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Tata Motors Ltd 29 April 2013-15 June 2013

Summer Internship Project Report

Evaluation of Training Effectivenness
Tanuja Praveen (ROLL NO.-GM12145)

Rajiv Ranjan
Senior Manager,
Tata Motors Ltd.

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I, Tanuja Praveen hereby declares that the project report titled Evaluation of Training
Effectivenesssubmitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the PostGraduation Diploma in Management, is my original project work and has been carried out under
the guidance of guide Mr. Rajiv Ranjan, Senior Manager, Training Division.




PGDM (GM12145)

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This is to certify that this internship report on titled Evaluation of Training Effectiveness is
a bonefide work of Miss Tanuja Praveen, under my guidance and support. This report is a part of
PGDM course and the content and the work done is genuine with respect to the information
Covered and thought expressed.




Senior Manager, Training Division

Tata Motors, Jamshedpur

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I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Johnson Matthews, Assistant Manager, Management

Training Centre, Tata Motors, Jamshedpur for granting me the permission to do the Summer
Internship Project in one of the most prestigious organizations of the country.
I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Rajiv Ranjan, Senior Manager, Training Division, Tata
Motors, Jamshedpur, for guiding me throughout this Summer Internship Project.
My heartfelt and sincere thanks to Mr. Rajiv Ranjan, Senior Manager,, Mr. Kishor
Prashad,Manager, Mr.Krishan kant Shukla, Officer, who guided me in each step of the project
by providing adequate data and valuable suggestions in spite of their busy schedule.
Im grateful to all the people and staff of the Organization who have directly or indirectly
contributed to the successful completion of the project and assisted me whenever I required. It
was both an honuor and pleasure working in this organization.

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Certificate from the Organization
Company overview
Company Profile
Introduction of topic
Data Analysis
Division wise analysis
Recommendations and Suggestion

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1.1 The TATA Group

The Tata group comprises over 100 operating companies in seven business sectors:
communications and information technology, engineering, materials, services, energy, consumer
products and chemicals. The group has operations in more than 80 countries across six
continents, and its companies export products and services to 85 countries.
The total revenue of Tata companies, taken together, was $83.3 billion (around Rs3796.75
billion) in 2010-11, with 58 per cent of this coming from business outside India. Tata companies
employ over 425,000 people worldwide. The Tata name has been respected in India for more
than 140 years for its adherence to strong values and business ethics.
Every Tata company or enterprise operates independently. Each of these companies has its own
board of directors and shareholders, to whom it is answerable. There are 31 publicly listed Tata
enterprises and they have a combined market capitalization of about $82.31 billion (as on May
17, 2012), and a shareholder base of 3.6 million. The major Tata companies are Tata Steel, Tata
Motors, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, Tata Global Beverages,
Tata Teleservices, Titan, Tata Communications and Indian Hotels.
Founded by Jamsedji Tata in 1868, Tatas early years were inspired by the spirit of nationalism. It
pioneered several industries of national importance in India: steel, power, hospitality and airlines.
In more recent times, its pioneering spirit has been showcased by companies such as TCS,
Indias first software company, and Tata Motors, which made Indias first indigenously
developed car, the Indica, in 1998 and recently unveiled the worlds lowest-cost car, the Tata
Going forward, Tata is focusing on new technologies and innovation to drive its business in India
and internationally. The Nano car is one example, as is the Eka supercomputer (developed by
another Tata company), which in 2008 was ranked the worlds fourth fastest.

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The TATA Group 7 Business Sectors



- Commercial Vehicles & Passenger Cars



- Metals & Composites



- Power



- Chemical & Pigments


Communications & IT

- Telecommunication & Information Technology


Consumer Products

- Consumer Goods



- Hotels, Financial Services & International Operations


Tata Motors Limited is India's largest automobile company, with consolidated revenues of INR 1,
23,133 crores (USD 27 billion) in 2010-11. It is the leader in commercial vehicles in each
segment, and among the top three in passenger vehicles with winning products in the compact,
midsize car and utility vehicle segments. It is the world's fourth largest truck and bus
Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO (TATA Engineering and Locomotive
The company's over 25,000 employees are guided by the vision to be ''best in the manner in
which we operate, best in the products we deliver, and best in our value system and ethics.''
Established in 1945, Tata Motors' presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India.
Over 6.5 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954. The
company's manufacturing base in India is spread across Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Pune
(Maharashtra), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), Sanand (Gujarat) and
Dharwad (Karnataka). Following a strategic alliance with Fiat in 2005, it has set up an industrial
joint venture with Fiat Group Automobiles at Ranjangaon (Maharashtra) to produce both Fiat
and Tata cars and Fiat power trains. The company's dealership, sales, services and spare parts
network comprises over 3,500 touch points.
Tata Motors, the first company from India's engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock
Exchange (September 2004), has also emerged as an international automobile company.

