
g p

## Hence, work done is increasing the pressure from p1 to p2

p2
p2
1V
W = pdV = p
dp
p1
p1
g p
=

V
g

p2

dp =

( p - p1 )
V
( p2 - p1 ) W = 2
V
g
g

21

k
V
(a) Work done for the process 1 to 2 :

## 23. Let, pV 1/ 2 = constant = k p =

V2

W =

V2

pdV = k

V1

V1

dV
V

V2

V
= k
= 2 k( V2 1 / 2 V1

V1 )

= 2 p1V11/ 2( V2 - V1 ) = 2 p2V21/ 2 ( V2 - V1 )
(b) From ideal gas equation :
pV p V V
pV = nRT T =
=
nR
nR
k V
(As, p V = k)
T =

nR
k V1
k V2
Hence, T1 =
T2 =
nR
nR
k V1

nR
T1
V1
V1
1
=

=
=
=
(Q V2 = 2 V1 )
T2 k V2
V2
2 V1
2

nR
(c) Given internal energy of the gas, we have
3

U = RT
2

DU = U 2 - U1 =

3
R(T2 - T1 )
2

3
[QT2 = 2T1 from (b)]
RT1( 2 - 1)
2
DW = 2 p1V11/ 2 ( V2 - V1 )
= 2 p1V11/ 2( 2 V1 - V1 )
= 2 p1V1( 2 - 1) = 2 RT1( 2 - 1) ( DQ = DU + DW )
3
= RT1( 2 - 1) + 2 RT1( 2 - 1)
2
3
7
= ( 2 - 1)RT1 2 + = RT1( 2 - 1)

2 2
=

## 24. Thinking Process We will assume the piston is massless,

hence at equilibrium atmospheric pressure and inside
pressure will be same.
(a) Initially, the spring is unstretched and the gas is in
equilibrium, therefore, initial pressure of the system
pi = atmospheric pressure = pa
(b) On supplying heat, the gas expands from V0 to V
\ Increase in volume gas = V - V0
As cross-sectional area of piston,
A=1
\ Extension in spring,
V - V0
x=
= ( V - V0 )
(Q A = 1)
A
Force exerted by stretched spring on the piston,
F = kx = k ( V - V0 )
Final pressure of the system,
pf = pi + p = pa + k( V - V0 )

22

## (c) If t is final temperature of the gas, then increase in internal

energy, dU = C V (T - T0 )
pV
pV
where, T0 = 0 0 = a 0
R
R
pV
V
and
T = f = [ pa + k( V - V0 )]
R
R
1
Also, dW = pa( V - V0 ) + kx 2
2
According to first law of thermodynamics, we have
dQ = dU + dW
1
\
Q = C V (T - T0 ) + pa( V - V0 ) + k( V - V0 )2
2
This is the required relation.

## 25. According to question, slope of the curve p = f( V ), where V is

volume.
\ Slope of p = f( V ), curve at ( V0, p0 ) = f( V0 )
Slope of adiabatic at ( V0, p0 )
= k( - g ) V0

-1 - g

= - g p0 / V0

## Now heat absorbed in the process, p = f( V )

dQ = dU + dW = nC V dT + pdV
1
Q
pV = nRT T = pV
nR

(i)

1
T = V f( V )
nR
1
dT = [f( V ) + Vf ( V )] dV
nR

(ii)

## Now from Eq. (i), we get

dQ
dT
dV
= nC V
+ p
dV
dV
dV
= nC V

dT
+ p
dV

n CV
[ f( V ) + V f ( V ) ] + p
nR
C
= V [f( V ) + V f ( V )] + f ( V )
R
CV
=
[f( V0 ) + V0 f ( V0 )] + f( V0 )
R

dQ

dV V = V0

## [from Eq. (ii)]

[Q p = f( V )]

C
C
= f( V0 ) V + 1 + V0 f ( V0 ) V
R
R

R
CV =
g -1
CV
1
=
g -1
R

1
dQ

=
+
dV V = V0 g - 1
g
=
p0
g -1

V f ( V0 )
1 f ( V0 ) + 0
g -1

V0
+
f ( V0 )
g -1

dQ
> 0, when gas expands
dV

p
Hence, g p0 + V0 f ( V0 ) > 0 or f ( V0 ) > - g 0
V0

## Heat is absorbed where

Master Resource
BOOKS FOR

JEE MAIN
Theory in Sync with NCERT
Coverage of NCERT & NCERT Exemplar Question
Coverage of Previous Years Questions of JEE Main

from Book I

General Instructions
1. All questions are compulsory.
2. There are 26 questions in total questions number 1 to 5 are very short answer type questions
and carry one mark each.
3. Questions number 6 to 10 carry two marks each. Questions number 11 to 22 carry three
marks each and questions number 24 to 26 carry five marks each.
4. Question number 23 is value based question carry four marks weightage.
1 Mark Questions
1. Define the term mobility of charge carriers in a conductor. Write its SI unit.
2. Two spherical bobs one metallic and the other of glass, of the same size are allowed to fall freely from the
same height above the ground. Which of the two would reach earlier and why?

3. Two charges 4 C and 4 C are placed at points A and B, 3 cm apart. Depict an equipotential surface of
the system.
4. A capacitor has been charged by a DC source. What are the magnitudes of conduction and displacement
currents when it is fully charged?
5. A 10V battery of negligible internal resistance is connected across a 200V battery and a resistance of 38
as shown in the figure. Find the value of the current in the circuit.
10 V
+

38

30

+
200 V

2 Marks Questions
6. The oscillating magnetic field in a plane EM wave is given by

## (i) Calculate the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave.

(ii) Write down the expression for oscillating electric field.

7. An alternating voltage of frequency f is applied to a series L-C-R circuit. Let fr be the resonance frequency
for the circuit. Will the current in the circuit lag, lead or remain in phase with applied voltage when
(i) f > fr

(ii)

f < fr ? Explain.

8. A proton and a deutron having equal momenta enter in a region of uniform magnetic field at right angle
to the direction of the field. Depict their trajectories in the field.

9. n small drops of same size are charged to V volt each. They coalesce to form a bigger drop. Calculate
potential of bigger drop.
10. A copper wire of length l and radius r is nickel till its final radius is R. If specific resistance of copper and
nickel be c and n . What is the conductance of wire now?

Copper

Nickel

3 Marks Questions
11. Derive relations for electric potential due to a uniformly charged thin spherical shell at a point (i) Outside
the shell (ii) On the shell (iii) Inside the shell. Show graphically also.
12. A capacitor of unknown capacitance is connected across battery of V volt. The charge stored in it is 360
C. When potential across the capacitor is reduced by 120 V, the charge stored in it become 120 C.
Calculate
(i) the potential V and the unknown capacitance C.
(ii) what will be the charge stored in the capacitor, if the voltage applied had increased by 120V ?

13. AB is an 1 m long uniform wire of 10 resistance. The other data is as shown in the circuit diagram given
below.
2V

15

A
1.2

1.5V
G

0.3

Calculate
(b) Length AO of the wire, when the galvanometer shows no deflection.
14. Two concentric conducting spherical shells of radii R1 and R2 (where R1 < R2 ) have a
k
medium of resistivity = filled in the space between the shells, where k is a constant
r
and r is the distance from the common centre. If current flows from inner to outer sphere,
calculate the effective resistance of the arrangement.

R1

R2

31

15. Calculate the field at the centre of a semicircular wire of radius r as shown in figure if straight wires are of
infinite length

I
a

I
b

I
c

16. Draw a plot showing the variation of intensity of magnetisation with the applied field intensity for
bismuth. Under what condition does a diamagnetic material exhibit perfect conductivity and perfect
diamagnetism?
17. Two coaxial circular coils C1 and C2 of radii R and r respectively ( R > r ) , such that the distance between the
centres of the two coils is x.
R
I1

I2

C2
C1

## Find mutual inductance of coils.

18. What are eddy currents? How are these produced? In what sense are eddy currents considered
undesirable in a transformer and how are these reduced in such devices?

## 19. Give two uses of each of the following:

(i) Gamma rays
(ii) Infrared rays
(iii) Ultraviolet rays
20. How are amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields related in electromagnetic waves? Name the
electromagnetic radiation used for viewing object through haze or fog. What is their wavelength range?
21. A capacitor C a variable resistor R and a bulb B are connected in series to the AC mains in circuit as
shown. The bulb glows with some brightness. How will the glow of the bulb change, if
(i) a dielectric slab is introduced between the plates of the capacitor, keeping R constant.
(ii) the resistance R is increased keeping C constant?
B

C
R

22. Three batteries of 2V, 1V and 4V with internal resistance 4, 3 and 2 respectively are arranged in
parallel.
2V
4

I1
X

I2
I3

3
4V
2

## Find values of I1, I2 and I3 .

32

I1

1V

Y
I3

4 Marks Question
23. Renu saw her aunt suffering from severe joint pain. Her aunt could not take any pain killer as she was
allergic to them. Renu in her quest to help her aunt found the use of magnets. She read Dr. Philpotts
work on magnetic therapy. That most people are negative magnetic field deficient due to
electromagnetic pollution. Supplementing the body with negative field energy has shown in restore
balance and encourage healing. Renu takes her aunt to the doctor for the treatment. Her aunt is
improving at a phenomenal speed.
(i) What values does Renu have?
(ii) A short bar magnet with moment 0.48 J/T. Give the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field
produced by magnet at a distance of 10 cm from the center of the magnet on (a) axial line (b) equitorial
line of the magnet.

5 Marks Questions
24. (a) Derive the expression for the torque on a rectangular current carrying loop suspended in a uniform
magnetic field.
(b) A proton and a deutron having equal momenta enter in region of uniform magnetic field at right angle to
the direction of the dipole field. Depict their trajectories in the field.

or
(a) A small compass needle of magnetic moment m is free to turn about an axis perpendicular to the direction of
uniform magnetic field B. The moment of inertia of the needle about the axis is I. The needle is slightly
disturbed from its stable position and then released. Prove that it executes simple harmonic motion. Hence,
deduce the expression for its time period.
(b) A compass needle free to turn in a vertical plane orients itself with its axis vertical at a certain place on the
earth. Find out the values of
(i) horizontal component of earths magnetic field
(ii) angle of dip at the place.

25. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor. On charging a parallel plate
capacitor to a potential V, the spacing between the plates is halved and a dielectic medium of r = 10 is
introduced between the plates without disconnecting the DC source. Explain using suitable expressions,
how the
(i) capacitance
(ii) electric field and
(iii) energy density of capacitance?
or

## (a) Define electric flux write its SI units.

(b) The electric field components due to a charge inside the cube of side 0.1 m are as shown.
y

x
z

0.1 m

0.1 m

## Ex = x where, = 500 N /C-m

Ey = 0
Ez = 0
Calculate
(i) the flux through the cube.
(ii) The charge inside the cube.

33

26. An AC source of voltage V = Vm sin t is connected one by one, to three circuit elements X,Y and Z. It is
observed that the current flowing in them,
(i) is in phase with applied voltage for element X.

