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BACKGROUND

Linguistic circumstances are all around us already quite complex. Language


problems appear in the form of language delay or interruption in the language.
The term used language delays based on normal language development are
hampered. If the language development that follows the normal patterns, they
look their slowness when compared to the same age. One of these events is
reflected in Aphasia. Everyone uses the language, acquire the right words,
understanding, reading, writing, and making gestures are part of the use of
language. When one or more of the use of language was not functioning properly
due to brain injury, this is called Aphasia. Language disorder may involve
disruption to other fields, and is most difficult to identify the precise nature of the
problem.
Aphasia is different from one person to another. The severity and scope of the
aphasia depend on the location and severity of brain injury, the ability to speak
before the aphasia and personality (AIA, 2011). Some people with aphasia can
understand language well, but have difficulty finding the right words or make
sentences. There is also another person who can speak at length, but what he said
is difficult or cannot be understood by the other person. Such patients often have
great trouble understanding the language. By this author will conduct research on
the language of people who suffer from Aphasia and its relation to linguistics.

This study will also discuss about the language of the people who suffer from
aphasia and its relationship to morphology, phonology and psycholinguistic.
Fluency disorders interesting to study because of interference can hinder a
person's fluency in communicating with others, so as to affect the psychological
condition and can be fatal and make it isolated from the social environment and
education. By doing this research, we can expect to know the influence of aphasia
on linguistic and psychological.
Lumempou (2003) mengatakan bahwa pasca serangan stroke selain meninggalkan
kecacatan berupa kelumpuhan juga meninggalkan gangguan berbahasa atau
Afasia. Meskipun gangguan afasia yang dialami pasien stroke hanya sekitar 15 %,
namun sangat mengganggu karena mereka akan mengalami kesulitan dalam
berkomunikasi dengan individu lain. Dari berbagai jenis afasia tersebut, afasia
broca menjadi bahan penelitian dalam tesis ini. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap
seorang informan yang telah mengalami afasia broca. Afasia yang dialami
informan disebabkan oleh stroke hemaragik di belahan otak kiri. Dampak dari
stroke tersebut menyisakan afasia broca dan melemahnya fungsi kaki sebelah
kanan. Afasia broca disebut juga afasia motorik. Afasia broca ditandai oleh
gangguan atau hilangnya kemampuan untuk menyatakan pikiran-pikiran yang
dapat dimengerti dalam bentuk bicara dan menulis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk
memberikan gambaran tentang bunyi yang dipanggil dari leksikon mental
informan, memberikan gambaran tentang kekeliruan sintaksis dan morphological
pada informan dalam memproduksi bahasa,

memberikan gambaran tentang

kekeliruan leksikal/semantik pada informan dalam memproduksi bahasa, dan

memberikan gambaran tentang siasat yang digunakan oleh informan dalam


mengungkapkan gagasan yang hilang dari memorinya.
. LITERATURE REVIEW
In this page we will get the relationship between language and linguistic,
psycholinguistic and also morphology, in fact that all really know more complex
about language and the problem and also what its study about, especially these all
learn about language, and how do the three lesson are interconnected with each
other in study language, lets see the definition off all.
Linguistic
Linguistics, the systematic study of human language, lies at the crossroads
of the humanities and the social sciences. Much of its appeal derives from the
special combination of intuition and rigor that the analysis of language demands.
The interests of the members of the Department of Linguistics and colleagues in
other departments span most of the major subfields of linguistics: phonetics and
phonology, the study of speech sounds; syntax, the study of how words are
combined; semantics, the study of meaning; historical linguistics, the study of
language change in time; computational linguistics, the modeling of natural
language in all its aspects from a computational perspective.
Studying linguistics is not a matter of studying many languages.
Linguistics is a theoretical discipline with ties to such areas as cognitive
psychology, philosophy, logic, computer science, and anthropology. Nonetheless,

knowing particular languages (e.g., Spanish or Japanese) in some depth can


enhance understanding of the general properties of human language. Not
surprisingly then, many students of linguistics owe their initial interest to a period
of exposure to a foreign language, and those who come to linguistics by some
other route find their knowledge about languages enriched and are often
stimulated to embark on further foreign language study.
Psycholinguistic
Dardjowidjojo (2008:2-6) memberi istilah psikolinguistik sebagai ilmu
hibrida, yaitu ilmu yang merupakan gabungan antara dua ilmu psikologi dan
linguistik. Perkembangan psikolinguistik dibagi menjadi empat tahap, yaitu tahap
formatif, tahap linguistik, tahap kognitif, dan tahap teori psikolinguistik.The study
of mental aspects of language and speech a branch of both linguistics and
psychology. "Psycholinguists study how word meaning, sentence meaning, and
discourse meaning are computed and represented in the mind. They study how
complex words and sentences are composed in speech and how they are broken
down into their constituents in the acts of listening and reading. In short,
psycholinguists seek to understand how language is done. "In general,
psycholinguistic studies have revealed that many of the concepts employed in the
analysis of sound structure, word structure, and sentence structure also play a role
in language processing. However, an account of language processing also requires
that we understand how these linguistic concepts interact with other aspects of
human processing to enable language production and comprehension."

