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SIU School of Medicine

Environmental Health & Safety Office

Packaging and Shipping

Infectious Substances
49 CFR Part 173 (reviewed 01/2015)

CDC Permit
A CDC permit is required to import or export material
containing etiologic agents that cause disease in
humans and animals. This includes bacteria, bacterial
toxins, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae, protozoans and
If you are importing these materials to the U.S. you are
responsible for:
Obtaining the permit and providing copies to the
Assuring the foreign personnel package, label and
ship the material according to Federal and
International regulations.
For more information refer to your CDC Import/Export Permit
handout or visit the CDC website at:

Educational Goals
Comply with hazardous materials regulations for
packaging and shipping infectious substances and
biological materials.
Test employees understanding of regulations and
function specific duties by demonstrating
Provide a certificate when a score of 80% or better
is accomplished.
Watch for new regulations and guidelines!

Hazardous Materials Regulations

Shipping Requirements:
Complying with shipping regulation is costly and time consuming. These
regulations are in place in order to prevent:
Spills of hazardous materials during transport.

Explosions because of improper loading.

Interception of hazardous materials to create weapons of mass


Hazardous Materials Regulations

US Department of Transportation (DOT): Title 49 Code of

Federal Regulations

International Air Transportation Association (IATA):

Private association of international air carriers that published
their expanded Dangerous Goods Regulations based on ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO):

Committee of experts under the UN providing technical
instructions for air transport.

Hazardous Materials Regulations

Hazardous Materials Employee: 1) loads, unloads or handles hazardous
materials; 2) manufactures, inspects, or tests packaging components; 3)
prepares hazardous materials for transportation; 4) is responsible for safety
during transportation; or 5) operates a vehicle used to transport hazardous
Offeror (aka shipper): Prepares, packages, marks, labels and offers
hazardous materials for transportation. **Responsible for each shipment
until the carrier leaves with the package**.
Carrier: Loads, transports and unloads hazardous materials.
Consignee: Accepts shipments of hazardous materials (the consignee is
not responsible for following any part of the hazardous materials

Shippers Responsibilities
Determine whether the product to be shipped is a dangerous
good by DOT.
Classify dangerous good by DOT HAZARD CLASS.
Identify dangerous good by PROPER SHIPPING NAME and
UN Number on the PACKAGE, WAYBILLS and
Package & Label dangerous good according to DOT and
IATA specifications.
Maintain records of training and shipments of dangerous
Secure dangerous goods prior to transport according to the
facilitys Plan for Security of Dangerous Goods.


DOT Hazard Class

Class 1 Explosives
Class 2 Gasses
Class 3 Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Class 4 Flammable Solids
Class 5 Reactive Substances
Class 6 Poisonous and Infectious Substances
Class 6.1 Poisonous Substances
Class 6.2 Infectious Substances

Class 7 Radioactive
Class 8 Corrosive
Class 9 Miscellaneous


(Either label, with or w/o

the line under the bars,
is acceptable.)

Class 6.2 Substances

Category A Infectious Substance
Category B Biological Substance
Exempt Human Specimen or Exempt Animal Specimen

Category A Infectious Substances

An infectious substance in a form capable of causing
permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal disease in
otherwise healthy humans or animals when exposure to it
An exposure occurs when an infectious substance is
released outside of its protective packaging, resulting in
physical contact with humans or animals.
Classification must be based on the known medical history
or symptoms of the source patient or animal, endemic local
conditions, or professional judgment concerning the
individual circumstances of the source human or animal.

Category A Affecting Humans

Bacillus anthracis (cultures only)
Brucella abortus (cultures only)
Brucella melitensis (cultures only)
Brucella suis (cultures only)

Burkholderia malleiPseudomonas malleiGlanders

(cultures only)
Burkholderia pseudomalleiPseudomonas pseudomallei
(cultures only)
Chlamydia psittaciavian strains (cultures only)
Clostridium botulinum (cultures only)
Coccidioides immitis (cultures only)
Coxiella burnetti (cultures only)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

Category A Affecting Humans

Dengue virus (cultures only)