2

2

## Identify the three circuit elements.

Find an expression for the (a) current flowing in the circuit (b) net impedance of the circuit, when the
same AC source is connected across a series combination of elements X,Y and Z.
If the frequency of the applied voltage is varied, set up the condition of the frequency when the current
amplitude in the circuit is maximum. Write the expression for this current amplitude. A series L-C-R
circuit is connected to an AC source of voltage V and angular frequency . When only the capacitor is
removed, the current lags behind the voltage by a phase angle and when only the inductor is removed,
the current leads the voltage by the same phase angle. Find the current flowing and the average power
dissipated in the L-C-R circuit.

## Solutions will be provided in the next issue

34

Kriti Sharma

Do you know, Astronauts are younger than us, if our birth are
similar to them?
Both velocity and gravity have an effect on the speed of time. The
stronger the gravitational pull (the closer the clock is to the
source of gravitation). Therefore, Astronauts of the International
Space Station (ISS) (who are in reduced gravity compared to
people on Earth but travelling at increased speed around it)
experience time more slowly, at a rate of roughly 1 second lost
every 747 days.

## Do you know, the speed of light is constant only in vacuum.

Why?
According to theory of relativity, the speed of light is same in all
inertial frames that means it is independent of motion of observer
and it does not vary with time or place. Really, light is slowed
whenever it passes through something, being measured travelling
as slowly as just 38 miles per hour at absolute zero (27315
. C)
through ultra-cooled rubidium.

## Do you know, the basic principle behind the sunshine that

makes life possible on the earth?
The sun, shines by turning hydrogen into helium in its core. This
process is called thermonuclear fusion. Because the sun is so
massive, it has great gravity and so its core is under tremendous
levels of pressure and heat. This pressure and heat is so high in
the suns core (about 15 million C) that the protons of the
hydrogen atoms which largely make up the sun collide into each
other with enough speed that they stick together or fuse to create
helium nuclei. It effectively takes four hydrogen nuclei to fuse
together to produce one nucleus of helium, although it is actually a
more complicated three-part process (hydrogen to deuterium,
deuterium to helium-3 and helium-3 to helium).

## Do you know, the fact that using equation E = mc 2 would

make the mobile GPS to perform its functionality?
network of 24 geostationary satellites into orbit to pinpoint our
location and time information in all weather conditions using radio
waves exchanging data because of the theory of relativity, the
speed at which the satellites into orbit clocks tick is around 38,000
nanoseconds faster than clocks on the ground. Every time data is
sent to the receiving device, a calculation must be applied to
correct the timings to within the required 20-30 nanoseconds
accuracy.

Do you know, the fact behind the light waves that don't
always move in straight lines?
It is generally believed that light waves only move in straight
lines. However, as per the recent research in 2010 using
computer controlled hologram, it has been proved that light,
too, can get twisted into knots. According to the study, when
light passes through the hologram, it twists into different
shapes, producing multiple knots.

## Do you know, the human body is a composition of heavenly

bodies? Explain.
Human beings are literally made out of star stuff. Almost all of
the chemical elements that make up a person come from the
stars. Any element heavier than hydrogen originated in the
stars, and we are definitely composed of more than hydrogen.
Calcium, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and around 60
other basic ingredients make up a human being. Since,
hydrogen and helium were the only elements that are not made
up of stars stuff, therefore, its safe to inform that most of the
substance that constitutes the physically originate from the
stars.

## While making a standard resistance, the coil is made of

manganin. The coil is double folded and is wound over
non-conducting frame, why?
For manganin, the temperature coefficient of resistance is very
low. Due to it, resistance of manganin is high. Therefore for
making a standard resistance of the given value, smaller length
of wire is needed. It is due to these facts, the wire of manganin is
used for making standard resistance coil. The coil is double
folded on itself to avoid the inductive effect and it is wounded
over the non-conducting frame in order to avoid the conductive
effect and the leakage of current.

## Do you know, the sides of a horizontal pipe carrying the

dirty water makes the pipe dirty? Explain.
When dirty water is flowing through the horizontal pipe, the
velocity of the water is maximum along the axis of pipe and is
minimum near the walls of the pipe, i.e. a relative motion exists
between the various layers of the liquid flowing through the pipe.
As a result of it, a resistive force comes into play which opposes
the relative motion between the adjacent layers. Due to it , the
dirty particles present in dirty water move outwards and get
struck on the wall of pipe, making the pipe dirty.

NOVEMBER 2015

39

OPTICS

## The branch of physics that deals with the study of

nature, production and propagation of light. It has two
sub-branches. Ray optics and wave optics.
(i) Ray optics It deals with the particle number of
light and is based on the rectilinear propagation of
light, the laws of reflection and refraction of light.
(ii) Wave optics It concerns itself with the wave
nature of light and is based on the phenomenon
like interference, diffraction and polarisation of
light.

## (ii) If m < 1, the image is diminished.

REFLECTION OF LIGHT
When a ray of light after incidenting on a boundary
separating two media comes back into the same media,
then this phenomenon is called reflection of light as
shown in figure.
Normal ray

Incident
ray

Reflected
ray

## Polished interface (Boundary)

LAWS OF REFLECTION
Angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection
(r). The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal,
all lie in the same plane.
REFLECTION AT A PLANE SURFACE (MIRROR)
Distance of image from mirror = Distance of object
from mirror.
Size of image = Size of object.
If the object moves with a certain velocity, the image
moves with the same velocity but in the opposite
direction.
Keeping the incident ray fixed, if the mirror is rotated
through an angle , the reflected ray rotates through
an angle 2.
REFLECTION AT A SPHERICAL SURFACE
(CONCAVE OR CONVEX MIRROR)
Mirrors having their reflecting surface spherical are
called spherical mirrors. It is of two types :
Concave mirror A mirror in which the reflection of
light takes place from the inner hollow surface.
Convex mirror A mirror in which the reflection of light
takes place from the outer bulged surface.
SIGN CONVENTIONS
All distance are measured from the centre (pole) of
the mirror.
Distance measured in the direction of incident ray are
taken as positive, while in the direction opposite of
incident ray are taken as negative.
Distance above the principal axis are taken as
positive, while those below the principal axis are
taken as negative.
MIRROR FORMULA AND MAGNIFICATION
For a spherical mirror, if u = object distance, v = image
distance, f = focal length, R = radius of curvature, O =
size of object, I = size of image.
1 1 1
Mirror formula
= +
f u v
I v
f
f v
Linear magnification m =
=
=
=
O
u
f u
f

## For an erect image, m is positive and for an inverted

image, m is negative.

Revisio

## (iii) If m = 1, the image is of the same size as the

object.
AREAL MAGNIFICATION
If a 2D object is placed with its plane perpendicular to
the principal axis, then
2

A
v2 f f v
m= I = 2 =

=
AO u
f u f

CONCEP

## where, AI = area of image and AO = area of object.

RELATION BETWEEN FOCAL LENGTH AND RADIUS
OF CURVATURE OF A SPHERICAL MIRROR
Focal length = 1 / 2 Radius of curvature
In new cartesian sign convention, the focal length and
radius of curvature are taken negative for a concave
mirror and positive for a convex mirror.

REFRACTION OF LIGHT
It is the phenomenon of bending of light from its
straight path when it passes at an angle from one
transparent medium to another.

## LAWS OF REFRACTION OF LIGHT

The incident ray, the refracted ray and normal at the
point of incidence all lie in the same plane.
The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence and the
sine of the angle of refraction is constant for a given
pair of media. This law is also known as Snells law of
sin i
refraction.
= = constant
sin r
where, is called refractive index of second medium
w.r.t. first medium. This law of refraction is known
as Snells law.

RAY OPT
OPTICAL INS
ENDOSCOPE
Optical fibres are another important application of
total internal reflection. These thin fibres are
generally composed of a glass or plastic core with a
high index of refraction surrounded by an outer
coating or cladding with low index of refraction.
Light is introduced into the core of the fibre at one
end. It then propagates a long the fibre in a zig-zag
path, undergoes one total internal reflection after
another as shown in figure given below.
The ability of optical fibres to convey light along
curved paths has been put to good use in various
fields of medicine. In particular, devices known as
endoscopes allows the physicians to examine the
interior of the body by snaking a flexible tube
containing optical fibres into the part of the body to
be examined.
Core

REFRACTIVE INDEX
It is defined as characteristics which decides the speed
of light in it. It is a scalar, unitless and dimensionless
quantity.
Absolute refractive index The ratio of speed of light in
free space to that in a given medium.
Speed of light in air or vacuum c
=
=
Speed of light in medium
v
Relative refractive index When light passes from one
medium to the other and refractive index of medium 2
relative to 1 is written as 1 2 and is defined as
2 c / v2 v1
=
=
12 =
1 c / v1 v2

## PRINCIPLE OF REVERSIBILITY OF LIGHT

This principle states that if the final path of ray of light
after it has suffered several reflections and refractions is
reversed, it retraces its path exactly.
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
The phenomenon in which a ray of light travelling at an
angle of incidence greater than the critical angle from a
denser to a rarer medium is totally reflected back into
the denser medium obeying the law of reflection.
NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR TOTAL INTERNAL
REFLECTION
Light must travel from an optically denser to an
optically rarer medium.
The angle of incidence (i) in the denser medium must
be greater than the critical angle ( C ) for the two
media.

## Guide the light

through the fibre.
Total internal
reflection

APPLICATIONS OF TIR
Shining of air bubble An air bubble in water shines
due to the total internal reflection at its outer
surface. Here, light is propagating from denser to
rarer medium and if i > C . TIR will take place at the
surface of the bubble.
Mirage An optical illusion observed in deserts or
over not extended surface like a coal tarred road due
to which a traveller sees a swimming pond of water
some distance ahead him and in which surrounding
objects like tree, etc., appear inverted.

## LENS MAKERS FORMULA

This formula relates the focal length f to the refractive
index and the radii of curvature R1 , R2 of its
spherical surfaces.
i.e.

1
1
1
= ( 1)
f
R 1 R2

## Since, the refractive index of the material of a lens

decreases with increases in wavelength of incident
light, it follows that focal length of the lens will
increases with increases in wavelength of incident
light.

on through

PT MAP

TICS AND
STRUMENTS
In some cases, the bronchoscope an even be used
retrieve small samples from the lungs for further
analysis. Similarly, the colonoscope, can be used to
examine the colon, making it one of the most
important weapons in the fight against colon cancer.

BINOCULAR
If two telescopes are mounted parallel to each other
so that an object can be seen by both the eyes
simultaneously, the arrangement is called
binocular as shown in figure. In a binocular, the
length of each tube is reduced by using a set of totally
reflecting prisms which provide intense, erect image
free from lateral inversion. Though a binocular we
get two images of the same object from different
angles at same time. Their superposition gives the
perception of depth along with length and breadth,
i.e. binocular vision gives proper three-dimensional
( 3D ) image.
Objective lens (fo)

## THIN LENS FORMULA

It relates a relation between object distance u, image
distance v and focal length of a spherical lens of small
1 1 1
aperture, i.e. = .
v u f
LINEAR MAGNIFICATION PRODUCED BY A LENS
It is the ratio of the size of the image formed by a lens to
the size of the object.
Size of image ( h2 )
Magnification (m ) =
Size of object ( h1 )

POWER OF A LENS
The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its
focal length expressed in metres. i.e. P = 1/ f ( m )
1
SI unit of power is m , also called dioptre ( D ).
One dioptre is the power of a lens whose principal
focal length is 1 metre.