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More than 150 models of vehicles and automotive products are being manufactured by TATA
Motors which includes cars and multi utility vehicles, buses from 12 seats to 60+ seats, trucks,
tippers, tractor trailers and defense vehicles.
Tata Motors is also expanding its international footprint, established through exports since 1961.
The company's commercial and passenger vehicles are already being marketed in several
countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South East Asia, South Asia, CIS, Russia and South
America. It has franchisee/joint venture assembly operations in Bangladesh, Ukraine, and

1.3 TATA MOTORS LTD. Jamshedpur

Established in 1945, the Jamshedpur unit was the Company's first unit and is spread over an area
of 822 acres. It consists of four major divisions - Truck Factory, Engine Factory, Cab & Cowl
Factories. The divestments in March 2000 hived off the Axle and Engine plants into independent
subsidiaries viz. TML Drivelines Limited, respectively.
The automobile project started with signing the collaboration with M/s Daimler Benz AG of
Stuttgart, West Germany on 2nd March, 1954. On 23rd October, the first TATA Mercedes Benz
vehicle bearing the famous star was rolled out. In June 1969, the 15 years collaboration with
Daimler Benz came to an end and the 1,78,809th vehicle was rolled out of the plant bearing the
Tata T.
The Truck Division boasts of two assembly lines. The main assembly line, measuring 180 m in
length has 20 work stations with a vehicle rolling out every 8 minutes. The other line is dedicated
to special purpose vehicles and for meeting the requirements of the Indian Army. The uniqueness
of the Factory lies in its possession of

Advanced facilities for manufacturing long members comprising of a set-up of 5000

Tones Hydraulic press line, cut-to-length line for strip preparation purchased from M/s
Kohler of Germany and a Camber Correction line.
Facility for hot forming of axle halves with a 3000 tone press and heating furnace.
Flexibility in manufacturing frames with an off line Proto-typing facility.

The Cab & Cowl Factory is equipped with state-of-art facilities like Centralized Paint Shop and
Automated Painting set up, Robot painting, BIW Fabrication of day & sleeper cabs for trucks,
Articulates (Tractor/ Trailer), BIW Fabrication of Cowls for buses, and other miscellaneous
The Engine Factory is responsible for the in-house manufacture of Tata 697/497 Naturally
Aspirated and Turbo Charged engines, and the 6B series engines manufactured at Tata Cummins.
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As one of the most modern forging set-ups in the Country, the Forge Division is equipped with a
semi-automated forging line with 40,000 mkg Beche Hammer and state-of-the-art presses from
Kurimoto of Japan. It produces critical forgings like crankshafts, front axle beams and steering
parts for the automobile plant.
TML Drivelines Limited., a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Motors, is currently the market
leader in medium and heavy commercial vehicles axles in India with an installed capacity of
over two lakh axles per annum. It is currently the sole suppliers of M&HCV axles to the
Jamshedpur and Lucknow plants of Tata Motors.
While making technological advancements, the social responsibilities are also taken up seriously.
Tata Motors, Jamshedpur, plays an active role in serving rural communities surrounding its
Works through various community centers. While striving to create a culture for self-help
amongst the local populace, it has made significant progress in community and social forestry,
sustainable development of wastelands, road construction, rural health and education,
development of rural industries, water supply and family planning. A signatory to the UN Global
Pact, it also takes various initiatives in human rights protection, labor standards, environmental
issues, modern effluent treatment facilities, sanitation drives, soil and water conservation
programs, tree plantation drives, etc.

1.4 Profile of TATA MOTORS LTD. Jamshedpur

Mother Plant
Established in 1945 by TATA Sons for manufacturing Steam Locos and other
Engineering products
Works Area: 580 Acres
Vertically integrated Manufacture of Commercial Vehicles including Forgings,
Castings, Tool Room, Cab / Cowl and related support services
Manufacture of Axles, Gear Box and Engines located in the same campus
Axles and Gear Boxes manufactured by subsidiary companies, HV Axles Ltd. and
HV Transmissions Ltd.
In-house manufacture of Tata 697/497 engines
6B series engine manufactured by Tata Cummins
Town-ship area : 1270 acres
Housing 40000 people, 105 kms of roads, Stadium, Parks, Clubs, Sports Centers
Telco main hospital (404 beds ), dispensaries, mobile medical vans.


1945: Established by Tata Sons for manufacturing Steam Locos and other Engineering products
1954: Manufacture of Commercial Vehicles in Collaboration with Mercedes Benz

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1961: Commenced manufacture of excavators in Collaboration with P&H, USA

1964: Launch of 1210 popular model
1969: Collaboration with Mercedes Benz ends
1971: Direct Injection Engines introduced
1975: Semi forward vehicles introduced
1983: Commenced manufacture of hydraulic excavators in collaboration with Hitachi, Japan
1993: Joint venture with Cummins for manufacture of B-series mid-range Diesel Engines
1995: Cummins Engine powered vehicles rolled out
1998: Launching of new range of Cummins Engine powered vehicles
1999: Formation of Telco Construction Company (Telcon)
2000: Formation of HV Axles Ltd. & HV Transmission Ltd.
2003: Company renamed as TATA MOTORS
2004: Tata Daewoo launches heavy duty truck Novus
2005: Launch of Tata Novus
2006: Joint venture with Brazil based Marco polo
2006: Indica V2 Xeta launched
2008: Acquired British Jaguar Landover
2009: Tata Nano, Peoples car, launched
2009: World standard trucks, Prima were launched.
2010: Tata Aria was launched.
2011: Upgraded versions of Prima and Tata Nano were launched.
2011-12: The Best Learning Organization of Asia.



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Chassis Assembly:-

Two assembly lines for production of Medium and Heavy Commercial Vehicles with
installed capacity of 110 vehicles/shift
Range of vehicles from GVW 7 Ton to 40 Ton
All vehicles meet Euro I emission norms , being upgraded to meet Euro II Emission

Frame Shop:-

State of the Art 5000 Ton Siempel kamp press to manufacture frames up to 6 meter
wheel base.

Cab / Cowl Fabrication and Painting:-

Fabrication of Day and Sleeper cabs for Truck, Articulates (Tractor/Trailer)

Fabrication of Cowls for Bus and other miscellaneous applications
Automated State of the Art painting setup


Only Conventional mechanical steering gear boxes produced in-house

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Power steering are out-sourced.