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (cultures only)
Escherichia coli, verotoxigenic (cultures only)
Ebola virus
Flexal virus
Francisella tularensis (cultures only)
Guanarito virus
Hantaan virus
Hantaviruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
Hendra virus
Hepatitis B virus (cultures only)
Herpes B virus (cultures only)
Human immunodeficiency virus (cultures only)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (cultures only)

Category A Affecting Humans

Japanese Encephalitis virus (cultures only)

Junin virus
Kyasanur Forest disease virus
Lassa virus
Machupo virus
Marburg virus
Monkeypox virus
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cultures only)
Nipah virus
Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus
Poliovirus (cultures only)
Rabies virus (cultures only)
Rickettsia prowazekii (cultures only)
Rickettsia rickettsii (cultures only)

Category A Affecting Humans

Rift Valley fever virus (cultures only)

Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus (cultures only)
Sabia virus
Shigella dysenteriae type I (cultures only)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (cultures only)
Variola virus
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (cultures only)
Vesicular stomatitis virus (cultures only)
West Nile virus (cultures only)
Yellow fever virus (cultures only)
Yersinia pestis (cultures only)

Culture means an infectious substance containing a

pathogen that is intentionally propagated. Culture does
not include a human or animal patient specimen.

Category A Affecting Animals

African swine fever virus (cultures only)
Avian paramyxovirus Type 1Velogenic
Newcastle disease virus (cultures only)
Classical swine fever virus (cultures only)
Foot and mouth disease virus (cultures only)
Lumpy skin disease virus (cultures only)
Mycoplasma mycoidesContagious bovine
pleuropneumonia (cultures only)
Peste des petits ruminants virus (cultures only)
Rinderpest virus (cultures only)
Sheep-pox virus (cultures only)
Goatpox virus (cultures only)
Swine vesicular disease virus (cultures only)
Vesicular stomatitis virus (culture only)

Category B Biological Substance

An infectious substance not in a form generally capable
of causing permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal
disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals when
exposure to it occurs. This includes infectious substances
transported for diagnostic or investigational purposes
associated with infectious disease.
This would include:
Specimens from patients who have,
or are suspected of having, a
Culture Only Category A disease.
Specimens from a patient known or
suspected to have an infectious disease not listed
in Category A.
Cultures of an infectious organism not listed in
Category A.

Exempt Human and Animal Specimens

Specimens collected directly from humans or animals and
transported for research, diagnosis, investigational
activities, disease treatment or disease prevention.
Patient specimen includes excreta, secreta, blood and its
components, tissue and tissue swabs, body parts, and
specimens in transport media ( e.g., transwabs, culture
media, and blood culture bottles).
These have a minimal likelihood of containing pathogens.
Labeled: Exempt Human Specimen
or Exempt Animal Specimen

Genetically Modified
Genetically modified organisms/micro-organisms that do not
meet the criteria of Category A or B materials are shipped as:
Genetically modified micro-organisms
Genetically modified organisms
Class 9 Miscellaneous
UN 3245
Definition: Organisms or micro-organisms that are capable of
altering animals, plants or microbiological substances in a way
which is not normally the result of natural reproduction.

Biological Products Not Regulated

The following are not regulated under the DOT HM regulations:
Pharmaceuticals approved by the FDA or USDA such as
viruses, therapeutic serum, toxins, antitoxins, vaccines,
blood, blood components or derivatives, allergenic
products, analogous products, or arsphenamine or
derivative of arsphenamine (or any other trivalent arsenic
compound) applicable to the prevention, treatment, or
cure of a disease or condition in humans or animals.

Exceptions From Class 6.2

Hazardous Materials Regulations
The following are not regulated under the DOT HM regulations:
DNA, RNA or other non-infectious genetic elements.
Any non-infectious substances (unless otherwise
Material with a low probability of containing an infectious
substance, or where the concentration of the infectious
substance is at a level naturally occurring in the
environment so it cannot cause disease when exposure
to it occurs.
Material containing pathogens that have been
neutralized or inactivated such that they no longer
pose a health risk.

Exceptions From Class 6.2

Hazardous Materials Regulations
The following are not regulated under the DOT HM regulations:
Dried blood spots or specimens for fecal occult blood
detection placed on absorbent filter paper or other
Blood collected for transfusion or preparation of blood
products (except when there is reason to believe it
contains an infectious substance).
Any item being transported by private or contract carriage
in exclusive-use vehicle (ex. Lab Express & Med Speed).
Household waste and animal waste from husbandry or
food production.

