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Description of projects
Procedure of all related site work performed.
Significant study

1.1 Objectives

To study the type of rock at Ayer Hitam and Gunung Ledang

To investigate the evolution and their usage in industry.

1.2 Description of projects

Date : 4 5 November 2016
Venue : Ayer Hitam, Batu Pahat and Gunung Ledang Johor
Group member : 5
Number of participant : 57
From : Faculty of Civi and Environmental Engineering (FKAAS) UTHM
Firstly, we went to Ayer Hitam to make a site visit. Ayer Hitam simply means
Black Water. A lively town, Ayer Hitam is always bustling with passing vehicles and
people who travels north and south. This place is well known for its ceramic items
such as flower vases in an assortment of colours, photo frames, jars, ashtrays, and
other home decorative items. Located in the district of Batu Pahat. Before the advent
of the North-South Expressway, Air Hitam was a major route intersection leading to
Malacca and Kuala Lumpur going northbound, Johor Bahru and Singapore going
southbound, and Kluang and Mersing going eastbound. It was a popular rest stop for
many tour buses and travellers between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. Visitors could
find souvenir shops, restaurants and locals peddling to sell their vegetables.
Lastly,as we planned,we went to Ledang Mountain to stay 2 days 1 night.
The Ledang mountain is 1276m high (4186ft). According to a sign at the entrance to
the park, Gunung Ledang is Malaysia's 64th highest mountain and the 6th most
difficult to climb, Ledang is actually only the 134th highest peak and it does not rank
in the top 20 peaks in terms of difficulty.Be that as it may, it is the highest mountain
in Johor stateand its accessible location, being only a couple of hours drive from

both Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, means that it is one of the most popular and
frequently climbed mountains in Malaysia.
That does not mean that it is easy to climb. It is a 5 to 6 hour energetic hike
to the summit for a reasonably fit person and there are some steep rocky faces to
negotiate with the aid of ropes. Accidents happen and there have been some fatalities
which is why it is compulsory to engage a guide from the Ranger's office.The most
popular trail from in front of the Gunung Ledang Resort is closed for climbers until
further access so when I visited recently I had to content myself with a short 20
minute trek along stone pathways and steps to the Puteri Waterfalls, a cascade of
about 60m with pools and a pleasant picnic and bathing area further downstream

2.1 Theory
Minerals are formed in various ways and different conditions. Most of the
minerals require thousands of years to develop and others need just a few
years. The mineral formations takes places either in the molten rock or
magma, near the Earth surface or deep in the Earth crust as a result of
transforming. Rock is defined as a mixture formed of aggregates of one or
more minerals (aggregate of minerals). Rocks can be formed by many
different processes. Some are formed from:
1) Crystallization of a melts (Igneous)
2) Solidifying sediments like sand or clay (Sedimentary)
3) Re-crytallizing previously formed rocks in the solid state (Metamorphic)
4) Some are formed by crystallization form hot aqueous fluid (Hydrothermal)
Rocks that are formed by crystallization of a melt are igneous. These may be
formed at deeper earth crust layer (instrusive or plutonic), or they may form
on the surface (extrusive or volcanic). In general, igneous rocks that cool
rapidly are very fine-grained; whereas rocks that cool slowly are coarsegrained.
Rocks that are formed on the dsurface of the earth by solidification
(lithification) of weathered or dissolved material are sedimentary. These are
generally classified by by the size of the particles, although the composition
change systematically with particle size.

Rocks that form by recrystallization in the solid state are metamorphic. They
may be metamorphosed from sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic, or

hydrothermal rocks. Rocks that form by recrystallization from hot aqueous

fluid are hydrothermal. These are commonly formed near intrusive igneous
bodies. This is a very effiecient way to concentrate the elements of flow
natural abundance, so many of the economically important ore minerals are
formed this way.
Rocks are materials that compose the earths crust, the outermost zonal
structure of the earth. The unconsolidated soils and sediments that overlie the
hard rocks over most of the earths crust are simply materials that result
form rock weathering processes, the physical and chemical breakdown or
rocks under the influence of climatic and biological factors operating over
the surface of the crust.