Central Tool Room:-

Design and modeling facilities for Die, Fixtures, Gauges and Tools
Precision manufacturing and assembly set-up

Engineering Research:

Limited Design, Development, Prototyping and Testing facilities

Vendor Development:Local supplier of 200 small and medium auto-component vendors

Base of 300 suppliers located outside Jamshedpur

Foundry (Alloy Iron Foundry):

In-house manufacture of critical castings e.g. Cylinder Block, Cylinder Head etc.



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TML Drivelines








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This division is the place where the final chassis of the automobile gets assembled. It is fed by
divisions like the Engine Division with aggregates of engine, axles, steering and gearbox and the
Forge division, which supplies the spring leaves for mounting axles on the chassis.
The frame or the load carrying structure is made in the frame shop located in this division and
the cowl (SFC & LP) types are provided by the cowl shop which uses modern carbon dioxide
and spot welding techniques for fabrication of the cowls.


Engine Division is involved in manufacturing of engine. Raw materials to this division come in
the form of castings like the cylinder head, block, clutch housing, or forging like crankshaft, con
All manufactured components are routed through either engine assembly or gearbox assembly.
The gear box, after assembly, finds its way to engine assembly where ultimately the engine,
complete gear box is assembled on AGVs (Automatic Guided Vehicles) and then send for testing
on Saj-Froude. Electronic test beds, where the engine is checked for load performance and speed
and smoke emission.


Axle division is located partially inside and partially outside the complex. The manufacturing
activities of the front and rear axle, the propeller shaft and the steering gearbox, king pin boring
and pad hole drilling are the most critical operations performed in the axle.
Perhaps the most critical component being manufactured in this division is the steering gearbox
assembly. The machining operation like grinding and lapping are performed here. The front axle
and rear axle are assembled on AGVs before they are send to truck division for assembly on

The forge is divided between the inner and the outer complex. A variety of forging like camshaft,
front axle, stub-axle, con rod, pitman arm, bevel gears, crown wheel blank are being produced in
this division.

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The forge (outer complex) produces the front axle and the crank shaft on fully automated
Kurimoto and Nisei lines respectively. The spring shop in this division produces spring leaves
(about 130 sets per day) which are send to the truck division for mounting the axles on the frame.


The foundry division caters to the requirement of both the automobile and Excavators castings.
From the thin-walled to the heavily cored casting, the foundry of TATA MOTORS can boast to
be one of the most advanced captive foundries, producing castings by green sand molding
process. The casting is of alloyed and unalloyed cast/Grey iron, spheroidal graphite and low
carbon and alloy steels.

Excavators division has started making of mechanical excavators and cranes in collaboration
with M/s Harnischfeger Crop. (USA).
The manufacturing facilities include fabrication facilities, typically carbon dioxide welding, and
are available for fabrication of the frame, car-body, book etc. of the excavators.


Growth and machine building division takes care of the infrastructure growth oriented facilities
from making of jigs and fixtures, press tool to new machines, cranes, washing machines,
conveyors etc. all come under the purview of G & MB.
To help the division in the diverse range of activities, the departments are Central tool room,
growth fabrication and machine shop, growth and equipment design, jig and tool design,
machine building and reconditioning and centralized electronics department.


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The support services of all manufacturing shops in terms of providing electricity, compressed air,
air conditioning, industrial gases. etc. is the function of the engineering service division .


The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value
to its key resource the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable
them to perform better and to empower them tomake the best use of their natural abilities. The
particular objectives of training
are to:

Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance;

Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as

possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within;

Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on

appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully
competent as quickly and economically as possible.


Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable theParticipants to
gain skills learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision tolook into distant future. In
addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical Orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes
and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities.


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Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needsskills to operate
machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without
which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor
skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move
various parts of ones body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor
skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and driving a car. Motor
skills are needed for all employees from the clerk to the general manager. Employees,
particularly supervisors and executives, need Interpersonal skills popular known as the people
skills. Interpersonal skills areneeded to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly.
Examplesof interpersonal skills include listening, persuading etc.

The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and
judgment. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education
is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource
persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be
discussed.In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis.
Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) are known to attend refreshercourses conducted by business


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Another component of a training and development is development which is lessskill oriented but
stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and
techniques, human relations, specificindustry analysis and the like is useful for better
management of the company.

There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme.
There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices
abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and
talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel
indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty toenlighten all
the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behaviour.

Attitudinal Changes
Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation,
satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes.
Changing negative attitudes is difficult because
1. Employees refuse to changes
2. They have prior commitments
3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient
Nevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the
organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from
there jobs and the work environment

Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills

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Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making
organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision-making
and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees abilities to define structure problems,
collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision
among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors
and professionals.

1.9.Make Learning Memorable

Information, but that can make receiving data or instructions a much more enjoyable experience,
Here are some softer training methods that are not necessarily essential to conveying which will
keep trainees involved and help them retain more information.

Make learning fun. Why? Trainees will not be enthusiastic if training sessions are dry
and dull. Few employees respond to or remember complicated concepts or theories; they
want to learn practical information about what they can do to get better results today. If
they dont find the message entertaining, they wont retain it. Since variety is the spice of
life, use several different training methods to engage trainees in a variety of ways. Also
work to alternate the pace of each session to keep trainees interest level high.
Use humor. Humor helps keep enthusiasm at peak levels. Trainers can make a point
more effectively by using humor than by drowning trainees in statistics or theories. Avoid
telling jokes, however, because humor is so subjective that someone in your audience
may be offended and lose track of training for the rest of the session. Personal, selfdeprecating humor is the safest way to go.
Use attractive packaging. Use materials that are well-packaged and that
communicate value. Professional packaging is a powerful tool for setting a good first
Encourage participation. Make the session lively by engaging participants in the
learning process. In fact, try to spend close to 80 percent of training time on group
participation. Encourage everyone in the training session to speak freely and candidly,
because learning occurs most readily when feelings are involved.
Build self-esteem. Employees understandably want to know whats in it for them.
They know that most training programs are designed to make money for the company,
but rarely does training lift employees spirits or help them to become better in their own
lives. Create a win-win environment by using the training program to build the
participants self-worth and self-esteem.