Exceptions From Class 6.2

Hazardous Materials Regulations
The following are not regulated under the DOT HM
Used health care products (ex., a medical, diagnostic, or
research device or piece of equipment, or a personal
care product used by consumers, medical professionals,
or pharmaceutical providers) that have been decontaminated or disinfected to remove or mitigate the
infectious hazard prior to transportation.

Classification Scenarios
1. A culture of HIV:
Category A- Infectious substances, affecting humans,
2. A blood sample from a patient reasonably believed to be
infected with Hepatitis B:
Category B - Biological substance, UN3373
3. Patient blood specimen sent for cholesterol testing,
reasonably expected not to contain any category A
infectious substance:

If professional judgment is made that there is only a minimal

likelihood that any pathogens are present, the specimen can be
packaged as Exempt Human Specimen, or
If no professional judgment is made, the specimen must be
classified as UN3373.

Specimen Preservatives

Formaldehyde solution 25% Class 8 (Label as Corrosive UN2209)

Formaldehyde solution 10% & <25% - Class 9 (Label as Aviation Regulated

Liquid n.o.s. UN3334) IATA regulation with no excepted quantities

Formaldehyde solution, flammable <25% - Class 3 Subsidiary Risk Group 8

(Label as Liquid flammable and Corrosive -- UN1198)

Formaldehyde solution < 10% not regulated

Ethanol -- Class 3 (Liquid flammable UN1170)

Ethanol aqueous solution < 24% ETOH is not regulated. (SP A58 ICAO,

Methanol - Class 3 (Liquid flammable UN1230)

Must also meet excepted quantity requirements!

Excepted Quantities
Certain dangerous goods are permitted in Excepted Quantities
Flash point for flammable liquid must be between 100oF-140oF
E Code
Maximum quantity per
Maximum total quantity
(Column F)
inner package
per package

Not permitted


30 g / 30 ml

1 kg / 1 L


30 g / 30 ml

500 g / 500 ml


30 g / 30 ml

300 g / 300 ml


1 g / 1 ml

500 g / 500 ml


1 g / 1 ml

Formaldehyde UN1198 -- E1
Ethanol UN1170 -- E2

Not Permitted

300 g / 300 ml

Methanol UN1230 -- E2

Ask EHSO for assistance determining which quantity applies to

the specific substance you are shipping. No additional label
is needed for Category A or B packages meeting these limits.

Excepted Quantities
1. The hazardous material must be placed in a tightly
closed plastic, inner package (thickness 2mm), or of
glass, porcelain, stoneware, earthenware or metal.
2. The inner container cap must be held securely with
wire, tape or other positive means, and threaded caps
must be leak proof.
3. Packaging materials must be compatible with the
4. Inner packaging is placed in non-reactive secondary
packaging that is leak proof and contains
cushion/absorbent material.
5. Secondary packaging is placed in a strong, rigid, outer
package made of wood, fiberboard or equally strong
material (rated 20 lb box).
6. The outside of the package must be marked with the
label shown to the right.
5. The waybill must say Dangerous Goods in Excepted

Class 8

Hazard Class
(Shipper Info)

Chemical Preservative Scenarios

Can these packages be shipped under the Excepted
Quantities rule?
1. A single package with 10 primary containers, each containing
an exempt animal specimen and 50 ml of less than10%
formaldehyde solution.
2. A single package with 20 primary containers, each containing
an exempt animal specimen and 30 ml of 70% ethanol solution
3. A single package with 20 primary containers, each containing
an exempt animal specimen and 30 ml of less than 25%
formaldehyde solution (UN1198).

Emergency Response Information

Shipments of dangerous goods must include
information that can be used in the mitigation of an
Emergency response information and contact
telephone number (Cat A and Cat B), and
Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for the hazardous
chemicals contained in the shipment (including
dry ice and preservatives).
Remember: HazMat shippers directly impact
transportation safety!

International shippers must comply with the regulations set forth by:
The nation of origin,
Each nation in transit (stop-overs), and
The destination nation.
Your freight carrier can assist you.
Ask EHSO for assistance with international shipments.
Special shipping regulation apply to batteries.
Smoke detectors and other electrical components may contain
radioactive elements.


