Sie sind auf Seite 1von 2

FISHING IN ZAMBIA

-Fishing is the catching of fish either for home consumption or for sale.
IMPORTANCE
-It is the source of employment e.g. fishermen
-It is the source of income for fishermen.
-It acts as a stimulant to other industries e.g. boat and net making.
-It provides the cheapest form of protein especially in areas where livestock rearing is difficult i.e. in tsetse
infested areas.
-It leads to the development of infrastructure i.e. roads are constructed to and from fisheries.
TYPES OF FISHING
Two types exist;
1. SMALL SCALE OR SUBSISTENCE FISHING: Type of fishing which involves the use of traditional
fishing methods and the fish caught is usually consumed and a little may be sold. It is the most common
type of fishing in Zambia because few people (with capital) can afford to embark on large scale fishing.
2. LARGE SCALE OR COMMERCIAL FISHING: The catching of fish using modern fishing methods and
the fish caught is wholly sold. One needs a license to operate as a commercial fisherman.
FISHERIES OF ZAMBIA
-A fishery is a place where fish is caught. It may be a lake, a river, a swamp, a stream, a pond etc. The
major fisheries of Zambia can be grouped under three categories as follows:
1. THE LUAPULA RIVER SYSTEM; this includes Lake Bangweulu and Mweru, Luapula and Chambeshi
rivers.
2. THE ZAMBEZI RIVER FISHERY; this includes lakes Kariba and Itezi tezi, Zambezi flood plain, mid
Zambezi and Luangwa rivers, Lukanga swamp, Kafue flats.
3. OTHERS; this group consists of Lakes Tanganyika and Mweru Wantipa, Lusiwasi, some ponds and fish
conservation dams e.g. Chilanga.
DRAW MAP SHOWING THE FISHERIES OF ZAMBIA
FISH CAUGHT IN SELECTED FISHERIES
1. LAKE KARIBA FISHERY; kapenta is the common fish caught in this fishery. Sinazongwe is a fish
training centre while Siavonga is the chief fishing port found on this lake. Apart from Kapenta, other fish
species caught includes Tiger fish and Kalongwe.
2. KAFUE FISHERY; gill netting is the common fishing method used on this fishery. However, spears,
traps and baskets are also used. Breams, Pike, bottle nose and bulldog are among the fish species caught in
this fishery.
3. LAKE TANGANYIKA FISHERY; commercial fishing by firms such as SOPELAC and St. George
Fisheries are common on this fishery. Lusenga net is a traditional net used to catch fish on this fishery.
Species of fish caught includes sardines such as Kapenta and Nchenga. Paraffin lamps are also used at night
to attract fish.
4. LAKE BANGWEULU FISHERY; this fishery has about 86 species of fish. These include breams such
as green headed bream (nkamba), red breasted bream (mpende), bulldog etc.Gill nets are often used by
commercial fishermen. Canoes are also used for transport purposes. Most of the fish caught on this fishery
is sold at the copperbelt as dry fish due to long distance to major markets and lack of storage facilities.
METHODS OF FISHING
-Methods used are of two types;
1. SMALL SCALE OR SUBSISTENCE FISHING METHODS; involve the use of traditional equipment
such as baskets, traps, spears, hooks, arrows and poison. Dugout canoes are used to transport fish to nearby
villages.

2. LARGE SCALE OR COMMERCIAL FISHING METHODS; involve the use of advanced fishing
equipment and craft. These include gill nets, seine nets, hand nets, cholomira nets and lumpala nets. Others
being experimented are the long lining trawler and purse seine nets. It also requires the use of engine
powered boats.
REASONS WHY THERE ARE FEW COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN IN ZAMBIA
-Lack of expert skills
-Requires heavy capital investment
-Small local market
-Long distance to overseas markets since Zambia is a landlocked country.
FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION
-Most of the fish caught in Zambia is marketed within the country. The following are the methods used to
preserve fish before it is landed on the market.
1. Smoking (dried with fire and is the common method used).
2. Sun drying (exposed to the sun to dry).
3. Salting (fish is put in salt brine or salted before sun drying or smoking. This method is not popular).
4. Canning (enclosing of processed fish in cans).
5. Refrigeration (this method has increased due to an increase in the establishment of ice plants in some
fisheries such as at Kashikishi, Siavonga, Sinazongwe and Mpulungu).
THE FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
-The management and development of the fishing industry is under the fisheries department whose duties
includes;
1. Enforce fishing regulations
2. Enforces the annual fish ban in order to give fish a chance to breed.
3. Providing extension services such as:
A. Establishing training centres
B. Investigating fish ponds
C. Promoting fish conservation and marketing
D. Employing fish guards to control the amount of fish caught.
-The department also has aqua culture research, training extension and development division. The
headquarters of the fisheries department is at Chilanga near Lusaka. Fish ponds set up by the department
can be found at Mwekera, Chilanga, Kasama, Serenje, Solwezi, Choma and Chipata. Such ponds are
stocked with the common CARP as it grows fast.
FISH CONSERVATION
-It is the governments policy and priority to educate people on the importance of looking after fish
breeding grounds and better fishing methods that cannot make fish extinct in lakes and rivers as in the case
of Mpumba and Imboa in the Luapula River.
PROBLEMS FISHERMEN FACE IN ZAMBIA
-Poor transport facilities to and from fisheries
-Lack of capital to buy fishing equipment
-Shortage of wood fuel for curing the fish.
-Lack of storage facilities e.g. refrigerated vehicles.
-Lack of expert skill on modern fishing methods.
-Limited (small) local market.
GOVERNMENTS EFFORT TO SOLVE THESE PROBLEMS
-Tarring and grading some roads i.e. to Mpulungu, Luwingu etc.
-Setting up ice plants in most fishing camps such as Kashikishi and Mpulungu.
-Giving loans to fishermen through commercial banks e.g. ZANACO.
-Imposing the annual fish ban in order to give fish a chance to breed from November to March.
-Setting up fishing colleges e.g. at Sinazongwe and Mpulungu where fishermen are taught modern fishing
methods.