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1.10.Qualities of Effective Trainers

While some of these qualities are obviously necessary for anyone in a teaching position, others
may not seem as necessary, such as being patient or open-minded. All of these attributes,
however, contribute to making top-notch trainers. All the best trainers are:

Good communicators. They speak well, express their thoughts clearly, and have an
engaging presentation style.
Knowledgeable. They know their topic cold. They understand all the concepts and
know all the details. They can answer questions thoroughly and at a level that trainees
understand. If they ever cant answer a question, they know exactly where to go to get
that answer and they promise to do so as soon as possible.
Experienced. They know what theyre talking about. Theyve been in the field doing
what they teach in training.
Good with people. Their personality styles may vary, but they enjoy working with
people. They can engage groups of people and work with them to meet training goals.
Interested in learning. They recognize the value of learning in their own lives and
want to help others learn. They find satisfaction in sharing with others the skills and
knowledge they have acquired through hard work and persistence.
Patient. They understand that people learn in different ways and at different paces. They
take the time to make sure each trainee understands whats going on and leaves training
sessions with the skills and knowledge he or she came to acquire.
Open-minded. They respect other peoples points of view and know that there are often
many ways to achieve the same objectives. They dont assume they know everything, but
instead are willing to listen to and learn from trainees.
Creative. They bring ingenuity and their own natural curiosity to the task of training.
They create an environment in their training sessions that encourages learning and
inspires trainees to reach beyond what they already know to explore new ideas and
Well-prepared. They know their material, their objectives, and their plan of
presentation. Theyve checked to see that any equipment they expect to use in training is
in place and operational. Theyve made sure that all supplies and supporting materials are
available in the right quantities.
Flexible. They are able to adjust their training plan to accommodate their audience and
still meet all training objectives.
Well-organized. Good trainers can handle several tasks at once. They know how to
manage their time and their work.

1.11.How Learning& Development Benefits the Organization:

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a) Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.
Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization
b) Improves the morale of the workforce
c) Helps people identify with organizational goals
d) Helps create a better corporate image and foster authenticity, openness and trust
e) Improves relationship between boss and subordinate
f) Aids in organizational development and helps prepare guidelines for work
g) Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.
h) Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization
i) Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills
j) Aids in development for promotion from within
k) Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that
successful workers and managers usually display
l) Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work
m) Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel, administration,
n) Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable
o) Improves Labour-management relations
p) Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation
q) Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires
r) Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools)
s) Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication
t) Aids in improving organizational communication
u) Helps employees adjust to change
v) Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.

1.12.Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the

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Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving
Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth,
responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised
Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence
Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict
Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes
Increases job satisfaction and recognition
Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills
Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee)
Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future
Develops a sense of growth in learning
Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writing skills
when exercises are required. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks

1.13.Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations, Intra-group

Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation:

Improves communication between groups and individuals:

Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through

Transfer or promotion

Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action

Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies

Improves interpersonal skills.

Makes organizational policies, rules and regulations viable.

Improves morale and builds cohesiveness in groups

Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination

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Makes the organization a better place to work and live

1.14.Methods and Techniques of Training

Training methods are categorized into two groups{I) on-the-job and
(ii) off-the-job methods.
On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in the
workplace, while the employee is actually working. Off-the-job methods are used
away from workplaces.
Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to
employees. Obviously, training techniques are the means employed in the
training methods. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures,
films, audio cassettes, case studies, role playing, video-tapes and simulations.

On the job Training (OJT)

Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-job training
type. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job.
Often, it is informal, as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to
perform the job tasks
OJT has advantages. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by
experience, making him or her highly competent. Further, the method is least
expensive since no formal training is organized. The trainee is highly motivated
to learn he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends
on the training received. Finally, the training is free from an artificial situation of a
classroom. This contributes to the effectiveness of the programme.
OJT suffers form certain demerits as well. The experienced employee may lack
experience or inclination to train the juniors. The training programme itself is not
systematically organized. In addition, a poorly conducted OJT programme is
likely. to create safety hazards, result in damaged products or materials, and
bring unnecessary stress to the trainees.
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OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. It is, much time,
informal. An experienced worker shows a trainee how to work on the job.

1.15.Conduct of Training
A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted.
Actually, the decision comes down to the following choices:
1. At the job itself
2. On site but not the job-for example, in a training room in the company
3. Off the site, such as in a university or college classroom, hotel, a resort, or
a conference centres.
Typically, basic skills are taught at the job, and basic grammar skills are taught
on the site. Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site.

1.16.Implementation of the Training Programme

Once the training programme has been designed, it needs to be implemented.
Implementation is beset with certain problems. In the first place, most managers
are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training
efforts. Secondly, availability of trainers is a problem. In addition to possessing
communication skills, the trainers must know the company's philosophy, its
objectives, its formal and informal organizations, and the goals of the training
programme. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity
than, perhaps, any other personnel specialty.
Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. How to
schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem
of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training
period. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in
the company.
Programme implementation involves action on the following lines:
1. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.
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2. Scheduling the training programme

3. Conducting the programme
4. Monitoring the progress of trainees.

1.17.Evaluation of the Programme

The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results .Since huge
sums of money are spent on training and development, how far the programme has been useful
must be judged/determined. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and
development programme. In practice, however, organizations either overlook or
lack facilities for evaluation.

