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Problem Statement:

We want to produce bio-gas for a family which have five or six members, and it expects to burn
methane to cook, light one lamp for two hours each night, and operate a two-horse power engine
for two hours each day?

Aims & Objectives


Our aim is to design an apparatus to produce bio-gas on small scale in rural areas to meet the
energy crises. In Pakistan and in many other areas of the world, US-Aid society has introduced
biogas digesters to rural communities. The project participants learn how to build and maintain
the biogas digesters. The digesters provide a cheap and simple way for people to get energy from
a renewable source that they have easy access to animal manure. By using biogas digesters
people no longer need to cut down trees for firewood. This in turn helps to stabilize and protect
the environment. In addition, by not having to collect firewood, each household saves up to three
hours a day of work that they can now direct towards other productive activities and our
objectives are:

Analyze the importance of energy and how we use energy in our lives.
Describe the difference between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy.
Experiment with creating and capturing bio-gas.
Purifying the gas to use it on the commercial purposes as well.
Reducing the retention time to attain the maximum efficiency of the plant in the
minimum time for industrial usage.

Theoretical study approach:

Initial:

1. Collecting Information.
2. Learning the basics.
3. Studying the working of BIO-GAS PLANT.

Intermediate:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Understanding the challenges involved in this project.


Theoretical research of the challenges
Working out for a solution
Designing

Final:

1. Drawing precise component sketches.


Purification Methodology:
A lot of processes are available for enrichment of methane content in biogas by removing
significant amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Most of these
processes have been developed for use in the natural gas. There are many different methods for
the purification of CH4 through which we increase the percentage of CH4 by removing the
undesirable gases etc. Commonly CO2 removal processes also remove H2S.
Methods:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Absorption into liquid (Physical / Chemical)


Adsorption on solid surface
Membrane separation
Cryogenic separation
Chemical conversion.

Well be selecting the Water Scrubber because:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Simple in construction.
Simple in mechanism.
No chemical required.
Not expensive.
More easy and reliable.

Water Scrubber:
It is a simple cylinder of Mild Steel. The diameter of the scrubber and packed bed height were
taken as 150 mm and 3500 mm respectively. The scrubber consists of a packed bed absorption
column and a supporting frame as described in following sub-sections: A 10 mm thick Mild Steel
(MS) pipe was selected for the column fabrication. The column was fabricated in three sections.

Retention Time Reduction Methodology:


The application of anaerobic digestion technology is growing worldwide, mainly because of its
environmental benefits. Nevertheless, anaerobic degradation is a rather slow and sensitive
process. One of the reasons is the recalcitrance nature of certain fractions of the substrate
(e.g.,lignocelluloses) used for microbial degradation; thus, the hydrolysis becomes the ratelimiting step.
The first stage of the decomposition of the organic matter is performed by fast growing
(hydrolytic and acid forming) microorganisms, while in the second stage the organic acids
produced are metabolized by the slow growing methanogens, which are more sensitive than the
acidogens; thus, methanogenesis becomes the rate-limiting step.
Well overcome the challenge with the slow methanogenesis, by using Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactors (CSTR) and Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) on a wide variety of different
waste fractions in order to decrease the time needed for the digestion process.
Methods:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR)


Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)
Plug Flow (PF)
Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR) configurations.

Well be selecting CSTR and UASB because:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Easy in construction.
Readily available.
Cost efficient.
Easy to operate.
Increase the efficiency and power of the plant.

CSTR:
Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations but we use CSTR as it is frequently
used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in
experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of
system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate
concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration
will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations.
However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that
render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use
an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor
configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with
solids or settling of solids in tubing.

UASB:
The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is a single tank process in an anaerobic
centralized or decentralized industrial wastewater or blackwater treatment system achieving high
removal of organic pollutants. Wastewater enters the reactor from the bottom, and flows upward.
A suspended sludge blanket filters and treats the wastewater as the wastewater flows through it.
Bacteria living in the sludge break down organic matter by anaerobic digestion, transforming it
into biogas. Solids are also retained by a filtration effect of the blanket. The upflow regime and
the motion of the gas bubbles allow mixing without mechanical assistance. Baffles at the top of
the reactor allow gases to escape and prevent an outflow of the sludge blanket. As all aerobic
treatments, UASB require a post-treatment to remove pathogens, but due to a low removal of
nutrients, the effluent water as well as the stabilised sludge can be used in agriculture.