3.1 Procedure of all related site work performed.

All of the group member compile the result from the site visit.

esult will be examine by all of the group member to ensure there is no repetition fact and ensure th

Brainstorming among group member to added some extra fact to strengthen the point.

The task are divide by each team to get an extra fact and references.

The task are compiled and the report are done.


4.1 Picture

Ayer Hitam, Batu Pahat

Take the coordinate of dip angle and dip direction for the sample rock

Volcanic Rock

Taman Hutan Lagenda, Taman Negara Johor, Gunung Ledang

Sediment rock

4.2 Significant study

a) Weathering
From the observation that we had done at Ayer Hitam and Gunung Ledang,we
had recognize a few type of weathering that always happen to a rock around us
such spheroidal weathering, unloading or exfoliation, oxidation,
b) Spheroidal Weathering

In this type of weathering, a rounded shape is produced because weathering

attacks an exposed rock from all sides at once, and therefore decomposition is
more rapid along the corners and edges of the rock.
c) Unloading and Exfoliation
This is a process of reduction of pressure on underlying rocks by erosion that
takes place on the overburden. The rocks expand as pressure is released and this
process is known as unloading. The response to unloading may cause large joints
(sheeting) to develop.
d) Oxidation
The oxidation weathering can be recognize by their changes of colour from red
to grey but it is only happen at outside layer of rock.
e) Organic Activities
The activities of plants and animals also promote rock disintegration. Burrowing
animals such as worms, ants and rodents mechanically mix the soil and loose
rock particle. Pressure from growing roots widens cracks and contributes to the
rock breakdown.

f) Classification of rock
One of the class of soil that we had been find at there is residual soil. The
characteristic of the soil is is formed by the weathering in place but have a
original structure of rock that completely destroy such as clay. The residual soil
is develop in situ and their characteristic depends on the kind of bedrock from
which they are derived . residual soil deposits are common in humid tropical
countries such as Malaysia

4.3 Problem
a) Procedure
Test procedures not according properly to standard methods and all the group
members not professional about this experiment.
b) Equipment
Error during taking the real data from the field because all the members not
familiar with the equipment.
b) Environment
During the observation at Ayer Hitam was quite suitable for site investigation
but at Gunung Ledang was a bite cloudy.


5.1 Describe generally the differences between index and direct test
Index or direct test
Dose not involved preparation of sample

Direct test or strength test

Direct test require detailed

(which is costly) and test may not be

preparation (size and shape) using specific

associated with destruction of sample (non-

laboratory equipments.

destructive test or NDT)

These tests are relatively

Equipments used in the test are complex,

undertake and cheaper.




bulky and expensive. These factor mike

direct test more expensive and thus limited

to rock parameters that are essential for

design purpose.

5.2 Explain the discontinuities in rock and their effect on strength.


of rock material and rock mass consist of compression (uniaxial and triaxial),
tensile shear (discontinuity planes) and other strength properties like fatigue
and creep. Depending on the scale being considered (material or rock mass
scale), the strength of rock is affected by the presence of discontinuities (big
and small scale) in rock. The most important effect is strength reduction.

b) all laboratory rock sample, it is affected by minerals arrangement and how

cleavage such as schistoscity in metamorphic rock. On a larger scale, rock
masses are affected by geological structures and discontinuities like bedding,
joint and fault.

c) laboratory testing it is important to note the direction of loading with respect

to rock anisotropy. Strength parameters of rock mass the exhibits small and
large-scale discontinuities are more appropriately assessed using in-situ largescale testing.
d) Weathering also affects the strength of rock. Degree of weathering of rock
usually evaluated by site assessment. Since weathering grade could only be
assessed subjectively with little information on numerical value of weathering
degree, the effect of weathering is relatively difficult to included in design.
Slake durability test may be used to assessed the degree of weathering