1.18.Need for Evaluation

The main objective of evaluating the training programmatic to determine if they are
accomplishing specific training objectives, that are, correcting performance deficiencies. A
second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the
training programme and not due to any other conditions. Training programmes should be
evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. Evaluation is useful to explain programme
failure, should finally, credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is
proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it.

1.19.Principles of Evaluation
Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles:
1. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation.
2. Evaluation must be continuous and specific.
4. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to appraise themselves, their
practices and products.
5. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards.

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6. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. A sense of urgency
must be developed, but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation.

Donald Kirkpatrick developed four level models to assess training

effectiveness. According to him, evaluation always begins with level first and should move
through other levels in sequence.

Reaction Level
The purpose is to measure the individuals reaction to the training
activity. The benefit of Reaction level evaluation is to improve Training and
Development activity efficiency and effectiveness.

Learning Level
The basic purpose is to measure the learning transfer achieved by

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the training and development activity. Another purpose is to determine to what extent
the individual increased their knowledge, skills and changed their attitudes by
applying quantitative or qualitative assessment methods.
Behaviour Level
The basic purpose is to measure changes in behavior of the
individual as a result of the training and development activity and how well the
enhancement of knowledge, skill, attitudes has prepared them for their role.

Result Level
The purpose is to measure the contribution of training and development to the achievement of
the business/operational goals.
There are three possible opportunities to undertake an evaluation:

Pre Training Evaluation

It is a method of judging the worth of a program before the program activities begin. The
objective of this evaluation is
(a) To determine the 10 appropriateness of the context of training activity and
(b) To help in defining relevant training objectives.

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Context and Input Evaluation

Is a method of judging the worth of a program while the program activities are happening. The
objectives of this evaluation are
(a) To assess a training course or workshop as it progress
(b) To find out the extent of program implementation and
(c) To determine improvement and adjustments needed to attain the training objectives.

Post Training Evaluation

Is method of judging the worth of a program at the end of
the program activities. The focus is on the outcome. It tries to judge whether the
transfer of training to the job has taken place or not.
The onus to decide on the effectiveness of the training program should
primarily be on the employee and through his performance and quality of output, the
organization should form impressions. The employee undergoing training therefore should
demonstrate the additional skills and competence at his workplace to enable the organization to
value it and to realize the value such efforts add to the organization in achieving its goals and
objectives and to frame and practice relevant HR policies and processes.

Describe the outputs

Outputs are descriptive data about the training programs and participants, including
demographic data.

This process may include several methods to assess the outcomes and effect of
training programs over time.
Our model draws from principles in Donald Kirkpatricks four-level model, in which evalution
questions fall into the following categories:
Reaction: How was the training overall? What did participants like and dislike?
Learning: What knowledge and abilities did participants learn at the training?
Behavior: How have participants applied the skills they learned?
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Results: What was the effect on the agency or organization?

1.20.TYPES OF TRAINING:Evaluation can be characterized as being either formative or summative (see Table below)
broadly (and this is not a rule), formative evaluation looks at what leads to an intervention
working (the process), whereas summative evaluation looks at the short-term to long-term
outcomes of an intervention on the target group.
Formative evaluation takes place in the lead up to the project, as well as during the project in
order to improve the project design as it is being implemented (continual
improvement).Formative evaluation often lends itself to qualitative methods of inquiry.
Summative evaluation takes place during and following the project implementation, and is
associated with more objective, quatitative method. The distinction between formative and
summative evaluation can become blurred. Generally it is important to know both how an
intervention works, as well as if it worked. it is therefore important to capture and assess both
qualitative and quantitative data.

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1.21.Types of evaluation
Evaluation can be characterized as being either formative or summative (see Table

Type of








When to use Pre-project







& Postproject
Why Use it? To

To make

Understand clear the

To Improve To ensure that To assess

the project design

the project

whether the
Or classify

theory of change (continual

activities are

project has
The need for that the project

improvement as it being delivered

met its goals

The project

is based on

is rolled out)

efficiently &

whether there

were any

What were the

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how to

Goal based- Evaluation

Evaluation has typically involved measuring whether pre determined targets have been
may be familiar with the term SMART (specific measurable attenable relevant and timely)
Goal based evaluation have abjectly set target usually determind by people responsible for the
funding or implementation of the project.goal based Evaluation does not question whether the
selected goal are valid, nor whether appropriate measures of effectiveness are being assessed
resent behavior change and research and evaluation practice purpose the use of goal free
Goals-Free Evaluation
Goal-free evaluation looks at emergency and unitended consequences of a project by looking at
the actual effects without pre- empting what this may be.this type of evaluation focuses on the
change process within the target group. The Goal-free evaluation parallels a social learning
approach to evaluation which can be desearable where the goal of a project seek to built capacity
of people to manage a complex issue. In such case relying solely on a goal base evaluation may
not be appropriate as it can be difficult to set target and quantify a process of change as well as
capture change which one way not anticipate.
A key point to considered in setting goal and indecators of success is the validity of the indicator
this is specially important where you are looking to measure a largely un-observed behavior.In
such cases Proxy indicators are often use but this indicatos may be gross measure that consist of
many varied behavior of which only one may be of interest.The question is how to establish
meaningful indicators?