Transporter Responsibilities
Transporters are required to inspect each package
or overpack containing a Category 6.2 infectious
material for signs of leakage.
If evidence of leakage is found, the cargo
compartment hold where the material was stowed is
required to be disinfected by any means that makes
the release of the Category 6.2 infectious substance
ineffective at transmitting disease.
Packaging errors can be costly!
You, as the shipper, are responsible for errors!

Labeling & Packaging

Shipping Name & UN Number

Category A Substances:
Infectious Substance Affecting Humans UN2814
Infectious Substance Affecting Animals UN2900
Category B Biological Substance UN3373
Dry Ice or Carbon Dioxide Solid UN1845
Aviation Regulated Liquid n.o.s UN3334
Exempt Specimens (No UN Number required)
Exempt Human Specimen
Exempt Animal Specimen



Biological Substance
Category B

weighed amount
(metric system)

Dry Ice,
2.3 kg


Declaration for Dangerous Goods

Must be completed when transported by a commercial
Completed in triplicate (each an original) with the red
stripe down the length of the paper.
Two copies are given to the transporter and one copy
is kept for the shippers files. Keep for 3 years.
Must be attached to the top of the package in a
waterproof bag.
The Air Waybill must also be completed and placed on
the top of the package.
FedEx will not accept a package with a handwritten
Declaration form.


(fiberboard or fibreboard)
(metric system)



Air Waybill
Section 1: The certified shippers name
and phone number must be used.
Section 5: Packaging = Other
Section 6:

The shipment contains dangerous goods if it contains Category A,

Category B, dry ice or hazardous chemicals above exempted quantities.

A Shippers Declaration of Dangerous Goods is only required when

shipping Category A materials. No Shippers Declaration is needed for
Category B, Exempt Specimens, or dry ice.

Record regulated chemical preservatives or dry ice on the form.

Record the accurate amount of dry ice thats in the package, on the air
waybill and the package label (ex. 2.4 kg)

Add your own line with this information:

UN 3373 & Biological Substance, Category B

Air Waybill

Carefully review air waybills that are completed by research
Make corrections if the information is incorrect.

New Regulations
For international shipments, the package must be designed,
constructed, filled and closed so that it will not release its
Under normal transportation conditions,
Through low and high temperature extremes,
Through changes in pressure and humidity (from altitude changes),
From the shocks and vibrations that occur during loading, transport,
and unloading (rough handling).
Pending legislation will include specific tests to prove compliance.


IATA Labeling Rules

All symbols and labels must appear on the same face of the
package with the shipper and consignees names. Labels
must be:
Within 6 inches of each other,
No overlap and no wrapping around corners, and
In proximity of the shippers and consignees names.

Handwritten shipping information must be:

readily visible,

legible, and
in a contrasting color to the container.

Youll need to use a large enough outer box!

Labeling Rules
Shipments containing mixed liquids must show two
orientation symbols on the outermost container
placed on opposite sides:
on the front and back,
or on opposite sides.

Labeling Rules
Shipments containing hazardous materials must contain
emergency response information in the package:
A Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for each hazardous
chemical present (including dry ice & other
preservatives), and
Emergency Response information in the event of a
release of infectious materials (Category A or B).


Triple Packaging System

Watertight, shiftless, primary
container sealed with tape, wire, etc.
Watertight, shiftless, secondary
container with absorbent material

Rigid outer package

Remember: Outer box must be large enough that all
information is clearly visible without overlap.

Packaging Category A
Infectious Substances
Triple packaging system.
The outer container must be a new, UN certified container.
Primary container maximum quantity:
Passenger aircraft = 50 ml or 50 gm
Cargo aircraft = 4 L or 4 kg

Primary and secondary containers must be sealed, leak proof, and shift
List contents on secondary container.
The total weight must not exceed 4L or 4kg (8.8 lb).

Declaration for Dangerous Goods is required.

Include SDS for all hazardous materials in the package.
Name and contact information of the Responsible Person to contact if
emergency occurs (Mike Zagotta at 1-217-545-7777).
Send Priority or Express Mail only.

Packaging Category A
Infectious Substances
UN Symbol
Watertight , Shift-proof Primary
Glass, Metal, or Plastic
*If multiple fragile primary receptacles
are placed in single secondary
packaging, they must be either
individually wrapped or separated so
as to prevent contact between them.