Based on the study that we had done,there is 6 grades of weathering zone

such as Weathering Zone material grade descriptive terms material description and likely
engineering characteristics firstly for the first zone or grade I for fresh. There is no
visible sign of rock material weathering and no internal discolouration or disintegration.
Normally requires blasting or cutting for excavation may require minimal reinforcement
in cut slope unless rock mass is closely jointed.
Secondly, for the second zone is determine by Slightly weathered some
discolouration on an adjacent to discontinuity surfaces, discoloured rock is not
significantly weaker than undiscoloured fresh rock and its weak or soft parent rock may
show penetration of discolouration.Normally requires blasting or cutting for excavation
such as suitable as a foundation rock but with open jointing will tend to be very
Thirdly is determine by Moderately weathered Rock is significantly
discoloured and discontinuities will tend to be opened by weathering process and
discolouration have penetrated inwards from the discontinuity surfaces there is less than
50% of the rock material is decomposedor disintegrated to a soil rock samples containing
discolouration are noticeably weaker than the fresh undiscoloured rock an originally
weak rock will comprise relict blocks of substantially weathered material. Occasionally
may be excavated without blasting or cutting such as by block leverage at the
discontinuities will be relatively easily crushed by construction plant moving over it in
situ and may be suitable as rockfoundation with some reinforcements and joints may
exhibit lower strength characteristics, so rendering side slopes unstable.
For the fourth zone, Highly weathered rock is substantially discoloured and
more than 50% of the material is indegraded soil condition and the original fabric near to
the discontinuity surfaces have been altered to a greater depth and a deeply
weathered,originally strong rock, may show evidence of fresh rock as a discontinuous
framework or as corestone. it is originally weak rock will have been substantially altered,
with perhaps small relict blocks but little evidence of the original structure.

Fifth zone is depends on completely weathered rock is substantially

discoloured and has broken down to a soil but with original fabric thats is mineral
arrangement & relict joints but still intact and soil properties depend on the composition
of the parent rock. Its also can be excavated by hand or ripped relatively easily. Not
suitable as foundation for large structures. May be unstable in steep cuttings and exposes
surfaces will require erosion protection.
Lastly,for the sixth zone is called residual soil is completely degraded to a
soil, original rock fabric is completely absent , exhibit large volume change and the soil
has not been significantly transported.Stability on slopes relies upon vegetation rooting
and substantial erosion & local failures if preventive measures are not taken.


The conclusion from our observation during that day we have learn new
knowledge that we have depth from engineering geology. From all the activities that
we have done, we know how to classify the types of rocks and also the advantages
and disadvantages about the rocks. In addition, we also known about the types of
continuities and the strength of rock. Otherwise, we learn how to manage project In
the proper way and distributed all the task succesfully. We also can apply the theory
that we already learn at classroom at site, so,this is a great thing that we can also use
it for future.
The type of soil and rock are different at any place eventhough it is from the
same state. This might be consider that the nature itself and we must to investigate it
to ensure it can be use in civil engineering industry and at the same time, we can
turn the rock into an important material and grab the benefit from it. Some of the

rock might have a different strength and durability, but it doesnt mean that the
lowest strength of rock do not have any benefit.
Weathering might be a bad thing that can effect the rock body and can
damage it. But,the bright side of the weathering is may give a benefit to human and
that place. This can be proof by the spheroidal weathering that turn the rock into a
unique and aesthetic value. The discontinuity of rock also the give the same impact
because it is make the people to work easily on the rock structure. In another hand,it
can help people to produce a material can be used in daily life such as the oxidation
of feldspar that turn the rock into kaolin and kaolin turn into clay. Clay are widely
used in ceramic invented around the Johor.
The recommendation that we need to set right is duration of the program and
time management. We also need to know how to handle the equipment properly and
follow the right procedure. Besides that, additional activities is also needed to fulfil
our tentative programs. Additional activities must affective and bring additional
knowledge about the engineering geology such as work field.