Learning is a very complex topic, eg when a psychologist talks about 'learning' he can be
referring to any type of behaviour from simple arithmetic to designing a computer system.
Therefore the learning theories you find in textbooks are attempts to analyse and explain very
broad areas of human experience. However, our concern here is with only ONE kind of learning
- classroom learning. The principles of learning we cover in this paper are limited in scope to this
particular type of behaviour - how people learn in the formal training situation.
These principles of learning have been derived from research, experiment and experience. They

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are not unique to this course - you will find them in any syllabus for trainer training in one form
or another . Some are very old, while others have only been accepted fairly recently. Some which
used to be included have been dropped; which gives us a thought for the future. In ten years time
we may not be using the same principles - as our knowledge increases we may have to revise
some of our ideas.

Training (and education) is the application of these general principles to a particular learning
situation. These principles should help you to plan a good program, deliver it efficiently
and evaluateit afterwards. Here is a list of the principles we will be examining:
1 Feedback
2 Active Learning
3 Reinforcement
4 Meaningful Material
5 Multiple Sense Learning
6 Overlearning
7 Primary And Recency
This principle states: Learning proceeds more efficiently when both instructor and trainee give
feedback to each other.
The instructor needs feedback to tell him how the trainee is progressing; and the trainee needs
feedback from the instructor on quality of performance.
Rules for the training room:
a Encourage trainees to ask questions
b Test frequently
c Maintain eye contact - this is a most important communication channel
d Discuss and correct errors; don't criticise them
e Give trainees knowledge of results as quickly as possible
Active Learning
This principle states: Trainees learn more quickly and effectively when they are actively involved
in the learning process.
The simplest expression of this idea is: We learn by doing. This applies equally to all forms of

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Rules for the training room:
a Ask questions to stimulate thought
b Plan for exercises and tests in sessions
c Use projects and assignments to supplement lessons
d Use discussion methods from time to time
e Provide plenty of practical work
Beware of note taking as a form of Active Learning - the student's fingers may be active - but not
their brains.
This principle states: Learning which is rewarded is more likely to be retained.
Of course this is how we train our pets and even our children.
Rules for the training room:
a When a trainee gives a right answer - tell him so
b Provide for early success in learning a new topic
c Prevent trainees from making mistakes as much as possible
NB: We will discuss this principle in more detail late in the course.
Meaningful Material
This principle states: Trainees understand (and therefore learn) material only when it is related to
their existing knowledge.
A trainee may be able to recall facts, etc., which he has committed to memory (by overlearning).
But if you want him to comprehend the material fully you must give him a frame of reference
into which he can fit these isolated bits of information so that a pattern develops in his mind.

Rules for the training room:

a. Pitch your sessions at the students level, not yours
b. Present the topic in a definite form or sequence
c. Use plenty of examples, illustrations, analogies, and anecdotes
d. Always move from the know to the unknown; that is, begin with what the student already
knows or has experience.
Don't make the mistake which one writer has described as follows:
'Many teachers plunge ahead from a starting point that many of their students have never reached
and they then proceed to teach the unknown by means of the incomprehensible'.

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e. Make your material as concrete as possible, avoid abstractions

f. Find out what your trainees already know or have experienced before
Multiple Sense Learning
The principle states: Presentation methods which use two or more senses are more effective than
using one sense only.
The Chinese proverb 'one picture is worth a 1,000 words', is another way of stating this principle.
It appears that the most important senses for information and theory learning are SIGHT and
HEARING. But don't forget the others - particularly if you are teaching a physical skill.
Rules for the training room:
a Combine telling and showing - don't rely on one only
b Provide audiovisual aids for every session you give
c Make certain that you and your aids can be, and are, easily seen and heard
d I see it and hear you talk about it if you have a model as one of your aids, let the trainees
handle it as well as
Over learning
This principle states: Forgetting is reduced significantly by frequent attempts at recall of learned
We have discussed how quickly forgetting sets in, and illustrates how frequent revision can help
trainees to retain larger amounts of what they have learned. This applies particularly to the
learning of factual material or 'information'.
Rules for the training room
a Ask frequent questions
b Provide exercises which force trainees to recall previous learning
c At the start of each session, ask trainees to summarise briefly the previous session
d Include review periods in your timetable
e Train your trainees to use overlearning during their private study
f Supply summaries of session material
Primacy And Recency
This principle states: Trainees can recall well those things they learn first and last in sequence.
'First impressions are lasting' sums up the principle of Primacy; the principle of Recency is
almost axiomatic.

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These principles are not true under all conditions and sometimes they act against one another,
such as when our most recent impressions change or blot out our first impressions.
Rules for the training room:
a. Give a preview of the session
b. Summarise the important points of the session at the end
c. Prepare carefully what you are going to say and do during the first few minutes of the session
d. Remind trainees from time to time of the sequence in which they have learned a topic