PRISM
A prism is a portion of a refracting medium bounded by
two plane faces inclined to each other at a certain angle.
The two plane faces inclined to each other are called

refracting faces. The line along which the two refracting COMPOUND MICROSCOPE
faces meet is called refracting edge of the prism.
It is a two lens system, i.e. objective lens and eyepiece
lens of focal length, f O and f e . Its magnifying power
REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM
is very large as compared to the simple microscope.
When a ray of light is refracted through a prism, the sum
If final image is formed at near point of eye, then
of the angle of incidence i and angle of emergence i is
v
D L
D
equal to the sum of the angle of the prism A and angle of
m = m O m e , i.e = O 1 + =
1 +
u
f
f
fe
deviation, as shown in figure.
O
e
O
Angle of prism
where uO is distance of the object from objective
or refracting angle
lens and v O ( L ) is length of tube of microscope.
Deviation at
A
If final image in a microscope is formed at infinity,
first surface
Normal at second surface
L D
then m =

fO
fe
Angle
of

i
f
le o
Ang ence
id
inc

emergence
(deviation
at second
surface)

ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE

## It consists of two converging lenses placed co-axially.

The one facing the distant object is called the
Normal at first surface
objective and has a large aperture and large focal
length. While another convex eyepiece lens of small
A + = i + i and A = r + r
focal length and small aperture.
where, r and r are the corresponding angles of refraction For relaxed eye When image formed at infinity,
at the two faces.
m = f O / f e . In this position, length of telescope is
DEVIATION PRODUCED BY A PRISM OF SMALL
given by L = f O + f e where f O and f e are focal
ANGLE
length of objective and eyepiece lens.
It does not depend on the angle of incidence and is given TERRESTRIAL TELESCOPE
by = ( 1) A.
It is used to see far off objects on the earth. It consists
of three converging lenses, i.e. Objective, eye lens and
DISPERSION
erecting lens.
The splitting of white light into its constituent colours
For relaxed eye, image formed at infinity,
when it passes through a glass prism is called dispersion.
m = f O / f e .
The dispersion of light occurs because refractive index of
In
this position, length of telescope,
prism material is different for different wavelengths.
L = f O + 4 f + f e
Angular dispersion ( ) It is the angular separation When final image is formed atleast distance of
between two extreme colours (violet and red) in the
f
f
distinct vision, m 0 = O 1 + e and length of
spectrum is called angular dispersion.
fe
D
i.e. = V R = (V R )A where V , R are
telescope, L = f O + 4 f + f e where f O , f e and f
refractive indices of violet and red colour.
are the focal lengths of objective lens, eyepiece lens
Dispersion power ( ) It is the ability of the prism
and erecting lens.
material to cause dispersion and is defined as the ratio of
REFLECTING TELESCOPE
the angular dispersion to the mean deviation.
It is based upon the same principle except that the
Angular dispersion
formation of images take place by reflection instead
i.e. Dispersion power =
Mean deviation
of refraction.
Blue colour of the sky According to Rayleighs law of Magnifying power of the reflecting telescope when
the final image is formed at the least distance of
scattering, the intensity of light of wavelength present
f
f
in the scattering light is inversely proportional to the
distinct vision, is given by m = O 1 + e
fourth power of wavelength. i.e. I 1 / 4
fe
D
So, blue colour of sunlight is scattered more by the When the final image is formed at infinity,
f
R/2
atmospheric molecules, due to which the sky appears
, where R is radius of curvature of a
m= O =
blue.
fe
fe
lens.
RAINBOW
It is a spectrum of sunlight through rain drops suspended Limit of resolution It is measured by the angle ()
in air. It is seen in the sky usually after rain when back of subtended at its objective, by those two distant
objects whose images are just seen separate through
observer is towards the sun.
the telescope.
Primary rainbow is much brighter with inner edge violet
1
A
,
=
and outer edge red, subtending 41-43 angle on Resolving power of telescope =

1.22

observers eye.
where, A is the aperture size of the telescope
Secondary rainbow is fainter with inner edge red and
objective lens.
outer edge violet, subtending an angle 51-54 on
GALILEOS TELESCOPE
observers eye.
It uses a concave lens for the eyepiece to obtain an
SIMPLE MICROSCOPE
erect image of the distant object. The real, inverted
A convex lens of small focal length is called a simple and diminished image formed by the objective lies at
microscope or a magnifying glass.
the focus of the eyepiece. The final image is formed at
If a image is formed at near point, the angular infinity and is erect and magnified.
magnification of image is m = [1 + D / f ] where, D is In normal adjustment, m = f O / f e
the least distance of distinct vision.
length of telescope, L = f O f e
If a image is formed at infinity, then magnification,
where, f O , f e are focal length of objective and eye
m =D/f.
piecelens.
A

OVERVIEW

## Magnetic effect of current and magnetism is important topic

according to exam point of view. Student should focus on
Biot-Savart law, Amperes law and its applications, current loop
as a magnetic dipole, torque on a magnetic dipole in a uniform
magnetic field as described in Q. Nos. 1, 4, 7, 8, 26, 28, 35, etc.
In medical point of view, Earths magnetic field and magnetic
elements are generally asked in exam as described in Q. Nos. 11,
12, 15, 16, 20, 46, etc.

## 1. The following figure shows the arrangement in

which a magnetic dipole of magnetic dipole
moment m is placed in an external magnetic field B
which is directed from South to North.
Which configuration has neutral point at point P?
P

B
N

## carrying a current i, are placed in a

plane as shown in figure. The
point of intersection forms a
square of side 2a. The magnetic
field at the centre P of the square is
(a) zero

m0 i
m 2 i
(c) B = 0
4p a
4p a

(b) B =

(b)
N

(a) B =

m0 i
4p a

(b) zero

(c) B =

m 02 i
4p a

FB

Wire 2
x

ds
I2

I1

(d)
N

S
S
P

42

m 0 4i
4p a

## carries a steady current I1 . A rectangular loop

located to the right of the wire and in the x-y plane
carries a current I2 . Both wires are placed in the
magnetic field as shown below.

(c)

(d) B =

Wire 1

m04 i
4p a

## along its length distributed uniformly over its

surface. The magnetic field at any point on its axis is

(d) B =

(a)

Bright

## The magnitude and direction of the force exerted on

the bottom wire of length b is
(a) the force has the same magnitude as the force on wire 2 but
is directed downwards
(b) the force has the same magnitude as the force on wire 2 but
is directed upwards
(c) the force has the different magnitudes as the force on
wire 2 but is directed downwards
(d) the force has the different magnitudes as the force on
wire 2 but is directed upwards

## 5. The permanent magnetic moment of the atoms of a

material is zero. The material is
(a) paramagnetic
(b) diamagnetic
(c) ferromagnetic
(d) may be paramagnetic or ferromagnetic

## 6. A straight current carrying long conductor is kept

along the axis of rectangular current carrying loop.
The straight current carrying long conductor will
experience a magnetic force which is
(a) directed towards the current loop
(b) directed away from the current loop
(c) of zero magnitude
(d) inversely proportional to the square of length of current loop

## 7. A circular wire loop of radius R located in the

y-z plane and carrying a steady current I as shown
in figure below.
y

45

+
(d)

(c)

## 9. The segment of wire in

figure carries a current of
I, where the radius of the
circular arc is R. The
magnitude and direction
of the magnetic field at the
origin is
m 02 I
4p R
m 0I
(c) B =
4p R

R
O

m 0I
8R
m 2I
(d) B = 0
pR

(a) B =

(b) B =

## 10. A short bar magnet placed with its axis at 30 with

an external field of 800 G experiences a torque of
0.016 N-m. The magnetic moment of the magnet is
(a) 0.35 A -m2
(c) 0.40 A -m2

(d) 020
. A -m2

## 11. The Earths magnetic field at the equator is nearly

0.4 G. The Earths dipole moment is

ds

(a) 105
. 10 25 A -m2
(c) 3.05 10 23 A -m2

dBy

R
O

Bat 45

dB

## horizontal component of the Earths magnetic field

is 0.26 G and the dip angle is 60. The magnetic field
of the Earth at this location is

r
x

dBx

(a) 0.35 G

## The magnetic field B at an axial point P at a distance

x from the centre of the loop is given by
m 0IR
(a)
4p( x 2 + R 2 )3/ 2
m 2 IR
(c) 0
4p x

m 0IR 2
(b)
2
2( x + R 2 )3/ 2
m
IR
(d) 0
4p ( R + x )

## 8. In which configuration, the initial direction of the

deflection of charged particles as they enter the
magnetic fields as shown in figure is along upward
direction in the plane of paper ?
Bin

(b) 105
. 10 24 A -m2
(d) 105
. 10 23 A -m2

Bup

(b) 0.55 G

(c) 0.52 G

(d) 0.22 G

## 13. A solenoid has a core of a material with relative

permeability 400. The windings of the solenoid are
insulated from the core and carry a current of 2 A. If
the number of turns is 1000 per metre, then the
magnetic field (H) inside the solenoid is
(a) 2 10 3 A /m
(c) 8 10 3 A /m

(b) 4 10 3 A /m
(d) 1 10 5 A /m

## 14. The dimensional formula of permeability of free

space is
(a) [ML2T -2A -2 ]
(c) [ML2T -2A -3 ]

## (b) [MLT -2A -2 ]

(d) [M2 L2T -2A -2 ]

## 15. Magnetic moment and magnetic flux respectively

+
(a)

(b)

are
(a) both scalars
(c) scalar and vector

## (b) both vectors

(d) vector and scalar

43

## 16. There exists a perfect diamagnet, namely a

superconductor. This is a metal at very low
temperatures. The magnetic susceptibility of
superconductor is very well given by
(b) c >> 0

(a) - 1 c < 0

(d) -1

## 17. A circular coil of 16 turns and radius 10 cm carrying

a current of 0.75 A rests with its plane normal to an
external field of magnitude 5.0 10-2 T. The coil is
free to turn about an axis in its plane perpendicular
to the field direction. When the coil is turned
slightly and released, it oscillates about its stable
equilibrium with a frequency of 2.0 s -1 . The moment
of inertia of the coil about its axis of rotation is
-4

-4

(a) 82
. 10 kg - m
(c) 12
. 10 -3 kg - m2

(b) 12
. 10 kg - m
(d) 12
. 10 -6 kg - m2

## 18. The magnitude of magnetic force per unit length on

a wire carrying a current of 8 A and making an angle
of 30 with the direction of a uniform magnetic field
of 0.15 T is given by
(a) 0.3 N/m

## 19. An electron emitted by a heated cathode and

accelerated through a potential difference of 2.0 kV,
enters in a region with uniform magnetic field of
0.15 T. The radius of the electron if the field is
transverse to its initial velocity is
(a) 10

-4

(b) 10

-2

(c) 10

-6

(d) 10

-3

## 20. A short bar magnet placed in a horizontal plane has

its axis aligned along the magnetic North-South
direction. Null points are found on the axis of the
magnet at 14 cm from the centre of the magnet. The
Earths magnetic field at the place is 0.36 G and the
angle of dip is zero. The total magnetic field on the
normal bisector of the magnet at the same distance
as the null-point (i.e. 14 cm) from the centre of the
magnet is
(a) 0.54 G

(b) 0.40 G

(c) 0.50 G

(d) 0.30 G

## 23. A straight horizontal conducting rod of length

0.45 m and mass 60 g is suspended by two vertical
wires at its ends. A current of 5.0 A is set up in the
rod through the wires. The magnetic field should be
set up normal to the conductor to keep the tension in
the wires is zero, is
(a) 0.30 T