(William O'Grady, et al., Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. Bedford/St.


Martin's, 2001)
"Psycholinguistics has classically focused on button press tasks and reaction time
experiments from which cognitive processes are being inferred. The advent of
neuroimaging opened new research perspectives for the psycholinguist as it
became possible to look at the neuronal mass activity that underlies language
processing. Studies of brain

correlates

of

psycholinguistic

processes

can

complement behavioral results, and in some cases can lead to direct information
about the basis of psycholinguistic processes."(Friedmann Pulvermller, "Word
Processing in the Brain as Revealed by Neurophysiological Imaging." The Oxford
Handbook of Psycholinguistics, ed. by M. Gareth Gaskell. Oxford Univ. Press,
2009)
Aphasia
Aphasia is a condition that robs you of the ability to communicate.
Aphasia can affect your ability to express and understand language, both verbal
and written. Aphasia typically occurs suddenly after a stroke or a head injury. But
it can also come on gradually from a slowly growing brain tumor or a
degenerative disease. The amount of disability depends on the location and the
severity of the brain damage. Once the underlying cause has been treated, the
primary treatment for aphasia is speech therapy that focuses on relearning and
practicing language skills and using alternative or supplementary communication

methods. Family members often participate in the therapy process and function as
communication partners of the person with aphasia.
Aphasia is usually caused by a stroke or brain injury with damage to one
or more parts of the brain that deal with language. According to the National
Aphasia Association, about 25% to 40% of people who survive a stroke get
aphasia. Aphasia may also be caused by a brain tumor, brain infection,
or dementia such as Alzheimer's disease. In some cases, aphasia is a symptom of
epilepsy or other neurological disorder.
There are types of aphasia. Each type can cause impairment that varies from
mild to severe. Common types of aphasia include the following:

Expressive aphasia (non-fluent): With expressive aphasia, the person


knows what he or she wants to say, yet has difficulty communicating it to
others. It doesn't matter whether the person is trying to say or write what
he or she is trying to communicate.

Receptive aphasia (fluent): With receptive aphasia, the person can hear a
voice or read the print, but may not understand the meaning of the
message. Oftentimes, someone with receptive aphasia takes language
literally. Their own speech may be disturbed because they do not
understand their own language.

Anomic aphasia. With anomic aphasia, the person has word-finding


difficulties. This is called anomia. Because of the difficulties, the person
struggles to find the right words for speaking and writing.

Global aphasia. This is the most severe type of aphasia. It is often seen
right after someone has a stroke. With global aphasia, the person has
difficulty speaking and understanding words. In addition, the person is
unable to read or write.

Primary progressive aphasia. Primary progressive aphasia is a rare


disorder where people slowly lose their ability to talk, read, write, and
comprehend what they hear in conversation over a period of time. With a
stroke, aphasia may improve with proper therapy. There is no treatment to
reverse primary progressive aphasia. People with primary progressive
aphasia are able to communicate in ways other than speech. For instance,
they might use gestures. And many benefit from a combination of speech
therapy and medications.

Aphasia may be mild or severe. With mild aphasia, the person may be able to
converse, yet have trouble finding the right word or understanding complex
conversations. Severe aphasia limits the person's ability to communicate. The
person may say little and may not participate in or understand any conversation.

METHODOLOGY
In this study, the researcher use qualitative approach. So, collected data divided
from interviews, field notes, personal documents, and record memos. The purpose
of this qualitative study was to describe the empirical reality behind the
phenomenon in depth, detailed, and complete. Therefore, the use of a qualitative
approach in this research is to match the empirical reality with the prevailing
theory by using descriptive method. We consider using qualitative research is a
research procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of words written or
spoken by observation of informants who have aphasia Broca, who had suffered a

stroke, and the rest of the stroke in the left hemisphere resulted in disruption of the
temporal lobe regions precisely in Broca's area. In this study, researchers act as
data collectors and as an active instrument in efforts to collect data in the field.
While the data collection instruments other than Broca's aphasia patients are
various forms of tools and such other documents that can be used to support the
validity of research results, but serves as a supporting instrument.
1. Instrument Research
In this study, the researcher as the main instrument, the participants, as
2.

well as data collectors, while the other instruments as a support


Location Research
The location is located at the center of social research Tresna Wrda

"Minaula", Ranomeeto
3. Data collection techniques
Data collection techniques used was interviews, and documentation. The
technique used by researchers, as a phenomenon it would be good to
understand its meaning, if researchers interact with the research subjects in
which phenomena occurred.
a. Interview techniques
Interview techniques used in the study were interviews, where
researcher's asking some questions related to the focus issue, so
with this interview of data can be collected as much as possible. As
informant in this research is Abdullah and he is 50 years old.
b. Technical documentation
In qualitative research, this technique is the main tool of data
collection.