1.Provides opportunities for higher order thinking as opposed to passive listening.Reinforces
listening to others and gives opportunity for immediate feedback and adjustment of thought.
Students talking together provide for input and listening. Students often have to assess the
thoughts/ideas of peers, determine whether they fit
their own, whether they disagree, or
partially agree. Students have an
opportunity to speak their ideas/thoughts for better
formulation. Some often say, I didnt think of that or Thats a different slant.
2.Promotes greater student-faculty and student-student interaction. Students assist each other in
understanding material/content. This may even help students broaden their perspectives on
issues or problems. Professors have an opportunity to move from group to group, listen and if
appropriate add comments. For some students this is the only personalization with a professor
that ever occurs. Professors may answer questions that might never be asked without the closer
interaction. Problems or misunderstandings can quickly and quietly be handled.
3. Increases student retention and limits anxiety. Students are not overloaded with information.
Students actually get time to think about, to talk about, and process information. Improves
interaction and talk (Vygotskian Constructivism) and provides opportunities for students to
think about and process the information. Time for talking and/or writing is needed to help
students make sense of what they hear before attempting to take in even more information.
4. Permits opportunities to connect the content to real life. Students are often hesitant to speak up
and offer opinions, especially in very large classes. Students can provide real life examples of the
content being discussed, thus increasing the relevancy of the learning.
5. Builds self-esteem in students. Students help each other as discussion occurs. Students are
more likely to respond to the whole class after discussing thoughts with a partner or small group.
Responses may be more carefully conceived as they try responses with each other. Students may
even discover that they understand the information because they must articulate the content to
another. Greater satisfaction with the learning experience occurs. Students make personal
connections to the content. Enjoyment of learning often leads to greater retention. Interaction
often promotes a more positive attitude toward the subject matter or course.
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6.Provides for improvement of social interaction skills, greater acceptance of others, and a
greater sense of community in the class - in part by addressing learning style differences.
Students may even begin to create study groups for greater learning. Students who teach or tutor
each other learn more about each other and how to better communicate information to others.
Students benefit from building group skills by working together. Not everyone will agree;
students may learn to cope with those who have differing viewpoints, OR recognize that some
problems can be very complex and not easily solved with simple responses.
7. Encourages alternative forms of assessment. Professors have greater opportunities to observe
actual processing of information, seeing the results of group projects or field experiences. The
applied projects indicate true knowledge.
8. Promotes higher levels of achievement, greater depth of thought and improved attendance.
Enjoyment of interaction and relevancy of content tend to encourage students to master the
content. When students are responsible for reading a chapter, then use or discuss the content to
create a product find that retention is greater. This often leads to improved attendance.
9. Encourages innovation in both teaching and student involvement. Technology is easily
incorporated by students and/or professors. Students may email each other, join chat
rooms, and collaborate on group
projects effectively using the technology, rather than
meeting face-to-face. Students may present projects, activities, etc. using a variety of approaches
rather than the typical paper. They have more freedom to use their own strengths in the final
product. Students may determine the form of projects and often work well beyond initial



Talk to faculty using active learning and get ideas from them.


Observe classes where active learning is going on


Attend workshops, training sessions, or seminars on how to incorporate

Active learning approaches.


Read research and articles about the values and ways to use active learning.


Plan carefully and start with simple approaches.

Pair work is often the easiest to begin using and has the least chance for social problems.
A worksheet in pairs is a simple way to start.
You may want to assign a reading and ask students to work together in class on a task related
to what has been read.

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6. Ask a colleague to observe active learning lessons and give constructive criticism.
7. If students are creating products, projects, etc., be sure to provide rubrics on how you will
grade the results.

1.24.Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Development

The training department, like all other departments, will be expected to play its part in the
achievement of the organizations objectives. If trainers can demonstrate factually that they are
making a genuine contribution to the organizations goals, this can lead to an increase in both the
standing and influence of the training department within that organization. The amount of
support given by other members of the organization will rest largely on the regard they have for
the training department staff. So any activity which heightens that regard will ultimately benefit
the training function.
In order to raise the profile of the training function, the authors propose a robust framework of
evaluation that considers the organizational context in which the training takes place, and builds
evaluation into the entire training cycle, from start to finish.
The model is based on four stages or types of evaluation context, input, reactions and outcome
and is underpinned by a set of three questions, which, according to the authors, the trainer
should always bear in mind:
1. What needs to be changed?
2. What procedures are most likely to bring about this change?
3. What evidence is there that change has occurred?
The first two questions must be answered before the training begins, and the last should be
considered before the training takes place, but can only be answered afterwards. According to the
authors, it is the collection, assessment and effective use of information concerning these three
questions which constitutes evaluation.
Stage one: context what needs to be changed?
The first stage involves identifying training needs by collecting information on the current
individual and organizational context in order to draft objectives at three levels. This will provide

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solid guidance for the design of the training as well as a robust framework for evaluation posttraining. The three levels of objectives are:

1. Ultimate: the performance issue that the organization is aiming to improve at departmental/
organizational level
2. Intermediate: changes in the behavior of the trainees that will be required in order to achieve
the ultimate objective
3. Immediate: the new knowledge, skills or attitudes that trainees should be aiming to acquire in
order to be able to change their behavior
Stage two: input what procedures are most likely to bring about change?
At this stage, the trainer considers the resources available and decides which input or method
will be most likely to achieve the objectives, e.g. coaching, training course or e-learning.
Stage three: reaction what evidence is there that change has occurred?
trainer collates feedback from the trainees on how useful they found the training. The most
commonly used method of As with the first level of Kirkpatricks evaluation model,[5] the
collating this type of information is the evaluation questionnaire or happy sheet.
Stage four: outcome what evidence is there that change has occurred?
stage involves collating and analyzing information on the effectiveness of the training in order to
improve subsequent training initiatives. The question relating to this stage (what evidence is
there that change has occurred?) can only be Often regarded as the traditional evaluation
process, this answered after the training. However, advance planning and preparation is required
to ensure that it can be answered afterwards. This means defining objectives (as in the context
stage) and constructing methods for measuring the achievement of these objectives.
There are three levels of outcome evaluation, which are defined in terms of the objectives drafted
at the context stage. These levels are similar to Kirkpatricks second, third and fourth levels, as
illustrated below:
CIRO Model
Immediate the new knowledge, skills or attitudes that

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Kirkpatrick Model
Level Two what the trainees have learned, in terms of
knowledge, skills and attitude.

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trainees need to acquire in order to be able to change their

Intermediate the changes in on-the-job behaviour that will
lead to the achievement of the ultimate objectives.

Level Three the transfer of learning, i.e. the extent to which

trainees have applied it to their job.