Infectious Substance



Absorbent Packing Materials

(for liquids)



4G/CLASS 6.2/99


Year of

Test Facilities Code

Cross Section of Closed Package

Watertight, Shift-proof
Secondary Package
List of Contents

Rigid Outer Packing

Substance Label
Proper Shipping Name
And UN Number


Rigid Outer
UN Package
Certification Mark

Closure requires
positive means
of ensuring
leakproof seal


Shipper &


UN Certified Outer Containers

UN certified outer boxes may only be used once. They
are not re-usable.
After the first use the package may become damaged
during transport.

The UN certification is no longer valid.

Packaging Category A
Infectious Substances

Air Waybill and

Shippers Declaration
for Dangerous Goods in
ziplock bag on top.

Responsible Person:
Michael Zagotta
Security Department

Single use box.


Include the SDS and

emergency response
information for each
hazardous material
in the package.

Liquids have
symbols on
opposite sides.

4G/CLASS 6.2/99

Packaging Limits Category A

Passenger aircraft: 50 ml or 50 gm
Cargo aircraft: 4 L or 4 kg
If the package is over the weight limit for a passenger
aircraft, apply the Danger, Forbidden in Passenger
Aircraft label and check the appropriate boxes on the
Air Waybill and Declaration forms.
This label is no longer valid!!!

New label says, Cargo Aircraft ONLY

- Forbidden in Passenger Aircraft


Cargo Aircraft Only Shipments

Cargo aircraft only shipments must prove the restriction
by correct packaging instruction number (ask EHSO).
If the package can go by either passenger aircraft or
cargo plane, you must allow the carrier to make the
Dont use this sticker unless required!

Packaging Category B
Biological Substances
Triple packaging system.

The outer rigid container does not have to be UN certified.

Primary container maximum quantities:

Liquid = 1 Liter or Solid = 4 kilograms

List contents on secondary container.

The total weight must not exceed 4L or 4kg (8.8 lb).

Total weight does not include weight of dry ice.

Body parts and organs can exceed 4kg.

Only send: Priority or Express Mail.

Declaration for Dangerous Goods is not required.
Include SDS for hazardous material and the spill
procedure in the package.

Packaging Category B
Biological Substances
Include the SDS and emergency response information for each hazardous material in the package.

Primary Receptacle
Leakproof & Shift-proof

Secondary Packing
Leakproof & Shift-proof
(e.g. sealed plastic bag)

Rigid Outer Packing

Package Marks
Category B

Material (for

Cross Section of Closed Package

List of Contents
Enclosed between secondary and
outer package

Leakproof & Shiftproof
Secondary Receptacle Leakproof &
Shift-proof (e.g. sealed plastic bag or
other intermediate packaging)

Rigid Outer


Name and telephone number of the DOT

certified Responsible Person . (This
information may instead be provided on
a written document such as an air


Packaging Category B
Biological Substances

Responsible Person:
Certified Shippers Name
Your Phone Number

Remember to pack the

SDS for each
hazardous material in
the package.

Biological Substance
Category B

Packaging Limits Category B

Passenger aircraft: 4 L or 4 kg (8.8 lb)
Cargo aircraft: 4 L or 4 kg (8.8 lb)

Any amount exceeding this limit cannot be

transported by aircraft and must travel by
ground transportation.
Do not include dry ice or
liquid nitrogen in these totals.
Body parts and organs can
exceed 4 kg.

Exempt Human or Animal Specimen

Triple packaging system
Outer container does not have to be UN certified.
Label as Exempt Human Specimen or Exempt Animal Specimen
Primary container maximum quantities:

Liquid = 1 Liter or Solid = 4 kilograms

Only send: Priority or Express Mail

No Responsible Person label is required, but your name (certified
shipper) and phone number is recommended

Declaration for Dangerous Goods is not required


Packaging Materials With Dry Ice

The total weight of the Category A or Category B material must not
exceed 4 kg (8.8 lb). (Excluding weight of dry ice when used as a
An SDS for dry ice must be included.
The package must be able to vent CO2 gas.