Documentation

technique

used

in

this

study

intentionally because: first, the source is always available and


cheap, especially in terms of time; the second is a source of

information that can be analyzed back unchanged; third, records


and documents is a source of contextual information, relevant and
essential in the context. The data is collected by means of this
documentation is

recorded in the recording

format

and

documentation.

Semantic analysis
Aphasia broca atau aphasia motorik merupakan ketidak mampuan bertutur kata.
Namun ia mengerti bila diperintah dan menjawab dengan gerakan tubuh sesuai
perintah itu. Ini terjadi karena kerusakan yang terjadi berdampingan dengan pusat
otak untuk pergerakkan otot-otot tubuh. Kelumpuhan juga terjadi pada anggota
tubuh bagian kanan. Kemampuan berpikir seseorang menentukan
kemampuan
seseorang

berbahasanya.

merupakan

Sebaliknya,

cerminan

kemampuan

kemampuan

berbahasa

berpikirnya.

Proses

berpikir ini dilakukan pula pada penderita afasia broca. Hal itu
disebabkan

penderita

afasia

broca

tidak

mengalami

gangguan

pemahaman. Jadi proses berpikir itu masih utuh bagi mereka. Hanya
ketika proses berpikir itu diekspresikan melalui bahasa sering terjadi
kekeliruan. Hal ini disebabkan sistem produksi bahasanya yang
mengalami kecacatan. Oleh karena itu, para penderita afasia broca
mengalami kekeliruan-kekeliruan dalam ujaran, seperti kekeliruan
makna yang terdapat pada data yang diujarkan informan di atas

The Researcher: Bapak sudah makan?


Informan: Dah ( not really clearly)
Kata dah merupakan bentuk kata yang tidak baku dalam pembendaharaan kata
bahasa Indonesia. kata baku sudah adalah telah jadi, selesai, habis, berakhir.
Item-item leksikal yang dibangun dalam kalimat tersebut sebenarnya cukup jelas
maknanya akan tetapi dari segi fonologi terjadi penghilangan huruf. Kesimpulan
yang

dapat

ditarik

dari

kekeliruan

leksikal

adalah

informan

mendapatkan kesulitan untuk meretrif kata. Informan masih bisa


memahami

apa

yang

kita

katakan

padanya,

tetapi

ketika

dia

menanggapi atau ingin mengatakan atau mengekspresikan sesuatu


melalui bahasa, ada masalah besar yang dialaminya, tanpa bisa
dipahami oleh orang sehat atau normal. Karena, gangguan bahasa
yang dialami, disebabkan ada gangguan pada otak, sehingga apa yang
ingin dikatakan oleh otak, sampai di pengucapan jadi berbeda.
Dalam proses wawancara, informan lebih banyak menggunakan
gesture.

Gesture

atau

bahasa

tubuh

adalah

salah

satu

cara

berkomunikasi melalui gerakan-gerakan tubuh, seperti pada deskripsi


data berikut:
Researcher: Bapak sudah makan?
Informan: (hanya mengangguk dan tertawa. Setelah beberapa lama dia
menjawab) dah.

Contoh lainnya

yaitu

ketika dia meraih kursi. Hal itu maksudanya

mempersilakan kami duduk. Namun informan hanya mampu merabaraba dan mengoceh tidak jelas.
Kesenyapan dan keraguan dalam ujaran pada data diatas terjadi
karena informan lupa kata-kata yang dia perlukan, atau dia sedang
mencari kata yang paling tepat. Informan gagal mencari kata tersebut
sehingga diam lalu menyiasatinya dengan gesture. Bahasa tubuh ini
dilakukan

oleh

mendahului

informan

bahasa

terkadang

verbalnya.

tanpa

Bahasa

disadari
ini

dan

mendukung

keluar
dan

berpengaruh dalam proses komunikasi informan sebagai penderita


afasia broca. Akan tetapi, jika gerakan informan berlawanan dengan
bahasa verbal akan mengurangi kekuatan komunikasi, sedangkan
kalau

selaras

dengan

bahasa

verbal

akan

menguatkan

proses

komunikasi. Diam yang dilakukan informan ini disebut juga senyapan.