Ultimate improvements at departmental/organizational level, Level Four improvements at departmental/organizational level,

e.g. increased productivity, reduced costs or fewer accidents.
e.g. increased productivity, reduced costs or fewer accidents.

At the ultimate outcome level, the authors make a point that strikes a chord with many trainers
today and is at the heart of the great evaluation debate: is it possible to measure at this level?
[The ultimate outcomes] represent for the most part major departmental or organizational
objectives, so that many other members of the organization over and above the training staff will
be working towards them. When it happens that such objectives are attained it is hardly possible
to decide who, in particular, is responsible; the answer must be that many people together
contributed to their achievement. This is why it is rarely practicable to evaluate specific training
programmes at this ultimate level.

The CIRO Framework for the Evaluation of Training




Obtaining and using information about the current operational context in order to determine training
needs and objectives.


Obtaining and using information about possible training resources in order to choose between
alternative inputs to training.


Obtaining and using information about trainees expressed current or subsequent reactions in order to
improve training.


Obtaining and using information about the outcomes of training in order to improve subsequent
training. Three levels of outcome evaluation are in terms of immediate, intermediate and ultimate

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1.25. CIRO Training Effectiveness Measurement Process

The flow chart below depicts the CIRO model. This model is a strong measurement to check the
effectiveness of training which is imparted to the employees. Whole process is being
encountered to measure the training effectiveness in Tata Motors.
(Fig. 9)

score is

Within 3 months send

feedback form to the
supervisor of participant
for identified key

Get participants
feedback for all


is less


Continue the
Review programme,
design, content &



Use data to :

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Improve training
Modify the
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T10:CIRO-IISystematic Analysis
Feedback parameters(Use of data to improve)
CIRO-I: Feedback captured for all training programs

Overall Effectiveness, Participant eeadiness (program design and delivery)

Trainer Effectiveness (Effectiveness of trainer)

Coordination and Facilities (Improve coordination facilities)

CIRO-II Feedback for critical in-house programs

Effectiveness of training is meeting its objectives (Design &delivery of the

Program & future similar type programs)

Whether training was successful in bringing about change in behavior &


CIRO is the abbreviated form of Context, Input, Result, Outcome by which Effectiveness of the
training is evaluated in Tata Motors. The model has two parts.
CIRO I feedback measures effectiveness as participants immediate reaction to the training.
CIRO II measures superiors feedback on the outcome of the training against the programmes

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1.26.TATA MOTORS used this CIRO-1 Format for Immediate Feedback and
CIRO-II after three months training feedback:-

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1.27.Organizational Training Effectiveness CIRO-I

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1.28.Training Effectiveness CIRO-II:-

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1.29.Analysis of CIRO-II:-

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1.30.Data Analysis
Data was analysed under various parameters mentioned in the CIRO II feedback form such as

Relevance of the training

Application of the concept learnt in the job

Improvement in output and services

Change in work culture

Change in attitude

The parameters were rated on the scale of four where

4 = excellent, 3 = good, 2 = average, 1 = poor
The feedback was given both by the participants and their immediate superior.
The feedback form (CIRO II) also consisted of a suggestion/ remarks box where the participant
and their superior could write about any remarks or can give suggestions if they feel like about
the training process, methods, course content etc.
(A sample of the CIRO II feedback form is attached in this project for reference.)
Data Analysis was done by using statistical softwares like MS Excel and SPSS.
The threshold of CIRO I was kept 3.6 while CIRO II threshold was 3.3.
The points which were majorly analysed in this project was
Division wise analysis
Program wise analysis
Superiors Relevance of the training Vs. Improvement in output
Difference in opinion of participant and superiors program wise

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Comparison of CIRO I and CIRO II

1.31.Division wise Analysis

1.31.1.Paint technology:-

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1.31.4.CNC Programming:-

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1.31.5.Statistical Process control:-

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1.31.6.Total Average of CIRO-II:-

Analysis:From the following table, it can be clearly seen that the best out all programs was the Hydraulic
and CNC Programming, which has CIRO-II Score is 3.8,,Paint technology and Statistical process
Control 3.4,Welding 3.5, . Out of 12 programs held at the training centre 5 programs were rated
more than the threshold score while programs were just below or too low that the threshold
The participants and the superior had stated some changes in these programs relating to course
content, duration, relevance and also application of the program to the job.

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1.32.Suggestions and Recommendations:-

Training in technical program should be broken into modules and each module
should have both theory and practical, giving emphasis on the latter.

The feedback form should be made available in Hindi as well as in English so that the
participant being the operators can give an authentic feedback of the training attended.

Training validation need in a regular interval.

Live examples from the organization and also from outside should be given as much as
possible for making the program much more real, authentic and motivating.

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Measuring the effectiveness of training programs consumes valuable time and resources. As it is
known that all too well, these things are in short supply in organizations today.
Many training programs fail to deliver the expected organizational benefits. Having a wellstructured measuring system in place can help in determining where the problem lies. On a
positive note, being able to demonstrate a real and significant benefit to the organization from the
training can help in gaining more resources from important decision-makers.
It also should be considerd that the business environment is not standing still. The competitors,
technology, legislation and regulations are constantly changing. What was a successful training
program yesterday may not be a cost-effective program tomorrow. Being able to measure results
will help in adapting new circumstances.

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Books :-

1) Handbook on Training and Development STEVE TRUELOVE

2) Research Methodology LUCK AND ROBIN
3) Human Resource Management P.JYOTHI,,D.N. VENKATESH

Reference Sites :

4) www.HR

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1) CIRO I feedback form

2) CIRO II feedback form

3) Data Analysis Sheet

4) Data Analysis Sheet (Difference in Opinion of participants and superiors)

5) Programme wise CIRO I and CIRO II scores

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