(b) 0.26 T

## automobile to its starting motor, carry a current of

300 A (for a short time). The force per unit length
between the wires is
(a) 1.2 N/m of attractive nature
(b) 1.2 N/m of repulsive nature
(c) 4.2 N/m of attractive nature
(d) 4.2 N/m of repulsive nature

## 25. A toroid has a core (non-ferromagnetic) of inner

3500 turns of a wire are wound. If the current in the
wire is 11 A. The magnetic field inside the core of
the toroid is
(a) 6 10 -2 T
(c) 2 10 -2 T

(b) 5 10 -2 T
(d) 3.02 10 -2 T

## 26. The electron of charge (-e) (e = + 16

. 10-19 C)
performs uniform circular motion around a
stationary heavy nucleus of charge + Ze. The ratio of
the angular momentum and magnetic moment is
e
2 me
e
(c)
me

-e
2 me
-e
(d)
me

(a)

(b)

## 27. A uniform magnetic field of 3000 G is established

along the positive z-direction. A rectangular loop of
sides 10 cm and 5 cm carries a current of 12 A. The
torque on the loop in the case shown in figure given
below is
z

## is placed at the centre of circular coil of 30 turns and

radius 12 cm. The coil is in a vertical plane making
an angle of 45 with the magnetic meridian. When
the current in the coil is 0.35 A, the needle points
West to East. The horizontal component of the
Earths magnetic field at the location is
(b) 0.50 G

(c) 0.45 G

(d) 0.34 T

(a) 0.39 G

(c) 0.45 T

(d) 0.18 G

## 22. A magnetic needle free to rotate in a vertical plane

parallel to the magnetic meridian has its North tip
pointing down at 60 with the horizontal. The
horizontal component of the Earths magnetic field
at the place is known to be 0.35 G. The magnitude of
the Earths magnetic field at the place is
(a) 0.54 G

44

(b) 0.70 G

(c) 0.50 G

(d) 0.45 G

(a) 18
. 10 -2
(b) 18
. 10 -2
(c) 18
. 10 -2
(d) 18
. 10 -2

## N-m and the direction is along - y-axis

N-m and the direction is along + y-axis
N-m and the direction is along - z-axis
N-m and the direction is along + z-axis

## 28. Two current carrying conductors are shown in

figure given below.

## cylindrical region of radius 10.0 cm, its direction

parallel to the axis along East to West. A wire
carrying current of 7.0 A in the North to South
direction passes through this region. The
magnitude and direction of the force on the wire if
the wire intersects on the axis, is

d
a
b

## (a) 2.1 N along vertically upward direction

(b) 2.1 N along vertically downward direction
(c) 4.2 N along vertically upward direction
(d) 4.1 N along vertically downward direction

Fba
L
Ia

Ba
Ib

given by
(a)

m 0 Ia Ib
L
2 pd

(b)

(c)

m 0 Ia Ib
pd

m 0 Ia Ib
4pd

N
(b) 4.5 10
(d) 5.5 10 -25 N

(c) dB =

(b) f B = B dA

m 0 ldS r

## (d) None of these

4p r 2

(b) susceptibility
(d) None of these

(a) m m = m 0 (1 + c )
(c) B = m 0 (H + M )

-25

(a) B dS = m 0 l

(a) work
(c) permeability

## in a uniform magnetic field of 0.10 T normal to the

plane of the coil. If the current in the coil is 5.0 A,
then the average force on each electron in the coil
due to the magnetic field is
(a) 2.5 10
N
(c) 5 10 -25 N

## required to take the material through the hysteresis

cycle is represented by

-25

## 32. A uniform magnetic field of 1.5 T exists in a

(b) B = m mB
(d) None of these

## 35. Gausss law in magnetism states that the net

magnetic flux through any closed surface is always
zero, is
B dA = 0
s

## This is due to the fact that,

(a) isolated magnetic poles (monopoles) have never been
detected and perhaps do not exist
(b) isolated magnetic dipoles have never been detected and
perhaps do not exist
(c) magnetic poles (monopoles) have been detected
(d) None of the above

## 31. Consider the current carrying loop shown in figure

formed of radial lines and segments of circles whose
centres are at point P.
C

(a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the
correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the
correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) Assertion is false but Reason is true.

## atom is due to both orbital and spin motion of

electrons of the atom.
60
a
D

(a) B =

m 0 4I 4I
-
4p a
b

(b) B =

m 0 4l 4l
-
12 a
b

(c) B =

m0 l
l
-
12 a b

(d) B =

m 0 4l 4l
-
6 a
b

## Reason (R) An accelerated charge particle produces

electric field as well as magnetic field.

## 37. Assertion (A) A magnetic dipole of magnetic dipole

moment m is placed inside the imaginary cube of
edge a. The magnetic flux linked with the
imaginary cube of edge a is zero.
Reason (R) This is true as per the Gauss's theorem in
the magnetism.

45

## 38. Assertion (A) In Fig. (a), a wire suspended

vertically between the poles of a magnet. In Fig. (b),
the set up shown in part (a) as seen looking at the
South pole of the magnet, so that the magnetic field
is directed into the page. When there is no current in
the wire, it remains vertical and in Fig. (c), when the
current is upward, the wire deflects to the left
direction.

Bin

Bin

I=0

Fig. (a)

Fig.(b)

Fig.(c)

## Reason (R) The magnetic force acting on a current

conductor in the magnetic field is given by
F = BIl sin q. The direction of magnetic force can be
given by using Fleming's left hand rule.

## wire bent into a

R forms a closed
ds
R
circuit and carries
a current I. The
d
wire lies in the

## x-y plane and a

uniform magnetic
I
field is directed
along the positive
y-axis as shown in figure. The magnitude of the
magnetic force acting on the straight portion of the
wire and on the curved portion is zero.
Reason (R) Assuming the force F1 acting on the
straight portion and force F2 acting on the curved
portion of loop. Since, F2 with a magnitude of 2iRB,
is directed into the page and because F1 with a
magnitude of 2 iRB is directed out of the page, the
net force on the closed loop is zero.

## 40. Assertion (A) A rectangular coil of dimensions

5.40 cm 8.50 cm consists of 25 turns of wire and
carries a current of 15.0 mA. A magnetic field of
0.350 T is applied parallel to the plane of the loop.
The magnitude of its magnetic dipole moment is
173
. 102 A-m2 .

46

## 41. Assertion (A) An electron moving along the positive

x-axis perpendicular to a magnetic field
experiences a magnetic deflection in the negative
y-direction. The direction of the magnetic field is
along z-direction.
Reason (R) The magnetic force on moving charge q in
a uniform magnetic field B is given by F = q (v B).

S
N

## Reason (R) The magnitude of magnetic dipole

moment of magnetic dipole is M = m(2 l ), where M is
magnetic dipole moment of dipole and m is the pole
strength of dipole.

## unit length between two long parallel wires that

carry identical currents and are separated by 1 m is
2 107 N/m, the current in each wire is defined to
be 1 A.
Reason (R) Two long straight parallel wires
separated by a distance a and carrying currents I1
and I2 in the same direction, then the force exerted
on wire B per unit of its length due to the magnetic
field set up by the other wire A is given by
FB m0 I1 I2
.
=
l
2p a

## straight wire of radius R

Br
B 1/r
I0 that is uniformly
distributed through the
cross-section of the
r
R
wire. The magnetic
field at a distance r from the centre of the wire in the
m I
regions r > R is B = 0 0 .
2p r
Reason (R) Magnitude of the magnetic field versus r
current I0 is graphically shown in the figure.

## moving with constant

speed v in a circular orbit
O
r
nucleus as shown in
figure.
The
angular
momentum L of revolving
m
electron lies in one
direction and a magnetic
moment m in the opposite direction.
Reason (R) The magnetic moment associated with
this current loop is given by
ev 2 1
m = LA =
pr = evr
2 pr
2

## 45. Assertion (A) Hysteresis loops for (a) a hard

ferromagnetic material, e.g. steel and (b) a soft
ferromagnetic material, e.g. soft iron is given as
below:
B

48. Different

## charge particles are thrown in

magnetic/electric field in different manner as
shown in Column I and their possible trajectories in
Column II.
1.

Parabola

## B. Proton with speed v perpendicular to

the direction of magnetic field

2.

Helical

## C. Helium nucleus with speed v making

an acute angle q with the direction of
magnetic field.

3.

Circular

## D. Electron with speed v perpendicular

to the direction of electric field.

4.

Straight line

A.

(a)

(b)

## Reason (R) Steel has high retentivity and low

coercivity whereas, soft iron has low retentivity and
high coercivity.

## Matching Type Questions (Q. Nos. 46-50)

In each of the following questions, match Column I and
Column II and select the correct match out of the four
given choices.

## Proton with speed v along the

direction of magnetic field.

A
(a) 1
(c) 4

B
2
3

C
3
2

## their units in Column II.

1.

Tesla

B.

Magnetic induction

2.

No unit

C.

Magnetic flux

3.

A - m2

D.

Magnetic moment

4.

Weber

A
(a) 1
(c) 2

B
2
1

C
3
3

D
4
4

A
(b) 4
(d) 2

B
3
1

C
2
4

D
1
3

## 47. There are different types of magnetic material in

Column I and their properties in Column II.
Column II

Column I
A.

B.

Steel

1.

Paramagnetic substance 2.

## Atoms are magnetic dipole

with random direction of
dipole moment.
Permanent magnet

3. B = m 0 i
4 a

## D. Due to an arc of circular current

carrying loop of radius a which
subtends an angle q at centre carrying
current i at its centre.

4. B = m 0 qi
4p a

A
(a) 1
(c) 4

B
2
3

C
3
2

D
4
1

1.

Amperes law

2.

dB =

3.

fB = 0

C. Magnetic flux f B

D
3
2

D
3
2

Column II

Biot-Savart law

## Get feebly magnetised in

opposite direction to
magnetising field.

C
4
1

C
4
1

Column I
A.

4.

B
1
4

B
1
4

D. Soft Iron

A
(b) 2
(d) 3

A
(b) 2
(d) 3

Temporary magnet

D
4
1

Column II
1. B = m 0 2 i
4p a

## C. Due to semicircular current carrying

loop of radius a carrying current i at its
centre.

3.

C
3
2

D
3
2

## B. Due to circular current carrying loop of 2. B = m 0 i

radius a carrying current i at its centre.
2 a

C. Diamagnetic substance

B
2
3

C
4
1

## A point P lies at a perpendicular

distance a apart from long, straight
wires, carrying a current i.

B.

A
(a) 1
(c) 4

B
1
4

Column I

Column II

Permeability

A
(b) 2
(d) 3

## are given in Column I and corresponding magnetic

field produced by them at a given point P as shown
in Column II.
A.

A.

D
4
1

Column I

Column II

Column I

A
(a) 1
(c) 4

B
2
3

C
3
2

D
4
1

B dS = m 0 l
m 0 l dS r
4p
r2

f B = B dA

A
(b) 2
(d) 3

B
1
4

C
4
2

D
3
1

47

## 1. (d) The magnetic field at point P, which lies at the

perpendicular bisector of magnetic dipole in option (d) due to
magnet is parallel to dipole and opposite to the direction of
dipole moment, i.e. anti-parallel to applied magnetic field B.
Therefore, there is a possibility of getting neutral point at P in
option (d).

