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1.1.1

3D forward and Inversion modeling

Forward modeling of 2D and 3D is created to enable you calculating the apparent resistivity
values for a square grid survey electrode over the 2D and 3D structure. In this research has
used a RES2DMOD and RES3DMOD2.14 software (Loke, 1996-2001).
The RES2DMOD and RES3DMOD forward modeling consists of producing a
set for calculated the apparent resistivity values on the Poissons law, when the first term
contains ( x , y) since it is assumed that there is no change the conductivity in y direction.

. ( x , z ) V ( x , y , z )

( x)( y )( z )
t

(10)

x$ $
y z$
x
y
z

Where

Where V is scalar electrode potential,

is resistivity, t is time,

is electrical

conductivity as a function of x and z, and I is current.

In the Fourier domain, it is carried out in solution for a set of wavenumbers

in the Fourier space when the equation 10 transformed into 2D equation in the x,y plane and
after inverse Fourier transform is employed to return V(x,y,z) from of the set of transformed
potentials

( x, y , z )

. ( x, y ) ( x, y, z ) 2 ( x, y ) ( x, y, z ) Q ( x) ( z )

x$ z$
x
z

Where
And

(11)

is a wave number in the transform direction, and

that related to the current by the equation 12.

is a steady state current density

I
2 A

(12)

Where A is a small area about the injection point.


The apparent resistivity that corresponding to use in the Fourier transform then
returns V from

is following this equation 13.

G V
I

(13)

Where G is a geometric factor dependent on positions of the current and potential electrodes.

1.1.2

Inversion modeling of 3-D inversion is regularized using the smoothness-constrained leastsquares method for the 2-D inversion (Loke. 1996-2000). It is a geophysical inversion
method that utilized to determine the subsurface model, forward response agrees with
measured data subjective. It should be optimized the number of rectangular blocks beneath
the locations of the observed data. The bock volumes under the survey location are created by
using RES2DINV software.
The equation parameter that optimized to determine an alternating of model is
Gauss-Newtons (GN) law as following.
J T J qi J T gi

Where

qi

is a model parameter vector,

(14)

is a Jacobian matrix of partial derivatives, and

gi

is

a data misfit vector containing the difference between the logarithms of the measured and
calculated apparent resistivity.

The Jacobian is described an alternating of the ith model response

change in the jth model parameter


equation.

qi

fi

due to less

. The Jacobian matrix element is given by the following

J ij

f i
q j

(15)

However, the inversion method for resistivity data is used RES2DINV and
RES2DINV2.14 (Loke, 2004). The data set is performed the apparent resistivity values,
which represent spatial averaged resistivities over a certain volume of subsurface. The
resistivity value variation of geological bodies and thickness that calculated from the software
inversion surely (Loke and Barker, 1996).

After the first traveltime was picked. The P wave arrival time and distance
from the source are recorded in the traveltime plot discrete slopes in a travltime curve equal
the reciprocal of the apparent velocity of each visible subsurface layer. The thickness of a
homogeneous overburden layer (z) with a velocity (V1) is can found by using equation
(Telford et al., 1990).

V1ti
2 cos c

where ti represents the back projection to the time axis of the refracted portion of the

traveltime curve,

is the critical angle (Equation 34).

(40)