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Section 1: Short Answer (60 Points)

1. What are the five requirements of comfort? (5 pts.)

2. What percentage of the construction budget is generally allotted for Mechanical, Electrical,
and Plumbing Systems? (1 pt.)
3. What is the purpose of the drainage fixture unit or DFU? (1 pt.)
4. What are the two primary functions of the sanitary venting system? (2 pts.)
5. On what basis is the size of the storm drainage system calculated? (1 pt.)
6. What is the purpose of the water supply fixture unit or WSFU? (1 pt.)
7. What are the minimum required plumbing fixtures and appliance(s) that must be installed and
operational in any residence before a certificate of occupancy can be issued? (5 pts.)
8. What are the five requirements of comfort? (5 pts.)
9. What two factors determine the amount of ventilation required for any building? (2 pts.)
10. What is the desired relative humidity percentage for comfort in most buildings? (1 pt.)
11. Describe the term temperature stratification. What is the primary cause of this condition?
Changes in the temperature profile with depth within a lake system is called thermal
stratification. This profile changes from one season to the next and creates a cyclical pattern that
is repeated from year to year. Thermal stratification is the scientific term that describes the
layering of bodies of water based on their temperature. As water heats and cools, it expands and
contracts, changing in density. Still bodies of water including ponds and lakes separate into
horizontal layers that have distinctly different temperatures. Each layer of water is stacked above
or below the others with the warmest water on top and the coldest on the bottom.
12. What is a BTU? What is it used to measure in the MEP industry? (1 pt.)
The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of work equal to about 1055 joules. It
is the amount of work needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree
Fahrenheit. The Btu/h is most often used as a measure of power in the electric
power, steam generation, heating, and air conditioning industries and also in MEP industry.

13. List three reasons that can contribute to poor indoor air quality. (3 pts.)
14. What is one of the primary benefits of using a hydronic heating or cooling system as
opposed to a forced air heating or cooling system? (1 pt.)
15. What are the three primary methods of heat transfer: Briefly describe how heat is transferred
by each method. (3 pts.) 16. What does the Second Law of Thermodynamics tell us about the
direction of heat transfer? (1 pt.)
17. What are some of the advantages of a steam heating system that make it useful for heating a
large campus such as MSU Mankato? (2 pts.)
18. What is the primary function of the heat exchanger in a furnace? (1 pt.)
19. What are the three primary benefits of a building automation system? (3 pts.)
Constant access: A cloud-based service can be accessed on any mobile or web device.
Time Savings: Save 5-15 minutes per event and decrease extra costs by regulating
building conditioning and energy consumption.
Worry-free settings: Set up your HVAC settings in advance through software.
20. Define Electricity. (1 pt.)
Electricity is defined as a type of energy that involves the flow of electrons and electricity occurs
when an atom gains or loses an electron. Electricity is briefly defined as the flow of electric
21. What properties define a good electrical conductor? Give at least two examples of a
substance that is a good electrical conductor. (1 pt.)
Properties of conductors
There is no electric field inside a conductor. Otherwise, the charges in the conductor
would move.
Charges exist only on the surface of a conductor. Otherwise, there would be electric fields
All points of a conductor are at the same potential. Since DV=-EDx, since E=0, the
potential must be constant.
Conductors are materials such as copper, aluminium, silver... They usually are metals.

22. What properties define a good electrical insulator? Give at least two examples of a substance
that is a good electrical insulator. (1 pt.)
In insulating materials, the atoms are tightly packed together, so no electrons move through
High Resistivity
Breakdown Voltage
Some materials are better at insulating than others, like glass, fused quartz and mica
23. What is Ohms Law and what properties of electricity can it be used to describe? (1 pt.)
Ohm's Law deals with the relationship between voltage and current in an ideal conductor. This
relationship states that: The potential difference (voltage) across an ideal conductor is
proportional to the current through it.The constant of proportionality is called the "resistance", R.
Ohm's Law is given by: V = I R. It describes the property of potential and current.
24. What term can be used synonymously with Electromotive Force? (1 pt.)
Potential difference, counter-electromotive force or back electromotive force
25. On an electrical construction drawing, what is the purpose of a component plan? (1 pt.)
26. List and describe the five major components of an electrical circuit. (5 pts.)
The 5 main components of a circuit are:
(1) Switch - turns electric current on and off, closes and opens a circuit.
(2) Load - resists the flow of current and converts electrical energy into another form of energy
(ex. light bulb).
(3)Wires - thin strips of insulated copper conducts the electric current, allowing it to pass through
like a pathway, makes up the circuit.
(4) Source - gives the circuit the required electrical energy.
(5)A resistor can also be included as one of the components.
27. What are the two primary types of electrical current in use and briefly describe the
difference between the two. (2 pts.)
Electric current has two types: alternating current, or AC, and direct current, or DC. Both types
have their own specific uses in terms of power generation and use, although AC is the more
common type in home use. The difference is that direct current only flows in one direction, while
alternating current switches directions rapidly.

28. What is the analogy that can be made between the flow of water in a piping system and the
flow of electricity in an electrical circuit? (5 pts.)
29. What is the function of an electrical transformer? (1 pt.)
A transformer either steps-up or steps-down the voltage of an AC circuit at the cost or gain of
current (P=IV). They are used to enable electricity to travel very far distances. While a high
current will also come with a reduction of power due to the resistance of the miles of wire, a low
current with a high voltage will be affected very little (V=IR).
30. Why is it important that electrical power tools have a properly functioning ground? (1 pt.)
Section 2: Essay Questions, 4 questions 10 points each, total 40 points.
1. Describe the basic operation of a hydronic heating and cooling system. What are the major
system components? What is the heating and cooling medium? How is the medium moved
throughout the building? How is heat transferred to or from the building spaces? Where are these
types of systems typically used? (10 pts.)
2. When designing a plumbing system for a commercial building, how would you determine the
correct amount and type of plumbing fixtures needed? How then would you size the drainage,
waste, and vent (DWV) system? How would you size the domestic water distribution system
(hot and cold)? Assuming the building has a flat roof, how would you determine the number and
size of the roof drains required to safely and effectively remove storm water off the roof? (10
3. Describe how Solar Thermal domestic water heating, and Solar Voltaic electrical
generation can be used to improve the performance and efficiency of a new home project. Briefly
describe how solar thermal water heating and solar voltaic electrical power generation systems
operate. (It is ok to go to the internet for assistance with this question. Be sure to properly source
your response) (10 pts.)

4. On a typical construction project, what are some of the safety concerns encountered by the
Plumbing, HVAC, and Electrical contractor? What are some of the methods and devices that can
be used to mitigate these risks? (10 pts.)