## 2. (d) According to right hand thumb rule, the magnetic field at P

due to two vertical current carrying conductors is equal and
opposite and balance each other whereas, the magnetic field
at point P due to two horizontal current carrying conductors is
equal and along the same direction. Therefore, the magnetic
m 2i
m 4i
field at point P is B = 2 0 = 0
4pa
4pa

## Net magnetic moment of the magnet

m = 160 2 / 800 = 0.40 A -m2

m0 m

BE =

4p r 2

## where, m is dipole moment of Earths magnetic field

BE = 0.4 G = 4 10 -5 T
On substituting the values, we get
The Earths dipole moment
m=

## 3. (b) Considering a loop enclosing the axis and inside the

cylindrical shell, no current threads it and hence, by Amperes
circuital law magnetic field at any point on its axis is zero.

## 4. (a) According to Flemings left hand rule , the direction of

magnetic force at bottom wire of length b is along downwards
and magnitude is same as the force on wire 2.

## 5. (b) The atoms of diamagnetic material have their permanent

magnetic moment equal to zero. When diamagnetic material
is placed in magnetising field , the orbital motion of electrons
changes and hence net dipole moment is produced opposite
to the direction of magnetising field.

## 7. (b) The magnetic field B at an axial point P at a distance x from

B=

m 0lR
2 ( x 2 + R 2 )3/ 2

## 8. (a) Using Flemings left hand rule, the direction of force on

positive charge [Fig. (a)] is along upward direction.
Bin
+

10 -7

## Earth at given location.

So, we have
cos 60 =
BE =

HE
BE
HE
0.26
=
= 0.52 G
cos 60
1

2

13. (a) The field H is dependent on the material of the core and is
given by
H = nI = 1000 2.0 = 2 10 3 A/m

## 14. (b) The dimensional formula of permeability of free space is

[MLT -2A -2].

15. (d) Magnetic moment and magnetic flux respectively are both
vector and scalar quantities.

## 16. (d) The susceptibility c of a material is diamagnetic if c

is negative, paramagnetic, if c is positive and small
and ferromagnetic. If c is large and positive. For the perfect
diamagnet namely a superconductor, the susceptibility
c = - 1.

## 17. (b) The frequency of oscillation, f =

9. (b) The magnetic field at origin exists only due to circular arc
which subtends an angle p/2 at origin. Also, the magnetic field
due to straight current carrying conductor at origin is zero.
m i
The magnitude of the magnetic field at the origin is B = 0 .
8R

## 10. (c) Torque acting on a short bar magnet, t = mBsin q, q = 30,

Hence,
Thus,

48

sin q =

1
2

1
0.016 = m ( 800 10 -4 T )
2

Q m 0 = 10 -7

4p

## 12. (c) Since, HE = 026

. G. Let BE is the magnetic field of the

## the centre of the loop is given by

2

4 10 -5 ( 6.4 10 6 )3

= 105
. 10 23 A -m2

## 6. (c) The direction of magnetic field due to current loop is along

its axis. This makes an angle between current carrying
conductor and magnetic field equal to 0 or p. Therefore, the
magnetic force on a conductor is zero, as F sin q.

4 10 -5 ( 6.4 10 6 )3
m 0 / 4p

1
2p

mB
I

## where, magnetic moment m = NIA = Nlpr 2

The moment of inertia I is given by
I=

. ( 01
. )2 5 10 -2
mB
NIpr 2B 16 075
=
=
2 2
2 2
4p f
4pr f
4p(2 )2
= 1.2 10 -4 kg-m 2

## 18. (c) Magnetic force per unit length

=

F
= lBsin q = 8 015
. sin 30
l

= 0.6 N/m

electron
eV =
v =

1
mv 2
2
2eV
=
m

= 1.2 N/m
=
2 pr
2 p 0.015

F =

## 25. (d) As magnetic field B for a toroid at any point inside it is

2 16 10 -19 2000
91
. 10 -31

= 2.65 10 7 m/s
Here, angle between v and B is 90, therefore charge particle
91
. 10 -31 2.65 10 7
mv
=
r=
= 10 -3 m
qB
16
. 10 -19 015
.

## same as that of a solenoid on its axis and given by B = m 0nI,

where, n is number of turns per unit length.
The mean radius, r = 25.5 cm = 0.255 m
Number of turns per unit length, n =

## Now, magnetic field inside the core of the toroid B = m 0nI

where, n is the number of turns per unit length.
\

B = 4p 10 -7

## 20. (a) At null-point on axis of magnet,

magnetic field at any axial point B = horizontal component of
the Earths magnetic field H
m 0m
= H = 0.36 G
4pr 3
Magnetic field at any equatorial point is
=

m0 m

N
3500
=
2 pR 2 p 0250
.

3500
10
2 p 0.255

= 3.02 10 -2 T

moment is

-e
.
2 me

## 27. (a) Magnetic moment of current loop

H 0.36
. G
=
= 018
2
2

4pr 3
Thus, net magnetic field at equatorial point
. = 0.54 G
= H + Be = 0.36 + 018

m = NiA = 1 12 (10 5 10 -4 )
= 0.06 A -m2
and magnetic field, B = 3000 G

21. (a) Magnetic field due to current carrying coil at its centre is

\ 1 G = 3000 T = 0.3 T

10 4

given by
m 0 Nl
2r
Since, the coil is in a vertical plane making an angle of 45
with the magnetic meridian. Therefore, horizontal component
of the Earths magnetic field
B=

H = B cos 45 =
=

4p 10 -7 30 0.35
2 12 10 -2

= 0.39 G

H = Bcos d

H
B=
cos d
=

0.35
= 070
. G
cos 60

## 23. (b) Magnetic force on straight horizontal rod = weight of a

conducting rod i.e. magnetic field normal to the conductor to
keep the tension in the wire is zero,
B=

m 0 Nl
cos 45
2r

i.e.

mg 0.06 9.8
= 0.26 T
=
il
5 0.45

## Torque experienced by current carrying coil in magnetic field B

t = (m B ) = 0.06 \$i 0.3 k\$ = - 1.8 10 -2 \$j
i.e. magnitude of torque is 18
. 10 -2N-m and the direction is
along negative y-axis.

## 28. (a) Force on length L of wire b is F = IaLBa. The magnetic force

F on length L of conductor is given by
=

m 0l a l b
L
2 pd

## 29. (c) Magnetic Lorentz force on each electron F = evB

Also, current i = neAv
i
i.e.
ev =
nA
Therefore, magnetic Lorentz force on each electron
F = evB =

01
. 5
iB
= 5 10 -25 N
=
nA 10 29 10 -5

49

## magnetic field induction B around a closed path in vacuum is

equal to m 0 times the total current I threading the closed path
B dS = m 0I.

## to magnetic field causes magnetic force. Also, the Reason is

the correct explanation as well as both are true.

## 40. (b) As, magnitude of magnetic dipole moment of magnetic

dipole is M = m (2 l). So, the Reason is not the correct
explanation of Assertion but both are true.

C

## 41. (a) Since, the magnetic force on moving charge q in a uniform

magnetic field B is given by F = q ( v B ).
According to problem in vector form - F \$j = - e ( vj\$ B ).

l
b

## This exists only when magnetic field is along z-direction.

Thus, Reason is correct explanation of Assertion as well as
Reason and Assertion both are true.

60
a
D

## 42. (a) Assertion is the definition of Ampere based on the formula

given in Reason .
Thus, Reason is correct explanation of Assertion as well as
Reason and Assertion both are true.

p
m0 3
Magnetic field at P due to arc AB =
I
4p a
p
I
m
Magnetic field at P due to arc DC = 0 3
4p b
m0 p I
I
Net magnetic field at P is B =
-
4p 3 a b
m
I
I
= 0 -
12 a b

43. (a) The graph explains very well the relation between B and r
for every point at a distance r from the centre of the wire in the
region, i.e. r > R.
Thus, Reason is correct explanation of Assertion as well as
Reason and Assertion both are true.

## 44. (b) Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion but

Reason and Assertion both are true.

45. (c) As, coercivity of soft iron is less than coercivity of steel. It
means that soft iron loses its magnetism more rapidly than
steel does. So, the Assertion is correct but Reason is false.

32. (a) Since, axis of cylinder is along the axis, i.e. East to West
and wire is along North to South and placed in intersecting
position, so the angle between conductor and magnetic field
is 90 and wire should be along the diameter of cylinder.
Length of a wire = 2 r = 2 10 = 20 cm = 0.2 m
Magnetic force F = iBl sin q = 7 15
. 020
. sin 90 = 2.1 N
Flemings left hand rule suggests that direction of force is
along vertically upward direction.

## 33. (a) The hysteresis curve represents the relation between

magnetic field induction B (or intensity of magnetisation I)
of a ferromagnetic material with magnetising force (H).
It represents the behaviour of the material as work done
through a cycle of magnetisation curve.

## 34. (a) The relation between magnetic susceptibility and

magnetic permeability of a medium m m = m 0 (1 + c ).

## 46. (d) Permeability No unit, Magnetic induction Tesla

Magnetic flux Weber, Magnetic moment A -m2.

## 47. (b) Steel is a permanent magnet and soft iron is temporary

magnet, paramagnetic substance having magnetic dipole
with random direction of dipole moment while diamagetic
substance get feebly magnetised in opposite direction to
magnetising field.

48. (c) When a proton moves with speed v along the direction of
magnetic field forms straight line, perpendicular to magnetic
field forms circular path, perpendicular to the direction of
electric field shows parabolic path while making an angle
( q < 90 ), then it forms helical path.

## 35. (a) According to Gausss law for magnetism, the net

magnetic flux ( f B ) through any closed surface is always zero.
i.e. f = B dA = 0.
s

## 36. (b) The magnetic dipole moment of an atom is due to both

orbital and spin motion of electrons of the atom. The orbital
motion causes diamagnetism, whereas spin motion causes
para or ferromagnetism.

## 37. (a) According to Gausss law in magnetism such that net

magnetic flux through any closed surface is always zero.
Thus, it is the application of Gausss theorem in magnetism.

## 38. (a) As, magnetic force acting on current carrying conductor is

given by F = Bil. So, it is directly determined using Fleming
left hand rule. The reason is correct explanation of Assertion
as well as Reason and Assertion both are true.

50

50.

## carrying a current i if it is perpendicular to plane, i.e.

m 2i
.
B= 0
4p a
m i
Circular current carrying loop, B = 0 . Due to semicircle
2 a
m0 i
loop, then B =
and an arc of angle subtends q, its
4 a
m iq
centre then B = 0 .
4p a
m IdS r
(b) Biot-Savart law d B= 0
4p
r2
Amperes law B dS = m 0 l
S

Magnetic flux f B =
i.e. f B = 0.

## S B dA and Gausss law of magnetism

TAKAAKI KAJITA

ARTHUR B. McDONALD

## The Universe where we live in is still full of unknowns. A

major discovery cannot be achieved in a day or two. It takes
a long of people and a long time. I would like to see young

## Neutrinos are among the fundamental particles, we do not

know how to divide any further. Therefore position within
the models of physics at the most fundamental
level is very important.