Informan melakukan senyapan karena lupa terhadap kata yang ingin
disampaikan. Oleh karena itu, ujaran yang terdengar ditandai dengan
senyapan diam. Menurut Aitchison, pada umumnya orang senyap
sebentar, entah untuk bernafas entah untuk keperluan yang lain. Pada
waktu berbicara, senyap untuk mengambil nafas tidak banyak hanya
sekitar 5% (1997:238)
Selain itu, beberapa kali informan juga menyebutkan eh dan ah.
Kata-kata tersebut Salah satu contohnya yaitu ketika dia meraih kursi.
Hal itu maksudanya mempersilakan kami duduk. Namun informan
hanya mampu meraba-raba dan mengoceh tidak jelas.

Morphology and syntax analysis


Many linguistics departments offer a course entitled 'Language and Brain'
or 'Language and Mind.' Such a course examines the relationship between
linguistic theories and actual language use by children and adults. Findings are
presented from research on a variety of topics, including the course of language
development, language production and understanding, and the nature of language
breakdown due to brain injury. Language and the brain was very connected with
each other than when the brain has problem it is will be influential with the
language and on the contrary.
Language is a significant part of what makes us human, along with other
cognitive skills such as mathematical and spatial reasoning, musical and drawing
ability, the capacity to form social relationships, and the like. Brain and language
are as a source of communication. Both have strong ties in the communication
process. No single event any communication that does not involve the brain and
language. If there is damage to the brain, various disturbances will occur. Such
defects of course related to language and communication, such as language
disorders, impaired speech, and communication disorders. Actually there are some
problem in language, and especially in phonology, morphology and syntax aspect,
these all really important to know and to analysis for improve our knowledge
about language and brain problem, in this pace we will explain about a
disturbance of aphasia base on morphology and syntax aspect.

There are also people with aphasia are fluent in speaking, and form
syntaxsis also quite good. However, sentences difficult to understand because
many words that do not match their meanings in other words before and after.
This is because people with aphasia is often mistaken in choosing a word, for
example, said the fair was replaced with the word chair, carrot with cabbage, and
so on. There are also people with aphasia are impaired in oral comprehensive. He
is not easy to understand what we say. In addition there are many other symptoms.
Syntax and morphological error
Language according to Chomsky tends to be rational mentality. He said
that the linguist is actually a cognitive psychologist. For him, the grammar is no
longer seen as something apart from human cognition as a constituent in an
utterance actually reflect the reality of human psychology that there is.
(Dardjowidjojo, 2008: 6) A sentence he formulated into S (Sentence) NP (noun
phrase) + VP (verb phrase) as the core sentence that can be expanded or modified
by transformation. He also distinguishes in grammatical concept and the concept
of meaningfulness. The following data is one source that involves the use of the
characteristics of the context to facilitate their understanding of lexical items and
passive sentences were reversed order
(a. questioner : bapak namanya siapa?
(b. In: abdulah
(a. bapak sudah makan?
(b. dah

The above data indicate that the informant could only answer questions
with one word, the informant was not able to answer the question with a perfect
sentence in accordance with the grammatical structure of language or good as the
drafting of the subject, verb and object, informants can only express one word but
we still can understand it, because the informant was able to understand the
question the questioner that the informant was able to understand and know the
answer must be in say that the questioner and listener can understand it, so that
the informant knew when he had to answer the question with one word form,
subject, verb or object .
a)bapak kalau sore-sore gini ngapain?
b)unclear,,,,
In an interview in the above piece of data seems informant is no longer clear
even hardly able to understand his words, this could be in because the question
was too long so that the informant cannot understand the question. In conversation
above informants express the difficulty answer, so it can not be the detection of
another construction of a sentence, replace informant role in the sentence
structure. Basically the structure of birth (surface structure) of a sentence is the
result of the transformation of the inner structure (deep structure) was born the
same structure not necessarily contain the same inner structure as well. This is
evident in the second data. The data show that Chomsky's theory can be applied
by using the deep structure; it is S NP + VP.
a) Questioner: coba bapak bilang,(ular,lari)
b) Informan : ular,,lari,,ular lari,,

From the above conversation informant can say more than one word clear but
through the guidance of the questioner, however informant does not know the
word structure, the informant only follow what is instructed by the questioner.
The conclusion is a state informant impaired expression of proving the
existence of mutual engagement in the process of language; attention or haste
informants resulted in the creation of language structure tangling. The existence of
the inner structure and the structure of birth was also proved by a brain injury that
occurs on the left informant. This is evident from the language which bore a mess
so that the production of unusual language uttered at the culture and habits of
people in general.