The amount (kg) of dry ice must appear on the outer box label and
the air waybill.
The UN number for dry ice (UN1845) must appear on the outer box.
Dry Ice must appear on the Declaration of Dangerous Goods if a
declaration is required for the goods being shipped (ex. Category A
or regulated chemicals).
Responsible Person contact information on the outer container.

Packaging Materials With Dry Ice

Remember to pack the SDS for each hazardous
material in the package.

Responsible Person:
Certified Shippers Name
Your Phone Number

Accurately record the

amount of dry ice, in
kilograms, on the label
and on the air waybill.

Biological Substance
Category B

Dry Ice,
2.43 kg

Do not seal all seams to

allow venting of CO2 gas


Dry Ice Handling Procedures

Skin contact may cause cryogenic burns.

Never handle dry ice with your bare hands

Wear insulated, loose-fitting gloves

Use a plastic scoop or tongs

Disposal of surplus dry ice must be done


Do not dispose dry ice waste with regular trash.

Housekeeping staff may be burned.

Do not allow dry ice to dissipate inside an

enclosed space. Oxygen will be displaced
resulting in a hazardous atmosphere.

Do not dispose dry ice down a plumbing fixture.

Glass pipes may freeze and fracture.

Bring surplus dry ice to EHSO for proper disposal.

Carbon Dioxide, Solid

Dry Ice


Characteristics of Dry Ice

Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 has a melting
point of -109.3 F and a boiling point of -109.4 F. So, at
normal atmospheric pressure the solid turns to gas
without going through a liquid stage.
CO2 gas is heavier than air and will collect and remain in
low areas or enclosed spaces.
Out-gassing from dry ice can cause suffocation due to
displacement of oxygen in confined locations.

The normal atmospheric concentration of CO2 is 0.93%.

CO2 vapor can cause unconsciousness and suffocation at a
concentration >10%.
A concentration as low as 1.5% can cause adverse symptoms
and death after prolonged exposure.

Record Retention

Air waybills and Declaration for Dangerous Goods documents must be

retained for 3 years. EHSO recommends that you keep your copy of air
waybills in a labeled binder so that they can be retrieved quickly during
a regulatory inspection.
Send a copy of the air waybill to the EHSO if the shipment contains:

Category A,
Category B,
Dry ice,
Excepted/Exempt Quantities, and
When a Declaration of Dangerous Goods form is required.

Copies of air waybills must be sent to EHSO prior to shipping the

Keep your training certificate in a safe, easily accessible location so it
can quickly be retrieved during an inspection and so you know when
you are due for re-certification.

Keep your manufacturers packaging instructions for two years.

Hazardous Materials Security Plan

Only persons with a DOT Certificate of Training can

package, ship or complete shipping papers for Category A,
Category B, dry ice, and Exempt Specimens (aka the
Responsible Person).

For Category A, and other shipments requiring a

Declaration of Dangerous Goods, list Michael Zagotta as
the Responsible Person and SIU Security (217-545-7777)
as the contact phone number.

Category A Infectious Substances will be packaged in the

department of origin, and shipped by the Environmental
Health and Safety Office.

Shipments of Category B Biological Substances, and

shipments of hazardous chemicals must be picked up at a
secure location such as an occupied lab, clinic, or the
Security office. Do not leave these packages at an
unattended drop off area.


Hazardous Materials Security Plan

All chemicals except those exempt from DOT

HMR must be shipped by the EHSO. Your
department must provide packing materials.

Notify the EHSO when you receive a shipment

of dangerous goods that is damaged or

Notify the EHSO when a shipment of

dangerous goods is missing in transport.

Rooms where hazardous chemicals,

biologicals, or radiological materials are stored
must be locked when no one is present.

Environmental Health & Safety Office

Mike Zagotta 5-8837

Fax 545-7717 (Security) Attention Mike Zagotta
Caroline Young DOT/FAA Hazardous Materials Specialist
(217) 744-1914;
DOT website:
International Air Transportation Association (IATA):
Dangerous Goods Regulations -- 51st edition (available from EHSO)
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO):
Technical Instruction for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air -latest edition always available from EHSO

International Air Transportation Association (IATA)
Dangerous Goods Regulations 53rd edition (available from EHSO)
FedEx Ground Hazardous Materials Shipping Guide
(800) 463-3339 and press 81 for the Hazardous Materials Hotline