LIFE

LIFE

## Takaaki Kajita (born 9 March 1959) is a Japanese physicist, known for

neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor,
Super-Kamiokande. His wife, Michiko, lives in Toyama. In 2015, he was
awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Canadian physicist
McDonald. Kajita studied at the Saitama University and graduated
in 1981. He received his doctorate in 1986 at the University of
Tokyo. Since 1988, he has been at the Institute for Cosmic
Radiation Research, University of Tokyo, where he
became an assistant professor in 1992 and professor in
1999.He became director of the Center for Cosmic
Neutrinos at the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
(ICRR) in 1999. As of 2015, he is at the Institute for
the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe in
Tokyo and Director of ICRR.

## Arthur Bruce McDonald, (born August 29, 1943 in Scotia), is a Canadian

astrophysicist. McDonald is the director of the Sudbury Neutrino
Observatory Institute and holds the Gordon and Patricia Gray Chair in
Particle Astrophysics at Queens University in Kingston, Ontario. He was
awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Japanese physicist
Kajita. McDonald graduated with a B.Sc. degree in Physics in 1964 and
M.Sc.degree in Physics in 1965 from Dalhousie University in Scotia. He then
obtained his Ph.D. degree in Physics in 1969 from the California. McDonald
worked as a research officer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
northwest of Ottawa from 1970 to 1982. He became professor of physics at
Princeton University from 1982 to 1989, leaving Princeton to join Queens
University. He is currently the University Research Chair at Queens University
and a board member at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.

CONTRIBUTION

## In August 2001, a collaboration at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO),

a detector facility located 6,800 ft. (2,100 m) underground in a mine outside
Sudbury, Ontario, led by McDonald, checked in with a direct observation
suggesting that electron neutrinos from the Sun really were oscillating into
muon and tau neutrinos. SNO published its report in the August 13, 2001,
issue of Physical, and it is widely considered as a very important result.

## In 1998, Kajita's team at the Super-Kamiokande

found that when cosmic rays hit the Earth's
atmosphere, the resulting neutrinos switched
between two flavours before they reached the detector
under Mt. Kamioka.This discovery helped prove the
existence of neutrino oscillation and that neutrinos have
mass. In 2015, Kajitas shared the Nobel Prize in Physics along with
Canadian physicist Arthur McDonald, whose Sudbury Neutrino
Observatory discovered similar results. Kajita and McDonalds work
solved the longstanding solar neutrino problem, which was a major
discrepancy between the predicted and measured Solar neutrino fluxes,
and indicated that the Standard Model, which required neutrinos to be

CONTRIBUTION

HONOUR

HONOUR

1989, Bruno Rossi Prize along with the other members of the
Kamiokande collaboration.
2002, Panofsky Prize.
1987, Asahi Prize as part of Kamiokande, and in 1999 as part of
Super-Kamiokande.
1999, Nishina Memorial Prize.
2013, Julius Wess Award.
2015, Nobel Prize for Physics jointly with Arthur B. McDonald for the
discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have
mass.

2007, awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in
Physics with Yoji Totsuka.
2009, elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)
of London.
2011, awarded the Royal Society of Canada's
Henry Marshall Tory Medal in recognization
for having brought great honour and
2015, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
jointly with Takaaki Kajita for the discovery of
neutrino oscillations, which shows that
neutrinos have mass.

## The Nobel Prize was shared by two scientists

Takaaki Kajita of Japan and Arthur B. McDonald
of Canada. The Discovery has changed our
understanding of the innermost workings of matter
and can prove crucial to our view of the universe.

Kamal Upreti

## Problem No. 6.234

WORKED OUT PROBLEM
Recoiling of a daughter nucleus

## Step II According to conservation principle of energy in the form of

Q-factor
m1 c 2 = m2 c 2 + m3 c 2 + Q
Q = ( m1 - m2 - m3 ) c 2

## A stationary Pb200 nucleus emits an alpha-particle with

kinetic energy Ta = 5.77 MeV. Find the recoil velocity of a
daughter nucleus. What fraction of the total energy
liberated in this decay is accounted for by the recoil
energy of the daughter nucleus?

## According to conservation principle of energy, we have

T1 + m1 c 2 = T2 + m2 c 2 + T3 + m3 c 2

## Step III Find out the fraction of recoil energy of a nucleus.

\ Fraction of recoil energy is
T2
p22
% DE =
=
2
m2
T2 + T3
p22
p2
+ 3
2 m2 2 m3
1 / m2
(Q p2 = p3)
=
1 / m2 + 1 / m3

## nuclear reaction, three basic equations are provided.

1. On the basis of conservation principle of momentum.
2. On the basis of energy conservation principle.
3. On the basis of conservation principle in the form of
Q-factor.
Step I Apply law of conservation of momentum, we have
Pb 200 Y 196 + a + Energy released
m1
m2
m3
Time taken, T1 = 0
T2
T3
Momentum, p1 = 0
p2
p3
where,
m1 = mass of Pb nucleus (not atomic mass)
m2 = mass of daughter nucleus
m3 = mass of a-particle.
i.e.
p1 = p 2 + p 3
0 = p2 + p3

p2 = - p3
It means a-particle and daughter nucleus move in opposite
direction.
|p 2| = |-p 3|
i.e.
p2 = p3

54

NOVEMBER 2015

0 + m1c 2 = T2 + m2 c 2 + T3 + m3 c 2
( m1 - m2 - m3 ) c 2 = T2 + T3
Q = T2 + T3 = Total energy released.

m2 m3
m3
m
=
= a
m2 ( m2 + m3 ) m2 + m3
m1

4
1
=
= 0.02
200 50

## Step IV Find velocity recoil velocity of a daughter nucleus, we get

According to problem, time taken by alpha-particle to decay.
p2
p2
T3 = Ta = 3 = 3
2 m3 2 ma
\

p2 = p3 = 2 ma Ta

m2v 2 = 2 ma Ta
\ Velocity of daughter nuclei,
2 ma Ta
vdaughter = v 2 =
m2

[Q m2 = mdaughter ]

ma = 4 167
. 10 -27kg

Here,

## mdaughter = (200 - 4) 167

. 10 -27kg

DISINTEGRATION OF AN ELEMENT

Ta = 577
. 10 6 16
. 10 -19J.
On putting the values, we get
vdaughter = 3.39 10 5m/s 3.4 10 5m/s

## Problem No. 6.223

AGE OF AN ORE
In a uranium ore the ratio of U238 nuclei to Pb206 is h = 2.8.
Evaluate the age of ore, assuming all the lead Pb206 to be
a final decay product of the uranium series. The half-life
of U238 nuclei is 4.5 109 years.
Sol

## CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION Since, Pb is final

product. So, number of nuclei of Pb in the sample is equal to
number of decay nuclei of U 238.
So, applicable formula is N = N0 e - lt

## Step I The number of nuclei of U 238 after time t is N = N0 e - lt , where

N0 is number of nuclei of U 238 at t = 0
So, the number of Pb after time t = number of nuclei of U 238
decay in time t

N1 = N0 (1 e - lt )
a final decay product of the uranium series.
N 0 e - lt
N
As,
h=
=
N1 N0 (1 - e - lt )

= h (1 - e

- lt

)e

- lt

= h - he

(1 + h) e - lt = h
h
e - lt =

1 + h

## Taking log on both sides, we get

h
In (e - lt ) = ln

1 + h

- lt = ln

## Due to emission of a-particle, mass number decreases by four

and atomic number decreases by two. But due to emission of
b- particle from the nucleus, mass number does not change but
atomic number increases by one.
Step I Find isotope is produced from the a radioactive Ra 226 as a result
of five a-disintegrations and four b-disintegrations.
88Ra

226

88- 2 5 X

88Ra

226

a
5

78 X

h
1+ h

h
1 + h

ln

1 + h
h
t = - ln
=
ln2
l
T1/ 2

1
ln 1 + h

T
t =
1/ 2
ln2
9
Here, h= 2.8 and T1/ 2 = 4.5 10 years
On putting the values, we get
the age of an ore, t = 2 10 9 years

206

4b

4b

82 Y

88- 2 5 + 4 Y

226- 20

206

U 238.
92U

238

a
1

92- n1 2 X

238- n1 4

n b

92- 2n 1 + n2

- lt

226- 5 4

## Hence, final product has mass number 206 and atomic

number 82.
From periodic table, 82 Y 206 is 82Pb 206

Here

Step II Calculate the age of the ore, assuming all the lead Pb 206 to be

- lt

## (a) What isotope is produced from the a-radioactive

Ra 226 as a result of five a-disintegrations?
(b) How many a and b - -decays does U238 experience
before turning finally in to stable Pb206 isotope?
Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION

238 - 4 n2

82Pb

92- 2 n 1 + n 2
206

Y 238- 4 n1

82Pb

206

## Comparing mass numbers, we get

238 - 4n1 = 206
238 - 206 32

n1 =
=
=8
4
4
Comparing atomic number, we get
92 - 2 n1 + n2 = 82
92 - 2 8 + n2 = 82
n2 = 6
Here, number of a-particles, n1 = 8
and number of b-particles, n2 = 6

## Problem No. 6.244

KINETIC ENERGY OF AN ELECTRON
Passing down to the ground state, excited Ag109 nuclei emit
either gamma quanta is 87keV or K conversion electrons
whose binding energy is 26 keV. Find the velocity of these
electrons.
Sol. CONCEPT BEYOND THE QUESTION
According to problem statement, it is clear that the energy
released by nucleus in returning from excited state to ground
state is DE = 87 MeV. In other way, This energy is taken by
K-electron.

NOVEMBER 2015

55

( E - T )2 = T 2 + 2Tmc 2

## Step I If this energy is taken by K- electron, then a part of energy is

spent for knocking out K-shell from atom and remaining part
provides kinetic energy to the electron.
The energy required to knock out the electron is equal to
binding energy of K-shell electron.
DE = Binding energy + KE
KE = DE - Binding energy
= ( 87 - 26) keV
KE = T = 61 keV
Step II Relative kinetic energy of an electron

1
T = mc 2
- 1 = 61 keV
1 - v 2 / c 2

1
61
+1

=
mc 2
1- v2 / c2

1
2

1- v / c

= 1.26 v 2 =

T =

2( mc 2 + E )

E E - T
=
E
E

Step III Find fractional change of gamma quanta energy due to recoil
of the nucleus.
E-T
E
-1=
-1
E
E
DE
T
T

= 1- - 1 =
E
E
E
DE
E2
E

=
=
E
2( mc 2 + E ) E 2( mc 2 + E )

026
.
c2
1.26

But,
\

E << mc 2
mc 2 = E mc 2

## Fractional change of gamma energy of a nucleus,

DE
E
=
E
mc 2
Here, E = 129 keV, c = 3 10 8 m/s, m = 191
On putting the values, we get
DE
= 3.6 10 -7
E

## WORKED OUT PROBLEM

Quanta energy of the nucleus.
A free stationary Ir191 nucleus with excitation energy
E = 129 keV passes to the ground state, emitting a gamma
quantum. Calculate the fractional change of gamma
quanta energy due to recoil of the nucleus.

## Concept beyond the question

When the recoil speed of nucleus is neglected. The energy
of g photon is E = 129 keV
When nucleus is in the condition of recoiling, then energy
E is shared by g-rays and kinetic energy of nucleus.
E = E + T
i.e. T is kinetic energy of nucleus.
Excited state

Remarks
+

## Positron emission or b -decay b + -decay take place by an

unstable nucleus having excess proton than needed for stability.
In this process, a proton converts itself into a neutron, positron
and neutrino. Positron is antiparticle of electron. The rest mass
of positron is same as that of electron and electric charge on
positron is positive. Neutrino is antiparticle of antineutrino. The
reaction is as follow:
P = n + e+ + n
b + -decay process in an unstable nucleus is represented as
follows:
A
A
+
Z X Z -1Y + e + n
mp

Gamma

Photon

Ground state

md

## Here, m p = mass of parent nucleus

= mass of parent atom - mass of total number of electron in the
parent atom = M p - Zm
Similarly, m d = M d - (Z - 1) m
Applying conservation principle in the form of Q-factor:
m p c 2 = m d c 2 + mc 2 + Q
or

(M p - Zm )c 2 = {M d - (Z - 1)m }c 2 + mc 2 + Q

pc = T (T + 2 mc 2 )

M p c 2 = M d c 2 + mc 2 + mc 2 + Q

E = T (T + 2 mc 2 )

Q = (M p - M d - 2m )c 2

## Squaring both sides, we get

E 2 = T (T + 2 mc 2 )

56

E2

## Step II The relative momentum of

nucleus is

E + T 2 - 2 ET = T 2 + 2Tmc 2
E 2 - 2 ET = 2Tmc 2

v = 0.454 c = 0.45 c
So, velocity of an electron is 0.45 c.

## Step I According to conservation

principle of momentum, the
momentum of nucleus is
equal and opposite to g
photon as shown in figure.
\ The magnitude of
momentum of nucleus is
hg
E
p=
=
c
c

pc = E

NOVEMBER 2015

A

## conductors of the shape

a
shown in the figure carry
direct currents I1 and I2 .
The separation between I1
r
the conductors is a and
dr
I2
the width of the right
hand conductor is equal
b
to b with both conductors
lying in one plane. Find the magnetic interaction
force between them reduced to a unit length.
m 0 I1I2
a - b
loge

2 pb
a
m II
a
(c) 0 1 2 loge
2 pb
b
(a)

m 0 I1I2
a + b
loge

2 pb
a
m II
2 a
(d) 0 1 2 loge
2 pb
b
(b)

## 2. Calculate the difference in wavelength of Ha -line

of ordinary and heavy hydrogen. Given that
proton-electron mass ratio is 1836 and wavelength
of H a -line of ordinary hydrogen is 6563 .
(a) 2.42

(b) 1.78

(c) 4.2

(d) 3.67

n

## are related as p / r = constant, regardless of height

(n is a constant here). Find the corresponding
- Mg ( n + 1)
- M ( n + 1)
- Mg ( n - 1)
gM ( n)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
nR
nR
nR
R

## 4. A tuning fork having frequency of 340 Hz is

vibrated just above a cylindrical tube. The height of
the tube is 110 cm and water is slowly poured in it.
What is the minimum height of water required for
resonance? (Given, v = 340 m/s).
(a) 30 cm

(b) 35 cm

(c) 40 cm

(d) 50 cm

## 5. How should 1 kg of water at 50C is divided in two

parts so that if one part is turned into ice at 0C, if it
would release sufficient amount of heat to vaporise
the other part? Given that latent heat of fusion of ice
is 3.36 105 J /kg, latent heat of vaporisation of
water is 22.5 105 J /kg and specific heat of water is
4200 J /kg-K.
(a) 1.2 kg

(b) 0.812 kg

(c) 0.52 kg

(d) 0.692 kg

## 6. A beam of protons with a velocity of 4 105 m/s

enters a uniform magnetic field of 0.3 T at an angle
of 60 to the magnetic field. Find the radius of the
helical path taken by the proton beam. Also, find
the pitch of the helix (which is the distance travelled
by a proton in the beam parallel to the magnetic
field during one period of rotation).
(a) 1.2 10 -2 m, 4.37 10 -2 m
(b) 4 10 -6 m, 7 10 -8 m
(c) 8 10 -3 m, 4.6 10 -3 m
(d) 1.6 10 -7 m, 2.4 10 -6 m

## 7. If we place a negative charge ( of magnitude -q and

mass m) at the centre of a charged ring and slightly
displace it along the axis of ring and release. Find
the angular frequency of oscillation of the particle.
(a)

kq Q
ma 2

(b)

kq Q
ma 3

(c)

kq Q
ma

(d)

kq Q
ma 4 / 3

## 8. A heating coil of 2000 W is immersed in an electric

circuit. How much time will it take in raising the
temperature of 1 L of water from 4 C to 100C ?
Only 80% of the thermal energy produced is used in
raising the temperature of water.
(a) 212 s

(b) 252 s

(c) 300 s

(d) 150 s

NOVEMBER 2015

63

BRAIN TEASERS
9. A particle executes a simple harmonic motion of
amplitude 1.0 cm along the principal axis of a
convex lens of focal length 12 cm. The mean
position of oscillation is at 20 cm from the lens. Find
the amplitude of the image of the particle.

(b) 2.5 cm

(c) 2.8 cm

(d) 2.25 cm

## are connected as shown in the figure. All the rods

are of identical length and cross-sectional area. If
the end A is maintained at 60C and the junction E at
100C, calculate the temperatures of the junctions at

## 1. (b) Consider a strip dr of conductor B at a distance r. Magnetic

field produced by the conductor A carrying current I1 at a distance
r from it is given as
B

I1
dr

I2

Here,

m =

m 2M
m +2M

and

m=

mM
m+M

l
m + 1836 m
=2

6563
m + 3672 m
l = 6564.782

## l - l = 6564.78 - 6563 = 1.78

m I
B = 0 1 (perpendicular to thin element and directed downwards)
2 pr
The force dF, on the thin element of width dr per unit length of
conductor B is given by
m I I
dF = BI 2 = 0 1 2
2 pr

dT dT dr dp
=

dh dr dp dh
dp = - rgdh
dp
= - rg
dh

## where, I 2 = current in thin element

= current per unit width in conductor B width of element
I
I2 = 2 dr
b
m I I dr
dF = 0 1 2
2 pr b
Total force on element AB is given by

We know that p = r

m 0 I1 I2 dr m 0 I1 I2
[loge r ]aa +
=
2 pb
r
2 pb

m 0 I1 I2
a + b
loge
a
2 pb

## 2. (b) In case of hydrogen like atom,

DE =

hc 2 p 2 k 2 Z 2e 4 m
=
l
h2

1
1
2 - 2
n
n
1
2

1
where, k = 4pe

## When nucleus and electron (both) rotate around their common

1 2 p 2 k 2 Z 2e 4 m 1
1
centre of mass, then =
2 2 3 2
l
h2
l m
Now,
=
l m

64 NOVEMBER 2015

(i)

## From change in pressure, we have

i.e.

(a) 76 C, 68 C , 68C
(b) 72C, 64C, 68C
(c) 75C, 60C, 54C
(d) 70C, 45C, 40C

l
m+M
=2

l
m +2M

F=

a+ b

(a) 2.6 cm

## points B, C and D. The thermal conductivities of x

and y are 0.92 and 0.46 SI units.

Given that p / r n = c

(ii)
(constant)

p = cr n
dp
= cnr n - 1
dr
R
R
T or cr n = r
T
M
M
M
T = cr n - 1
R
dT M
= c ( n - 1) r n - 2
dr R

(iii)

(iv)

From Eqs. (ii), (iii) and (iv) substituting these values in Eq. (i) and
solving, we get
dT - Mg( n - 1)
=
dh
nR
where, n is constant.

4. (b) For the tuning fork to be in resonance with air column in the
pipe closed at one end.
nv
with n = 1, 3 , 5
f=
4L

BRAIN TEASERS
So, length of air column in pipe,
nv n 340 100
=
L=
= 25 n cm with n = 1 , 3 , 5
4f
4 340

## 8. (b) Here, power consumed by a heating coil, P = 2000 W

Volume of water = 1 L = 1000 cm 3
Mass of water, m = volume density = 1000 1 = 1000 g

## Now, as the tube is 110 cm, so length of air column must be

lesser than 110 cm, i.e. it can only be 25 cm or 75 cm. Further,
if h is height of water filled in the tube, then
h = 110 - L hmin = 110 - L min = 110 - 75 = 35 cm

## Raise in temperature = Q 2 - Q1 = 100 - 4 = 96 C

We know that specific heat of water, C = 1 cal g -1 C -1 .
\ Heat taken by water = mc (Q 2 - Q1 )
= 1000 1 96 = 96000 cal

## Energy spent in heating coil,

it is
Q1 = ( x 4200 50 + x 3 .36 10 5 ) J

E = Pt = 2000 t

= ( x 5.46 10 5 ) J

## The heat required to vaporise (1 - x ) kg of water from 50 C is

Q 2 = (1 - x ) 22.5 10 5 J

## 22.5 - 22.5 x = 5.46 x

Amount of heat required to vaporise water,
22.5
x=
= 0.812 kg
25.06
mv ^ mv sin q
(a) The radius of helical path, r =
=
Bq
Bq
=

(1.67 10

-27

100C
96000 100 4.2
t=
= 252 s
2000 80

)( 4 10 )sin 60

0.3 1.6 10
= 1.2 10 -2 m

-19

2pm
p=
v cos q
Bq
=

0.3 1.6 10 -19

60
v||

= 4.37 10 -2 m

dv =

v2

f
du =
du
u + f
u2

## Here, du = path length of object = 2 .0 cm and dv = path length of

image
2

9
12

dv =
2 = 2 cm = 4.5 cm
-20 + 12
1
Amplitude of an image = path length of image
2
1
= 4.5 = 2.25 cm
2
i.e.

kQx
( a 2 + x 2 )3 / 2
- kqQx

## Force on a charged particle, F = - qE =

1 1 1
- =
v u f
Differentiating both sides, we get
du dv
=0
u 2 v2

## 7. (b) As, electric field along its axial position, we have

E=

2000 t 80
100
As, this heat is taken by water, we have
2000 t 80
= 96000 J
100 4.2
Useful heat produced =

## Thus, the heat Q 2 must be provided by first part of water, we have

Q 2 = Q1
(1 - x ) 22.5 10 5 = x 5.46 10 5

6.

80
100

( a 2 + x 2 )3 / 2
As, acceleration of a negative charged particle,
F
- kqQx
a=
=
m m( a 2 + x 2 )3 / 2

## 10. (a) The square BCED is forming a balanced Wheatstone bridge,

hence C and D have same temperature, so no heat flows from
C to D.
C

H1
E

B
H2

H1
E

H2
D

## Hence, acceleration is opposite to displacement, so motion will

be oscillatory.
But a is not directly proportional to x so motion is not SHM.
- kqQx
If x < < a, then a =
ma 3
Here a x, so the motion will be SHM.
Comparing with a = - w2 x, we get
Angular frequency of oscillation of the particle, w =

Ky A
KxA
KyA

(TA - TB ) =
(TB - TE )
(TB - TE ) +
l
2l
2l

## 0.92 (100 - TB ) = 0.46 (TB - 60 ) + 0.92 (TB - 60 )

TB = 76 C

Also,

kq Q
ma 3

Similarly,

TB - TC = TC - TE
76 + 60
TC =
= 68 C
2
TC = TD = 68 C

NOVEMBER 2015

65

Revision Cum
Crash Course For

JEE Main
Also
Available in

HINDI
Medium

2016

## 1. (a) Normal force,

3F
5

N = Mg -

4. (b) For the shell not to slide, it should start pure rolling
immediately after being hit.

= Mg - 0.6 F
N+ 3F
5

37

4F = 0.8 F
5
(i)

Fdt = mv 0

s N

2
Fhdt = Iw 0 = mR 2w 0
3

Mg

and

( m N )R
0.8F - m s N
s
= R

M
1 MR 2
2

Q a =

(ii)
(iii)

v 0 = Rw 0

## On dividing Eq.(ii) by Eq.(i), we get

2
w
2
w
2
h = R2 0 = R2 0 = R
3
v0 3
Rw 0 3

f = ma

F = 0.79 Mg

mmg = - ma
a = - mg

t=0

t=t

## 2. (b) For pure rolling, a = Ra

v

mMgR - Fr
F - mMg
=R

2
M
MR /2
Solving this equation, we get
3 mMgR
F =
R + 2r

MR 2
a
(2T ) R =
2

(i)

Mg - 2T = Ma COM

(ii)

MR 2
(iii)
2T R =
a
2
(for drawing FBDs, the system is viewed from left side)
Let acceleration of thread be a.
Upper Cylinder

0=0

Mg

Lower Cylinder
2T

P
P

2T

aCOM
Mg

For no slipping at P,
For no slipping at P ,
\

a = Ra

fR = Ia
2
m mgR = mR 2a
5
5 mg
a=
2R
v = u + at
v = v 0 - mgt
w = w 0 + at
5 mg
5 mgt
w=0+
t =
2R
2R
v = Rw
5 mgt
( v 0 - mgt ) = R

2R
5

mgt 1 + = v 0

2
2v0
t=
7mg

Mg
10

JEE PREPARATION

s = v0

(iv)

76

s = ut +

a = a COM - Ra
a COM = 2 Ra

3. (a)

v0

s=

1 2
at
2

2v0
1
4v 02
- mg
7mg 2
49 m 2g 2

2 v 02
2 v 02
12 v 02
=
7mg
49 mg
49 mg

## ROLLING WITHOUT SLIPPING AND ROLLING WITH SLIPPING

5 mgt
2R
At t = t , velocity of point of contact
7
= vC + Rw = mgt
2
N=mg

2
Fhdt = MR 2w 0
5
t=0

t=t

v= 9
7 v0

v0

## Pure rolling starts

v=R
Fhdt =

2
mR 2w 0
5

a=-

h=

2 R w0

5 v0

(i)

f = ma
mmg = ma

a = mg
2
fR = - mR 2 a
5
5 mg
mmg
a==2
2R
mR
5

We have, u = v 0, v =

f
mmg
=m
M

Instantaneous velocity,

Fdt = mv 0

w=

9
v 0, v = u + at
7
9
v 0 = v 0 + mgt

mmg
t
M
For pure rolling both points in contact should have same
velocity
7
mmg
mgt = v 0 t
\
2
M
m
7
mgt +
= v0
M
2
v = v0 -

7 M + 2 m
mgt
= v 0
2M

or
2 v
t = 0
7 mg

t =

## 8. (a,c) For pure rolling to take place on the ground

w = w 0 + at
5 mg
t
w = w0 2R

v = Rw
5 mg 2 v 0

v 0 = w0 R

7
2 R 7 mg

2 Mv 0
(7 M + 2 m)mg

Rw 0 = 2 v 0
4
Using this in Eq. (i), we get h = R
5

a = Ra
F - f = Ma

(i)
(ii)

I = MR 2

## 7. (a) In case of a sphere, we have

T = Ia = MR 2 a
fR = MR 2a

vC
0

f
t =0
m=0
w0 = 0
f = m mg

t =t
v = vC
w=w

5 mg
2 R

vc = u + at = 0 + mgt
vc = mgt
5 mg
w = w 0 + at = 0 +
t
2 R

(iii)

f = Ma
Using this in Eq. (ii), we get

a = mg
a = fR / l =

f = MRa
Using Eq. (i) in Eq. (iii), we get

\
\

F - Ma = Ma
F = 2 Ma
F
f =
2
F
F - = Ma
2
F
a=
2M

## THE MOST SUCCESSFUL WAY OF

JEE PREPARATION

77

9. (b,d)
A

T2

T1

T1

mg

v2, a2

Mass

Pulley

Cylinder

v1, a1
mg

a1
R1

5 kg

R1

a1 = mg ( ), a2 = mg ( )
v1 = mgt ( ), v 2 = (mgt ) ( )
m mg R
5 mg
a==2
2R
mR 2
5
5 mg
w = w 0 - at = w 0 -
t
2R

T2

5g

## T1 + f = M1a1 (i) (T2 - T1 )R2

(T1 - f )R1 =

a2

5g - T = 5 a 2 (iv)

M1R12
M R2
= 2 2 a 2 (iii)
a1
2
2
(ii)

For no slipping at A,

(v)

a2 = a1 + R1a1

(vi)

a1 = R1a1
Solving the above equations, we get
4
4gt
a2 =
g , v = a2 t =
11
11

10. (a,d)

## During pure rolling, velocities of contact points are same.

v1 = Rw - v1
5 mg

mgt = R w 0 t - mgt
2 R

For no slipping at B,

...(i)

Mg - 2T = MaCOM

9
mgt = w 0R
2
2 Rw 0
t=
9 mg

2TR =

MR
a
2

...(ii)

2 Rw 0 2
= Rw 0
9 mg 9

## 16. (a) Velocity of sphere, v 2 = mgt = mg

17. (d)

1 2
at
2

s = ut +

2T
P

Mg

s=0+

or

s=

aCOM
Mg

For no slipping at P,
a COM = Ra
Solving the above equations, we get
2g
a = a COM =
3
Mg
and
T =
6

...(iii)

2 Rw 0
1
(mg )

2
9mg

2 R 2w 20

81 mg

18. Displacement of the plank till the sphere starts pure rolling,
a1

F cos

f1

(i)

F cos q - f1 = ma1
A

f1

## spherical body rolls without slipping on an inclined rough

surfaces, frictional force is required to maintain pure rolling.

a2

## 12. (b) Statement I is correct and Statement II is also correct and

Statement II is not the correct explanation of Statement I.
If the surface is smooth, f = 0
Consider a sphere rolling down an inclined rough surface.
Friction does work it increases KE R. If the sphere is pure rolling
on rough horizontal surface wf = 0.

f2

B
( f2 + f1 ) R =

1
13. (b) For a disc rolling down an inclined plane, f = g sin a
3

For no slipping at A,

## 14. (a) As, velocity of a rolling disc at point P

For no slipping at B,

q
2
Hence, (i) (q), (ii) (p), (iii) (s), (iv) (r)
v P = 2 v 0 sin

15. (b) Let after time t (when pure rolling begins) v1 and
v 2 are the velocities of plank and the cylinder.

78

MR 2
a
2

f1 - f2 = Ma2

(iii)

a1 = a2 + Ra

(iv)

a2 - Ra = 0
Solving the above equations, we get
4F cos q
a2 =
3M + 8m
f1 =

(ii)

3MF cos q
MF cos q
and f2 =
3M + 8m
3M + 8m

(v)

## 1. A recent high-precision determination of g has a

quoted error of 6 parts in 109 . Estimate the increase
in height at the earths surface which gives a change
in g equal to this error. [g is acceleration due to
gravity and earths radius = 6400 km].
(a) 0.20 m
(c) 0.110 m

(b) 0.125 m
(d) 0.019 m

## 4. Find the ratio of the height h of a cushion on a

snooker table to the radius r of a ball as shown in
figure, such that when the ball hits cushion with a
pure rolling motion it rebounds with a pure rolling
motion. [Assume that the force exerted on the ball
by the cushion is horizontal during the impact and
the ball hits the cushion normally].
(a) 2 / 5

(b) 4 / 9

(c) 7 / 5

(d) 9 / 5

## inner radius b (see figure). The measured values of

these quantities are:
M = 0.191 0.003 kg,
h

a = 110 1 mm
and b = 15 1 mm .

a

## Find the moment of inertia of the ring about an axis

through the centre and normal to the plane of the
ring.
(a) 1.177 10 -3 kg m2
(c) 1.5 10 -3 kg m2

(b) 1.0 10 -4 kg m2
(d) None of these

## 3. A chlorine molecule with an initial velocity of

600 ms -1 absorbs a photon of wavelength 350 nm
and is then dissociated with two chlorine atoms.
One of the atoms is detected moving perpendicular
to the initial direction of the molecule and having a
velocity of 1600 m/s. Calculate the binding energy of
the molecule. [The relative atomic mass of chlorine
is 35].
(a) 4.0 10 -19 J
(c) 4.5 10 -19 J

(d) 5.0 10 -19 J

## The star undergoes a spherically symmetric

explosion in which one per cent of its mass is
suddenly ejected to a distance well beyond that of
the planet's orbit. Find the eccentricity of the new
orbit of the planet, assuming that the planet itself is
unaffected by the explosion.
(a) 1.0

(b) 1.5
Position of planet when
explosion occurs

(c) 0.05

(d) 0.01

v0
r0

r1

Star
Old orbit

v1
New orbit

## 6. To an observer, the two bodies of equal rest mass

collide head on with equal but opposite velocities
(4c / 5) and cohere. To a second observer, one body is
initially at rest. Find the apparent velocity of the
other, moving mass before the collision.
(a) ( 40 c / 41)
(c) ( 30 c / 41)

NOVEMBER 2015

(b) ( 49 c / 41)
(d) ( 45 c / 41)

79

MAGAZINE QUIZ
7. A long string of mass per unit length 0.2 kgm-1 is

## stretched to a tension of 500 N. Find the speed of

transverse waves on the string and the mean power
to maintain a travelling wave of amplitude 10 mm
and wavelength of 0.5 m.

in a transverse magnetic field of 0.223 T, the initial
energy being 100 keV?

## (a) 50 m/s and 197 W

(b) 45 m/s and 120 W
(c) 30 m/s and 154 W
(d) 50 m/s and 185 W

(d) 67
. 10 -27 kg

## 8. A telescope is used to observe at a distance of 10 km

two objects which are 0.12 m apart and are
illuminated by light of wavelength 600 nm.
Estimate the diameter of the objective lens of the
telescope if it can just resolves the two objects.
(a) 6.5 cm
(c) 4.0 cm

## (a) 6.0 10 -27 kg

(c) 6.5 10 -28 kg

(b) 6.0 cm
(d) 5.0 cm

## whole being thermally isolated. When thermal

equilibrium has been reached, then find how much
change in the entropy of the system will occur?
[Latent heat of fusion of ice = 333 kJ kg -1 , specific
heat of water = 4200 J kg -1 K -1 .]
(a) 186 JK -1
(b) 240 JK -1
(c) 200 JK -1
(d) 150 JK -1

KNOWLEDGE
Coefficient
Quizzer (No. 13)

## Winner of Knowledge Coefficient

Quizzer (No. 12) (October Issue)
Vikash Dev (Delhi)

Physics Spectrum
Arihant Media Promoters
c/o Arihant Prakashan
Kalindi, T.P. Nagar, Meerut (UP) - 250002

JEE PREPARATION
80

NOVEMBER 2015